samxedro saqme Zvel aRmosavleTSi

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samxedro saqme Zvel aRmosavleTSi

saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministro

saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gaerTianebuli Stabi

J7 samxedro ganaTlebisa da sabrZolo momzadebis

departamenti

ssip iv. javaxiSvilis istoriisa da

eTnologiis instituti

giorgi qavTaraZe

samxedro saqme Zvel

aRmosavleTSi

meomris biblioTeka #9

Tbilisi

2008


Tqvens winaSea axali seriis ,,meomris biblioTekis~ mecxre wigni; seria

iTvaliswinebs wignebis mTel wyebas, romlebSic popularulad iqneba gadmocemuli

saqarTvelosa da msoflio istoriis yvelaze saintereso da mniSvnelovani movlenebi.

seriis mizania qarTveli meomris da imedia, ara marto misi, patriotuli

aRzrda da codnis miwodeba misaReb formebSi. seriaSi gaTvaliswinebulia

popularuli, magram maRal profesionalur doneze dawerili saxelmZRvaneloebi; es

patara, magram tevadi da kargad gaformebuli broSurebi mieZRvneba qarTvelTa

udides mefe daviTs, Tamars, giorgi brwyinvales, bagrat III-s, saqarTveloSi

warmoebul mTavar da gadamwyvet brZolebs, XIX_XX ss-is gamoCenil qarTvel

oficrebs, saqarTvelosa da msoflio samxedro istoriis calkeul sakiTxebsa da

a.S.

seriis gamocemis iniciatorebi arian iv. javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis

instituti da saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministro.

didi survili da imedi gvaqvs, rom meomarTa da oficerTa garda, saqarTvelos

yoveli moqalaqe siamovnebiT miiRebs am seriis yovel axal wigns.

seriis garekanze moTavsebuli warwera da didi daviTi yvelas Seaxsenebs, rom

brZola saqarTvelosTvis dResac grZeldeba.

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vaJa kiknaZe

seriis saredaqcio kolegia: istoriis mecnierebaTa

doqtori, profesori vaJa kiknaZe

recenzenti: istoriis mecnierebaTa

doqtori, profesori irine tatiSvili

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa: Lnino gigani

ydis dizaini: giorgi kiknaZe

redaqtori: nargiz xarabaZe

teqnikuri redaqtori: mari WoniSvili

istoriis mecnierebaTa

doqtori, profesori Tamaz beraZe

mecnierebaTa doqtori,

vice polkovniki Temur dalaqiSvili

damtkicebuli da samoqmedod SemoRebulia saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis

gaerTianebuli Stabis J7 samxedro ganaTlebisa da sabrZolo

departamentis ufrosis _ polkovnik nodar qviliTaias mier

saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gaerTianebuli Stabis

topografiuli sammarTvelos stamba. 2008 w.

q. Tbilisi, general kvinitaZis q. #20

tel.: +995 32 91-19-83

faqsi: +995 32 91-19-83


msoflios yvela sxva mxaresTan SedarebiT, Zveli aRmosavleTi da

kerZod misi dasavleTi nawili, axlo aRmosavleTi _ civilizaciis

akvani _ warmoadgenda regions, sadac pirvelad Cndeba sazogadoebriv

doneze organizebuli omi. omi civilizaciis aRmocenebis Tanmxlebi

movlenaa, romelsac miuxedavad yvela uaryofiTi Sedegisa, sazogadoebis

ganviTarebaSi udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba.

msoflioSi pirvelad sazogadoebriv doneze organizebuli omis

axlo aRmosavleTSi aRmoceneba, am mxaris geografiul-topografiuli da

sazogadoebriv-ekonomikuri Taviseburebebis erTobliobiT unda yofiliyo

gamowveuli. swored aq, e. w. neoliTuri revoluciis Sedegad,

Camoyalibda kacobriobis istoriaSi pirvelad aRwarmoebiTi meurneoba

anu moxda mcenareTa kultivacia da cxovelTa moSinaureba; amisda

Sesabamisad adgili hqonda siaxleebs teqnologiur sferoSi,

meurneobrivi saqmianobis CamoyalibebasTan erTad xdeboda iaraRis axali

saxeobebis SemoReba. amave regionSi safuZveli Caeyara kacobriobis

istoriaSi arsebul uZveles dasaxlebebs. es dasaxlebebi meurneTa

saqmianobis adgilebis maxloblad iqmneboda, raTa maTi monagaris

SedarebiT advilad dacva yofiliyo SesaZlebeli. namati produqti,

Tavis mxriv, mosaxleobis nawilis gamoTavisuflebis saSualebas iZleoda

meurneobisagan da maTi ZiriTadi saqmianoba swored am namati produqtis

dacva xdeboda. kargi mosavalis misaRebad adgili hqonda xolme

Selocvas anu magiis gamoyenebas, rasac ufro adreul xanebSi,

warmatebuli nadirobis `uzrunvelsayofad~ mimarTavdnen; am saqmianobaSi

Cabmuli iyo Sesabamisi `niWis~ mqone xalxi, Cveulebriv

gaTavisuflebuli sxva sazogadoebrivi funqciebisgan. mosaxleobis es

jgufebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT Semdegdroindeli jariskacebisa da

qurumebis winamorbedebad.

namati produqti, bunebrivia, mosaxleobis zrdis tempzec

aisaxeboda. gazrdili mosaxleoba axal miwebs iTvisebda, rac zogjer

ubrZolvelad ar xdeboda, da ase TandaTanobiT xdeboda warmoebiTi

meurneobis gavrceleba Zvel axlo aRmosavleTSi da mis farglebs gareT.

amave dros, ukve arsebul dasaxlebebSi mosaxleobis ganuxreli zrdis

Sedegad yalibdeba pirveli qalaqebi, xolo ufro gvian qalaqisaxelmwifoebi

da saxelmwifoebi. saxelmwifoebrivi cxovreba, Tavis

mxriv, mraval siaxles iTxovda – saWiro xdeboda damwerlobis

SemoReba, mmarTveli aparatis Seqmna, meomarTa, xelosanTa da sasuliero

wodebebis gamoyofa ukve `kastebis~ * saxiT; TandaTanobiT Cayalibebul

aristokratias ZvelaRmosavlur sazogadoebebSi saTaveSi edga

erTpirovnuli mbrZanebeli _ mefe an mefe-qurumi.

Zvel aRmosavleTSi da zogadad brZolaSi gamoyenebuli taqtikuri

xerxebi, sakmaod gansxvavdeboda erTmaneTisagan da damokidebuli iyo: 1.

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mebrZoli armiebis sididesa da qmediTunarianobaze; 2. maT SemadgenlobaSi

myofi qvedanayofebis saxeobebze; 3. adgilmdebareobis xasiaTze da

mxareTa mier dakavebul poziciaTa upiratesobebze; 4. amindis Taviseburebze.

rodesac sardali grZnobda Zalis mxriv sakuTari laSqris Warb

upiratesobas, igi cdilobda qveiTi jariT Seetia mowinaaRmdegis wina

xazisaTvis, xolo cxenosnebi frTebze anu flangebze ganelagebina.

Tavdapirvelad xdeboda qveiTi jaris ukan moTavsebuli mSvildosnebisa

da saalyo saSualebebis mier gasrolili isrebiTa da qvis WurvebiT

mowinaaRmdegis wina xazis intensiuri dasetyva da amis Sedegad SeTxeleba,

Semdeg qveiTi mebrZolebi gadadiodnen ieriSze da xelCarTuli

brZolis msvlelobisas, cxenosani nawilebi orive frTidan SeteviT

rkalSi moaqcevdnen mowinaaRmdeges da mas ukan daxevis saSualebas aRar

aZlevdnen.

im SemTxvevaSi, Tu upiratesoba arcTu mTlad gamokveTili Canda,

sardlis mizani iyo aeZulebina mteri ukan daexia, vinaidan ukandaxeuli

mteri bevrad ufro naklebad organizebuli iqneboda, vidre medgrad

mdgari qvedanayofebi. amis ganxorcieleba SeiZleboda mtris SedarebiT

sust nawilebze qveiTi jaris mZlavri ieriSis Sedegad mowyobili

xocva-JletiT, rac maTi ukandaxevis mizezi gaxdeboda. rodesac erTi

samxedro nawili Tavisi TanamebrZolebis meore nawilis ukandaxevas

xedavs, masac uCndeba gaqcevis cduneba. kidev ufro mniSvnelovnad

iTvleboda mtris mTavarsardlis nebisyofis Seryeva an misi mokvla. mTavarsardlisa

da misi piradi dacvis ukandaxevisas Tavs iCenda Seuqcevadi

procesebi. aRniSnuli taqtikis gamoyeneba miznad isaxavda dominos

efeqtis * dawyebas, rac saboloo jamSi mowinaaRmdegis mTeli Semadgenlobis

brZolis velidan gaqceviT mTavrdeboda.

adreuli omebis strategia ZiriTadad ori umTavresi miznis miRwevisaken

iyo mimarTuli: mowinaaRmdegis darwmunebaSi, rom omis gagrZeleba

ufro Zviri dajdeboda, vidre danebeba da danebebis SemTxvevaSi,

maqsimalurad SesaZlebeli sargebelis SeTavazebaSi. mtris dasamor-

Cileblad sakmarisi iyo xolme brZolis velze misi armiis damarcxeba.

mas mere, rac mtris samxedro Zala sabolood iqneboda ganadgurebuli,

mosalodneli alyisa da mosaxleobis amowyvetis safrTxe da sxva misTanebi

aiZulebda damarcxebul mxares mijdomoda molaparakebebis magidas.

kultivirebuli vel-mindvrebis gadabugviTa da mosalodneli SimSilis

winaSe dayenebiT, mteri mosaxleobas aiZulebda xolme an ubrZolvelad

damorCilebuliyo an masTan gadamwyvet brZolaSi Cabmuliyo. gaTvlili

iyo agreTve mosavlis aRebis drois dadgomisa da daqiravebuli meomrebisaTvis

gasacemi Tanxis amowurvis dros mowinaaRmdege mxaris naklebi

brZolisunarianoba, Tu sulac daqsaqsvis SesaZlebloba. omSi wasulTa

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ZiriTadi individualuri mizani, an materialuri sargeblis miReba, an

politikuri Zalauflebis xelSi Cagdeba iyo.

Zveli aRmosavleTis sxvadasxva mxareSi samxedro saqmis ganviTareba

garkveuli TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdeba. am mxriv, pirvel rigSi,

gamoirCeva eqvsi ZiriTadi regioni: mesopotamia (evfratisa da tigrosis

SuamdinareTi), egvipte, anatolia (mcire azia), irani, indostanis

naxevarkunZuli da CineTi. qvemoT ganvixilavT TiToeuli am regionis

brinjaos epoqis samxedro istorias Zalze SemWidrovebulad da

sqematurad. mis safuZvlian Seswavlas aTeulobiT wignic ar eyofoda.

Cveni Tvalsawieridan gamomdinare, bunebrivia, ZiriTadi yuradReba

daeTmoba Cvens regionTan SedarebiT axlo mdebare mxareebSi arsebul

mdgomareobas. rac Seexeba, levants anu siria-palestinis momcvel

aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTs, misi brinjaos xanis samxedro

istoria mWidrod aris gadajaWvuli am metad mniSvnelovani samxedrostrategiuli

da savaWro-ekonomikuri mniSvnelobis mqone regionis

dasaufleblad mesopotamiis, anatoliisa da egviptis xelisufalTa

urTierWidilTan da amdenad, winamdebare naSromSi misi calke ganixilvis

saWiroeba aRar mogvepoveba.

mesopotamia. sakvebwarmoebiT meurneobas arc erT sxva mxareSi ar moutania

im raodenobis zedmeti dovlaTi, rogorc amas adgili hqonda qvemo

SuamdinareTSi anu samxreT mesopotamiaSi. evfratsa da tigrosSi wylis

donis xSiri meryeoba dablobis daWaobebisgan dasaxsnelad mosaxleobis

erTobliv Zalisxmevas moiTxovda. zedmeti sakvebi produqciis raodenobis

ganuxrelma zrdam da koleqtiuri marTva-gamgeobis sul ufro daxvewilma

sistemam xeli Seuwyo urbanizaciis process da sabolood

Sumeruli civilizaciis warmoqmna-Camoyalibebasac. mesopotamiis nayofieri

velebi odiTganve izidavda gansxvavebuli warmomavlobis mosaxleobas;

Sesabamisad aq Camoyalibebuli kulturac sinkretuli xasiaTisa

iyo da Seicavda erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul elementebs. adgilobrivi da

axalmosuli mosaxleobis narevi met Zalisxmevas moiTxovda sazogadoebis

erTianobisaTvis.

miuxedavad sairigacio samuSaoebis erToblivi Catarebis xelsayrelobisa,

mesopotamiis miwa-wyali danawevrebuli iyo erTmaneTisagan

galavniT SemosazRvrul, damoukidebel qalaq-saxelmwifoebad, romlebic

daaxloebiT 3000 km² farTs akontrolebdnen. miuxedavad imisa, rom es

qalaqi-saxelmwifoebi problemur sakiTxebs xSirad erTmaneTan iaraRis

ZaliT garkvevas iyvnen Cveulni, gareSe mtris winaaRmdeg gaerTianebac

icodnen xolme. erTianobis moTxovnileba, mesopotamiaSi Casatarebeli

samuSaoebis sirTulis gamo, bevrad ufro maRali iyo. egviptelebisaTvis

erTianobis xelsayrel pirobas, maTi izolireba warmoadgenda gare

samyarosagan, rac, Tavis mxriv, maT monur morCilebas ganapirobebda

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faraonis mimarT, romelic dedamiwaze gansxeulebul RvTaebad iyo warmodgenili.

uZvelesi Sumerebis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb araerTi Sexedulebaa

gamoTqmuli, Tumca erTi ram savsebiT naTelia, civilizaciis gariJraJze

mesopotamiaSi mcxovreb, Tundac gansxvavebuli warmomavlobis xalxs,

erTsa da imave enaze unda emetyvela, Tundac qveynis keTildReobis Ziri-

Tadi ganmsazRvreli faqtoris _ sairigacio sistemis gamarTuli funqcionirebis

uzrunvelsayofad.

SedarebiT ufro gvian, Zv. w. XVIII saukuneSi, Seiqmna babilonis

mefis _ hamurabis kanonTa krebuli; kacobriobis istoriaSi samoqalaqo

samarTlis pirveli, srulfasovnad dokumentirebuli werilobiTi Zegli,

romelmac didi gavlena moaxdina axlo aRmosavleTis momdevno epoqebis

kanonmdeblobaze. mraval sxva sakiTxTan erTad, aq msoflioSi pirvelad

gansazRvruli iyo mkurnalobis wesebi da eqimTa ufleba-movaleobebi. sabanko

saqmianobac aseve pirvelad babilonSi Caisaxa, sadac taZrebSi

Sesanaxad mihqondaT marcvleulis maragi, aseve saqoneli, sameurneo

iaraRebi da Zvirfasi liTonebi.

mesopotamiaSi Tvlidnen, rom maT qveyanaSi mTeli qoneba RmerTs

ekuTvnoda da yvela sakiTxi, iqneboda es sameurneo, savaWro, piradi Tu

omTan dakavSirebuli, kanonis mixedviT unda gadawyvetiliyo. Tu egvipteSi

faraoni TviT iyo RmerTi da yvelaferi xalxica da sagnebic

misi sakuTreba iyo, SumerSi mmarTvelebi ZiriTadad mainc Cveulebriv

mokvdavebad ganixilebodnen.

gavleniani sasuliero wodeba zedamxedvelobas uwevda saritualo

adaTebis Sesrulebas. qurumebi zikuratebidan anu taZrebidan marTavdnen

qveyanas. zikuratebi, faqtobrivad, alizis aguriT nagebi xelovnuri

gorebi iyo, romlis gareTa kibe TandaTanobiT viwrovdeboda wverisaken,

sadac samlocveloebi iyo mowyobili. sididiT gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeoda

qalaq uris zikurati. imis gamo, rom SuamdinareTis dablobze

qvis nakleboba iyo, Sumerebma qvis nacvlad daiwyes aguris warmoeba da

am saqmeSic, did warmatebas miaRwies. agurebi gzis mosakirwyladac ki

gamoiyeneboda.

maRalganviTarebuli miwaTmoqmedeba, daxvewili sairigacio da

wylis saregulirebeli sistemebi Sumeris keTildReobis ZiriTadi mizezi

iyo. miRebuli dovlaTis siuxve didi qalaqebis ricxvis zrdas iwvevda.

Sumeris yvelaze mniSvnelovani qalaqi-saxelmwifoebi iyo: uruqi, eridu,

qiSi, lagaSi, aqadi, aqSaqi, larsa, uri. qalaqis galavnebs zogjer ormagi

daniSnuleba hqonda. qalaqis dacvis garda, maT mtrisaTvis unda

eCvenebinaT adgilobrivi xelisuflebis Zlevamosileba. Sumeruli

qalaqis, uruqis galavans saxeli Sors hqonda gavardnili. igi 9,5 km

sigrZisa da 12 m simaRlis iyo.

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qalaqebis saxiT Camoyalibebuli kompleqsuri sazogadoebebisaTvis

aucilebeli gaxda specializirebuli xelosnobis institutis arseboba.

Sumeri dawinaurebuli samxedro teqnologiis qveyana iyo. aq miiRes li-

Tonis axali saxeoba brinjao, romelsac spilenZisa da kalis minarevis

erTad gamodnobis saSualebiT iRebdnen. axali liToni ufro gamZle da

bevrad ufro magari gamodga, rasac didi samxedro mniSvneloba hqonda.

brinjaos iaraRisa da sabrZolo etlis (ix. qvemoT) gamoyenebas gansakuTrebiT

didi mniSvneloba mieniWa SumerSi mefobis institutis SemoRebisa

da calkeuli qalaqi-saxelmwifoebis ZalauflebisaTvis metoqeobis

pirobebSi.

adreuli civilizaciis anu e. w. qalaquri revoluciis Camoyalibebis

upirveles ganmsazRvrel niSnad swored damwerlobis aRmoceneba

aris miCneuli. marTlac, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis garkveul donemde

ganviTarebis gareSe, damwerlobis aRmocenebas azri ar eqneboda, sa-

Tanado funqciis gareSe xom Znelad Tu iqmneba rame. damwerlobis,

rogorc adamianTa Soris arapirdapiri (drois miRma mdgomi) komunikaciis

saSualebis gamogoneba, SumerTa udidesi miRweva iyo. Tu

Tavdapirvelad piqtogramebis * saSualebiT werdnen, TandaTanobiT maT

Camoayalibes lursmuli damwerloba, romlisTvisac lerwmis Reros

soliseburi nawiliT Tixis firfitaze daitaneboda naWdevebi da maTi

saSualebiT ukve sityvis calkeul marcvlebs gadmoscemdnen. lursmuli

damwerloba, piqtogramulTan SedarebiT, bevrad ufro moqnili sakomunikacio

saSualeba iyo. damwerlobis gamoyenebiT Sumerebi momaval Taobebs

gadascemdnen TavianT teqnologiur monapovrebs mdinareTa kontrolisa

da mosavlianobis gazrdasTan dakavSirebiT da amiT kidev ufro metad

zrdidnen miwaTmoqmedebis efeqtianobas. SedarebiT ufro gvian Cndeba Canawerebi

mefeebisa da maT mier warmoebuli brZolebis Sesaxeb.

rogorc iTqva, Zveli mesopotamielebis warmodgeniT, yvela qalaqi,

misi mosaxleobiTa da qonebiT, ekuTvnoda ama Tu im RvTaebas, xolo misi

nebis aRmasrulebeli da warmomadgeneli iyo enzi, jaris mier qurumebis

mier winaswar Sedgenili siidan arCeuli mmarTveli. uruqis enzi, gilgameSi,

legendarul figurad gadaiqca. gilgameSis eposi * TiTqmis sruli

saxiT aris Semonaxuli. rTuli ganyenebuli da emociuri gamonaTqvamebiT

aRsavse es eposi asaxavs SumerTa ganviTarebis maRal gonebriv dones.

gilgameSis eposi imavdroulad warRvnis Sesaxeb arsebuli sxva axloaRmosavluri

miTebis prototipia.

samxreT mesopotamiaSi cxovrebis arasaimedoba, dakavSirebuli bunebrivi

pirobebis arastabilurobasTan da mtris mosalodnel SemosevebTan,

mosaxleobis religiur cnobierebas SesamCnevad aZlierebda. gasaTvaliswinebelia,

rom Sumeruli qalaqebi ZiriTadad aRmocenebuli iyo winaSumeruli

xanis sakulto centrebis siaxloves. qalaqebis sakulto

adgilebis maxloblad ganTavseba ganapirobebda xelisuflebasa da re-

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ligias Soris mWidro urTierTkavSirs. RvTismosaobisa da salocavad

monaxulebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi centris, eridus, arseboba jer

kidev winaSumeruli xaniT, Zv. w. 5000 w., ganisazRvreba.

im martivi mizezis gamo, rom Sumeruli sazogadoebis keTildReoba

mniSvnelovnad iyo damokidebuli bunebrivi movlenebis SeswavlasTan, qurumTa

saqmianobis mniSvnelovani nawili adreuli saxeobis samecniero

moRvaweobasTan iyo dakavSirebuli. am saqmianobis zogierT Sedegs Cven

dResac viyenebT. kerZod, Sumeri qurumebi Tvlidnen, rom yvela RvTaeba

mxolod misTvis gankuTvnili ricxviTi mniSvnelobiT iyo warmodgenili,

mag.: ricxvi samoci, romelic RvTaeba ans * ganekuTvneboda, maTi gamoTvlebis

ZiriTadi sabaziso erTeuli iyo. es ricxvi daudes safuZvlad

Sumerebma saaTis wuTebis raodenobasa da pirvelad maT dayves agreTve

wre 360 gradusad. SumerTa es orive maTematikuri migneba dResac gamoTvliTi

sistemebis safuZvelia.

gasxvaveba qvisa da adreuli liTonebis (spilenZis, brinjaos) xanis

samxedro saqmes Soris, Tundac am epoqebis dasaxelebidan gamomdinare,

pirvel yovlisa, TiTqos teqnologiuri TaviseburebebiT unda yofiliyo

gamowveuli, magram, rogorc irkveva, igi ZiriTadad organizaciuli xasiaTisa

iyo. jer qalaqi-saxelmwifoebisa da bolos adreuli imperiebis

warmoqmna-ganviTarebam Zireulad Secvala samxedro saqmianoba. saxelmwifos

SeeZlo iseTi raodenobiT ewarmoebina sasoflo sameurneo produqtebis

namati, rom sameurneo saqmianobisagan mTlianad gaTavisuflebuli

xelisuflebisa da samxedro meTaurebis fenis warmoqmna gamxdariyo

SesaZlebeli. garda amisa, vinaidan samxedro Zalebis udidesi nawili

meurneobaSi Cabmuli glexebisgan Sedgeboda, sazogadoebas SeeZlo Tavisi

TavisTvis imis ufleba mieca, rom yovelwliurad laSqrobebSi

monawileobisaTvis es xalxi nawilobriv mainc gaeTavisuflebina muSaobisagan.

samxedro istoriaSi momuSave mkvlevarTa SexedulebiT, swored

ase Seiqmna pirveli organizebuli jari, romelic xels uwyobda saxelmwifos,

erTi mxriv, gazrdiliyo damarcxebuli mowinaaRmdegis xarjze

sivrcobrivad, xolo, meore mxriv, SeeZina Sinagani siZliere sul ufro

mzardi centralizaciis xarjze.

ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom is qveynebi (Sumeri da egvipte), sadac

miwaTmoqmedebam da mesaqonleobam yvelaze adre miaRwia gansakuTrebiT

did masStabebs, aRmoCndnen mxareebi, sadac kacobriobis istoriaSi

pirvelad moxda srulyofilad organizebuli armiebis Camoyalibeba. es

Sumeruli da egvipturi civilizaciebis aRmocenebis Tanamdevi procesi

iyo.

SuamdinareTis qalaq-saxelmwifoebs daaxloebiT 5000-10000 meomrisagan

Semdgari laSqris gamoyvana SeeZloT. brZolisas jari falangad *

ewyoboda da meomrebi erTmaneTis mxardamxar ibrZodnen, wina xazs farebiT

icavdnen. TiToeuli maTgani daculi iyo agreTve muzaradiT da li-

8


Tonis firfitebiT `moWedili~ mosasxamiT. mebrZolebi SeiaraRebuli

iyvnen spilenZis (ufro gvian brinjaos) iaraRebiT, SubebiTa da culebiT

(il. 5). falangaSi myofi mebrZolni mSvildisars ar iyenebdnen; brZolisas

erTmaneTis pirispir falangebad dawyobili mowinaaRmdegeebi Subis

kvriTa da biZgebiT da moqneuli culis CexviT uswordebodnen erTmaneTs.

brZolis dros fornebsa Tu sazidavebs Sumerebi jer kidev adrebrinjaos

xanis adreuli etapidan iyenebdnen, ufro gvian ki _ farTod

gavrcelebuli sabrZolo etlebis winamorbedebs. Sumeruli etlis gamosaxuleba

gvxvdeba Zv. w. III aTaswleulis Sua xanebiT daTariRebul e.

w. uris Standartze *. am oTxTvala etlebSi moSinaurebuli virebi Tu

onagrebi * iyo Sebmuli. miuxedavad imisa, rom aseT etlebze, meetlis

garda Subosani meomaria gamosaxuli (il. 2), igi, ZiriTadad mainc, ufro

sameurneo da saritualo daniSnulebisa (mag.: dakrZalvis ceremonialis

dros) unda yofiliyo, vidre sabrZolo. Sumerebs agreTve gaaCndaT orTvala

sabrZolo etlebi, romlebSic oTxi onagri iyo Sebmuli. Zv. w. III

aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi mesopotamiaSi soliduri, mTliani Tvali manebianma

borbalma Secvala, xolo imave aTaswleulis dasasruls etlebSi

cxenebis gamoyeneba daiwyes. Sumerebi iyenebdnen agreTve miwis saxnav gu-

Tans da sanaosno niCabs.

SuamdinareTSi, iseve rogorc egvipteSi, iaraRis SemadgenlobaSi

TandaTanobiT matulobda brinjaosagan damzadebuli, maRali xarisxis,

sul ufro daxvewili saxeobis nakeTobebi. Sumeris qveiTi jari

SeiaraRebuli iyo SubebiTa da satyorcni xelSubebiT, maxvilebiTa da

satevrebiT, sabrZolo culebiTa da kverTxebiT. mesopotamiaSi, sxva regionebTan

SedarebiT, Zlier iyo ganviTarebuli, rogorc safortifikacio

nagebobebi, aseve alyis sawarmoebi saSualebebi. farTod gavrcelebul

iaraRs mTel Zvel aRmosavleTSi warmoadgenda mSvildisari da Subi. am

iaraRiT iyo SeiaraRebuli ricxvmravali qveiTi jari mesopotamiaSic,

egvipteSic da CineTSic. gilgameSis eposidan viciT, rom gilgameSi maxvilisa

da culis garda, SeiaraRebuli iyo mSvildisriT.

Sumeruli laSqari Tu Tavdapirvelad bevrad ufro maRla idga mezobelTa

jarebTan SedarebiT Tavisi mobilurobiT, discipliniTa da aR-

WurvilobiT, TandaTanobiT mezoblebmac qvis iaraRi brinjaos

saWurveliT Secvales, daxvewes Sumerul falangebTan brZolis wesebi.

aRmosavleTidan mTis xalxebma, guTiebma * da elamelebma, xolo dasavleTidan

udabnoSi mcxovrebma momTabare semitebma sul ufro xSirad

daiwyes SuamdinareTSi SeRweva da TareSi. sxvebTan SedarebiT, TavianT

upiratesobaSi Sumerebi imdenad iyvnen darwmunebuli, rom ver xedavdnen

maTTvis safrTxis Semcvel mosalodnel Sedegs da maTi qalaqebis didi

nawili ZiriTadad isev urTierTbrZoliT iyo dakavebuli. Tu romelime

qalaqis mmarTveli sxva qalaqebsac xelSi Caigdebda, igi xdeboda

lugali (`didkaci~), Tumca verc erTi maTgani ver gamodga ise Zleva-

9


mosili, rom SeZleboda mTeli Sumeris gaerTianeba egviptis msgavsad.

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom SumerTa araSorsmWvretelobam Ziri gamouTxara

maTi qveynis siZlieres. maT sul ufro metad esaWiroebodaT sxvaTa,

kerZod, elamelTa CarTva sakuTari konfliqtebis gadawyvetaSi. Zv. w. III

aTaswleulidan iwyeba semituri tomebis memkvidreebis, aqadelTa infiltracia

Sumeris CrdiloeT raionebSi. sabolood maT moaxerxes Sumeris

teritoriis gaerTianeba. aqadelebma Seisisxlxorces Sumeruli cxovrebis

wesi da kultura da SuamdinareTis cxovrebis mravali mxare ganvi-

Tarebis axal safexurze aiyvanes, maT Soris samxedro saqmec. Zveli

axlo aRmosavleTis imperiebi, rogorc wesi, ar axdendnen xolme dapyrobili

xalxebis asimilirebas. isinic am imperiebs emorCilebodnen

vidre am ukanasknelT Zala erCodaT Tavisi Zlevamosilebis SesanarCuneblad.

Zv. w. II aTaswleulis dasawyisidan axlo aRmosavleTis samxedro

saqmeSi Cndeba teqnologiuri siaxle _ cxenebiani, msubuqi sabrZolo

etli. simsubuqe da cxenebi am etls metad swrafsa da mobilurs xdida.

am orTvala etlSi Tavdapirvelad ori cxeni iyo Sebmuli, xolo mogvianebiT

oTxi. simsubuqis gamo, etli advilad yiravdeboda da tydeboda.

etlSi ori pirovneba iyo: meetle da sabrZolo TvisebebiT gamorCeuli

meomari. meetles marjvena mxare ekava da misi movaleoba iyo etli mowinaaRmdegis

susti adgilisaken miemarTa. meomari an mcire zomis skamze

iyo Camomjdari, anda fexze idga. Cveulebriv, mas muzaradi exura,

atarebda mklavis damcvels, xolo mkerdi dajavSnuli hqonda. etlSi

moTavsebuli iyo iaraRis mTeli `arsenali~: Subi, maxvili, satevari,

kverTxi da rac mTavaria, mSvild-isari. swored mSvild-isris gamoyeneba

xdida am mobilur etls brZolis metad efeqtur saSualebad. didi siCqariT

gadaadgilebuli da amdenad, mtris mSvildosnebis mier mouxelTebeli

etlidan nasrol isrebs sagrZnobi areuloba Sehqonda mowinaaRmdegis

rigebSi. misi SemaCerebeli mxolod mtris mier gamoyenebuli

aseTive etli Tu iqneboda. am garemoebam sabrZolo etlebis farTo

gavrceleba gamoiwvia mTel Zvel aRmosavleTSi, TviT CineTis CaTvliT

(ix. qvemoT). msubuqi cxeniani etlis gamoyenebis dawyebis Semdeg, misi da

qveiTi jaris mterTan erToblivi brZolis xerxebi Zveli aRmosavleTis

yvela qveynis armiaSi gamoiyeneboda.

javSnis uqonloba etlebs daucvels xdida brZolis dros da maTi

xsna mxolod did siCqareSi iyo. Tu etlSi Tavdapirvelad ori kaci iyo,

TandaTanobiT maTi ricxvi xuTamde gaizarda. etlebi Tavisi efeqturobiT

brinjaos xanis tankebs warmoadgendnen. maTi mTavari upiratesoba

mSvildosnebisaTvis micemuli taqtikuri mobiluroba iyo. imis gamo, rom

qveiTi jari mWidrod iyo Sejgufuli brZolis dros da mwyobri,

gaazrebuli moqmedebiTa da erTmaneTis dazRveviT cdilobda gadaulaxavi

cocxali jebiris agebas. sabrZolo etlebs saSualeba eZleodaT Soridan

10


isrebiT daecxrilad maTi rigebi. xolo Tu qveiTebi gaiSlebodnen, maSin

etlebs maTi iolad gadaTelvis Sansi eZleodaT.

rogorc vxedavT, sabrZolo etlebis qona jarisaTvis aucilebeli

iyo. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT maTi damzadebisa da SekeTebis sirTules,

rasac daxelovnebuli xelosnis momsaxureba sWirdeboda da calke

cxenis Rirebulebasac, cxadi xdeba, rom etlis qona da Senaxva mxolod

gansakuTrebulad SeZlebul xalxs SeeZlo. bunebrivia, sabrZolo etlis

mqone meomrebi warmoadgendnen warCinebulTa kastas.

im sazogadoebebSi, sadac sabrZolo etlebi sajaro sakuTrebas

warmoadgendnen, maTi momxmareblebi xels uwyobdnen da ganamtkicebdnen

Zlier centralur xelisuflebas. ase iyo magaliTad, egviptis axal

samefoSi. sabrZolo etlebis gamoyenebam umaRles dones miaRwia kadeSis *

brZolis dros (Zv. w. 1274 w.), rodesac brZolis velze orive mebrZoli

mxridan 6000-mde etls unda mieRo monawileoba (ix. qvemoT).

SumerelTa samxedro upiratesoba: falanga, sabrZolo etli,

javSani, farebis farTo gamoyeneba, samxedro nawilebis disciplina, ver

aanazRaurebda maT araxelsayrel geografiul mdebareobasa da danawevrebulobas.

istorikosTa Soris farTod gavrcelebuli SexedulebiT, is

sazogadoebebi, romlebic ar arian homogenuri * an sxvaTagan geografiulad

izolirebuli da romelTac Taobidan Taobamde uxdebaT sxvadasxva

mxridan momdinare safrTxeebTan gamklaveba, unda Seecadon ar dauSvan

arastabiluroba mmarTvelobis sistemaSi da unda gamoavlinon cvalebad

garemoebebTan swrafi adaptirebis unari. maT aucileblad unda daZlion

uTanxmoeba sazogadoebaSi da am sazogadoebis yvela fenis valia Seinar-

Cunos qveynisadmi erTguleba; winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mTeli sazogadoeba,

misi Semadgeneli yvela fenis CaTvliT, mtris winaSe ganiaraRebuli dar-

Ceba da Sesabamisad sayovelTao da sruli katastrofis winaSe dadgeba.

es garemoeba ara mxolod SumerTaTvis iyo gasaTvaliswinebeli da

rogorc yvelani vxedavT, visac ki adardebs sakuTari qveynis bedi,

imaTTvis dResac ara aqvs aqtualuroba dakarguli.

Sumeris istoriaSi sam etaps gamoyofen xolme. pirveli maTgani Zv.

w. V aTaswleulis Sua xanebidan III aTaswleulis Sua xanebamde

grZeldeboda. am xanis yvelaze mniSvnelovani politikuri movlena iyo

gabatonebuli sasuliero fenis, romelsac qurumi-mefeebi edga saTaveSi,

samefo ZalauflebiT Canacvleba. vinaidan qvemo mesopotamiis nayofieri

niadagisaTvis qalaq-saxelmwifoebs Soris sul ufro mzardi omianoba

iCenda Tavs, cxadia, maT mefeebs ZiriTadad samxedro-politikuri

funqciebi unda ganexorcielebinaT. am periodis mesopotamiis simdidris

yvelaze ufro mkafio gamoxatuleba e. w. uris samefo akldamebia. aq

TviT samxedro saWurvelic ki zogjer Zvirfasi liTonebidan aris

damzadebuli. zemo, anu CrdiloeT mesopotamiaSic dasaxlebebi

ganuxrelad izrdeboda, TandaTanobiT isinic damcavi galavniT

11


SemozRudul qalaqebad gadaiqcnen, rac regionSi arsebul garedan

momdinare safrTxeze da TavdacvisaTvis da omisaTvis mzadebis

saWirobaze metyvelebs.

meore etapze, daaxloebiT Zv. w. 2350-2150 w.w., mTeli mesopotamia,

Sumeris CaTvliT, aqadelebma igdes xelT. garda amisa, maT Tavisi mefis

sargon didis (Zv. w. 2334-2279 w.w.) winamZRolobiT, sakuTari

samflobeloebi Sors dasavleTisaken, xmelTaSuazRvispireTamde da

anatoliamde, xolo aRmosavleTiT dasavleT iranamde ganavrces. misi imperia

xmelTaSua zRvas, sparseTis yuresa da kaspiis zRvas Soris gadai-

Wima.

sargonis mier datovebuli warwerebi, mis mier 34 omis mogebas

iuwyebian da SeniSnaven, rom mis winaSe 5400 kaci purs Wamda, rac

SeiZleba miniSnebad CavTvaloT misi armiis ricxovnebaze. Tavisi

droisaTvis es Zalze didi jari iyo da mis jariskacebs arc

gamocdileba aklda.

nipuris * sasaxleSi napovni warwera iuwyeba, rom qvemo

mesopotamiis anu Sumeris dasaufleblad gamarTuli laSqrobisas

sargonma aiRo qalaqi uruqi da miwasTan gaaswora igi. qalaqidan

gaqceulebma ummas * mefes, lugal-zagess, Seafares Tavi, romelmac

Sumeruli Zalebi aqadelTa winaaRmdeg gaaerTiana. gadamwyveti brZola

sargonis gamarjvebiT damTavrda. man mowinaaRmdege Semusra, xolo TviT

lugal-zagesi ZaRliviT Tokgamobmuli Caiyvana nipurSi.

sargoni Zlieri da gaerTianebuli imperiis SeqmniT cdilobda

daeZlia mesopotamiis qalaqi-saxelmwifoebis mudmivi urTierTqiSpi. man

kidev ufro mkveTrad daaSora erTmaneTs religiuri da saero

xelisufleba. sakuTari batonobis uzrunvelsayofad sargonma pirvelad

daaarsa samxedro begara, romelic, rogorc Cans, sairigacio da

daWaobebuli adgilebis daSrobisaTvis didZali mosaxleobis

mobilizaciis Cvevis arsebobis gamo ar iyo Zneli gansaxorcielebeli.

aqadur xanas Tanxvdeba mesopotamiaSi axali saxeobis Sedgenili

mSvildis * gamoCena, romelic xisa da rqis nawilebisagan Sedgeboda.

sargonis jarSi warmatebiT gamoiyeneboda Subebisa da satyorcni

iaraRebis urTierTSeTavseba. brinjaos maxvilebiTa da oTxTvala

sabrZolo etlebiT SeiaraRebuli aqadelebi warmatebis Sanss ar

utovebdnen mowinaaRmdegeebs. miuxedavad maTi samxedro geniisa, aqadelTa

hegemonia qvemo mesopotamiaze didxans ar gagrZelebula, ukve daaxl. Zv.

w. 2200 w. zagrosis mTianeTSi mcxovrebi guTiebis meomari tomis xalxi

SeiWra babiloneTSi da bolo mouRo aqadelTa batonobas. maT sargonis

SvilTaSvili daamarcxes.

Sumeris istoriis mesame etapi uris mier guTiebis damarcxebiT

iwyeba. es aris amasTanave uris mesame dinastiis mier, daaxl. Zv. w. 2112-

2004 w.w. Sumeris aRorZinebis xana. uris mesame dinastiis xelisuflebma

12


TiTqmis mTeli mesopotamia igdes xelT. miuxedavad im garemoebisa, rom

am droisaTvis ukve adgili hqonda Sumeruli da aqaduri kulturebis

sinTezs, mainc Sumeruli enis administraciuli uflebebi aRdgenili

iqna. SumerTa mmarTvelobis periodi, Zv. w. II aTaswleulis dasawyisSi,

dasavleTidan semituri tomebis axali nakadis, amoreelebis SemoseviT

damTavrda, rasac Tan aRmosavleTidan elamelebis SemoWra daerTo.

sayuradReboa, rom axalma mosaxleobam SeinarCuna da kidev ufro

ganaviTara Sumerul-aqaduri memkvidreoba. amoreelebma babiloni gaixades

dedaqalaqad, sadac jer kidev sargon aqadels hqonia taZari agebuli da

amis Semdeg isini ukve babilonelebis saxeliT Canan istoriis

furclebze, xolo babiloni TiTqmis ori aTasi wlis ganmavlobaSi kidev

inarCunebda axloaRmosavleTis kulturuli da savaWro centris

funqcias.

babilonis mefe hamurabma (Zv. w. XVIII s.) mesopotamia TiTqmis

mTlianad gaaerTiana da am vrceli regionis marTvisaTvis Camoayaliba

daxvewili administraciuli sistema. misi udidesi miRweva, ra Tqma unda,

kanonTa kodeqsis Seqmna iyo (ix. zemoT). hamurabis memkvidreTa xelSi

babiloneTi sul ufro dakninda, xolo Zv. w. XVI s. dasawyisidan

xeTebis dasavleTidan, xuritebis * CrdiloeTidan da kasitebis

aRmosavleTidan Semosevebis Sedegad am axali Zalebis mier iqna

faqtobrivad dayofili.

sargon aqadelma mesopotamiaSi semituri modgmis xalxebis TiTqmis

2000 wlovan batonobas daudo saTave. aqadelebisa da amoreelbabilonelebis

garda, mesopotamiis CrdiloeT nawilSi hqondaT kera

asurelebs, romelTac daarses Zvelasuruli (Zv. w. II aTaswleulis

pirveli naxevari), Suaasuruli (Zv. w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevari)

da axalasuruli (Zv. 911-612 w.w.) samefoebi.

egvipte. egviptis adreuli xanis istoria mowmobs jaris did mniSvnelobas

winadinastiuri egviptis ori samefos erT samefod gaerTianebamde.

imdroindel gamosaxulebebze vxedavT alyaSemortymul cixe-simagreTa

galavnebs, anda omis Sedegad mopovebul nadavls. mdinare nilosis

garSemo egviptelebma, Tavdapirvelad, calkeuli mcire samefoebi Seqmnes,

romlebic droTa msvlelobaSi erT samefod gaerTiandnen. md. nilosi

egviptelTaTvis siuxvisa da keTildReobis pirvelwyaros warmoadgenda.

mdinaris regularuli adideba niadags arnaxulad anayofierebda.

CrdiloeTis Zlieri da TiTqmis mudmivi qari aadvilebda mdinaris aRma

curvas, rac Zalze aiolebda qveynis sxvadasxva nawils Soris

komunikaciebs. misi dineba da CanCqerebi, amave dros, samxreTidan mtris

SemoWras arTulebda. CrdiloeTidan egvipte xmelTaSua zRviT,

aRmosavleTidan wiTeli zRviTa da sinas udabnoTi, xolo dasavleTidan

udabnoebis saSualebiT iyo sxvaTagan daculi.

13


egvipte or did mxared iyofoda, zemo egvipted da qvemo egvipted,

anu md. nilosis zemo da qvemo welis mimdebare mxareebad. faraoni

narmeri iyo pirveli vinc gaaerTiana qveynis orive mxare. Tu Sumerebs

miaCndaT, rom enzi RvTis nebis ganmcxadebeli iyo (ix. zemoT),

egviptelTa faraoni TviT iyo dedamiwaze movlenili RvTaeba, RvTis

gansxeuleba. narmeris memkvidreebis dros, erTi mxriv, moxda zemo da

qvemo egviptis kidev ufro meti konsolidacia, meore mxriv, adgili

hqonda egviptelTa laSqrobebs samxreTisaken _ nubiis, dasavleTisaken

_ libiis, xolo aRmosavleTisaken _ sinas naxevarkunZulis

mimarTulebiT. sazRvrebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis garda, es

laSqrobebi miznad isaxavda spilenZisa da firuzis sabadoebis xelSi

Cagdebas.

egviptis erT-erTi Tavisebureba iyo is, rom xangrZlivi istoriis

manZilze igi ZiriTadad centralizebul saxelmwifod rCeboda. es,

albaT, misi geografiuli TaviseburebiTac unda yofiliyo gamowveuli;

igi xom, rogorc iTqva, faqtobrivad yvela sxva mxarisagan zRvebiTa da

udabnoebiT gancalkevebul oaziss warmoadgenda. swored amis gamo, maT

qalaqebsa da dasaxlebul punqtebs galavani iSviaTad hqondaT

garSemortymuli.

miuxedavad amisa, jer kidev Zv. w. IV aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi

egvipteSi gvxvdeba alizisagan nagebi galavniani dasaxlebebi, xolo

alyis amsaxveli erT-erTi adreuli gamosaxuleba, romelzedac

RvTaebrivi cxovelebi qalaqis galavans angreven, TariRdeba egviptis

adredinastiuri xaniT. pirveli saalyo aRWurviloba, romlis

gamosaxulebamac Cvenamde moaRwia, Semonaxulia Zv. w. XXIV saukunis

erT-erTi egvipturi akldamis bareliefze. aq gamosaxulia borblebiani

saalyo misadgami kibe, romlis daxmarebiTac egvipteli jariskacebi

cdiloben qanaanelTa * qalaqis galavnis gadalaxvas.

egviptelebis safortifikacio nagebobebi da forpostebi * ZiriTadad

sasazRvro mxareebSi iyo mowyobili, raTa gareSe mteri egvipteSi ar

SemoeSvaT. daculi iyo nilosis deltis * dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi

mijnebi, aRmosavleTis udabno da samxreTidan nubiis Semosasvlelebi.

mcirericxovan sasazRvro garnizonebs advilad SeeZloT udabnos

momTabareTa md. nilosis deltis nayofieri velebisken SeWris

mcdelobis aRkveTa, xolo mniSvnelovani samxedro Zalis gamoCenisTanave

xdeboda xelisuflebis informireba.

piramidebis aRmarTvis garda, mesame-meeqvse dinastiebis momcveli

Zveli samefos xanis (daaxl. Zv. w. 2686-2134 w.w.) faraonebi agebdnen

fortebs anu cixe-simagreebs. yvelaze ufro xSirad es xdeboda md.

nilosis gaswvriv, rac imiT aixsneba, rom ZiriTadi safrTxe am xanaSi

samxreTidan, nubiidan modioda. pirveli forti Zveli samefos xanaSi,

samxreTiT aigo, buhenSi, md. nilosis meore CanCqerTan da ZiriTadad

14


egviptelTa mier qvemo nubiis damorCilebis simbolur gamoxatulebas

warmoadgenda.

TavdacviTi fortebis didi nawili agebuli iyo egviptelTa

samxedro eqspansiis epoqaSi, Sua samefos xanaSi (daaxl. Zv. w. 2040-1640

w.w.). egvipturi fortebi erTmaneTisgan erTi savali dRis gziT iyo

daSorebuli, rac qveynis TavdacvisaTvis mwyobr sistemas qmnida.

egviptelebs dRevandeli sabaJos msgavsi sasazRvro kontrolis

samsaxuri gaaCndaT. magaliTad: aRmosavleTis sazRvarTan, siles

fortTan aucilebeli iyo registraciis gavla. qveyanaSi Semosvlamde

xdeboda saxelis, warmomavlobisa da daniSnulebis adgilebis fiqsireba.

yvelaze rTuli sagarnizono samuSao ukiduresi dasavleTis forpostTan,

Tanamedrove um-el-raxamTan (q. aleqsandriis dasavleTiT daaxl. 322 km)

udabnoSi mdebare forti iyo. igi warmoadgenda 5 m siganisa da 1600000

cali didi zomis alizis aguriT nagebi galavniT Semokavebul da 20000

m 2 gadaWimul uzarmazar nagebobas.

egviptelebis eqspansia Taviseburi xasiaTisa iyo. isini, ZiriTadad,

cdilobdnen xolme mcocavi taqtikiT TandaTanobiT da srulyofilad

daemorCilebinaT susti samxedro Zalis mqone qalaqebi da samefoebi.

mxolod amis Semdeg iwyeboda fiqri axali miwebis aTvisebisaTvis.

jer kidev winadinastiuri xanis egvipteSi, omianobis gavrcelebis

amsaxvelia faraon narmeris cnobili fila. qvadafis (aspidis)

fiqalisagan damzadebuli filis zomebidan gamomdinare (64 sm) Tu

vimsjelebT, aSkaraa, rom igi saceremonio fila iyo da ara yoveldRiuri

gamoyenebis kosmetikuri palitra. filis wina mxares vxedavT faraon

narmers, romelic Tanmxleb pirebTan midis mtris mravalricxovani

TavmoWrili gvamebis grovis sanaxavad (il. 1a, zeda nawili). ukana

mxares narmers muxlmodrekili mtris TmebSi marcxena xeliT aris

Cafrenili da marjvenaTi kverTxis Casartymelad aris mzad (il. 1b, zeda

nawili). wina mxareze, qvemoT, gamosaxulia uzarmazari xaris (albaT,

TviT faraonis simboluri gamosaxulebis) mier, romeliRac qalaqis

galavnis dangreva (il. 1a). egviptologebi fiqroben, rom filaze

gamosaxulia narmeris mier qvemo egviptis dapyroba da orive egviptis

gaerTianeba, amaze maTi azriT, unda metyvelebdes wina mxaris

centralur nawilSi gamosaxuli ori miTiuri, grZelkisera cxovelebis

gamosaxuleba erTmaneTan gadabmuli kisrebiT. SesaZloa, amasve

metyvelebdes iqve, zemo marjvena kuTxeSi, xomaldis gamosaxuleba,

romelis daxmarebiT, albaT, moxdeboda narmeris laSqris, nilosis

saSualebiT, zemo qveynidan qvemo egvipteSi Camoyvana (il. 1a).

aRsaniSnavia, rom Zveli samefos gvian xanebSic, samxedro

operaciebisaTvis egvipturi razmebis gadazidva md. nilosze navebiT

xdeboda.

15


Zveli samefos epoqa, egviptis istoriaSi, erT-erT yvelaze ufro

ayvavebul xanad aris miCneuli. Zveli samefos xana moicavs egviptis III-

VIII dinastiebis xanas. am xanas, zogierTi mkvlevari mxolod III-VI

dinastiebiT gansazRvravs. es sxvaoba damokidebuli iyo momdevno, e. w.

pirveli saSualedo periodis daswyisis gansazRvrasTan. ufro adreuli

periodebi winadinastiur da adredinastiur xanebs ganekuTvnebian.

adredinastiuri xana, igive arqauli periodi, moicavs pirvel da meore

dinastiebs da TariRdeba daaxloebiT Zv. w. 3150-2686 w.w.

qveynis xvavi da baraqa kargad organizebuli Tavdacvis sistemis

SemuSavebis SesaZleblobas iZleoda. axal samefos xanamde egvipteSi

samxedro konfliqtis oTxi ZiriTadi mizezi moipoveboda: 1. libiuri

safrTxe dasavleTidan, 2. nubielebi samxreTSi, 3. sinas naxevarkunZuli

da qanaanelebi Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT, 4. saSinao konfliqtebi.

adreuli xanis egvipteSi ar hyavdaT regularuli armia da floti,

arc profesionali, umaRlesi klasifikaciis meomrebi. mebrZolebi,

saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, xalxSi SeirCeodnen xolme. Zveli da Sua

samefos epoqebSi jari ZiriTadad Sedgeboda samxedro begaris Sedegad

gawveuli glexebisa da xelosnebisgan. TiToeuli nomis (egvipturi

administraciuli erTeuli) mmarTveli samxedro samsaxuris

msurvelTagan agrovebda sakuTar jars. im xanad egvipteSi samxedro

samsaxuri, gansxvavebiT axali samefos xanisagan, ar iyo prestiJulad

miCneuli da Sesabamisad jarSi, ZiriTadad, dabali socialuri fenebis

warmomadgenlebi midiodnen, romelTac ar hqondaT sxva saqmis SeTvisebis

saSualeba. omis SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva nomebSi Segrovebuli razmebi

erTiandeboda erTian laSqrad, romelsac saTaveSi faraoni edga.

jariskacebs sakmaod martivi aRWurviloba hqondaT, romelic

Sedgeboda spilenZispiriani wvetiani Subebis, satevrebisa da xis farTo

tyavgadakruli farebisagan. adredinastiur xanaSi gamoiyeneboda

xelketebi, qvisgan damzadebuli bunikiani kverTxebi, Tumca momdevno

xanebSi es iaraRi mxolod saceremonio funqcias inarCunebs, xolo mis

adgils SeiaraRebaSi brinjaos sabrZolo culi ikavebs.

Setevis dros Subosnebs azRvevdnen xolme mSvildosnebi, romlebic

SeiaraRebuli iyvnen martivi, mrudi mSvildiTa da kaJis an

spilenZispiriani isrebiT. sazogadod, yvelaze ufro gavrcelebuli

iaraRi mainc mSvil-disari iyo. egviptur gamosaxulebebze, wverebian

ucxoelebTan, rogorc Cans, winaazielebTan brZolisas egvipteli

meomrebi SeiaraRebulni Canan mSvild-isrebiTa da satevrebiT. mSvildi,

im dros, Cveulebrivi, calrkaliani iyo da Sesabamisad isris srolisas

misi srulfasovani daWimva rTuli xdeboda, wvetiani isrebi kaJis an

spilenZis hqondaT. mSvildisris efeqturoba gansakuTrebiT hiqsosuri

Sedgenili mSvildis gavrcelebis Semdeg gaizarda (ix. qvemoT). abjari,

16


Zv. w. III da adreul II aTaswleulebSi egvipteSi, jer kidev ar

gamoiyeneboda.

Zveli axlo aRmosavleTis yvelaze warmatebuli qveyana,

mravalsaukunovani stabilurobis TvalTaxedviT, egviptis Zveli samefo

iyo. imdroindeli qveynis simtkicesa da usafrTxoebas ramdenime

ZiriTadi mizezi hqonda, RvTaeba-faraonis xelqveiTTa arnaxuli

erTianoba, faqtobrivad qveynis mudmivi materialuri keTildReoba,

gareSe mtrebisgan sazRvrebis daculoba, rac uzrunvelyofili iyo

ZalauflebiTa da qveynis geografiuli mdebareobis TaviseburebebiT.

egvipturi sazogadoeba sakmaod karCaketili iyo, sxva xalxebs

isini ar Tvlidnen srulfasovan adamianebad. maTTvis gare samyaro

qaoturi iyo da uzneo adamianebiT dasaxlebuli. adreuli xanis

faraonebi Tavis warwerebSi gvauwyeben xolme imis Taobaze, Tu rogor

daxoces maT 40000 Crdiloeli. faraonTa ganmadidebel Zeglebze, TviT

faraoni, rogorc wesi, yovelTvis brZolis SuagulSia gamosaxuli, misi

sayvareli iaraRiT _ kverTxiT xelSi, xolo mtrebi mis winaSe miwaze

arian garTxmuli. faraonebi gamosaxuli arian maT winaSe daCoqili

azielebis gangmirvis procesSi anda miwaze garTxmuli nubielis Tavze

terfdadgmulis pozaSi.

vinaidan adreuli epoqis egvipteSi, jer kidev ar arsebobda

namdvili profesionaluri jari, egvipturi jaris rigebSi arcTu

iSviaTad SehyavdaT xolme ucxoelebi, mag.: nubieli moqiraveebi Zveli

samefos gviani xanidan warmoadgendnen mSvildosnebis saukeTeso

nawilebs. egviptelebi xSirad iyenebdnen daqiravebul nubielebs; kerZod,

palestinaSi brZolebis dros, maT zogjer jariskacebiT savse

xomaldebiT agzavnidnen palestinis dasaufleblad.

Zveli samefos ukanaskneli Zlevamosili faraonis, pepi II-is dros,

romelmac egviptis istoriaSi yvelaze ufro xangrZlivad imefa (Zv. w.

2278-2184 w.w.), mmarTvelobis ZiriTadi simZime misi vezirebis kisrebze

gadadioda. es ukanasknelni, Tavis mxriv, eyrdnobodnen nomebis

(administraciuli erTeuli) mmarTvelebs anu nomarxebs. TiTqmis

saukunes miRweuli pepi II-is gardacvalebis Semdeg, adre arsebuli

mmarTvelobis sistema moiSala, nomarxebma, romlebmac didi gavlena

SeiZines Tavisi mmarTvelobis mxareebSi da didZali simdidrec

daagroves, daiwyes sakuTari damoukideblobisaTvis brZola da momijnave

nomebis dasaqvemdebareblad moqmedeba. xangrZlivi mmarTvelobis Semdeg,

egvipte samoqalaqo omma moicva da qveyanaSi e. w. pirveli Sualeduri

periodi Camoyalibda. es xana sakmaod mZime gamodga qveynisaTvis, moxda

dramatuli gardatexa samxedro ideologiaSi. misi mTavari debuleba

sakuTari miwa-wylis SenarCunebaSi gamoixata. palestinaSi egviptis

gavlena gaqarwyalda da aq gabatonebulma `azielebma~ nilosis deltis

aRmosavleT nawilSic SeaRwies.

17


nomarxTa ormocdaaTwliani brZola sabolood Tebes mmarTvelis

gamarjvebiT damTavrda, romelmac daaxl. Zv. w. 2040 w. daaarsa egviptis

Sua samefo. am epoqis faraonebs ukve regularuli ricxvmravali jari

hyavdaT; amave dros, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, maTi brZanebis Tanaxmad,

nomarxebs damatebiTi Zalebi unda miewodebinaT. yoveli asi kacidan erTi

jarSi unda yofiliyo gawveuli.

iseve rogorc Zveli aRmosavleTis bevr sxva mxareSi, am epoqis

egvipteSic, isev farTod gamoiyeneboda arqauli iaraRebi: kverTxi,

sabrZolo culi, mSvild-isari. brinjaos xanaSi maT, bunebrivia, daemata

brinjaosgan damzadebuli iaraRi da abjari. brinjaos saWurvelsa da

abjars am epoqis egvipteSi jaris efeqturobisaTvis ukve gansakuTrebiT

didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda. msubuqi qveiTi jari atarebda sartylebs da

SeiaraRebuli iyo martivi mSvildiTa da brinjaos isrispirebiT. mZime

qveiTi jari xisa da tyavisgan tlanqad nakeTebi farebiT, brinjaos

maxvilebiT da spilenZis SubispirebiT. TandaTanobiT gavrcelda ufro

efeqturi, mTlianad liTonisagan damzadebuli farebi.

Zvelad iaraRi oTxi saxeobis arsebobda: 1. xeldaxel

brZolisaTvis: satevrebi, maxvilebi, danebi, xelketebi, kverTxebi,

culebi da sxva; 2. xis tarze damagrebuli liTonis sabrZolo

nawiliani, brZolis dros mowinaaRmdegisagan usafrTxo distanciaze

dasarCenad: Subebi, xelSubebi da sxva; 3. sasroli iaraRebi: mSvildisari,

Surduli; 4. saalyo mowyobilebebi: taranebi, saalyo godolebi

da sxva.

Sua samefos epoqaSi, gansakuTrebiT didi yuradReba eTmoboda

egviptis mudmivad mzardi sazRvrebis usafrTxoebis dacvas. garda gareSe

mtrisagan qveynis dacvis saWiroebisa, sul ufro mniSvnelovani xdeboda

egviptis simdidrisa da siZlieris erT-erTi ganmapirobebeli faqtoris _

savaWro gzebis kontroli. Tumca am periodis damlevs egviptem mainc

ver SesZlo Tavisi damoukideblobis SenarCuneba. misi dacemis mizezi,

pirvel rigSi, qveynis saarako simdidris mimzidveloba gaxldaT.

egviptis laSqari or nawilad iyo gayofili: zemo da qvemo

egviptis armiebad, romlebic TavTavianT mxedarTmTavarebs

eqvemdebarebodnen. faraoni armiis uzeanaesi mTavarsardali iyo. misi

TanaSemweebi iyvnen armiis mTavarsardlebi. specialistTa azriT,

samxedro ierarqia egvipteSiDZiriTadad Sua samefos xanidan iCens Tavs.

Sua samefos faraonebis agresiuli strategia palestinasa da siriaSi

miznad isaxavda SeeCerebina egvipteze aRmosavleTidan Semoseuli

tomebis mosalodneli Semoteva. Sedegi sapirispiro gamodga, `azielebma~

kontrieriSiT delta ukve mTlianad Caigdes xelSi da gaerTianebuli egviptis

samefo isev daiSala.

axalmosulebi, gasxvavebuli warmomavlobis xalxisgan Sedgebodnen.

maT Soris iyvnen semitebi * , indo-evropelebi * , xuritebi da sxva. yvela

18


es gansxvavebuli warmomavlobis xalxi egviptelebis mier moixenieboda

hiqsosebad, rac egvipturad `ucxo batonebs~ niSnavda. hiqsosebi egvipteSi

saukuneze met xans batonobdnen (108 wlis ganmavlobaSi). egviptis

istoriis es periodi cnobilia, rogorc meore Sualeduri periodi.

maT daaarses meTxuTmete da SesaZloa meTeqvsmete dinastiebi.

hiqsosebis batonoba efuZneboda samxedro teqnikisa da strategiis

upiratesobebs. maT egvipteSi Semoiyvanes cxenebi da Semoitanes msubuqi

etlebi, brinjaos mWreli iaraRebi, javSani da Sedgenili mSvildebi,

romlebic gacilebiT ufro zustad da did manZilze styorcnidnen isars.

brZolis es saSualebebi, maTda uneburad, maT mier Setanili

wvlili gamodga momdevno xanebis egviptis SeiaraRebaSi. egvipteSi

hiqosebis gamoCenas SeiaraRebis teqnologiasa da samxedro saqmeSi

mniSvnelovani dawinaureba ukavSirdeba.

aRsaniSnavia, rom uaRresad mobiluri e. w. hiqsosuri cxeniani

msubuqi etlebi, pirvelad xuritebma SemoiRes siriaSi maTi cxovrebis

dros. mecnierTa didi nawili xuritebs kavkasiuri warmomavlobis

xalxad miiCnevs.

msubuqi etli faqtobrivad warmoadgenda moZrav baqans, saidanac

xdeboda mtris winaaRmdeg satyorcni iaraRebis gamoyeneba. brZolis

dros misi moqmedeba koordinirebuli iyo qveiTi jaris manevrebTan da

ZiriTadad, am ukanasknelis xelSewyobiT sargeblobda. hiqsosuri etlis

ekipaJi ori kacisagan Sedgeboda, meetlisagan, romelsac etlis marTvis

garda faric unda moemarjvebina da mSvild-isriTa da satyorcni SubebiT

aRWurvili mebrZolisagan. Sedgenili mSvildis daxvewis Sedegad, gaCnda

misi gadazneqilboloebiani saxeoba, kidev ufro gaumjobesda isris pirebic,

gaCnda faris, satevrisa da maxvilis axali saxeobebi, jaWvis perangi,

liTonis muzaradi da sxva.

sabrZolo etlebsa da cxenebze kontrols, maTi batonobis ganmavlobaSi,

mxolod hiqsosebi inarCunebdnen. miuxedavad imisa, rom maT

SeiTvises egvipturi ena, wes-Cveulebebi, cxovrebis yvela garegnuli ni-

Sani, isini mainc atarebdnen TavianT araegviptur pirad saxelebs da

eweodnen Tavis Zvel, tradiciul RvTismsaxurebas. amave dros, hiqsosebma

SeiTvises tradiciuli egvipturi samefo wodebebi da RvTaeba setis *

kulti. es RvTaeba, Tavdapirvelad, qvemo egviptis mTavari RvTaeba iyo,

xolo mogvianebiT egviptelTa mier ratomRac ucxoelTa RvTaebad miiCneoda.

rogorc Cans, hiqsosebma seti egviptur RvTaebaTa Soris yvelaze

metad miamsgavses Tavis sakuTar mTavar RvTaebas.

hiqsosTa Zalauflebis qveS moqceuli mxare SemozRuduli iyo

nilosis aRmosavleT deltisa da Sua egviptis teritoriebiT. zemo egviptis

mmarTveloba TebeSi * mokalaTebuli egviptelebis xelSi iyo,

romlebic hiqsosebs xarks uxdidnen xolme. hiqsosebma dedaqalaqi mem-

19


fisSi * moiwyes, xolo sazafxulo da amasTanave ZiriTadi rezidencia

avarisSi * hqondaT.

hiqsosebTan brZolis saWiroebam, egviptelebi aiZula gadmoeRoT

bevri ram TavianTi azieli dampyroblebisagan. egvipturi jari maTTan

xangrZliv brZolebSi eziara mtris aRmatebul strategiasa da ukeTes

SeiaraRebas da TandaTanobiT gadaerTo maT gamoyenebaze. axali nimuSis

jari dafuZnebuli iyo mkacri discipliniT kontrolirebad struqturul

ierarqiaze. SeTvisebuli da gaumjobesebuli iqna brinjaos Camosxmis

teqnologia. pirvelad am dros gamoiyeneboda egvipteSi abjari da

namglisformiani maxvili, xofeSi (ix. qvemoT).

am axalma sabrZolo teqnologiebma Zireulad Secvala egviptelTa

saomari efeqturobis done. ukve Zv. w. XVII saukunis damlevidan egviptelebi

iTviseben cxenSebmul sabrZolo etlebs da imdenad daxelovdnen

am saqmeSi, rom SeZles hiqsosebis brZolaSi gamowveva. pirveli, vinc es

gabeda, Tebes mefe seyenenre (Zv. w. 1558-1554 w.w.) iyo. marTalia, igi am

brZolas Seewira, Tumca cxadi gaxda, rom brZola hiqsosebTan SesaZlebeli

iyo. misi memkvidris, Tebes meCvidmete dinastiis ukanaskneli

faraonis, kamoses (Zv. w. 1554-1549 w.w.) xelmZRvanelobiT, egviptelTa

flotma sakmaod daxvewili moqmedebisa da rTuli sanaosno manevrebis

saSualebiT gaimarjva hiqsosebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi navsadgur avaris-

Tan (daaxl. Zv. w. XVI saukunis Sua xanebi). momdevno faraonma, kamoses

Zmam, iahmes I-ma (Zv. w. 1550-1525 w.w.), romelmac daaarsa egviptis axali,

meTvramete samefo dinastia, Tavisi zeobis meTeqvsmete wels aiRo

hiqsosTa dedaqalaqi da hiqsosebi Zv. w. XVI saukunis Sua xanebidan

sabolood gaaZeva egviptidan. amis Semdgom, egvipteSi dgeba axali samefos

xana. hiqsosebis saxeli didxans SemorCa egviptis istorias. elinistur

xanamde, egviptur literaturaSi, maTi saxelwodeba termin

`azielis~ sinonimad gamoiyeneboda. maTi xvedri bevri ramiT waagavs Sua

saukuneebSi egvipteSi gabatonebul da ZiriTadad kavkasiuri warmomavlobis

mqone mamluqebis bed-iRbals.

rogorc iTqva, orcxenSebmuli etlebi egvipteSi meore Sualeduri

periodis damlevsa da axali samefos xanis (daaxl. Zv. w. 1550-1069 w.w.)

dasawyisSia gavrcelebuli, xolo yvelaze adreuli gamosaxuleba egvipturi

cxenebiani etlisa mocemulia Tutmos I-is (Zv. w. 1504-1492 w.w.)

xoWo-samkaulze (skarabi). misi SviliSvili, Tutmos III (Zv. w. 1479-1425

w.w.), romelmac arnaxulad gaafarTova egviptis farglebi siriapalestinis

xarjze, iuwyeba, rom megidosTan * miRweuli gamarjvebis

Sedegad (Zv. w. 1457 w. 16 aprils, saSualo qronologiiT), man xelT

igdo 924 cali siriuli etli.

siriuli etli sakmaod mZime da uxeSi samarTavi iyo. egviptelebma

mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobeses igi da sakuTar moTxovnilebebs miusadages.

egviptelebma sabrZolo etlis sakuTari versia meTvramete dinastiis (Zv.

20


w. 1550-1295 w.w.) sawyis xanaSi SeimuSaves. kerZod, etlis kedris xis

karkasi ifnis an aryis xis masaliT Caanacvles. mZime siriuli Tvlebi

Secvales TvlebiT, romelTac mxolod eqvsi Tvlis mana hqonda centralur

morgvTan misabmelad. Tu Tavdapirvelad etlis Zara totebisagan

mownuli iyo, ris gamoc siCqaris dros Zlierad injRreoda, ufro

gvian mas ukve gamZle tyavisgan amzadebdnen. baqani ukana mxares gadaxsnili

iyo, raTa etlSi SeRweva da misi mitoveba meetlisa da mSvildosnisaTvis

gaadvilebuli yofiliyo. etlis konstruqciaSi am cvlilebebis

Setanis Sedegad, igi bevrad ufro msubuqi da Sesabamisad swrafi

gaxda. msubuqi etli, hiqsosebis gamogonil Sedgenil mSvildTan erTad,

egviptis jars swrafi da Sori manZilidan Setevis SesaZleblobas

aZlevda. egviptur etls upiratesoba hqonda axlo aRmosavleTis yvela

sxva Tanadrouli xanis etlTan SedarebiT.

etlis ekipaJi ori kacisagan Sedgeboda, meetles xelSi Solti da

aRviri ekava, xolo mebrZols Sedgenili mSvildi, isrebis gamolevis

Semdeg xelSubs iyenebdnen. etlSi msxdomT iSviaTad ecvaT qerclovani

abjari, upiratesoba ZiriTadad tyavis salteebs eniWebodaT, romlebic

an mkerdze iyo gadajvaredinebuli, anda fars hqonda gadakruli. amrigad,

zeda tani metnaklebad daculi iyo, xolo qveda tans etlis korpusi

efareboda. etliT mebrZolTa mozidva ZiriTadad egviptis maRali wreebidan

xdeboda.

amave dros, ZiriTadi gaumjobeseba xdeba saerTod egviptur

SeiaraRebaSi. sainteresoa, rom jer kidev Zv. w. 1274 wels kadeSTan

momxdari generalur brZolamde erTi wliT adre, ramses II (Zv. w. 1279-

1213 w.w.) nabrZanebi hqonda sabrZolo iaraRis didi raodenobiT

damzadeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom mTeli rigi inovaciebi (siaxle) sabrZolo

aRWurvilobaSi, xeTebisa da egviptelebis urTierTbrZolis xaniT

TariRdeba. garda zemoxsenebuli orkaciani egvipturi msubuqi etlisa,

romelic bevrad ufro mobiluri da Sesabamisad efeqturi iyo, mZime,

samkacian xeTur etlTan SedarebiT, egviptelebi iyenebdnen e. w. gamWvalav

sabrZolo culs _ qveiTi jaris mier gamoyenebuli qvisTaviani

kverTxis monacvles, romelsac SeeZlo xeTebis liTonis muzaradis gapoba.

egviptur jarSi gamoiyeneboda agreTve xofeSi, namglis moyvanilobis

maxvili, romelic faqtobrivad sabrZolo culs warmoadgenda da

namglisagan gansxvavebiT garepiri hqonda galesili. egviptelebma axali

samefos xanaSi igi Tavis erT-erT popularul iaraRad aqcies. garda

sabrZolo daniSnulebisa, igi saceremonio ritualebis drosac gamoiyeneboda.

amaze miuTiTebs am iaraRis zogierTi napovni calis blagvi piri,

aseve samefo akldamebSi maTi aRmoCenis faqti. kerZod, tutanxamonis akldamaSi

ori xofeSi iyo napovni. egvipturi taZrebis kedlebze es

iaraRi gamosaxulia xolme RvTaebaTa xelSi, romlebic mas gadascemen

21


faraonebs brZolaSi gamarjvebis miRwevis sawindrad. sainteresoa, rom es

iaraRi Sumeruli warmomavlobisa iyo da Tavis droze gamoiyeneboda winaazielebis

mier TviT egviptelebTan sabrZolvelad.

winaaziuri warmomavlobis iyo foCiani muzaradi da javSnis moklesaxeloebiani

perangi, romelic Sedgeboda tyavis qurTukisa da masze

Camokiduli liTonis firfitebisagan. mecxramete dinastiis jariskacebi

atarebdnen tyavis an tilos tunikebs, romlebic dafaruli iyo qerclovani

liTonis abjriT. sazogadod, am xanisaTvis liTondamuSaveba

maRal doneze iyo asuli. faraonebis qerclovan abjarSi xSirad inkrustirebuli

iyo naxevrad Zvirfasi qvebi, romlebic kidev ufro

zrdidnen abjris efeqturobas, vinaidan es qvebi ufro myari iyo, vidre

isris wvetisaTvis gamoyenebuli liToni.

egviptelebma hiqsosuri Sedgenili mSvildis garda, SeiTvises

xeTuri ormagi mSvildic. amave dros, rkinisagan damzadebulma iaraRebma,

romelTac xeTebi ukve iyenebdnen, ver hpova gavrceleba egvipteSi.

tutanxamonis akldamaSi mikvleuli rkinis satevari, rogorc Cans,

mxolod saceremonio daniSnulebisa iyo.

hiqsosebis gandevnis Semdeg, egviptelebma usafrTxoebis zona

Camoayalibes, romelic droTa msvlelobaSi egviptis imperiis Semadgeneli

nawili gaxda da egviptec wina aziis umTavres saxelmwifoeb-

Tan uSualo da arcTu yovelTvis mSvidobian kontaqtSi Sevida. Tutmos

I-ma mesopotamiaSi ilaSqra, raTa sabolood amoeZirkva md. evfratTan

mcxovrebi hiqsosebis saxsenebeli. sainteresoa, rom Tavis warweraSi

faraoni evfrats araswor mdinares uwodebs, anu mdinares, romelic ara

marTebuli mimarTulebiT miedineba. fiqroben, rom am SemTxvevaSi Tutmos

I-s mxedvelobaSi unda hqonoda nilosis dineba samxreTidan CrdiloeTisken

maSin, rodesac evfrati sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT miedineba. egviptelebisaTvis

xom yvelaferi, rac egviptur sinamdviles Sordeboda

miuRebeli da dasagmobi iyo.

axali samefos xanaSi (Zv. w. daaxl. 1550-1069 w.w.) axali safrTxeebi

gamoCnda _ xeTebi, zRvis xalxebi * da sxva. hiqsosebis mier egviptelTa

samxedro saqmeSi Setanili wvlili, rogorc ukve iTqva, sasargeblo

gamodga ucxoelTa Tavdasxmisagan qveynis warmatebuli dacvisaTvis.

axali samefos xanaSi egviptis samxedro Zalebi ukve sami ganStoebisagan

Sedgeboda: qveiTi jaris, cxeniani etlebis nawilebisa da

flotisagan. axali samefos xanis armiaSi didi raodenobiT iyo moqirave

jariskacebi. qveiTi jari axali samefos xanaSi TiTqmis mTlianad qiriT

iyo Sekrebili, rogorc ucxoeli moqiraveebi, aseve adgilobrivebic.

rogorc wesi, maT imave erovnebis sardali edgaT xolme saTaveSi.

ucxoelTagan nubielebis garda, jer kidev Sua samefos xanidan,

qiraobdnen `marianus~ * nawilebs, romlebic mTel wina aziaze modebul,

22


etlze amxedrebul warCinebul meomrebs warmoadgendnen. gansakuTrebiT

mravlad iyvnen XIX-XX dinastiebis, axali samefos ramesidul periodSi

* (daaxl. Zv. w. 1295-1069 w.w.) Serdenidan, libiidan, siriidan

daqiravebuli nawilebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom ramses II-s damarcxebuli hyavda

Serdenis xalxi, romelic zogierTi mecnieris azriT, sardiniidan iyvnen

wamosulni da sazareli mekobreebis saxeli hqondaT moxveWili. Serdenelebs,

sxvaTagan gansxvavebuli, swori maxvili da rqebiT Semkuli

muzaradebi hqondaT. ramses II-m isini Tavisi armiisaTvis daiqirava da

Serdenelebmac mniSvnelovani roli Seasrules kadeSis brZolaSi, rodesac,

sxvebTan erTad, Semoabrunes ramsesisaTvis tragikulad mimdinare

brZolis msvleloba da egviptelebi gamanadgurebel marcxs gadaarCines.

wina aziaSi posthiqsosuri xanis egviptel faraonTa batonobis

erTpirovnebas zRvari TviT egviptis faraonma, amenhotep IV-m (Zv. w.

1352-1334 w.w.), igive exnatonma, daudo. man egviptis uzenaesi RvTaeba

ameni (`uxilavad~ wodebuli) Secvala ateniT (`mzis disko~) da aiZula

egviptis qurumoba es cvlileba maTi nebis winaaRmdeg eRiarebina. mTeli

misi Zalisxmeva am religiuri reformis (e. w. amarnis revoluciis) gatarebaze

iyo mimarTuli. aziaSi Seqmnili Zalauflebis vakuumiT isargebles

xeTebma da sakvanZo poziciebi igdes xelT. mxolod exnatonis

Zalauflebidan CamoSorebis Semdeg, axalma faraonma tutanxatenma, romelmac

qurumTa mier amunis kultis aRdgenis Semdeg tutanxamonis saxeli

miiRo (Zv. w. 1333-1324 w.w.), daiwyo qveynis aRorZineba.

mkvlevarTa azriT, Zv. w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevris axloaRmosavluri

samyaro ukve sakmaod erTian, integrirebul regions warmoadgenda.

aq arsebuli mZlavri saxelmwifoebis warmomadgenlebidan,

verc egviptelebi, verc xeTebi, verc miTanelebi * da verc mesopotamielebi,

ver SeZlebdnen sakuTari siZlieris SenarCunebas sxvaTa

kuTvnili resursebis gamoyenebis gareSe. verc erTi mZlavri qveyana ver

gaxdeboda ramdenadme mniSvnelovani levantSi (aRmosavleT xmel-

TaSuazRvispireTi, siria-palestina) gamavali savaWro gzebis gakontrolebis

gareSe. aqedan gamomdinare, advili gasagebia didi saxelmwifoebis

mudmivi Widili am mxaris xelSi Casagdebad. am mxareSi, Zv. w. II

aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi, megidosa da kadeSis brZolebSi axlo aRmosavleTis

sxvadasxva regionebidan SemoWrili 20000 kaciani armiebi

gadiodnen asobiT kilometrs logistikuri * mxardaWeris sistemiTurT,

romelic jars kudSi mihyveboda. gansakuTrebulad reliefurad gamovlinda

es daintereseba kadeSis brZolasTan dakavSirebiT. es brZola ara

mxolod egviptisa da xeTebis samefos samxedro istoriis TvalsazrisiT

aris saintereso, masSi faqtobrivad mTeli axlo aRmosavleTi aRmoCnda

CaTreuli da Sesabamisad misi SeswavliT, Semajamebeli warmodgena iqmneba

imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras miaRwia Zv. w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevrisaTvis,

23


civilizaciis istoriisaTvis am umniSvnelovanesma mxarem samxedro saqmis

ganviTarebis mxriv (ix. qvemoT).

yvelaze adreuli samSvidobo xelSekruleba, romlis teqstmac Cvenamde

sruli saxiT moaRwia daido kadeSis brZolis Semdgom xanaSi, Zv.

w. 1258 w., egviptis faraon ramses II-sa da xeTebis mefe xaTusili III-is

Soris. masSi CamoTvlilia pirobebi, romelTa Sesrulebis Sedegad Sewydeboda

am or qveyanas Soris mimdinare xangrZlivi, sisxlismRvreli omi,

romelmac orive qveyana mniSvnelovnad daazarala da gamofita. mefeebi

SeTanxmdnen, rom erTmaneTTan aRarasodes aRar eomaT, erTmaneTis datyvevebuli

jariskacebi gaecvalaT da erTmaneTs daxmarebodnen, Tuki vinme

sxva, gareSe Zala, romelime maTgans Tavs daesxmeboda (ix. qvemoT).

miuxedavad imisa, rom arcTu iSviaTia, ZvelaRmosavlur istoriul

wyaroebSi da xelovnebis nimuSebSi alyis amsaxveli cnobebi Tu gamosaxulebi,

arqeologiuri Seswavlis Sedegad dRevandlamde, am mxriv, Zalze

cota ram Tu aris mikvleuli.

Zalze iSviaTi iyo didi armiebis Ria brZolaSi erTmaneTTan

dapirispireba. gamonaklisi iyo kadeSis brZola da isic Ria Setakebis

Semdeg dazavebiT damTavrda (ix. qvemoT). ufro adgili hqonda xolme

naklebi winaaRmdegobis unaris mqone qalaqebisa da saxelmwifoebis

sruli damorCilebisken swrafvas. amis TvalsaCino magaliTia egviptelTa

mier, alyis Sedegad, qalaq dafuris * aReba, gamosaxuli XIX dinastiis

udidesi mefis, ramses II-is memorialuri taZris kedelze, TebeSi. naxatis

mixedviT, dafuri borcvze mdebare, Zlierad gamagrebuli qalaqia

gare da Sida galavnebiT, msgavsad sxva Tanadrouli siriuli qalaqebisa.

moalye egviptelebi misadgami kibiT cdiloben galavnis gadalaxvas,

xolo mSvildosnebi maT azRveven. faraonsa da sxva egviptelebs orcxeniani

orTvala etlebi aqvT brZolaSi gamoyenebuli (il. 4).

alyis Semortymis dros, yvelaze ufro gavrcelebuli xerxi iyo

alyaSi moqceulTa gare samyarosagan izolacia da danebebisken iZuleba.

adgilobrivi mosaxleobis nebis gasatexad, garda kedlebis taranebiT

mtvrevis, galavanze midgmuli kibeebisa da cecxlis wakidebisa, gamoyenebuli

iyo alyaSi moqceulTa SimSiliT gamofitvis xerxic. vinaidan

alya zogjer sakmaod xangrZlivad grZeldeboda, mcire ZalebiT misi wamowyeba

logistikuri xasiaTis garemoebebis gamo, SeuZlebeli xdeboda.

faraon Tutmos III-is analebi, Semonaxuli karnakis (zemo egvipte) taZris

kedlebze, gvamcnoben, rom megidos alya Svidi Tvis ganmavlobaSi

grZeldeboda, vidre bolos da bolos misi mcxovreblebi egviptelebs ar

danebdnen. analebSi megidos aReba dawvrilebiT aris aRwerili.

saalyo aRWurvilobaSi kedlis gatarnvisaTvis gamoyenebuli taranebi

ukve brinjaos xanaSi iyo cnobili, Tumca maTi gamosaxulebebi Cvenamde

ar aris moRweuli. yvelaze adre isini axalasuruli xanis

24


nipuris * sasaxlis bareliefebze gvxvdeba da Zv. w. IX saukuniT

TariRdeba (il. 6).

alyis mowyobamde, bunebrivia, mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi Catardeboda.

es kargad Cans Zvel aRTqmaSi, ieriqonis mZlavrgalavniani qalaqis

saswaulebrivi aRebis Sesaxeb monaTxrobSi. aq yuradRebas ipyrobs isu

navesis mier ieriqonSi, winaswar farulad, mstovarTa gagzavnis ambavi,

romelTac qalaqSi, Tu mis gareT arsebuli viTarebis dazverva evalebodaT

(isu navesis wigni, 2:1-3,24).

bevri cnobaa Semonaxuli ama Tu im qalaqis aReba-darbevis Sesaxeb,

Tumca arcTu xSirad mogvepoveba konkretuli informacia imis Sesaxeb,

Tu rogor xdeboda xolme es. miuxedavad amisa, zogierT SemTxvevaSi Semonaxulia

naxevrad legendaruli ambebi, gmirTa moxerxebulobisa da

cbierebis Sedegad qalaqebis aRebis Sesaxeb. brZolebis dros mravalgvari

fandebi gamoiyeneboda xolme. amiT gansakuTrebiT saxelganTqmuli iyo

egviptis faraoni Tutmos III. mis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli troas

cxenis istoriis msgavsi SemTxveva, romelic dakavSirebulia egviptelTa

mier qalaq iofas aRebasTan. alyisas man saukeTeso egvipteli meomrebi

gadamala mTavari karibWiT qalaqSi Setanil marcvleuliT savse tomrebSi.

Tutmosma TvalTmaqcoba gamoiCina megidoze Tavdasxmis drosac.

megidosaken ori gza midioda, erTi farTo da swori, meore – viwro da

oRro-CoRro, romliTac jaris gadayvana Zneli warmosadgeni iyo, Tutmos

III-m swored es meore gza airCia da ZiriTad gzasTan Casafrebul

mowinaaRmdeges Tavs moulodnelad waadga da `kudiT qva asrolina~.

egvipteSi Tu axali samefos xanamde ar arsebobda mudmivi jari da

TiToeuli nomis mmarTveli agrovebda faraonisaTvis xalxs mosaxleobaSi,

axali samefos periodSi jars hqonda ara damxmare roli saxelmwifos

funqcionirebaSi, aramed warmoadgenda uaRresad arsebiT struqturas.

XVIII dinastiis meomari faraoni Tutmos III iyo pirveli, vinc

daaarsa egvipteSi pirveli mudmivi profesiuli armia. axalwveulebisagan

Sedgenili laSqari Seicvala profesionali jariskacebis mtkice da mudmiv

organizaciad. ucxo qveynebis damorCileba moiTxovda iq mudmivi

samxedro Zalis sagarnizono samsaxurSi Cayenebas. garda amisa, interesTa

Sejaxebebi iseT mZlavr winaaziur saxelmwifoebTan, rogoric xeTebis,

miTanis, asurelTa da babilonelTa samefoebi iyo, moiTxovda egviptelTa

xSir laSqrobebs Sors, sakuTari qveynis farglebs gareT.

adreuli xanebisgan gansxvavebiT, swored axali samefos xanaSi

gaxda armia rigiTi egviptelebisaTvis mdgomareobisa da statusis gaumjobesebis

saSualeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom meTaurTa Semadgenlobis

yvela doneze Camoyalibebuli iyo mkafiod gansazRvruli ierarqia, nebismier

ganaTlebul egviptels eZleoda Sansi mieRo maRali Tanamdeboba.

maRali wodebis samxedroebs hqondaT SesaZlebloba gamxdariyvnen didebulebi,

es miT ufro xelsayreli iyo, rom didebulTa wina Taoba ar

25


iyo maincadamainc daxelovnebulni samxedro saqmeSi. maRali wodebis

samxedroebi unda yofiliyvnen ara mxolod unariani sardlebi da

strategebi, aramed saTanadod ganaTlebulnic. yvelaze prestiJuli da

dafasebuli wodeba mejinibeTuxucesoba iyo da es arc unda iyos moulodneli

posthiqsosuri xanis egvipteSi. imisaTvis, raTa SeenarCunebina

warCinebul samxedroTa Tayvaniscema, faraoni guluxvad ajildovebda

maT sapatio titulebiT, mamulebiT, monebiTa da oqroTi. araferi iyo

dasaSuri im xalxisaTvis, vinc egviptis sidiades xels uwyobda.

yovelive amis Sedegad, egvipteSi TandaTanobiT Camoyalibda didi gavlenis

mqone samxedro elita.

rogorc vxedavT, omi mudmivi da mniSvnelovani faqtori iyo egviptis

sazogadoebriv cxvrebasa da politikaSi. Zveli samefos xanaSi mas

araregularuli xasiaTi hqonda, mezoblebTan SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebi

erTob iSviaTi iyo. Sua samefos xanaSi, samxedro saqme mniSvnelovnad

winaurdeba, erTmaneTTan gadajaWvuli cixe-simagreebis saSualebiT

dainerga Tavdacvis daxvewili sistema. gvian brinjaos xanaSi egvipte

Tavs aRwevs izolacias da gare kontaqtebis zrda xels uwyobs samxedroTa

klasis aRmocenebas, ukve savsebiT Camoyalibebuli saxiT. axali

samefos gviandel xanaSi ucxoelTa Semosevis safrTxis zrdam da ganaTlebuli

`saSualo klasis~ TandaTanobiTma gafarToebam daamsxvria

RvTaeba-mefis idea da Searyia egvipturi sazogadoebis ierarqiuli

struqtura.

anatolia. Tu qvis xanis ganmavlobaSi anatolia msoflios erT-erT uZveles

sakvebwarmoebiT centrs warmoadgenda, liTonis xanaSi mas ukve

gamorCeuli adgili ekava adreuli metalurgiis, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli,

mdidruli da uaRresad daxvewili tradiciebis arsebobis gamo.

amis damadasturebelia, Tundac qveynis centralur nawilSi, alaja

hoiuqisa da boRazqois (igive xeTebis dedaqalaqi xaTusasa) da CrdilodasavleT

anatoliaSi, hisarliqis (igive homerosis `iliadaSi~ * aRwerili

troa) arqeologiuri gaTxrebis monapovari.

eneoliTis (qalkoliTis * ) xana anatoliaSi moicavda Zv. w. VI-IV

aTaswleulebs. am dros kidev ufro dawinaurda miwaTmoqmedeba da mesaqonleoba.

am epoqis Senobebi, ZiriTadad, alizis aguriT aris nagebi;

WurWleuli Tixis, qvisa da xisaa; xSiria dawnuli kalaTebi; iaraRi ka-

Jidan, obsidianidan, Zvlidan da rqidan mzaddeboda. liTonwarmoebis dawinaurebasTan

erTad ganviTarda anatoliis savaWro urTierToba, rogorc

siria-mesopotamiasTan, aseve balkaneTis naxevarkunZulTan da mis dasavleTiT

mdebare xmelTaSuazRvispireTul samyarosTan. qalkoliTuri xanis

anatoliis umTavresi arqeologiuri Zeglebia hajilaris, jan hasanis,

beijesulTnis, aliSarisa da alaja hoiuqis namosaxlarebi da samarovnebi.

26


injaos xana (Zv. w. IV aTaswleulis damlevidan Zv. w. XII s.

dasawyisamde) xasiaTdeba spilenZisa da kalis (an dariSxanis) Senadnobis

anu brinjaos warmoebiT, romlisganac ZiriTadad mzaddeboda, rogorc

sabrZolo da sameurneo daniSnulebis iaraRebi, WurWleuli, aseve samkaulebi

da statuetebi. fufunebis sagnebis dasamzadeblad gamoiyeneboda

agreTve oqro-vercxli da maTi Senadnobisagan miRebul eleqtrumTan *

erTad. gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinod am xanis anatoliis liTondamuSavebis

maRali done gamovlinda alaja hoiuqisa (centraluri anatolia) da

troas (Crdilo-dasavleT anatolia) gaTxrebis Sedegad. samarxebidan

gansakuTrebiT didi raodenobiT liTonis sagnebia miRebuli. mamakacebi

imarxebodnen saWurvelTan erTad; qalebi samkaulebTan, satualeto da

sayofacxovrebo daniSnulebis nivTebTan erTad. mravali sagani Zvirfasi

liTonebidan iyo damzadebuli. anatoliuri metalurgiis maRali done

liTonis nedleuliT qveynis simdidriT iyo ganpirobebuli. aq TiTqmis

yvela saWiro liToni moipoveboda kalis garda, romlis importireba

xdeboda.

winaxeTuri xanis anatoliuri civilizaciis ganviTarebis maRal

doneze migvaniSnebs alaja hoiuqis akldamebis uaRresad STambeWdavi inventari.

mis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda daxvewili da sanimuSod nakeTi

iaraRi, samkauli, mcire plastika, vercxlis, oqros, eleqtrumis, brinjaos

da TviT rkinis iaraR-xelsawyoebi da WurWleuli. gansakuTrebiT

sayuradReboa, rkinidan damzadebuli satevari, rac sruliad unikaluri

movlenaa Zv. w. III aTaswleulis meore naxevrisaTvis da aTas welze meti

xniT uswrebs rkinis gamoCenas msoflios sxva mxareebSi.

swored anatoliis gansakuTrebulma simdidrem liTonis wiaRiseuliT

da sazogadod anatoliis uxvma bunebrivma resursebma miizides

asureli sovdagrebi, romlebic, upirveles yovlisa, liTonis gataniT

iyvnen dainteresebuli. mesopotamiaSi gansakuTrebiT didi moTxovnileba

iyo anatoliis liTonis madansa da nakeTobebze. asurelTa savaWro koloniebi

SuamdinareTidan centralur anatoliamde gadaiWima.

Sua brinjaos xanis anatoliaSi asurelebma daafuZnes am qveyanasTan

vaWrobis Taviseburi sistema. kerZod, maT SedarebiT didi qalaqebis siaxloves

Tu maT gareubnebSi daaarses qarumebi anu bazrebi. sul daarsebuli

iyo 20 aseTi qarumi, romlebic imarTeboda sabaziso qanesis qarumidan

(qiulTefe). asurelebi, rogorc wesi, ixdidnen qirasa da gadasaxadebs

adgilobrivi mmarTvelebis sasargeblod da amiT uzrunvelyofdnen

Tavis usafrTxoebas. savaWrod qaravnebi gamoiyeneboda, romelTac

anatoliaSi kala, saparfiumerio sagnebi da samkaulebi SemohqondaT,

xolo gahqondaT vercxlisa da oqros nakeTobebi.

asurelma sovdagrebma sakmao raodenobis werilobiTi dokumentebi

dagvitoves Tavisi savaWro aqtiurobis Sesaxeb. anatoliur qalaqebSi:

nesa-kanesSi (qiulTefe Tanamed. qaiserTan), xaTusasa (boRazqoi) da anqu-

27


vaSi (aliSari) napovni aTasobiT Tixis firfita gvamcnobs Zvelasuruli

savaWro koloniis udides aqtiurobaze. maT mesopotamiidan SemohqondaT

iqauri saqoneli, xolo anatoliidan gahqondaT liTonebi da sxva bunebrivi

wiaRiseuli. rogorc cnobilia, mesopotamia Raribia wiaRiseuliT.

dasavleT anatolia naklebad iyo CarTuli asurelTa komerciul interesebSi,

iq ufro kretidan da balkaneTis naxevarkunZulidan momdinare

impulsebi iyo sagrZnobi.

Zv. w. III-II aTaswleulebis mijnis xanidan anatoliis centralur

nawilSi manamde arnaxuli siuxve da kulturuli dawinaureba SeiniSneba.

kidev ufro intensiuri xdeba qveynis savaWro kontaqtebi.

asuruli savaWro dokumentebis garda, sxva adreuli werilobiTi

cnobebic, anatoliis Sesaxeb isev am mxaris bunebriv simdidreebTan da

maT komerciul gamoyenebasTan aris dakavSirebuli, rac Tavis mxriv saomar

moqmedebebTan iyo xolme gadaxlarTuli. Tixis firfitis fragmentze

SemorCenili, xeTuri epikuri Txzulebis `brZolebis mefis~

Tanaxmad, sargon dids, aqadis mefes eaxlnen anatoliaSi myofi vaWrebi

da moaxsenes maTi qalaqis _ furuSxandas * saarako simdidris Sesaxeb da

mis winaaRmdeg gasalaSqreblad daiTanxmes kidevac. qalaqi furuSxanda

mniSvnelovan da damoukidebel politikur erTeulad warmogvidgeba.

teqsti iq wydeba, sadac sargoni iwyebs qalaqis asaRebad misi galavnis

gatarvnas. savaraudod, teqstis dasawyisSi nauwyebi iqneboda, rom sargonma

Tavdapirvelad ver moaxerxa Zalis gamoyenebiT qalaqis aReba. imis

Tqma, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba sinamdviles eposSi asaxuli ambavi arsebuli

monacemebis safuZvelze Zneli saTqmelia, Tumca specialistebis

azriT, aq wamodgenili saerTo istoriuli perspeqtiva misaRebia. amave

dros, teqstis SemorCenil fragmentSi yuradRebas ipyrobis xeTebis Semdegdroindeli

dedaqalaqis, xaTusas, mouxseniebloba. sargonis SviliSvilis,D

naramsuenis (Zv. w. XXII s.), Sesaxeb legenda ki mogviTxrobs,

rom mas ekuTvnoda furuSxanda, romelic ucnobma da mravalricxovanma

xalxma daarbia.

anatoliis simdidre bunebrivi wiaRiseuliT, gansakuTrebiT liToniT,

maT xelSi Casagdebad, cxadia, imTaviTve araerT dampyrobels miizidavda.

sxva saqonelTan SedarebiT, liToni yvelaze ufro metad wamaqezebeli

iyo savaWro urTierTobebis aRmocenebisaTvis. igi sakmaod kompaqturia

da advilad gadasazidi. rogorc cnobilia, spilenZis sabadoebiT

simdidrem kunZul kvipross, Zv. w. IV aTaswleulis dasasruli

xanidan, didi simdidre moutana.

Zveli aRmosavleTis mraval mxareSi dasturdeba saxelmwifo monopoliis

arseboba liTonze, gansakuTrebiT spilenZze, rac savsebiT

gasagebia; rkinis farTo gamoyenebamde sabrZolo iaraRi xom spilenZisagan

mzaddeboda. asurTa mefis, iluSumas (Zv. w. XX s.) cnobiT, spilenZis

madnis damuSavebasa da vaWrobaze saxelmwifo monopolia arsebobda,

28


xolo misi Zis _ eriSum I-is warwera amis sawinaaRmdegod iuwyeba, rom

man daadgina vercxlis, oqros, spilenZis, tyviis, xorblisa da matylis

Tavisufali mimoqceva, rac, albaT, pirveli SemTxvevaa msoflio istoriaSi,

rodesac xelisufleba saxelmwifo interesebidan gamomdinare

Tavisufali vaWrobis komerciul upiratesobas xvdeba da mis xelSewyobas

cdilobs.

anatoliis asuruli koloniebi Zv. w. II aTaswleulis dasawyisSi,

erTdroulad wyveten arsebobas. etyoba, am dros adgili unda hqonoda

movlenebs, romelTa gamo saqaravno urTierToba asureTsa da anatolias

Soris aramomgebiani, anda saxifaTo Seiqmna.

Zv. w. III aTaswleulis meore naxevris anatoliaSi Cndebian axalmosaxleebi:

indoevropeli, xeTi tomebi. maTi Tanacxovreba da Serwyma

maT mier daqvemdebarebul adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan, xaTebTan, ZiriTadad

mSvidobianad mimdinareobda. maT winamorbedi mosaxleobisagan SeiTvises

ufro maRali kultura, religiuri warmodgenebi da RvTaebaTa

panTeoni * . aRsaniSnavia, rom xeTebi Zvel aRTqmaSic ki arian moxseniebulni,

rogorc qetelni, Zeni qetisni.

TviT saxelwodeba `xeTi~ warmodgeba adgilis saxelwodebisagan

`xaTi~, romelsac iyenebda winaxeTuri anu winaindoevropuli xaTuri

mosaxleoba Tavisi qveynis aRsaniSnavad da romelic indoevropel-xeTebs,

qveynis aRsaniSnavad, maTgan unda SeeTvisebinaT. amave dros indoevropeli-xeTebi

sakuTar Tavs neselebs uwodebdnen, qalaq nesas (igive kanesis)

saxelwodebis mixedviT, sadac isini ufro adre saxlobdnen, vidre

xaTusaSi da rac dasturdeba kidec qiulTefes (igive nesa, kanesi)

arqeologiuri gaTxrebis dros napovni Tixis firfitebiT, sadac, sxvaTa

gverdiT, indoevropuli-xeTuri saxelebis matarebeli mosaxleobaa warmodgenili.

xeTebis istoria or xanad iyofa: Zveli samefos xanad (daaxl. Zv.

w. 1700-1500 w.w.) da axali samefos anu imperiuli epoqis xanad (daaxl.

Zv. w. 1400-1180 w.w.). zogierTi specialistis mier, Sua samefos xanad

daaxl. Zv. w. XV saukune aris miCneuli. xeTebis saxelmwifom politikuri

Zalauflebisa da kulturul monapovarTa umaRles dones Zv. w.

XIV-XIII saukuneebSi miaRwia. Zv. w. II aTaswleulis Sua xanebidan anatolia

ukve viTardeboda, rogorc msoflioSi rkinis warmoebis uZvelesi

kera.

rac Seexeba anatoliis uZvelesi istoriis aRsadgenad sakuTriv

xeTuri werilobiTi wyaroebis monacemebis gaTvaliswinebas, unda iTqvas,

rom mxolod ramdenime Tixis firfita Tu TariRdeba boRazqiois xeTuri

arqividan Zv. w. XVII saukuneze ufro adreuli xaniT. Tumca, Zv. w. XIV-

XIII saukunebSi gakeTebulma metnaklebad sando aslebma Semogvinaxes

adreuli xanis zogierTi istoriuli xasiaTis teqsti. erT-erTi maTgani

Seexeba qusaras (adgilmdebareoba ar aris dadgenili), Zv. w. XVIII sau-

29


kunis mefes fiTxanasa da mis Zesa da memkvidres aniTas. maT mier dapyrobil

qalaqebs Soris moxseniebulia nesac, romelic mogvianebiT aniTam

Tavis dedaqalaqad aqcia.

am cnobis sandooba daadastura qiulTefes (nesas) gaTxrebisas napovnma

satevarma, romelzedac aniTas saxeli iyo amotvifruli. rogorc

irkveva, xeTebma, aniTas meTaurobiT, Zv. w. XVIII saukunis Sua xanebisaTvis

centralur anatoliaSi samefo Seqmnes. erTi saukunis Semdeg, xaTusili

I-ma dedaqalaqi xaTusaSi, galavnebiT kargad gamagrebul cixesimagreSi,

gadaitana, romelic xeTebis ZiriTad administraciul centrad

rCeboda xeTebis samefos arsebobis TiTqmis mTeli Semdgomi drois man-

Zilze.

xaTusili I-is laSqrobaTa ZiriTadi samizne Crdilo-dasavleTi

siria da mdinare evfrats gadaRma mdebare mesopotamiuri miwebi iyo. am

mxaris dauflebas xeTebi yovelTvis eswrafodnen, vinaidan igi

mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebda qveynis ekonomikur siZlieres. xaTusili

I-is Zem, mursili I-ma (Zv. w. XVI s.), warmatebiT ilaSqra xalafze

(igive q. alepo, Tanamedrove halabi siriaSi) da TviT babilonic ki

gaZarcva.

xeTur sazogadoebaSi mefe miCneuli iyo uzenaes xelisuflad,

umaRles mxedarTmTavrad da msajulad, umTavres qurumad. mas gars

ertya didebulebisa da tituliani moxeleebis farTo wre, romlebic,

gansakuTrebiT adreul saukuneebSi, flobdnen did Zalauflebas da mefis

sisxlismieri naTesavebi iyvnen. umTavresi provinciebisa da qalaqebis

mmarTveloba, mefis mier, misi sakuTari ojaxis wevrebs eZleodaT,

romlebic masTan erTgulebis ficiT iyvnen dakavSirebuli. ufro

gviandel epoqaSi, igive principi daculi iyo xeTebis imperiasTan

SemoerTebuli adgilobrivi vasalebis mimarTac, romelTac samefo ojaxi

xSirad inaTesavebda saqorwino kavSirebiT. erTgulebis fici yovel

calkeul SemTxvevaSi piradi saqme iyo xolme, amitom axali mefis

taxtze asvlis Semdeg savaldebulo xdeboda am vasalebis mier

ymadnaficobis ficis ganaxleba axal xelisufalTan. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom

es feodaluri kanoni mTlianobaSi xeTuri sazogadoebis safuZvelTa

safuZvels warmoadgenda.

xeTur jarSi miRebuli iyo mefisa da samefo ojaxis mimarT ficis

dadeba, agreTve sxvadasxva ritualis aRsruleba, gansakuTrebiT mterTan

damarcxebis Semdeg. es ukanaskneli mdinaris piras sruldeboda da wylis

SesxurebiT mTavrdeboda. albaT, arc erTi Zveli aRmosavluri

sazogadoeba ar iyo ise damyarebuli ficis dadebis wesze, rogorc

xeTuri. es SesaZloa xeTebis indoevropuli warmomavlobiTac yofiliyo

ganpirobebuli. ficis imdagvarad dadeba, romlis drosac ficis damdebi

misi gatexvis SemTxvevaSi sakuTari Tavis dawyevlaze Tanxmdeboda da

30


warmoTqvamda formulas: `de, ase iyos!~, tipuri iyo agreTve sxva

adreindoevropuli enebis matarebeli xalxebisaTvisac.

xeTurma Tixis firfitebma Semogvinaxa uZvelesi ficis nimuSebi.

kerZod, samxedro meTaurTa fici Zvel xeTur enaze. masSi aRwerilia, Tu

rogor daiwyevleboda ficis gamtexi. erTgulebis ficis damdebis winaSe

mihqondaT qalis kaba, TiTistari, gadatexili isari da eubnebodnen, rom

Tu fics gatexavda, ase gadautydeboda brZolis dros iaraRi, qalad

gadaiqceoda da qalis saqme unda ekeTebina. Semdeg SemohyavdaT brma da

yru qalebi, imis saCveneblad, rom brma da yru qalad gadaiqceoda

sityvis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi. bolos mucelSi wyalCamdgari

adamianis gamosaxuleba mohqondaT da aRuTqvamden aseTive daavadebas,

romelic mis STamomavlobas missave sxeulSi musrs gaavlebda.

analogiuri daniSnulebis `samxedro ficis~ sxva, ufro mogviano

xanis, teqsti arasruli saxiT aris SemorCenili. aq saubari ukve ufro

imazea, Tu ra didi bedniereba eloda ficis Semsrulebels, xolo

sityvis gamtexi amowyvetiT daisjeboda. es teqsti, masSi warmodgenili

rigi detalebis mixedviT, cxadyofs, rom xurituli RvTaebebis

zegavlena sul ufro izrdeboda xeTur sazogadoebaSi.

gansakuTrebiT warmatebuli aRmoCnda xeTebisaTvis, TuTxalia IIIisa

(Zv. w. XIV s.) da misi Zis _ sufiluliuma I-is xana. sufiluliuma

qveynisaTvis sakmaod mZime dros gamefda. Sina aSlilobis Sedegad, misi

dedaqalaqi gadabuguli iyo, xolo mas mezobeli qveynebis koaliciis

mogerieba uxdeboda. CrdiloeTidan mozRvavebul mterTan igi daaxloebiT

20 wlis ganmavlobaSi awarmoebda brZolas, Tumca misi ZiriTadi

sazrunavi mainc samxreTi iyo. aucilebeli iyo siriis kontrolis qveS

moqceva. sufiluliumam, Tavdapirvelad, did diplomatiur warmatebas

miaRwia. man daarwmuna kicuvaTnas mefe, raTa misTvis siriaze gasasvleli

mieca da xeTebisadmi mxardaWera gamoecxadebina. garda amisa, man

naTesauri kavSiri daamyara babiloneTSi gabatonebul, didi samxedro

Zalis mqone kasitebis mefesTan. sufiluliumma aRadgina xeTebis

batonoba TiTqmis mTel anatoliaze da ganavrco qveynis sazRvrebi

samxreTiTa da aRmosavleTiT. misi umTavresi monapovari iyo miTanis

damarcxeba da dapyrobebi siriaSi, Zlevamosili qalaqi-saxelmwifoebis,

karqemiSisa da xalebis, xelSi Cagdeba. miTanis gadarCenil nawilebSi

Seiqmna xeTebis ymadnafici xanigalbaTis samefo.

sufiluliumas Zem, mursili II-m (Zv. w. XIV s.), daamarcxa

dasavleT anatoliaSi mdebare da xeTebis winaaRmdeg egviptelTa mier

Segulianebuli arcavas Zlieri qveyana da misi mmarTveli Tavis

ymadnaficad aqcia. Zv. w. XIV-XIII saukuneebSi xeTebis saxelmwifo

Zlevamosil imperiad Camoyalibda. am dros xeTebis samefom Tavisi

siZlieris mwvervals miaRwia, magram TviT maSinac ki, igi ar

warmoadgenda erTian politikur erTeuls.

31


xeTebis warmatebis erT-erT mizezad, maT mier rkinis warmoebaze

monopolia saxeldeba. metalurgiis ganviTarebaSi rkinis warmoebis

dawyeba Zalze mniSvnelovani etapi iyo. rkina erT-erTi yvelaze ufro

farTod gavrcelebuli liTonia dedamiwis zurgze, magram, amave dros,

Zalze Znelad dasamuSavebeli. rkinis dnobis wertili bevrad ufro

maRalia imasTan SedarebiT, ris SesaZleblobasac primitiuli qura

iZleoda. madnidan minarevebis mosacileblad saWiro iyo misi araerTgzis

gacxeleba da Wedva. Zv. w. II aTaswleulamdel arqeologiur masalebSi

mxolod iSviaTad Tu aris mikvleuli rkinis sagnebi: mZivebi, beWdebi,

satevris pirebi. Zv. w. II aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi ki, rkinis damuSaveba

ukve Cveulebriv xasiaTs iRebs. Tu ra didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda

rkinas, cxadi xdeba xaTusili III-is werilidan asureTis mefisadmi,

romelsac man saCuqrad rkinis satevris piri gaugzavna.

xeTuri armiis ZiriTad samxedro Zalas (sxva Zveli aRmosavleTis

qveynebis msgavsad) sabrZolo etlebis korpusi warmoadgenda. xeTebi

ganTqmuli meetlebi iyvnen. maT gamoigones etlis axali konstruqcia,

romelic ori mebrZolis nacvlad sams itevda (il. 3). erTi maTgani

meetle iyo, meores Semtevi iaraRi (Subi da mSvild-isari) epyra xelT,

xolo mesame, faris saSualebiT icavda maT da sakuTar Tavsac. samive

maTgani Cacmuli iyo muxlis qvemoT daSvebul tyavis tansacmelSi da

Tavze muzaradi exura. abjari, rogorc SemorCenili gamosaxulebebidan

Cans, ar unda hqonodaT.

etliT mebrZoli xeTis Tavdasxmis iaraRi saZgerebeli Subi iyo da

ara, egviptelTa msgavsad, mSvild-isari. kadeSis brZolis egviptur

gamosaxulebebze zogierT etliT mebrZol xeTs xelT Subi upyria,

magram arasodes mSvildi. aRsaniSnavia, rom kadeSis brZola etlebiT

brZolis yvelaze did asparezad iTvleba msoflioSi (ix. qvemoT).

etlebiT brZolis Taobaze uZvelesi miniSneba, SesaZloa, Zv. w.

XVIII saukuniT daTariRebul aniTas Zvel xeTur teqstSia mocemuli,

sadac naxsenebia mis mier salativaras (qalaqi anatoliaSi) alyis dros

gamoyenebul 1400 qveiT jariskacze da 40 Sebma cxenze. Tumca, pirveli

udavo dadastureba brZolis dros etlebis gamoyenebis Taobaze

ganekuTvneba xaTusili I-is xanas anu gviandel Zv. w. XVII saukunes.

ufro gviandeli xaniT, Zv. w. XV saukunis dasasruliT, TariRdeba

xaTusasas arqivSi napovni, kikuli miTanelis * mier dawerili, etlis

cxenebis movlisa da wvrTnis saxelmZRvanelo. teqsti xeTurad aris

dawerili, Tumca masSi calkeuli indo-ariuli * , xurituli da luviuri *

sityvebis arsebobac dasturdeba.

brZolebis dros xeTebis qveiTi jari, rogorc Cans, damxmare

funqcias asrulebda. mis jariskacebs mogrZo, maRali muzaradebi exuraT

da ZiriTadad, sabrZolo culiT, maxviliTa da xelgasayreli fariT

iyvnen aRWurvilni.

32


anatoliisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli havisa da topografiuli

Taviseburebebis gamo, xeTuri jaris Sekreba gazafxulze xdeboda xolme,

xolo laSqroba, ZiriTadad, zafxulobiT.

xeTebis mier Seqmnili safortifikacio arqiteqtura saukeTesod

iTvleba mTel Zvel axlo aRmosavleTSi. qalaqis galavnebisa da

safortifikacio nagebobebis qona arsebiTi iyo Zveli aRmosavleTis

qalaqebisaTvis. rogorc zemoTac iTqva, TavdacviT kedlebs agebdnen

qvisgan, alizis agurisagan, xisagan an am masalaTa erTmaneTTan

SeTavsebiT. masalis SerCeva bunebrivi pirobebiT iyo ganpirobebuli, Tu

romeli masala moipoveboda adgilobriv. xeTebi, rogorc wesi, qalaqebis

garSemo masiuri qvis galavnebis agebisas didi xelovnebiT iyenebdnen

mTiani adgilebis ferdobebs, gansakuTrebiT es SeimCneva maT mier

aSenebul cixe-simagreebSi.

alyis warmoebis, yvelaze ufro xSirad gamoyenebuli, xerxi iyo

mocda alyaSi moqceulTa danebebamde. rogorc zemoTac aRvniSnavdiT, Zv.

w. XV saukuneSi egviptelTa mier, megidos alyam, qalaqis danebebamde,

Svid Tves gastana. zogjer alyaSi moqceulTa mier Tavis daxsna

gamosasyidis gadaxdiT xdeboda. iyo SemTxvevebi, rodesac moalyeebSi

sasikvdilo epidemia iCenda Tavs da isinic iZulebuli xdebodnen

auReblad gaclodnen qalaqsa Tu cixe-simagres.

sainteresoa, xeTebis mier, Zv. w. XIV saukuneSi, anatoliaSi, erTerTi

Tavisi ymadnafici mmarTvelis qalaqis winaaRmdeg ganxorcielebuli

alya, romelic mas mere damTavrda, rodesac deda-dedofali qalaqidan

gamovida da SesTxova moalyeebs misi gulisaTvis SeewyalebinaT xalxi.

maSin, rodesac, ama Tu im laSqrobis dros, ZiriTadi mizani ar iyo

romelime qalaqis aReba, molaSqreebi mas ubralod gverds auvlidnen

xolme. magaliTad, xeTebis mier miTanis winaaRmdeg Zv. w. XIV saukuneSi

Catarebuli erT-erTi laSqrobisas, xeTebma qalaq karqemiSs gverdi

auares da igi mxolod Tavisi ZiriTadi miznis aRsrulebis Semdeg,

ukanmobrunebulebma, rvadRiani alyis Semdeg aiRes.

xeTebis keTildReoba mniSvnelovnad iyo damokidebuli maT mier

savaWro gzebisa da bunebrivi wiaRiseulis, gansakuTrebiT liTonis

sabadoebis, gakontrolebaze. ZiriTadad, amis gamo uxdebodaT maT

asurelebTan, xuritebTan da egviptelebTan brZola.

egviptelTa da xeTebis saomari xasiaTis urTierTobebs, egviptis

meTvramete dinastiis xanaSi eyreba safuZveli, rodesac faraonma Tutmos

III-m daipyro miTanis samefos kuTvnili miwebi siriaSi da amiT xeTebs

daumezoblda. axlo aRmosavleTis bevrma xalxma am dros gadawyvita

egviptelebisaTvis xarki gadaexada, maT Soris xeTebmac, raTa egviptelTa

guli moegoT da amiT maTi Tavdasxmisagan Tavi daexsnaT. amasTanave,

xeTebisaTvis, egviptelTa mier maTi mudmivi mtris _ miTanis damarcxeba

xelsayrel garemoebas warmoadgenda. momdevno xanebSi xeTebsa da

33


egviptelebs Soris megobruli urTierToba yalibdeboda. e. w.

kurustamas xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad, moxda xeTuri qalaqis, kurustamas,

mosaxleobis Casaxleba egviptis mier kontrolirebul siriis

teritoriaze. egviptelebi xeTebs Tavis Tanaswor Zalad ganixilavdnen.

tutanxamonis gardacvalebis Semdeg, misma qvrivma sufiluliumas misi Ze

sTxova Tanamecxedred da TanammarTvelad, Tumca ufliswulma egviptemde

cocxalma ver CaaRwia. zemoaRniSnuli megobrobis mdgradoba, xeTebis

mier samxedro Zalis mniSvnelovanma gazrdam da amenhoTeb II-sa da

Tutmos IV-is xanaSi egviptesa da miTans Soris keTilmezobluri

urTierTobebis Camoyalibebam Searyia. xeTebma miTanisa da egviptis

urTierTobaSi TavisTvis safrTxe dainaxes da maTma didma mefem,

sufiluliuma I-ma daiwyo brZola siriis xelSi Casagdebad. ramdenime

warmatebuli laSqrobis Semdeg, man siriis CrdiloeTi nawili SeierTa.

siriaSi xeTebis eqspansiam, maTi aRorZinebuli qveyana egviptesTan ukve

aSkarad daapirispira.

xeTebis qveyanaze uaryofiTad imoqmeda Savma Wirma, romelic

ukanmobrunebulma molaSqreebma da tyveebma Camoitanes da xeTebi

mursili II-is dros, iZulebuli gaxdnen egviptisaTvis ukan

daebrunebinaT sufililiumas mier siriaSi dapyrobili miwebi, Tumca

muvaTali II-is mefobis dros (Zv. w. 1293-1271 ww.), dasavleT

anatoliaSi miRweuli warmatebebis garda, aRsaniSnavia am mefis

brZolebi egviptesTan siriis dasaufleblad. ori maTgani gaimarTa

siriis qalaq kadeSTan, mdinare orontTan. pirveli brZolisas misi

mowinaaRmdege egviptis mecxramete dinastiis meore faraoni seti I (Zv.

w. 1290-1279 w.w.) iyo.

karnakis * taZris warwerebis mixedviT, seti I-ma, 20000 kacisagan

Semdgari jariT ilaSqra qanaansa * da siriaSi, aRadgina iq mitovebuli

egvipturi saguSagoebi da sagarnizono qalaqebi. mas xeTebTan sityvieri

xelSekruleba daudia da dauflebia aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTs.

momdevno laSqrobisas, man qalaqi kadeSi aiRo, sadac am faqtis

aRmniSvneli sveti aRmarTa da daipyro amurrus * qveyana. am laSqrobaSi

seti I-s Tan axlda misi memkvidre ramsesi, romelsac momavalSi, rogorc

egviptis faraon ramses II-s, swored qalaq kadeSTan mouwia

umniSvnelovanesi da sisxlismRvreli brZolis gadatana xeTebTan.

kadeSis brZolas win uswrebda, erTi mxriv, ramses II-is da meore

mxriv, xeTebis mefis, muvaTali II-is, siriuli laSqrobebi. es ori mefe

erTmaneTs ecileboda siriasa da qanaans. vinaidan xeTebis interesebi,

ZiriTadad, savaWro gzebis kontrolze iyo gamaxvilebuli, xolo

CrdiloeTi siria kilikias SuamdinareTTan akavSirebda, am mxaris

dauflebas xeTebisaTvis udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeboda.

ramsesi mTel Tves mounda, kadeSisaTvis samxreTidan rom mieRwia.

muvaTalim, amasobaSi, Tavi mouyara Tavis mokavSireebs da kadeSis

34


gadaRma, CrdiloeTiT dabanakda. xeTebis mxareze maTi 19 mokavSiris

samxedro Zalebs hqonda Tavi moyrili. xeTebTan erTad, ZiriTadad, maT

mier dapyrobili xalxebi ibrZodnen, romelTa Soris, dasavleT

anatolielebic unda yofiliyvnen.

Zv. w. 1274 wlis gazafxulze, kadeSisaken mimavalma ramsesma, mZime

taqtikuri Secdoma dauSva. igi imdenad iyo Sepyrobili surviliT, rom

xeTebze adre aeRo qalaqi, romelSic sinamdvileSi xeTebs ukve misTvis

maxe hqondaT dagebuli, rom mowyda Tavis ZiriTad Zalebs da amiT

gazarda am Zalebs Soris arsebuli manZilebi. es daqsaqsuli danayofebi

gzis sxvadasva monakveTze imyofebodnen. ramsesis armia oTxi diviziisagan

Sedgeboda, romelTac egvipturi RvTaebebis: amonis, ras, setisa da

ftahis saxelebi hqondaT miniWebuli. rodesac faraonma kadeSs miaRwia,

mas ukan amonis danayofi mohyveboda; ras danayofi, am dros, ufro

samxreTiT, qalaq SabTunasTan * mdinaris fons gadadioda; ftahis

danayofi ki ufro Sors, jer kidev qalaq arnaimis * samxreTiT

moZraobda, xolo setis danayofi mTavar Saragzas jerac ar iyo

gamocdenili.

garda amisa, egviptelTa armiaSi kidev iyo samxedro danayofi,

nearinis * (na’arni) saxeliT cnobili, romelic egviptelTa erTguli

qanaaneli moqiraveebisa Tu qanaanSi ramses II-is mier datovebuli

egvipteli meomrebisagan Sedgeboda. mas gadamwyveti funqcia daekisra

egviptis gadarCenaSi xeTebTan brZolis dros. egviptelTa mxares

ibrZodnen aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTis damarbeveli e. w. zRvis

xalxebis SemadgenlobaSi myofi sardiniuli warmomavlobis Serdenelebi,

romlebic kadeSis brZolis amsaxvel egviptur gamosaxulebebSi

gvianbrinjaos xanis aRmosavleT saqarTvelosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

satevrebiT arian aRWurvilni.

ramsesi da mas midevnebuli amonis danayofebi, mdinare orontis

kalapotis gadalaxvis Semdeg, SeefeTnen xeTebis mier, sagangebod maT

SecdomaSi Seyvanis mizniT Segzavnil beduinebs, romelTac daarwmunes

faraoni, rom xeTebi, faraonis SiSiT, axlo mosvlas ver bedavdnen da

Sors, xalafis maxloblad iyvnen dabanakebulni (daaxloebiT 200 km

CrdiloeTiT). amasobaSi, iqve Casafrebulma xeTebma saSualeba misces

amonis danayofebs maTTvis gverdze CaevloT da maT mierve dagebul

xafangSi gabmuliyvnen. SecdomaSi Seyvanilma faraonma kadeSTan banakis

dacemis brZaneba gasca. aq egviptelebma xelT igdes ori beduini,

romelTac aRiares, rom sinamdvileSi xeTebis uzarmazari armia, qveiTi

jari da etlebis korpusi mefe muvaTalis winamZRolobiT sul erTi

xelis gawvdenaze iyo maTgan daSorebuli, qalaq kadeSis gadaRma.

rogorc vxedavT, im Soreul epoqaSi, brZolis dawyebamde (daaxloebiT

3300 wlis win), ukve iyenebdnen metoqis dezinformirebis xerxebs.

35


Zola, romelic gaimarTa ramses II-is aRsaydrebis mexuTe wels,

12 maiss, miCneulia etlebiT yvelaze ufro did brZolad msoflios

istoriaSi. masSi monawileobda daaxloebiT 5000-6000 etli. amave

dros, es iyo erT-erTi pirveli brZola msoflios istoriaSi, romlis

mimdinareobis taqtikuri detalebis aRweriloba SemorCenilia.

rogorc iTqva, xeTebis laSqari, egviptelTagan saidumlod, kadeSs

iyo Sefarebuli da rodesac qalaqs miaxloebulma egviptelebma iq banaki

dasces, xeTuri etlebis mZlavrma razmma gamanadgurebeli ieriSi miitana

maT centralur nawilze. xeTebi Tavs daesxnen agreTve amonis Semdeg

momaval da moulodnelobisgan dabneul ras nawilebs. am dros maTgan

Sors myofi ftahis danayofebi mdinare SabTunas fons gadadiodnen.

xeTebis mier mitanili ieriSis Taobaze, ramsesi Cioda, rom misma

xelqveiTebma ver SeZles daedginaT xeTebis WeSmariti ganlageba.

faraonma saswrafod afrina Sikrikebi, raTa daeCqarebina ftahisa da

setis danayofebis SemoerTeba, romlebic jer kidev mdinare orontis

xeobis Soreul nawilSi imyofebodnen. amasobaSi xeTebis etlebma

gadaTeles ras danayofi da TiTqmis mTlianad gaanadgures igi.

gadarCenilebma amonis banaks miaSures, magram xeTebi aqac mihyvnen maT da

aaoxres iqauroba. amonis jarSi SiSis zarma daisadgura, dafeTebuli

jariskacebi xeTuri maxvilisagan sikvdils gaurbodnen. gamarjvebaSi

darwmunebulma xeTebma egviptelTa banakis Zarcva daiwyes da amiT

sabediswero Secdoma dauSves. faraonma mTeli Zalebi moikriba da Tavisi

mcvelTa razmis meTaurobiT mxned Seutia nadavlis SegrovebiT garTul

xeTebs. ramsesma, mxolod Tavisi piradi mamacobis Sedegad, SeZlo

sakuTari Tavisa da armiis cocxlad darCenili nawilebis gadarCena,

rodesac Tavisi etliT mamacurad CaerTo brZolaSi. misi winamZRolobiT

ganxorcielebulma uecarma Setevam arev-dareva Seitana mowinaaRmdegis

rigebSi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kadeSis brZolaSi ramses II-m didi

mxedarTmTavris Tvisebebi gamoavlina da Tu ara mis mier gamoCenili

gmiroba, egviptelTa sruli marcxi gardauvali iyo. mdgomareoba mainc

sagangaSo iqneboda, dagvianebuli setis danayofebis damatebiTi nawilebi

rom ar gamoCeniliyvnen. egviptelebs gamoadgaT maTi etlebis meti

manevrirebuloba da Sedgenili mSvildebis moqmedebis vrceli radiusi.

xeTebi iZulebulni gaxdnen egviptelTa banaks mocilebodnen da

mdinare orontisaken daexiaT. am dros muvaTalim aamoqmeda rezervSi

myofi aTasi sabrZolo etli da Seutia egviptelebs maSin, rodesac

xeTebma, TiTqos, isev miaRwies egviptelTa banaks. nearinis samxedro

nawilma Semoaswro brZolis velze da ixsna egviptelebi sruli

damarcxebisagan. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, egviptelTa jari mTlianad

amowyvetili iqneboda. ramsesis mier moulodnelad mitanili eqvsi

ieriSis Semdeg, xeTebi TiTqmis alyaSemortymulebi aRmoCndnen da

brZolaSi gadarCenilebma mdinare orontis gadacurviT Tavi kadeSis

36


galavans Seafares. ramses II-isadmi mikuTvnebuli ieroglifuri

warwerebis mixedviT, maT mdinare oronti ise swrafad gadacures, rom

niangebsac ki SeSurdebodaT. xeTebi iZulebuli gaxdnen kadeSisaTvis

SeefarebinaT Tavi.

gaTenebisTanave, gaimarTa meore, faqtobrivad uSedego brZola.

orive mxare Zalze dazaralda. xeTebma, miuxedavad TiTqosda

Tavdapirveli warmatebisa, ver SeZles saboloo gamarjvebis mopoveba,

xolo egviptelebs, samxedro Zalis didi danakargis gamo, qalaqisaTvis

alyis Semosartymelad xalxi aRar darCaT. brZolis ZiriTadi Sedegis

Sefasebisas, unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom egviptelebma ver moaxerxes

galavniT kargad gamagrebuli kadeSis aReba, rac maT Tavdapirvel da

ZiriTad mizans warmoadgenda.

xeTebis warmatebis mTavari mizezi, maT mier egvipturi Zalebis

srul danawevrebas unda mieweros, rac ufro ganviTarebuli samxedro

strategiuli da taqtikuri azrovnebis Sedegi iyo.

vinaidan ramses ar ZaluZda kadeSis xangrZlivi alyisaTvis

logistikuri mxardaWeris uzrunvelyofa, man keTilgoniereba gamoiCina

da jer ukan, damaskosken daixia, xolo sabolood egviptisaken gabrunda.

Sin dabrunebulma faraonma udidesi gamarjvebis Sesaxeb amcno Tavis

qveSevrdomebs, maSin rodesac sinamdvileSi erTaderTi, rac man gaakeTa,

iyo is, rom brZolis msvlelobisas uimedo mdgomareobaSi Cavardnilma,

sabolood mainc SeZlo didi Zalisxmevis, Tavdadebisa da gmirobis

xarjze, sakuTari armiis samSvidoboze gamoyvana. kadeSis brZolis Sedegi

egviptelebisaTvis sinamdvileSi iyo sruli marcxisagan Tavis daRweva. am

bednierma SemTxvevam, SesaZlebloba misca egvipteSi dabrunebul faraons

wagebuli omi did gamarjvebad warmoeCina, xolo sakuTari Tavi xeTebTan

brZolaSi gamarjvebulad gamoecxadebina da amaSi egviptis

sazogadoebriobac daerwmunebina. miuxedavad usazRvro trabaxisa,

miRweuli gamarjvebis Sesaxeb, ramsesis mier gancdili marcxis

maCvenebelia Tundac is garemoeba, rom man Seubraleblad da sastikad

dasaja Tavisi armiis gadarCenili mebrZolebi.

Tavis mxriv, xeTebis gamarjvebac ufro pirosis * gamarjvebas hgavda.

Sesabamisad, maT realurad Seafases sakuTari SesaZleblobebi da

sakmarisad SorsmWvretelni aRmoCndnen imisaTvis, rom sworad

ganesazRvraT egviptelebTan mSvidobisa da kavSiris fasi; miTumetes, rom

ukve igrZnoboda asureTis samxedro siZlieris ganuxreli zrda, rac

uaxloes momavalSi daemuqreboda rogorc xeTebis, aseve egviptelebis

interesebs.

unda iTqvas, rom dRemde ar aris Tanxmoba mecnierTa Soris,

kadeSis brZolis Sedegebis Sesaxeb. zogierTis azriT, egviptelebma

gaimarjves; zogi fiqrobs, rom mxareebma Tanabar warmatebasa Tu

warumateblobas miaRwies; zogis azriT, egviptelebi damarcxdnen, xolo

37


egvipturi werilobiTi wyaroebis cnobebi propagandistul miznebs

emsaxureboda.

kadeSis brZolis Sesaxeb cnobebi egvipteSi didi raodenobiT

arisASemorCenili rogorc werilobiTi, maT Soris papirusebze dawerili

calkeuli teqstebis saxiT, aseve karnakis, abu simbelis, abidosis da

Tebes rameseumis * taZrebSi warmodgenili kedlis mxatvrobis nimuSebiT.

aRsaniSnavia, rom jer kidev xaTusili III-s SeumCneveli ar darCenia es

garemoeba da igi werilSi gamqirdavad mimarTavda ramsess, kadeSis

brZolaSi, mis mier sakuTari Tavis gamarjvebulad warmoCenis gamo.

ramsesis sapasuxo werili brZolis egvipturi interpretaciis

gadmocemaa.

kadeSis brZolaSi egviptelebma moralur warmatebas miaRwies.

faraonis gmiruli Tavdadebis wyalobiT, maT Tavi daaRwies

gamanadgurebel marcxs. xeTebma realuri strategiuli mogeba naxes. maT,

miuxedavad samxedro etlebis didi nawilis dakargvisa, ar daanebes

mters kadeSi da momdevno wlebis ganmavlobaSi TandaTanobiTi samxedro

SetevebiT daaTmobines egviptelebs poziciebi ufro samxreTiT mdebare

teritoriebzec. amurrus garda, xeTebma daiqvemdebares upuc * . amis

Sedegad, egviptis aziuri samflobeloebi mxolod qanaaniT SemoisazRvra

da isic mudmivi ajanyebis safrTxis qveS imyofeboda. ramses II

iZulebuli iyo wamoewyo gamudmebuli laSqrobebi qanaanSi. am

laSqrobaTa Sedegad miRweuli samxedro warmatebebi, saboloo jamSi,

egviptelTaTvis zedapiruli gamodga. verc isini da verc xeTebi ver

axerxebdnen erTmaneTze gadamwyveti gamarjvebis miRwevas.

aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTis qalaq-saxelmwifoebze gavlenis

mosapoveblad warmoebuli TxuTmetwliani qiSpobis Semdeg Seqmnili

Cixuri mdgomareobis gamo, ramses II iZulebuli gaxda, Tavisi zeobis 21

wels (anu Zv. w. 1258 w.), xeli moewera xeTebTan samSvidobo

xelSekrulebaze. xeTebis mxridan sazavo xelSekrulebas xeli ukve

axalma mefem, muvaTali II-is Zmam _ xaTusili III-m moawera. es dokumenti

miCneulia msoflios uZveles oficialurad dadebul xelSekrulebad.

teqsti Sedgenili iyo im epoqis saerTaSoriso diplomatiis enaze,

aqadurad. am xelSekrulebis ZaliT, dadginda egviptesa da xeTebis

qveynis sazRvari qanaanis teritoriaze da egviptem faqtobrivad dakarga

amurrus qveyana.

sazavo xelSekrulebis egvipturi teqsti papirusis saxiT aris

SemorCenili, xolo xeTuri cali vercxlis filaze iyo amokveTili,

romlis Tixis aslic iyo napovni boRazqiois gaTxrebisas. aRsaniSnavia,

rom kadeSis xelSekrulebis gadidebuli asli niu-iorkSi, gaerTianebuli

erebis mTavar samarTveloSi kedelzea Camokidebuli, rogorc msoflioSi

pirveli saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis nimuSi.

38


xelSekrulebis dadebis momdevno xanaSi, jer isev ramses II-is da

xaTusili III-is mefobisas, ori didi qveynis kavSiri, orive maTganis

sakeTildReod, kidev ufro ganmtkicda da ara naklebi intensiurobiT

gagrZelda maTi memkvidreebis, egviptis faraonis merneftahisa da xeTi

mefeebis TuTxalia IV-isa da arnuvandas zeobis wlebSi. xelSekrulebis

damtkicebas Tan sdevda guliTadi miwer-mowera, ara mxolod mefeebs

Soris, aramed maT meuRleebs Sorisac. xelSekrulebis dadebis cameti

wlis Semdeg xaTusili III-is (Zv. w. XIII s. pirveli naxevari)

qaliSvili, mamamisis mier gamoTqmuli survilis Tanaxmad, daqorwinda

ramses II-ze da faraonis meuRle gaxda.

xeTebisa da egviptelebis urTierTbrZoliT isargebles asurelebma

da Seecadnen miTanis xelSi Cagdebas. asurelebi xeTuri saxelmwifos

savaWro gzebisaTvis aranakleb safrTxes warmoadgendnen, vidre

egviptelebi. muvaTalis Zis _ urhi-TeSubis (igive mursili III) dros

(Zv. w. XIII s. pirveli naxevari), asurelebma miTanis memkvidre

saxelmwifo _ xanigalbaTi igdes xelT da mdinare evfratis aRmosavleT

napirs moadgnen. rodesac urhi-TeSubi biZamisma _ xaTusili III-m

gadaayena taxtidan, es ukanaskneli iZulebuli gaxda Segueboda

xanigalbaTis dakargvas. xaTusili III-is mier, xeTebsa da egviptelTa

Soris samSvidobo xelSekrulebis dadeba ganpirobebuli iyo swored

asureTis samxedro siZlieris STambeWdavi zrdiT.

miTanis saxelmwifos narCenebis danawilebisaTvis xeTebsa da

asirielebs Soris daZabulobam umaRles wertils Zv. w. XIII saukunis

meore naxevarSi, xaTusili III-is Zis _ TuTxalia IV-isa da asureTis

mefis _ TuqulTi-ninurta I-is dros miaRwia. TuTxalia sakmaod Zlieri

mefe iyo imisaTvis, rom droebiT mainc SeeCerebina asurelTa SeRweva

siriaSi. manve moaxerxa kviprosis droebiTi dakaveba. mis dros kidev

ufro gaZlierda da gamagrda xaTusas galavani. asurelTa eqspansiis

SesaCereblad man aRmosavleTisaken, asurelTa winaaRmdegac ki gailaSqra.

mowinaaRmdege Zalebi erTmaneTs mdinqre tigrosis mxareSi _ q.

nihriasTan Sexvdnen. nihrias brZolaSi, xeTebma sastiki damarcxeba

ganicades da amiT saSualeba misces asurelebs Tavisi samefosTvis

miierTebinaT nairis * miwebi, saidanac asurelebma male maTTvis

winaaRmdegobis gamwevi 40 adgilobrivi mmarTveli gamoaZeves. marTalia,

asuruli werilobiTi wyaroebi ikvexnian, rom brZolis Sedegad TiTqos

maT 28800 xeTi tyve igdes xelT, magram sinamdvileSi am marcxs

tragikuli Sedegi ar mohyolia xeTebis saxelmwifosaTvis, vinaidan

asurelTa mTavari mizani, im xanad, babilonis aReba iyo. am marcxiT

mxolod qveyanaSi arsebulma Zalauflebis xelSi Cagdebis mosurne

Zalebma scades esargebladT. sxva mcdelobebTan erTad, urhi-TeSubis

umcrosi Zma _ kurunta Seecada, SeTqmulebis gziT, gadaeyenebina

39


taxtidan TuTxalia IV, magram ver moaxerxa. mefem daamarcxa SeTqmulebi

da SeinarCuna xeTuri saxelmwifo.

anatoliisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli SfoTisa da areulobis Zveli seni

mudmiv safrTxes warmoadgenda xeTuri saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis.

CrdiloeTidan, Savi zRvis mimdebare mxareebidan, safrTxes warmoadgenda

qasqebis (mesaqonle tomebi) gauTavebeli Tavdasxmebi, romelTa Semosevis

SiSiT, xeTebis sataxto qalaqi droebiT ufro samxreTiT,

TarxuntasaSic * ki yofila gadatanili. xeTebs kunZul kvipross aqiava

ecileboda. aqaveeli berZnebis winaprebi, xeTebis mimarT vasalur

mdgomareobaSi myofi qveynebic mudmivad cdilobdnen dakarguli

damoukideblobis dabrunebas.

xeTebis ukanasknelma mefem _ sufiluliuma II-m moaxerxa ramdenime

brZolis mogeba, maT Soris sazRvaosic. es xeTuri imperiis ukanaskneli

gamarjvebebi iyo. kviprosis sanapirosTan, daaxl Zv. w. XIII saukunis

damlevs, xeTebma zRvis xalxebis kuTvnili xomaldebi zRvaSi gadawves

da CaZires, magram es ukve dagvianebuli warmateba iyo. sul male zRvis

xalxebma mTeli xmelTaSuazRvispireTi Caigdes xelT, egeididan *

palestinamde.

Sinagani da garegani wnexis qveS moqceulma xeTebis saxelmwifom,

veRar gauZlo axal „gasaWirs“, dasavleTidan `zRvis xalxebis~

Semosevebs da Zv. w. XII saukunis dasawyisisaTvis ganadgurda. rac

Seexeba egviptes, is sakmarisad Zlieri aRmoCnda imisaTvis, raTa amave

`zRvis xalxebis~ egvipteSi SeWra SeeCerebina.

sanapiro zolidan da sazRvao gzebidan mokveTili xeTebis

saxelmwifos centraluri nawili meomari da veluri tomebis rbevis

obieqti Seiqna, rasac xeTebis dedaqalaqis, xaTusas, saboloo

ganadgureba mohyva. gaurkvvelia, Tu konkretulad vin daangria

sabolood xeTebis dedaqalaqi xaTusa. fiqroben, rom es qasqebs, xeTebis

CrdiloeTiT mcxovreb mesaqonle tomebs an frigielebs, anatoliaSi

dasavleTidan Semosul xalxs unda gaekeTebina. ukanasknel xanebSi

xaTusasas adgilas mdebare boRazqois maxloblad, buiqqaiaSi

Catarebulma arqeologiurma gaTxrebma cxadyo, rom xeTebis samefos

dacemis momdevno xanaSi aq dasaxlda xeTebisagan sruliad gansxvavebuli

warmomavlobis mqone mosaxleoba, romelsac miewereba adgilobrivi

rkinis xanis kultura. savaraudoa, rom qasqebis mier dangreuli xaTusa

drois garkveuli periodis Semdeg frigielebma daasaxles.

xaTusasas dacema, rogorc Cans, nawili iyo xeTuri

saxelmwifoebriobis erTiani daqceva-ganadgurebisa. xeTebi TiTqos

erTbaSad uCinardebian centraluri anatoliidan da maTi

saxelmwifoebrivi tradicia Zv. w. I aTaswleulis adreul saukuneebSi

arsebobas mxolod CrdiloeT siriaSi ganagrZobs, vidre sabolood

asureTma masac ar mouRo bolo.

40


irani. iranis zegnis sxvadasxva adgilebSi mikvleulia paleoliTisa * da

neoliTis * xanis sadgomebi da namosaxlarebi.

SeiZleba iTqvas, sakvebwarmoebiTma revoluciam SesaZlebeli gaxada

iranSi mudmivi dasaxlebebis aRmoceneba da erT-erTi adreuli sameurneo

civilizaciis warmoqmna. Camoyalibebuli meurneobis etapis xanaSi,

saWiro xdeba Wirnaxulis dacva misi miTvisebis msurvelTagan da ukve

Cndeba Zv. w. IX-VIII aTaswleulebiT daTariRebuli soflis tipis

dasaxlebebi: ali koSisa da guranis zemo fenebi, sarabi, jarmo. momdevno

xanebSi, meurneoba vrceldeba iranis centralur zegansa (Tefe sialki I)

da xuzistanSi (Tefe sabzi), Crdilo-dasavleT (haji firuzi), dasavleT

(godin Tefe VII) da samxreT-aRmosavleT iranSi (Tefe iahia VI C-E).

ukanaskneli monacemebis Tanaxmad, SesaZloa, mevenaxeoba zagrosis

mTianeTSi Caisaxa. msoflioSi sadReisod yvelaze adreuli Rvinis

Sesanaxi qoTnebi swored am regionis CrdiloeT nawilSi, haji firuzSia

mikvleuli da Zv. w. VI aTaswleulis meore naxevriTaa daTariRebuli.

Zv. w. VI aTaswleulidan moyolebuli, moxatuli keramika xdeba

iranuli arqeologiuri kulturebis erT-erTi ganmasxvavebeli niSani.

Taviseburi moxatuli Tixis WurWeli Cndeba eneoliTis xanidan.

Zv. w. IV aTaswleuliT TariRdeba iranis zeganze pirveli qalaqis

_ sialkis (q. qaSanTan, centralur iranSi) aRmoceneba.

adreuli brinjaos xanidan ufro meti ram aris cnobili iranis

mosaxleobis materialuri kulturis Sesaxeb, Tumca mxolod werilobiTi

monacemebis gamoCenis Semdeg SeiZleba mosaxleobis ama Tu im jgufis

istoriul Tu eTnikur identifikaciaze saubari.

Zv. w. IV aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi iranSi vrceldeba amierkavkasiuli

warmomavlobis mqone, e. w. mtkvar-arezis * kulturis matarebeli

tomebi. maTi gavrceleba, rogorc Cans, Zalismieri xasiaTisa iyo da

am process Tan sdevda aq ufro adre arsebuli, ganviTarebuli sazogadoebrivi

cxovrebis Sewyveta. igive suraTi Cans aRmosavleT anatoliaSi,

sadac, agreTve fiqsirdeba amierkavkasiuli tradiciebis matarebeli

mosaxleobis gamoCena. ufro gvian, Zv. w. III aTaswleulis pirvel

naxevarSi e. w. mtkvar-arezis kulturis tomebi siriasa da palestinaSic

vrceldebian.

iranis vrceli teritoriis topografiuli danawevreba aq

sxvadasxvagvari saxis gancalkevebuli kulturebis Camoyalibebas uwyobda

xels. adreuli liTonis xanis irani, ekonomikurad da kulturulad,

kvalindeburad neoliTuri epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli cxovrebis wesiT

cxovrobda. aq araferi Cans im ganviTarebis msgavsi, rac misgan dasavleTiT,

mesopotamiisaTvis da aRmosavleTiT, indis velze aRmocenebuli

maRali civilizaciis mqone urbanuli centrebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli

41


maSin, rodesac sazogadoebrivi cxovreba iranis zeganze jer isev

primitiul mdgomareobaSi iyo, xuzistanis dablobze, Zv. w. IV

aTaswleulidan, mesopotamiuri tipis damwerlobis mqone urbanuli

(qalaquri tipis) civilizacia yalibdeboda. xuzistani, Zveli suziana,

iranis erTaderTi mxarea, romlis ganviTarebis done ramdenadme uaxlovdeboda

mesopotamiaSi mimdinare procesebs. aq, tigrosisa da evfratis

SuamdinareTis mezoblad, samxreT iranis miwa-wyalze arsebuli elamuri

civilizacia Sumeridan momavali zegavlenis Sedegad iyo aRmocenebuli.

mTeli Tavisi istoriis manZilze, igi mWidro urTierTkavSirSi

iyo mesopotamiur qveynebTan, SumerTan, babiloneTTan da

asureTTan. es urTierToba iyo rogorc mSvidobiani, savaWro, aseve

saomari. elamelTa ena, rogorc irkveva, mkveTrad gansxvavebuli iyo am

mxareSi ufro gvian gavrcelebuli enebisagan.

miuxedavad imisa, rom elamuri civilizacia, ZiriTadad xuzistanis

dablobze, suzianaSi iyo koncentrirebuli, sinamdvileSi elamis saxelmwifo

ufro vrcel teritoriebs moicavda. dablobis garda, mas eqvemdebareboda

CrdiloeTiTa da aRmosavleTiT misi uSualod momijnave mTianeTi.

mTisa da baris erTianobis modelis SemuSaveba am qveynis

siZlieris erT-erTi umTavresi wyaro iyo. maqsimalurad xdeboda

rogorc mTis, aseve baris bunebrivi simdidreebis gacvla-gamocvla. amas-

Tan erTad, elami Suamavali iyo, erTi mxriv, Sumer-babiloneTsa da

meore mxriv, iranis zegnis sazogadoebebs (Tefe hisari, sialki da sxva)

Soris. am urTierTobebis ZiriTadi mamoZravebeli Zala, elamelTa mier

ganxorcielebuli vaWroba iyo. protoelamuri warweriani Tixis firfitebis

gamovlena sialk IV-isa da Tefe iahias kulturul fenebSi aRniSnuli

vaWrobis erT-erTi damamtkicebeli sabuTia. Sua brinjaos

xanaSi, centraluri iranis zegani kidev ufro metad iyo izolirebuli

gare samyarosgan, vidre adre. arseboba veRar ganagrZo Tefe sialkma.

naklebad Cans urTierToba mesopotamiasTan. miuxedavad amisa, elamelebis

aqtiuroba am drosac SeimCneva, Tumca SedarebiT naklebi intensivobiT.

Zv. w. XXIV saukunis Sua xanebSi, sargon didma, aqadis mefem daimorCila

jer Sumeri, xolo Semdeg elami da mis aRmosavleTiT mdebare

mxareebic. daaxloebiT saukunenaxevris Semdeg, dasavleT iranis mTianeTSi

mcxovrebma guTiebis tomebma bolo mouRo aqadelTa batonobas. aqadis

dacemam elams saSualeba misca Tavisufleba daebrunebina da mesopotamiis

dablobze mdebare suzac * daepyro, romelic misi dedaqalaqi gaxda. Zv. w.

II aTaswleulis ganmavlobaSi elamelebi samxreT iranSi farTod

vrceldebian. gansakuTrebiT did siZlieres, elamma, Zv. w. XV-XIII saukuneebSi

miaRwia, rodesac man asurelebi da babilonelebi daamarcxa. am

epoqis elami mesopotamiis did nawilsa da dasavleT irans moicavda. am

qveyanas aRorZinebulma babilonma mouRo bolo, rodesac misma laSqarma

Zv. w. XII s. damlevs suza aiRo.

42


iranze gadioda mniSvnelovani savaWro gzebi, romliTac xdeboda

avRanuri lilaqvisa da sxva naxevrad Zvirfasi qvebis Setana mesopotamiaSi,

anatoliaSi da sxva axloaRmosavlur mxareebSi. elamelTa ZiriTadi

mizani iyo daeqvemdebarebinaT aRmosavleTiT mdebare zeganisa da mTianeTis

mebrZoli tomebi da saTavisod gamoeyenebinaT am mxaris bunebrivi

simdidreebi. zagrosis mTianeTSi kasitebi cxovrobdnen, CrdilodasavleT

iranSi _ maneelebi, xolo kaspiis zRvis samxreTiT _

kaspielebi. maTi eTnikuri vinaoba da erTmaneTTan mimarTeba naklebad

aris cnobili. erTaderTi, rac maT Sesaxeb viciT, aris maT mier danatovari

oqrosa da vercxlis maRalmxatvruli xelovnebis nimuSebi.

luristanis farTod cnobili brinjaos nakeTobebi, romlebic, ZiriTadad,

samarxul inventars Seadgenda, didi mxatvruli TaviseburebiT gamoirCeva.

Crdilo-aRmosavleT iranSi didi xnis ganmavlobaSi grZeldeboda

adreuli hisarisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli WurWlis moxatvis tradicia.

Tumca, swored iranis am mxareSi, adrebrinjaos xanis gvandel etapze,

xdeba mniSnelovani cvlileba. keramikuli tradicia aq mTlianad icvleba.

moxatuli nawarmis nacvlad Cndeba sruliad gansxvavebuli nacrisferi

Tu moSavo-monacrisfro Tixis WurWeli. msgavsi cvlileba, umTavresad,

axali mosaxleobis gamoCeniT aixsneba xolme. es ki Zveli mosaxleobis

ZaldatanebiTi Secvlis gareSe iSviaTad xdeboda. aRsaniSnavia, rom

keramikasTan erTad Crdilo-aRmosavleT iranSi, imavdroulad gamoCnda

axali saxeobis spilenZisa da brinjaos iaraRebi da samkaulebi, adre

savsebiT ucnobi am mxarisaTvis. es garemoeba damatebiTi sabuTia mosaxleobis

SemadgenlobaSi momxdari cvlilebis sasargeblod. sayuradReboa,

rom iranis materialur kulturaSi gavrcelebuli es inovaciebi ar

Sexebia mesopotamiasa da sazogadod ufro dasavleTiT mdebare mxareebs,

saidanac iranSi, adreul xanebSi, axali tradiciebi aRwevda.

bevrad ufro gvian, Zv. w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi,

CrdiloaRmosavleTiranuli nacrisferi Tu moSavo-monacrisfro keramika

jer TandaTanobiT aRwevs iranis dasavleT mxareebs, xolo Semdeg

mTlianad iqvemdebarebs maT. es cvlileba, Tavis mxriv, SesaZloa,

kavSirSi iyo momTabare tomebis ori jgufis centraluri aziidan iranis

zeganze SemoWrasTan. CrdiloeTidan gavrcelebulma mosaxleobam daikava

iranis centraluri zegani. SesaZloa, swored am dros, iranis brinjaos

epoqis damlev xanaze gadiodes is zRvari, romlis Semdegac indoiranuli

jgufis iranul (ariul * ) enebze metyveli xalxebi batondebian

Tanamedrove iranisa da misi momijnave mxareebis teritoriaze. centraluri

aziidan gavrcelebuli mosaxleobis erT-erTi ganStoeba SeiWra

indostanis naxevarkunZulze (ix. qvemoT). orive es jgufi Tavis Tavs

arielebs uwodebda. maT hyavdaT cxenSebmuli sabrZolo etlebi, Tumca

iranelebma maleve upiratesoba cxenosan jars miakuTvnes, rogorc ufro

43


ukeT gamosayenebels mTian mxareebSi, sadac maT ufro uxdebodaT aqtiuroba,

indisa da gangis velebze mcxovrebi indoelebisagan gansxvavebiT.

iranSi dasaxlebuli indo-evropelebi erTmaneTisagan, TavTavianTi

dialeqtebiT gansxvavdebodnen. maTgan yvelaze Zlevamosilebi, sparselebi

da midielebi anu farsa da mada iyvnen. sparselebi baxtiaris mTebSi da

misgan dasavleTiT mdebare farsis provinciaSi dasaxldnen, romelsac

Tavisi saxeli dautoves, midielebi ki ufro CrdiloeTiT _ hamadanis

velze. es ukanasknelni kargi meomrebi da daxelovnebuli cxenosnebi

iyvnen. wina aziaSi midielebis batonobas mxolod kiros II didma aqemenianma

* mouRo bolo. sainteresoa, rom midielebis memkvidreobas qurTebi

iCemeben. midielebisa da babilonelebis koaliciis mier, asureTis

dedaqalaqis _ nineviis aRebis weli (Zv. w. 612 w.), bolo dromde,

qurTebis mier maTi kalendris aTvlis wertilad miiCneoda.

sparselTa adreuli SeiaraRebis Sesaxeb bevri araferi viciT,

Tumca ufro gviani xanebis monacemebiT zogadi warmodgena mainc SegviZlia

SeviqmnaT masze. maTi cxenosnebi, rogorc Cans, ZiriTadad mSvildisarsa

da xelSubs atarebdnen. unda hqonodaT muzaradebi, kisris safarvelebi

da farebi. qveiTi jari mSvildosnebis, SubiTa da fariT aRWurvili

mebrZolebisagan Sedgeboda. didi zomis, oTxkuTxa, dawnul fars

sparselebi sparas uwodebdnen (Sdr. qarT. fari). Subi mcire zomisa

hqondaT, or metrze naklebi sigrZis. sparsuli maxvilic mokle iyo da

fiqroben, rom es maTi SearaRebis ufro TavdacviT xasiaTze unda migvaniSnebdes.

sparselebis brZolis sayvareli xerxi iyo, farebis saSualebiT,

damcavi kedlis ageba, romlis zemodanac mSvildosnebi mowinaaRmdeges

isars esrodnen.

sparselebi iyvnen pirvelni, vinc etlSi oris nacvlad, oTxi cxeni

Seaba da orTave Tvlis RerZidan, daaxloebiT 1 m sigrZeze, viwro

celebi miamagra, romliTac mowinaaRmdegis qveiTi jariskacebi iceleboden,

maT siaxloves did siCqareze etlis gavlis dros. Tumca, etleb-

Tan SedarebiT, sparselTa cxenosani jari ufro metad moZravi da

efeqturi iyo. Zv. w. 331 wels, gavgamelas * cnobili brZolis dros,

aleqsandre makedonelma darios III-is etlebs Tavisi jaris wina xazi

gauxsna. etlebi sakuTari jaris siRrmeSi SeuSva da Semdeg zurgidan

Seutia maT. am brZolaSi sparselTa katastrofiulma marcxma, daasamara

etlebiT brZolis mravalsaukunovani tradicia.

indostanis naxevarkunZuli. samxreT aziaSi pirveli mxare, sadac e. w.

neoliTurma revoluciam iCina Tavi, iyo iranis aRmosavleTiTa da avRaneTis

samxreTiT mdebare Tanamedrove pakistanuri provincia, belujistani.

aq, aRmosavleT iranisa da samxreT pakistanis SemaerTebel gzaze,

mdinare bolanis dasavleT napirze, mehrgarSi, aRmoCnda adreuli Zv. w.

VII aTaswleulis etalonuri xasiaTis winakeramikuli sakvebwarmoebiTi

44


namosaxlari. Zv. w. V aTaswleulis damlevisaTvis meurneTa Temebi mTel

am regionSi gavrcelda. erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli nalis, Jobisa da

kulis kulturebi sxvadasxva xeobebSi iyo Camoyalibebuli. Zv. w. IV

aTaswleulSi Cndeba galavniani qalaqebi: rehman dheriSi (mdinare Jobis

dablobze), amri da kot diji sindSi da kalibangani mdinare hakrasTan,

indoeTSi. es namosaxlarebi ganekuTvneba harapis anu e. w. indis velis

civilizaciis winamorbedTa kulturas.

kot dijis namosaxlari mdebareobda borcvis ZirSi, romlis

Txemzec citadeli yofila aRmarTuli. dedacixis galavans Tanabari intervalebiT

koSkebi hqonia mowyobili. sakuTriv qalaqSi, qvis

saZirkvelze alizis aguriT amoyvanili saxlebis arsebobaa

dadasturebuli. es nagebobebi sadrenaJo Txrilebisa da qvis masiuri

jebirebis miRma iyo Sejgufuli. mezobeli Temebi aq erTmaneTs mudmivad

ebrZodnen nayofieri miwebis dasaufleblad. kot dijis namosaxlarze

napovnia qvis Zalze daxvewili samuSao iaraRebi, brinjaos isrispirebi,

mZivebi, qalRmerTisa da cxovelTa mcire zomis Tixis plastika.

gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iwvevs saTamaSo sazidavi, romelic cxadyofs,

rom meTunis morgvis moyvaniloba daedo safuZvlad urmis Tvlebis

warmoqmnas. es namosaxlari, iseve rogorc amri da kalibangani, cecxlis

mier yofila ganadgurebeli, romlis gamomwvevi mizezi jer kidev

daudgenelia.

ganviTarebis momdevno etapi indostanis subkontinentze,

ganekuTvneba e. w. indis velis civilizacias, romlis etalonuri Zegli

harapa (pakistanSi) iyo. misi gavrcelebis areali, pakistanisa (sindhis,

penjabisa da belujistanis provinciebSi) da indoeTis (gujaraTsa da

rajasTanSi) garda, nawilobriv vrceldeboda, Tanamedrove avRaneTis,

iranisa da TurqmeneTis teritoriaze. am epoqaSi mdinare indis auzSi

miwaTmoqmedTa asobiT mcire zomis, galavniani da dagegmarebulquCebiani

samosaxlo arsebobda. am kulturis namosaxlarebzec dasturdeba

TavdacviTi galavnebis kvali. samxreT-aRmosavleT avRaneTSi mdebare

cnobili namosaxlaris, mundigakis, gaTxrebisas gamomzeurda mzeze

gamomwvari alizis aguriT nagebi galavani da marTkuTxa koSkebi.

sayuradReboa, rom harapis kulturis arqeologiurma Seswavlam

ver gamoavlina omis saSiSroebis ramdenadme mniSvnelovani gavlenis

kvali adgilobrivi sazogadoebebis cxovrebaSi. brinjaom, indis velze

axlo aRmosavleTidan jer kidev Zv. w. III aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi

SeaRwia, yuradRebas ipyrobs sabrZolo iaraRis simcire (Tu ar

amzadebdnen maT advilad xrwnadi masalisagan), arc abjaria sadme

mikvleuli. yvelaze farTod gamoyenebuli iaraRi, qvis kverTxi Cans,

romelic Zvel samyaroSi yvelgan erTnairad, muzaradis gamoyenebis

dawyebisTanave, xmarebidan gamodioda.

45


zogierTi mkvlevris azriT, indis velis civilizacia ar ganicdida

garedan mniSvnelovan zewolas da amis gamo, aq naklebi saWiroeba

igrZnoba sabrZolo teqnologiebis dasaxvewad da samosaxloTa

Tavdasacavad. sxvanairad aq Zneli warmosadgeni iqneboda, Tu ratom iyo

aq ufro naklebad ganviTarebuli samxedro saqme, vidre amis

SesaZleblobas maRali teqnologiuri done iZleoda. aseT `mSvidobian~

sazogadoebaSi, savaraudo xdeba Camoyalibebuli saxelmwifoebrivi

sistemis uqonloba, miTumetes, rom kulturuladac indis velis

civilizaciaSi naklebad dasturdeba Zalauflebis amsaxveli niSnebis

arseboba, STambeWdavi taZrebisa Tu vrceli sasaxleebis saxiT.

miuxedavad amisa, qalaqebis yvela, odnav mainc did ubans, galavani

da damatebiT, galavnis irgvliv, wyliani Txrilebi hqonda Semovlebuli.

ra unda yofiliyo amis gamomwvevi mizezi, Tuki sazogadoeba ar iyo

daqvemdebarebuli omis SiSze an Tundac mis mosalodnel safrTxeze.

eWvs gareSea, garedan Semosuli mtrisagan Tavdasacavad iyo agebuli Zv.

w. III aTaswleuliT daTariRebuli galavani kunZul xadirze * mdebare

namosaxlar dholaviraSi. aq dasturdeba erTianad Tavmoyrili kedlebis

sistemis arseboba, rac zRvis mekobreebis Tavdasxmisagan qalaqis dacvis

saWiroebaze unda migvaniSnebdes.

indoeTSi samxedro saqmis siZveleze, ZiriTadad vedebis wignebi *

gvamcnoben. induri eposebi _ mahabharata da ramaiana _ mogviTxroben

regularul armiebze, saomar moqmedebaTa teqnikur Taviseburebebze,

spiraliseburad dawyobil jarze da mis wyobaSi SeRwevis sirTuleze,

sabrZolo etlebze, sabrZolo spiloebze da ramdenadac ucnauri ar

unda iyos, samxedro mfrinav meqanizmebze, rac bunebrivia, am cnobaTa

legendarul xasiaTs unda mowmobdes.

rigvedis * monacemebiT, arielebs winamZRolobda tomis beladi anu

raja. maT uxdebodaT brZola rogorc erTmaneTTan, aseve

ucxotomelebTan. isini iyenebdnen brinjaos iaraRs da hqondaT

manianTvlebiani cxenSebmuli etlebi. pirutyvis parvis Sedegad miRebuli

nadavlis ZiriTadi nawili tomis belads uvardeboda xelSi. meomrebi

ganekuTvnebodnen mebrZolTa socialur jgufs _ qSatria varnas.

miuxedavad imisa, rom arielTa tradiciuli Sexedulebis Tanaxmad,

arielebma indostanis naxevarkunZulze (subkontinentze) SemosvlisTanave

iavarhyves mSvidobiani winamorbedi mosaxleobis kuTvnili qalaqebi,

ramdenadme masobrivi ngrevis kvalis arseboba ar dasturdeba. rogorc

Cans, arielTa iq SeRweva sulac ar iyo sisxliani. zogierTi

specialisti arielebs, indostanis naxevarkunZulis avtoqtonur

mosaxleobad miiCnevs; Tumca, aSkaraa, rom es tomebi aq CrdiloeTidan

unda Semosuliyvnen. arielTa kultura mkveTrad gansxvavebulia

winamorbedisagan.

46


indoeTSi konkretuli brZolis, yvelaze adreul xsenebad unda

CaiTvalos rigvedis meSvide mandalaSi (wignSi) aRwerili (gansakuTrebiT

18, 33 da 83, 4-8 himnebSi) 10 mefis brZola. mefe suda, divodasas

STamomavali, amarcxebs misadmi mtrulad ganwyobil arielTa da e. w.

dasius (savaraudod aborigenuli) tomebis konfederacias. mkvlevrebi

fiqroben, rom am gadmocemaSi miTologiuri warmodgenebiT aris

Selamazebuli namdvili ambavi, dakavSirebuli indoeTSi ariuli tomebis

pirveli gamoCenis xanasTan. indo-evropuli warmomavlobis arielebi,

indostanis naxevarkunZulze, Zv. w. II aTaswleulis ganmavlobaSi unda

SeWriliyvnen CrdiloeTidan, kaspiisa da aralis zRvis CrdiloaRmosavleTiT

mdebare mxareebidan. rigvedaSi ariuli tomebi

daxasiaTebulni arian, rogorc naxevrad momTabare mesaqonleebi,

romlebic eweodnen lokalur omebs da pirutyvs stacebdnen erTmaneTs.

10 mefis brZolis aRweris safuZvelze varaudoben, rom am epoqis tomTa

raodenoba daaxloebiT ramdenime aTasi kacisagan Sedgeboda. analogiuri

raodenobis xalxisagan Semdgari tomebi damaxasiaTebeli movlena iyo

evrazieli momTabareebisaTvis.

etlebis gamosaxulebebi mikvleulia vindias mTagrexilis * qviSaqvis

qanebis petroglifebze. * etlis ori gamosaxuleba momdinareobs adgil

morhana paharidan. pirvel maTganSi ori Sebmuli cxeni da meetlis Tavi

Cans, meoreSi _ oTxcxeniani da 6 maniani (Cxiriani) Tvlebiani sabrZolo

etli, romlis meetle farTo Zaraze dgas da romelsac Tavs esxmis win,

mis gzaze mdgomi xelketiani da fariani adamiani, xolo mSvild-isriT

SeiaraRebuli meore Tavdamsxmeli marjvena mxridan emuqreba mas.

sabrZolo etlebs gamorCeuli adgili ukaviaT indur da sparsul

miTologiaSi, maT RvTaebaTa panTeonis didi nawili etlSi msxdomared

aris warmosaxuli.

CineTi. CineTis samxedro istoria, yovelgvari wyvetilis gareSe

viTardeboda aTaswleulebis manZilze, Zv. w. XVI saukunis damlevidan

ax. w. XVI saukunis dasawyisamde. CineTs gaaCnda msoflioSi erT-erTi

yvelaze ufro ganviTarebuli samxedro kultura.

legendaruli gadmocemebis Tanaxmad, CineTis pirveli xelisufali

iyo huang di anu yviTeli imperatori, romelmac daamarcxa Ci iu (omisa

da wvimis RvTaeba) da dasaxlda huaxiaSi, yviTeli mdinaris dablobze.

igi iTvleba xanis Cinelebis anu CinelTa ZiriTadi eTnikuri jgufis

winaprad da mamamTavrad. Cinuri tradiciiT huang di mefobda Zv. w.

XXIV saukuneSi. im dinastiaTa Soris, romlebic ki cnobilia Cinuri

analebis mixedviT, yvelaze adreulia xias dinastia, igi Zv. w. II

aTaswleulis pirveli naxevriT TariRdeba. miCneulia, rom am dinastiis

xana qronologiurad mosdevs e. w. sami xelmwifisa da xuTi imperatoris

47


epoqas da win uswrebs Sangis * dinastias. arqeologiuri monacemebi,

TiTqos, mxars uWeren am dinastiis arsebobas.

Sangis, igive inis dinastiis epoqis CineTi, tipuri brinjaos xanis

sazogadoeba iyo. am dinastiis samxedro siZliere, mniSvnelovanwilad,

etlebian jarebze iyo dafuZnebuli. sabrZolo etli, mkvlevarTa azriT,

Zv. w. II aTaswleulis Suaxanebisa da meore naxevris Sangis dinastiis

CineTSi, maT mezobel indo-evropel tomebs unda SeetanaT, romelTac

Cveulebriv miaweren xolme am teqnologiuri siaxlis popularizacias

aRmosavleTis Tvaluwvdenel sivrceebze. Tumca, zogierTi mkvlevris

azriT, etlebi ufro adre, xias dinastiis xanidan (daaxl. Zv. w. 2100-

1600 w.w.) unda yofiliyo CineTSi cnobili.

Cinuri etlis Semadgenloba, sami kaciT ganisazRvreboda:

meetlisagan, warCinebuli meomrisa da msaxurisagan, romlis movaleoba

meomrisaTvis iaraRisa da isrebis miwodeba iyo. cxeni CineTSi Zneli

saSovari iyo. im pirTa ricxvi, visac misi SeZena SeeZlo, SezRuduli

iyo da Sesabamisad, etlis mepatroneni warmoadgendnen meomarTa

gancalkevebul jgufs, romelsac sxvebTan SedarebiT, sazogadoebaSi

gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ekavaT. TandaTanobiT, isini priviligirebul

klasad gadaiqcen. maT ocdaaTi samTavro gadaecaT samarTavad. amave

dros, isini valdebulebi iyvnen mefis pirvelive brZanebisTanave

sabrZolvelad gamocxadebuliyvnen. Sangis dinastiis mefeebi mezoblebTan,

aseve CrdiloeTidan SemoWril momTabareebTan mudmiv brZolaSi iyvnen

Cabmuli. Sangis dinastiis dros sabrZolo etli imperiis ZiriTadi

iaraRi gamodga, romelmac SesaZlebloba misca xelisufalT

gaeerTianebinaT metad vrceli teritoriebi.

yvelaze ufro kargad cnobili, etlebiani samarxi CineTSi, henanis

provinciis CrdiloeT nawilSi, aniangis * maxloblad, hougangSi iyo

napovni da igi Sangis dinastiis mefis, vu dingis xaniT TariRdeba

(daaxl. Zv. w. 1200 w.). Sangis dinastiis xanaSi, samefo wodebis pirebi

mTel Tavis jalabobasTan erTad imarxebodnen. maT samarxSi aseve

atandnen msaxurebs, cxenebs, etlebsa da meetleebs. aqve aRmoCnda

nairgvari brinjaos iaraRi.

Sangis epoqis etlSi, Cveulebriv, ori cxeni iyo Sebmuli, magram

samarxebSi zogjer oTxcxeniani etlebic aris napovni. meetlis garda,

etlSi mSvildosani da zogjer SubiT an romelime sxva grZeltariani

iaraRis mqone piric iyofeboda. omis dros, etlebis gamoyeneba, maT

winaaRmdeg qveiTi jaris mier brZolis xerxebis daxvewisa da cxenosani

mSvildosnebis (etlebSi myof mSvildosnebTan SedarebiT) meti

efeqturobis gamo, TandaTanobiT daviwyebas mieca.

CineTSi qveiTebic, iseve rogorc etlebis ekipaJis wevrebi,

ZiriTadad `cul-satevrebiTa~ da SubebiT iyvnen SeiaraRebulni. `culsatevari~

mxolod CineTisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iaraRis saxeobaa. igi

48


xmarebaSi Sangis dinastiis epoqaSi Semodis. mas aqvs satevris formis

piri, romelic SveriliT aris Casmuli xis tarSi. arsebobda, agreTve,

ormagi Tavis mqone saxeobac, romelTagan pirveli, Cveulebrivi basri

piria, xolo meore, namgliseburi piris mqone. iaraRis xmarebisas

xdeboda iaraRis vertikaluri wvetis mowinaaRmdegis Tavis

mimarTulebiT saTvalTmaqcod Zgereba, xolo sinamdvileSi iaraRis ukan

gamoqaCvisas misi porizontaluri, namgliseburi piri mters Tavs

agdebinebda. es iaraRi mzaddeboda brinjaosagan, mogvianebiT rkinisganac.

samarxebSi warmodgenilia maTi saceremonialo, nefritisgan damzadebuli

calebi. `cul-satevrebs~ xelisuflebisa da Zalauflebis gamomxatveli,

prestiJuli daniSnulebis sagnebis funqcia hqondaT.

brinjaom axlo aRmosavleTidan indis velze Tu daaxl. Zv. w. III

aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi SeaRwia, imave aTaswleulis damlevs, CineTSi

igi ukve sakmaod uxeSi formis mqone nawarmis saxiT aris warmodgenili.

samagierod, Zv. w. II aTaswleulis SuaxanebisaTvis brinjaom aq Seudarebel

dones miaRwia. Sangis dinastiis CineTSi damzadebuli brinjao,

araCveulebrivi sikaSkaSiT xasiaTdeba, magram ubralo xalxisaTvis, TviT

gvianbrinjaos xanaSic, ZiriTad, yoveldRiurad gamosayenebel masalas

isev qva warmoadgenda gansakuTrebiT, qveynis periferiul mxareebSi.

jous dinastiis mier Sangis dinastiis damxobis Semdeg (Zv. w. 1122

w.), CineTSi Camoyalibebuli feodaluri sazogadoebrivi wyoba, samxedro

TvalsazrisiT, isev etlebiT mebrZol aristokratiul klasze iyo

damyarebuli. rkinis iaraRis damzadeba CineTSi swored jous dinastiis

epoqaSi iwyeba. epoqaSi, romelic, amave dros, Cinuri brinjaos metalurgiis

umaRlesi ayvavebis xanad aris miCneuli.

istoriulad, Cineli samxedroebis ZiriTadi sazrunavi, monRoleTis,

manjuriisa da centraluri aziis stepebis momTabareTagan momdinare

safrTxeebis gaTvaliswineba da maTi acileba iyo. sakuTari samefoebis

dasacavad, Cinelma xelisuflebma farTod gamoiyenes Tavisi upiratesoba

samuSao Zalis siuxvesa da organizebulobaSi. es, pirvel yovlisa,

aisaxa umZimesi amocanis, 6700 km gadaWimuli CineTis didi kedlis agebis

dros, romelic ZiriTadad centraluri evraziis Tvaluwvdeneli

sivrceebidan wamosuli cxenosani laSqris Sesakaveblad iyo gamiznuli.

marTalia, CineTis didi kedlis mSenebloba, Zv. w. I aTaswleulis

pirveli naxevris gviani xanebidan iwyeba, magram misi saWiroeba ufro

adreul xanebSic iqneboda sagrZnobi, Tundac imitom, rom CineTs, mom-

Tabareebisagan Tavdasacavad, mniSvnelovani bunebrivi zRudeebi ar gaaCnda.

zemoaRniSnuli, Zalze mniSvnelovani materialuri monacemebis

garda, evraziis stepebidan momdinare safrTxeebze Zveli Cineli mematianeebis

cnobebic migviTiTebs. Cineli mematianeebisaTvis, maTi qveynis

Crdilo-dasavleTiTa da CrdiloeTiT mcxovrebi barbarosebi, `mtacebeli

mglebi~ iyvnen, romelTa `danayrebac SeuZlebelia, vinaidan isini xarbebi

49


da momxveWelebi arian da araferze ar fiqroben sakuTari sargebelis

garda.~ sityva `gaumaZRari~ xSirad gamoiyeneboda barbarosTa daxasiaTebisaTvis.

50

* * *

Zveli aRmosavleTis samxedro saqmis Seswavla cxadyofs, rom

omianobas adreuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ganviTarebisaTvis bevrad

ufro didi mniSvneloba hqonda, vidre mxolod romelime tomisa Tu

qveynis mier meore tomisa Tu qveynis damarcxebisa Tu dapyrobis aRnusxvas,

riTac Zveli matianeebi, analebi Tu qronikebi Semoifarglebian

xolme.

sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis mimdinareobisas, rodesac tomis miwawylis

zrda SesaZlebeli xdeboda mxolod mezoblad mdebare farTobebis

dapyrobis saSualebiT, rac cxadia, niSnavda oms mezobel tomebTan.

momxdurTagan Tavdasacavad saWiro xdeboda pirveli galavniani qalaqebis

aRmoceneba. oms an omis safrTxesa da laSqrobebs, anda laSqrobebis Catarebisa

da xarkis aRebis saWiroebas _ miuxedavad maTi daniSnulebisa

Tu mizezisa _ hqonda erTi da igive Sedegi; saxeldobr, ufro Zlieri

winamZRolis gaCena da ukeTesi an ufro Zlieri organizacis aRmoceneba

imisda miuxedavad, Tu risTvis iyo igi gankuTvnili: TavdacvisaTvis Tu

TavdasxmisaTvis. omisaTvis saWiro organizaciuli SesaZleblobebi, ierarqiuli

sistema da centralizebuli sardloba sazogadoebaSi samxedroebisagan

vrceldeboda _ meomrebi mefeebi xdebodnen da mmarTvelobaSi

samxedro disciplina SehqondaT. amdenad, aSkaraa, rom omianoba

kavSirSi unda yofiliyo saxelmwifos warmoqmnis procesTan.

rogorc wesi, mosaxleobis zrdas, ra mizeziTac ar unda yofiliyo

igi gamowveuli, mosdevda zewola sazogadoebaSi arsebul resursebze. es

faqtorebi warmoadgendnen saxelmwifoebriobis warmoqmnis meqanizmebs,

oRond, mxolod gansazRvrul garemoSi da Sesabamisi sazogadoebrivi

ganviTarebis pirobebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi. saxelmwifo organizacia

mxolod maSin aRmocendeboda, rodesac moxdeboda misi warmoqmnisaTvis

saWiro pirobebidan, ramdenime maTganis urTierTdamTxveva. amasTanave,

rogorc Cans, yoveli calke aRebuli saxelmwifo, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli

winapirobebis arsebobis Sedegad iyo aRmocenebuli, ris gamoc,

sxvadasxva adreuli saxelmwifo, sakmaod mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba

erTmaneTisagan. miuxedavad amisa, moipoveboda raRac saerToc adreuli

saxelmwifoebis aRmocenebis procesSi. rac Seexeba, socialur uTanabrobas

igi ar warmoadgenda saxelmwifo organizaciis warmoqmnisaTvis aucilebel

winapirobas.

zogierTi adreuli saxelmwifos warmoqmnis xasiaTi, ueWvelad avlens

am procesSi dapyrobis gadamwyvet zegavlenas. iyo SemTxvevebi,


odesac mesaqonleTa gabatoneba miwaTmoqmedebze, iwvevda saxelmwifos

aRmocenebas, amitom SeiZleba iTqvas, rom marbieli momTabareebi ara

mxolod Zarcvavdnen binadar miwaTmoqmedebs, aramed, zogjer, axdendnen

politikuri ganviTarebis procesebis stimulaciasac. adreuli sazogadoebebi

TavianT mezoblebTan kontaqts xom arcTu iSviaTad omebis,

laSqrobebis da dapyrobis mcdelobis saSualebiT axorcielebdnen. omi

da misi Tanxmlebi movlenebi dadebiT, zegavlenas axdendnen mmarTvelobiTi

da samTavrobo institutebis warmoqmna-ganviTarebaze. mecnierTa gansazRvrebis

Tanaxmad, mxolod ukanaskneli 5500 wlis ganmavlobaSi anu

brinjaos xanis dasawyisidan, kacobriobam sul vota 14000-jer ioma.

omianoba da laSqrobebi saTaves udebda centralizebuli mmarTvelobiTi

sistemis Camoyalibebas; ufro metic, samxedro Zala, omi da

dapyroba xels uwyobda samxedro struqturaze damyarebuli centralizebuli

saxelmwifos aRmocenebas. Tavis mxriv, saxelmwifo iTxovda

samxedro struqturisagan, misi uxifaTobis garantad yofnas. samxedro

struqtura, faqtobrivad, warmoadgenda mebrZolTa erTobliobas, romelsac

saxelmwifo xelisuflebisagan miniWebuli hqonda, arsebuli Tu

mosalodneli safrTxeebis mxedvelobaSi miRebis safuZvelze, Zalis gamoyenebis

ufleba, qveynis dasacavad Tu sxva qveyanaze TavdasxmisaTvis.

SeiZleba iTqvas, Tu mecnierTa erT nawils miaCnia, rom saxelmwifo

iqmneboda upiratesad Sinagani ganviTarebis Sedegad, meore nawili saxelmwifos

warmoqnas ukavSirebs garegan faqtorebs. isini Tvlian, rom

dapyroba da omi iwvevs ra erTi xalxis mier, meoris damorCilebasa da

eqploatacias, aucilebels xdis saxelmwifo organizaciis warmoqmnas

sazogadoebaSi Camoyalibebuli uTanasworobis SesanarCuneblad. erTi ram

udavoa, omianobasa da dapyrobebs, marTlac SeuZlia gamoiwvios adreuli

saxelmwifoebis aRmocenebis stimulireba, magram amisaTvis saWiroa, sazogadoebaSi

arsebobdes Sesabamisi Sinagani pirobebi, Tundac, ganviTarebis

saTanado donis mxriv, rogorc dampyroblebs, aseve dapyrobilebs,

Soris. ase rom, saxelmwifos warmoqmnisaTvis, rac Cvens mier ganxilul

epoqaSi arsebuli sazogadoebebis ZiriTadi mizani da monapovaria, saWiro

iyo sazogadoebis Sinagani ganviTarebisa da masze zemoqmedi garegani

faqtorebis urTierTdamTxveva.

ganmartebiTi leqsikoni *

51


avarisi _ hiqsosebis dedaqalaqi. gaSenebuli iyo egviptis Sua samefos

xanis qalaqis, rovartis nangrevebze, nilosis deltis CrdiloaRmosavleT

nawilSi.

aTlaTli _ Subis sasroli miliseburad amoRaruli xis joxi, romelic

faqtiurad mklavis damagrZelebelis funqcias asrulebda da

zrdida srolis efeqturobis xarisxs.

amurru _ amoreelebis qveyana siriaSi.

ani _ Sumeruli zecis RvTaeba, yvela sxva RvTaebis mama, batoni da

damcveli.

aniangi _ Zv. w. 1554-1045 w.w. Sangis dinastiis dedaqalaqi, mdebareobda

CrdiloeT henanis provinciaSi (CineTi).

arieli _ farTod gamoyenebuli termini, romelic, ZiriTadad,

ganixileba winareindo-iranelTa TviTdasaxelebad.

arnaimi _ qalaqi kadeSis samxreTiT, egviptidan kadeSisaken mimaval

gzaze.

aqemenianebi _ sparseli tomebis gamaerTianebeli samefo dinastia,

romelmac safuZveli daudo aqemenianTa pirveli sparsuli imperiis arsebobas,

Zv. w. 558-330 w.w.

gavgamela _ adgilmdebareoba CrdiloeT mesopotamiaSi, dRevandel

q. mosulTan.

gilgameSis eposi _ epikuri poema. msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze

adreuli Txzuleba. iTvleba, rom gilgameSi mesopotamiis adredinastiuri

II periodis mmarTveli iyo (daaxl. XXVII s.).

guTiebi _ mesopotamiis aRmosavleTiT, zagrosis mTianeTSi

mcxovrebi mebrZoli tomebi.

gurzi _ igive bunikiani kverTxi; faqtobrivad warmoadgenda xis

xelkets, romlis erT boloSi qva iyo Casmuli. igi gamoiyeneboda axlo

brZolaSi mowinaaRmdegisaTvis Casartymelad.

dafuri _ karnakis warweris mixedviT, es qalaqi `xeTebis qveyana-

Sia~, Tumca, sinamdvileSi siriaSi unda yofiliyo; adre mas qanaanis TaborTan

aigivebdnen.

delta _ mdinaris SesarTavTan warmoqmnili nariyi are, daserili

mdinaris totebis qseliT, xSirad samkuTxedi formisa.

difuzia _ gavrceleba, gafarToeba, ganbneva.

dominos efeqti _ martivi jaWvuri reaqcia, romelsac adgili

aqvs, rodesac raime cvlileba iwvevs aseTive cvlilebas iqve, mis gverdiT

da a.S. gamoiyeneba movlenaTa urTierTdamokidebuli jaWvis ganmartebisas.

egeida _ dasavleTiTa da CrdiloeTiT saberZneTiT da aRmosavleTiT

TurqeTiT SemosazRvruli egeosis zRvis kunZulebi.

eleqtrumi _ minerali, TviTnabadi oqros nairsaxeoba, Seicavs 25-

50% vercxls. agreTve, oqrosa da vercxlis Senadnobi.

52


epipaleoliTi _ berZnulad `Zveli qvis Semdgom~; arqeologiuri

termini, gamoiyeneba Zveli qvis xanis Semdgomi periodis anu e. w. Sua

qvis xanis anu mezoliTis adreuli etapis aRsaniSnavad.

vedebi – uZvelesi induri sibrZnis wignebi; ganekuTvneba Zv. w. II

aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi.

vindias mTagrexili _ indostanis naxevarkunZulis centraluri

nawilis dasavleTiT, ganyofs indoeTs, CrdiloeT (indisa da gangis

dablobi) da samxreT nawilebad.

zRvis xalxebi _ likielebi, sardinielebi da egeosis zRvis

tomebi.

Tarxuntasa – qalaqi xaTusas samxreT-dasavleTiT, jerjerobiT

arqeologebis mier ar aris mikvleuli.

Tebe _ egviptis erT-erTi uZvelesi dedaqalaqi, zemo egvipteSi,

nilosis aRmosavleT napirze, q. luqsoris maxloblad.

iliada _ `simRera ilionze~ anu troaze, ZvelberZnuli epikuri

poema, romelsac homeross (daaxl. Zv. w. IX s.) miaweren.

indo-ariuli _ indo-evropuli enaTa ojaxis indo-ariuli gan-

Stoeba.

indo-evropelebi _ monaTesave enebis erT-erTi didi ojaxi; masSi

Sedian: xeTur-luviuri, induri, iranuli, berZnuli, somxuri da sxva

enebi.

kadeSi _ igive yadeSi, Zveli galavniani qalaqi dasavleT siriaSi,

md. orontis maxloblad. q. homsis samxreT-dasavleTiT 24 km, dRes misi

nangrevebi cnobilia rogorc Tel nebi mendis borcvi.

karnaki _ umdidresi sataZro kompleqsi, mdebareobs luqsoris

maxloblad (egvipte). mniSvneloba SeiZina meTerTmete dinastiis xanidan;

misi istoria TebesTan aris mWidrod gadajaWvuli.

kasta _ indoeTsa da aRmosavleTis zog sxva qveyanaSi gancalkevebuli

sazogadoebrivi jgufi, romelSic adamianebi uflebrivi mdgomareobis,

profesiis Tu warmomavlobis mixedviT iyvnen gaerTianebuli.

logistika _ armiis momaragebisa da gadaadgilebis marTva.

luvielebi _ indo-evropul enaTa ojaxis, anatoliuri jgufis ena,

romelSic xeTurTan anu nesiturTan da falaurTan (palas ena)

erTiandeba. gavrcelebuli iyo Zv. w. II aTaswleulis samxreT

anatoliaSi, arcavasa da kicuvaTnaSi.

marianu _ etliT mebrZolTa privilegirebuli kastis warmomadgeneli

Zvel aRmosavleTSi.

megido _ qalaqi Crdilo-dasavleT palestinaSi, ezdraelonis

velze, Tanamedrove q. haifas maxloblad, israeli.

memfisi _ q. kairos samxreTiT 20 km, nilosis dasavleT napirze.

qvemo egviptis pirveli nomisa da Semdeg Zveli samefos dedaqalaqi

daaxl. 2200 wlamde.

53


miTani _ Zv. w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi, CrdiloeT mesopotamiaSi

mdebare xurituli samefo.

morhana pahari _ adgilmdebareoba mirzapuris mxareSi, utarprade-

Sis provincia (CrdiloeTi indoeTi).

mtkvar-arezis kultura _ Zv. w IV-III aTaswleulebSi mtkvrisa da

arezis SuamdinareTSi gavrcelebuli adrebrinjaos xanis kultura;

kavkasiis garda farTod iyo gavrcelebuli wina aziaSic (igive mtkvararaqsis

kultura).

nearini _ igive na’arni amurrus saxelmwifoSi q. biblosis

CrdiloeTiT Tu qanaanSi mcxovrebi xalxi.

nairi _ Zv. w. XIII-X ss., vanis tbis irgvliv mcxovrebi tomebis

erToblivi saxelwodeba.

neandertaleli _ kacobriobis ganviTarebis gverdiTi Sto, cxovrobda

ZiriTadad Sua paleoliTSi.

neoliTi _ berZnulad `axali qva~; arqeologiuri termini, gamoiyeneba

axali qvis xanis aRsaniSnavad.

nipuri _ q. baRdadis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT 160 km. miCneulia Sumeris

erT-erT uZveles qalaqad. igi iyo samyaros mmarTveli RvTaebis,

enlilis qalaqi, romelsac Sumeruli RvTaebebis ierarqiaSi meore

adgili ekava anis Semdeg.

onagri – gareuli viri.

paleoliTi _ berZnulad `Zveli qva~; arqeologiuri termini, gamoiyeneba

Zveli qvis xanis aRsaniSnavad.

panTeoni – berZnulad yvela RmerTis taZari.

petroglifi _ berZnulad `qvaze amokveTa~. adamianis mier gamoqvabulebSi

da kldeze amokveTili gamosaxulebebi.

pirosis gamarjveba _ iseTi gamarjveba, romelsac Zalian didi

msxverpli dasWirda. gamoTqma ukavSirdeba, epiris mefe piross, romelmac

Zv. w. 279 w. daamarcxa romaelebi udidesi msxverplis fasad.

piqtograma _ Sinaarsis gadmosacemad gamoyenebuli gamartivebuli

naxatebi.

ramesiduli periodi _ daaxl. Zv. w. 1295-1069 w.w., axali samefos

mecxramete da meoce dinastiebis momcveli epoqa.

rameseumi – ramses II-is memorialuri taZari TebeSi, zemo egvipteSi,

Tanam. q. luqsorTan.

rigveda _ `sagalobelTa codna~, vedebis wignis uZvelesi nawili;

Seiqmna Zv. w. II aTaswleulis Sua xanebSi.

rodosi _ berZnuli kunZuli TurqeTis samxreT-dasavleTiT, egeosis

zRvis sanapiros maxloblad.

semitebi _ monaTesave enebis erT-erTi didi ojaxi; masSi erTiandebian:

arabebis, ebraelebis, asurelebis, amoreelebis, aqadelebis da sxvaTa

enebi.

54


seti – egviptis Zveli RvTaeba, dakavSirebuli udabnosTan, qariSxalTan

da qaosTan.

suza _ msoflios erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqi, mdebareobda md. tigrosis

aRmosavleTiT 250 km, suzianaSi, Tanamedrove xuzistani, iranSi.

umma _ Sumeruli qalaqi, cnobili q. lagaSTan xangrZlivi konfliqtiT.

Zv. w. XXIV saukuneSi, misma mmarTvelma, lugal-zagesma

daiqvemdebara uri da uruqi. mdebareobda tigrosis dasavleTiTa da

lagaSis CrdiloeTiT.

upu – igive apu, q. damaskos sanaxebi, siriaSi.

uris Standarti _ warmoadgenda xis yuTis Tavsaxurs, romelzedac

gamosaxulia SumerTa omisa da mSvidobis scenebi, gvxvdeba oTxTvala

etlebic. napovni iyo uris e. w. samefo akldamebis gaTxris dros.

falanga _ Zvel saberZneTSi gamoyenebuli qveiTi jaris sabrZolo

wyoba, jariskacTa erTmaneTTan mijrili mwkrivebi.

forposti _ samxedro mniSvnelobis mowinave posti, mowinave

pozicia; igive avanposti.

furuSxanda _ savaraudod, Tanam. ajemhoiuqi, centralur anatoliis

samxreT nawilSi, q. aksarais Crdilo-dasavleTiT 18 km.

qanaani _ Zveli geografiuli termini, egviptelTa mixedviT moicavda

mTel aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTs anu levants.

Sangis anu inis dinastia _ istoriulad dadasturebuli Cinuri

saimperatoro dinastia. arsebobda Zv. w. II aTaswleulis Suxanebsa da

meore naxevarSi, Camoyalibda centralur CineTSi, CrdiloeT henanSi,

yviTeli mdinaris dablobze anu e. w. `sakuTriv CineTSi~.

SabTuna _ qalaqi kadeSis samxreTiT, moxseniebulia ramses II-is

aziur laSqrobasTan dakavSirebiT, q. arnaimTan erTad.

Sedgenili mSvildi _ mzaddeboda sruliad gansxvaveuli masalebisagan,

romelTa erT fenad gaerTianeba xdeboda dawnexiT. gansxvavebuli

masalebis gaerTianeba SesaZleblobas iZleoda gamoyenebuli yofiliyo

TviToeuli maTganis saukeTeso Tvisebebi.

xadiri _ kunZuli mdebareobs gujaraTis provinciaSi pakistanis

sazRvarTan.

qalkoliTi _ berZnulad `spilenZ-qva~. arqeologiuri termini

spilenZisa da qvis erdrouli gamoyenebis xanis aRsaniSnavad.

xuritebi _ savaraudod, kavkasiuri warmomavlobis xalxi; cxovrobda

CrdiloeT mesopotamiaSi, daaxl. Zv. w. III aTaswleulis Sua xanebidan.

maTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnia miTanis

samefo.

homogenuri _ SemadgenlobiT, warmoSobiT, TvisebebiT erTgvarovani.

gamoyenebuli literatura da wyaroebi:

55


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• Ferrill, A. The Origins of War: From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great.

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• Turney-High, H. H., Primitive War: Its Practice and Concepts, 2nd ed. (Columbia,

S.C., 1971).

• Woods, M. & Woods, M. B. Ancient Warfare: From Clubs to Catapults. Minneapolis:

Runestone Press, 2000.

56


tabulebi

1

2

57


58

5 6

3

4


ilustraciebis aRweriloba:

1. narmeris fila, agreTve cnobili rogorc hierankonpolisis palitra.

TariRdeba daaxl. Zv. w. XXXI s-iT.

2. Standarti uris samefo samarovnidan, Zv. w. III aTaswleulis

Suaxanebi.

3. xeTuri etli, gadmoxatuli egvipturi bareliefidan.

4. ramses II dafuris alyis dros; rameseumis (Tebe) kedlis ferwera, Zv.

w. XIII s.

5. lagaSis mefis eanaTumis mier qalaq umaze laSqrobis aRniSvneli

gamarjvebis stelis fragmenti; cnobili agreTve `svavebis stelis~

saxelwodebiT. daaxl. Zv. w. 2450 w. kirqva.

6. aSurnasirpal II-is bareliefi nipuris sasaxlidan.

59

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