Newsletter No - Blue Mountains Association of Cultural Heritage ...

Newsletter No - Blue Mountains Association of Cultural Heritage ...

Newsletter No - Blue Mountains Association of Cultural Heritage ...


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MARCH - APRIL 2012 ISSUE <strong>No</strong>. 20<br />

Grand house victim <strong>of</strong> bushfire now a ruin<br />

By John Merriman, Local Studies Librarian, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Library<br />

THIS burnt out<br />

building ruin on<br />

the side <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Great Western<br />

Highway at<br />

Faulconbridge<br />

was once a<br />

grand house<br />

with a tower<br />

built for a<br />

wealthy<br />

businessman<br />

Andrew<br />

McCulloch in<br />

the early<br />

1880s.<br />

The stone used<br />

in its<br />

construction<br />

was quarried<br />

nearby and the<br />

work was<br />

carried out by a<br />

well known local stonemason,<br />

Patrick (Paddy) Ryan.<br />

McCulloch furnished his country<br />

house using the exclusive Sydney<br />

firm <strong>of</strong> Lyon Cottier and Co.<br />

The property boasted a tennis court,<br />

flag-staff and beautiful gardens and<br />

an ornamental lake made by<br />

damming a gully.<br />

McCulloch named his new<br />

residence ‘Weemala’, an Aboriginal<br />

word said to mean “an expansive<br />

view”, and spent the next few years<br />

developing the grounds.<br />

However, at the end <strong>of</strong> the 1880s,<br />

he began to experience financial<br />

difficulties and sold the property to<br />

JW Cliff in 1889.<br />

When Cliff sold the property, then<br />

totaling about 113 acres in 1907,<br />

the new owner, a solicitor named<br />

George Evans, changed the name<br />

to ‘Eurama’, said to be a Greek<br />

word meaning much the same as<br />

the earlier Aboriginal one.<br />

Evans had also purchased the<br />

neighbouring house, ‘Numantia’, a<br />

wooden cottage adjacent to the<br />

railway line with its own rail<br />

platform, built in 1877 by Sir James<br />

Martin, and to this he transferred<br />

the name ‘Weemala’.<br />

This has proved to be a source <strong>of</strong><br />

great confusion and many people<br />

today still refer to ‘Eurama”’as<br />

‘Weemala’.<br />

When George Evans died ‘Eurama’<br />

passed to his daughter, Mrs Emily<br />

Ethel McLaurin.<br />

It was later sold to Mrs Katherine<br />

Nathan in the 1920s and around<br />

1930, to Mrs Daisy Brown.<br />

Following Mrs Brown’s death the<br />

building was left vacant for a time<br />

and suffered from some vandalism.<br />

Over the ensuing decades many<br />

owners had their dreams cut short.<br />

The depression, war and other hard<br />

times, falling on the owners. In the<br />

early 1960s the then owner, Mr<br />

Adams, set about restoring the<br />

decaying property.<br />

Restoration had been completed<br />

just prior to the disastrous bushfires<br />

on 1968.<br />

The fire consumed the house in all<br />

its grandeur and the building<br />

remains a ruin today.<br />

As a postscript to the ‘Eurama’<br />

story, the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City<br />

Library was given permission by Mr<br />

Watkins, the then owner, to stage<br />

an open air children’s adventure<br />

theatre performance there during<br />

the Bicentennial celebrations in<br />

1988.<br />

With the ruins as a backdrop the<br />

property proved a most effective<br />

site for this project.<br />

Continued page 3<br />

HERITAGE 1<br />

March - April 2012

Contents.........<br />


March - April<br />

2012<br />

*P1 Grand house victim<br />

<strong>of</strong> bushfire<br />

*P2 Western crossing<br />

bicentenary gets a<br />

dynamic boost<br />

*P4 Great-great-great<br />

grand-daughter <strong>of</strong><br />

William Cox is<br />

guest speaker<br />

*P4 Annual meeting<br />

marks 6 years <strong>of</strong><br />

achievement<br />

*P5 Review <strong>of</strong> role and<br />

future direction for<br />

heritage<br />

association<br />

*P5 Internet and e-mail<br />

*P6 Scenic World<br />

Sculpture awards<br />

announced<br />

*P7 The Red Admiral -<br />

an exhibition <strong>of</strong><br />

Patrick White’s<br />

years at Mt Wilson<br />

*P8 Dowell O’Reilly ...<br />

father <strong>of</strong> Eleanor<br />

Dark an author and<br />

poet in his own<br />

right<br />

*P10 Sydney the s<strong>of</strong>t<br />

touch<br />

*P11 Hazelbrook and<br />

Woodford History<br />

2nd edition<br />

*P11 An outstanding Mt<br />

Wilson potter <strong>of</strong><br />

yesteryear<br />

*P12 The blacksmith and<br />

his anvil the symbol<br />

<strong>of</strong> runaway<br />

marriages<br />

*P13 <strong>Heritage</strong> and the<br />

internet seminar<br />

*P14 Wall hanging<br />

recalls pioneer<br />

ancestors<br />

*P14 <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> an<br />

Illustrated souvenir<br />

*P15 Walk beneath trade<br />

union banners<br />

*P15 Venturing above<br />

and beyond<br />

*P15 Old Hartley bridge<br />

*P17 Two BMFH authors<br />

receve awards<br />

*P18 Awards for 3 Valley<br />

Heights Rail<br />

members<br />

*P20 State Library puts<br />

$1.8M 194-year old<br />

Australiana album<br />

on show<br />

An opinion from the editor.......<br />

THE REGION is indeed fortunate to<br />

have many dedicated and enthusiastic<br />

volunteers engaged in heritage and<br />

history work. This small army <strong>of</strong><br />

people from Penrith to Bathurst is<br />

doing a great job in planning<br />

commemorations and celebrations for<br />

the 2013 -15 bicentenary <strong>of</strong> the<br />

crossing <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>, the<br />

discovery and development <strong>of</strong> the<br />

golden west.<br />

BMACHO, the Royal Australian<br />

Historical Society and the National<br />

Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia some 6 or 7 years<br />

ago sounded the alert that 2013 -15<br />

would be a golden opportunity to<br />

create a lasting commemoration, <strong>of</strong> the<br />

western crossing almost 200 years ago<br />

and the events that followed<br />

culminating in Governor Lachlan<br />

Macquarie arriving by coach in<br />

Bathurst to proclaim it a township.<br />

Gradually local government has come<br />

on board with token finances from their<br />

limited resources for the project, while<br />

the state government at several levels<br />

including that <strong>of</strong> the premier and<br />

federal local members have promised<br />

support.<br />

All this interest is welcome and part <strong>of</strong><br />

the need to involve government at all<br />

levels and the people <strong>of</strong> this<br />

community who must be an integral<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the planning and event<br />

operating process.<br />

But what has been lacking up to date<br />

has been a person or persons who<br />

might drive this project and bring to<br />

reality this great opportunity.<br />

Just such a force has now emerged<br />

with the formation <strong>of</strong> the Business<br />

Supporting Bicentenary (BSB) funded<br />

by Phil Hammon <strong>of</strong> Scenic World and<br />

Tom Colless <strong>of</strong> Colless Foods. This<br />

body could take a key role in securing<br />

an estimated $3 million in government<br />

grants and company sponsorships<br />

needed to make the events reach their<br />

potential.<br />

[Some 4 years ago a rough calculation<br />

by BMACHO’s executive suggested a<br />

budget <strong>of</strong> $5 million. BSB has no doubt<br />

Western crossing<br />

bicentenary gets a<br />

dynamic boost<br />

refined BMACHO’s earlier ‘guesstimates’<br />

which included $2 million government<br />

and sponsorship funds for developing<br />

public access and innovative interpretive<br />

signage at various sites along the original<br />

Cox’s Road between Emu Plains and<br />

Bathurst]<br />

Phil Hammon and Tom Colless are<br />

dynamic businessmen who have the<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> very much at heart and<br />

in the past have not been slow to “put<br />

their money where their mouth is”. Their<br />

strong leadership in this vital part <strong>of</strong> the<br />

bi-centenary celebration and<br />

commemoration is the link in the chain<br />

the project so badly needed<br />

However, the Western crossing is not<br />

just about Katoomba nor even the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong>. It is about the whole region<br />

from Penrith to Bathurst and possibly<br />

Parramatta, Blacktown and the<br />

Hawkesbury.<br />

It is ludicrous to think no matter how<br />

many “Memorandums <strong>of</strong> Understanding’<br />

local government might sign that it has<br />

the capacity to co-ordinate, obtain the<br />

government and private funding and then<br />

manage the event on a regional level.<br />

It is also a recipe for disaster to ignore<br />

the tremendous amount <strong>of</strong> work that has<br />

been done by the volunteers, in historical<br />

societies, National Trust , BMACHO and<br />

others in the heritage sector. This group<br />

under the able chairmanship <strong>of</strong> RAHS<br />

president, Pr<strong>of</strong>essor David Carment has<br />

done much <strong>of</strong> the preliminary work.<br />

It is after all, primarily a commemoration<br />

<strong>of</strong> a major historical event. The aim<br />

should to be to use the commemoration<br />

to exploit the tourism potential which<br />

must then benefit the region’s economy.<br />

Government funding is more likely to<br />

come for a regional project, rather than a<br />

series <strong>of</strong> parochial events.<br />

Federal and state government should<br />

seize the opportunity to demonstrate how<br />

our heritage linked with tourism is good<br />

for the economy <strong>of</strong> the nation.<br />

John Leary, OAM - Past president,<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Cultural</strong> <strong>Heritage</strong> Organisations Inc.<br />

HERITAGE 2<br />

March - April 2012

Property name changes<br />

cause confusion<br />

Weemala (1880s) became Eurama (1907)<br />

Numantia (1877) became Weemala (1907)<br />

The Eurama owners<br />

The subsequent owners <strong>of</strong><br />

‘Eurama’, who consolidated it<br />

into one estate and expanded<br />

that estate to the present 141<br />

hectares, have been <strong>of</strong><br />

individual significance: Andrew<br />

McCulloch as the epitome <strong>of</strong> the<br />

ruthless wheeler and dealer in<br />

sellable land next to a projected<br />

railway, the politician,<br />

conveyancer and real estate<br />

speculator who always had<br />

inside information, an anti-hero<br />

<strong>of</strong> the 1870s and 1880s; JW<br />

Cliff, as a lesser player in<br />

McCulloch’s world; George<br />

Evans as a proselytiser for the<br />

Mountain tracks, the eponym <strong>of</strong><br />

Evans Lookout, the builder <strong>of</strong><br />

the State-significant ‘Eirene’<br />

(now ‘Cleopatra’); his daughter,<br />

the formidable Emily MacLaurin,<br />

and her husband, as heirs to the<br />

Rouses and Fitzgeralds, as well<br />

as the Evanses and the<br />

MacLaurins, who brought the<br />

first motor-car to the stables at<br />

‘Eurama’ and the first Rolls<br />

Royce, and reigned there with<br />

something <strong>of</strong> the old-fashioned<br />

authority <strong>of</strong> the quondam<br />

squattocracy, leavened by<br />

scholarship <strong>of</strong> which Badham<br />

would have approved.Source:<br />

NSW State <strong>Heritage</strong> statment <strong>of</strong><br />

significance<br />

Continued from page 1<br />

‘Weemala’ is now situated close to<br />

the rail line behind the high stone<br />

wall.<br />

The cottage originally on this site<br />

was erected about 1877 for Sir<br />

James Martin KCMG. It was to be<br />

his country residence and was<br />

named ‘Numantia’.<br />

Numantia being a region in Spain<br />

and it has been said that Sir James<br />

thought the countryside here similar<br />

to that <strong>of</strong> Numantia, Spain.<br />

It was a wooden house set behind a<br />

high stone wall.<br />

Sir James had acquired a large<br />

amount <strong>of</strong> land from Sir Henry<br />

Parkes and it was his intention to<br />

build a huge mansion after he had<br />

built this small wooden cottage.<br />

The grand mansion never<br />

eventuated.<br />

The foundations only were laid.<br />

They later c.1914 -18 became the<br />

foundations for ‘Banool’ now ‘The<br />

Bungalow’ on the corner <strong>of</strong> Martin<br />

Place and Great Western Highway<br />

at Linden.<br />

In 1876 a railway platform was<br />

erected to service the well-to-do<br />

residents <strong>of</strong> the area. It became the<br />

Numantia Platform but ceased<br />

operation in 1892 with the platform<br />

being removed in 1897.<br />

In 1898 Adolphus Rogalsky<br />

purchased ‘Numantia’ and it was he<br />

who changed the name to<br />

‘Weemala’.<br />

This coincided with the name<br />

change for the other ‘Weemala’ to<br />

‘Eurama’.<br />

The high stone wall <strong>of</strong> ‘Numantia’,<br />

later ‘Weemala’, still stands.<br />

The cottage was destroyed by<br />

bushfire in December 1977. Since<br />

then a new three bedroom brick<br />

veneer cottage was erected behind<br />

the stone wall. This building has<br />

been badly vandalised.<br />

Photographs from the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> City Library collection,<br />

from the McLaurin family album.<br />

John Merriman, Local Studies<br />

Librarian © 2009 <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

City Library<br />

‘Weemala’ originally named ‘Numantia’<br />

HERITAGE 3<br />

March - April 2012

Great - great - great grand - daughter <strong>of</strong> William<br />

Cox is guest speaker for BMACHO’S AGM<br />

Dr Anne-Maree Whitaker<br />

(pictured), the great-great-great<br />

grand-daughter <strong>of</strong> William Cox,<br />

who built the first road over the<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> in 1814 -1815 will<br />

be the guest speaker at this<br />

month’s annual general meeting<br />

<strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

<strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Cultural</strong> <strong>Heritage</strong><br />

Organisations Inc.<br />

Her talk will be on her great -<br />

great - great - grandfather,<br />

William Cox, Justice <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Peace, paymaster NSW Corps<br />

and road builder.<br />

Anne - Maree is working on a<br />

biography <strong>of</strong> her ancestor and has<br />

recently undertaken a research trip<br />

to the UK and Ireland in pursuit <strong>of</strong><br />

family information.<br />

Dr Whitaker has a PhD in Australian<br />

history from Macquarie University in<br />

Sydney.<br />

She has published widely in<br />

Australian Catholic and Irish<br />

Australian topics and is an<br />

independent pr<strong>of</strong>essional historian<br />

who undertakes research in a wide<br />

range <strong>of</strong> 18th - 20th century<br />

Australian topics.<br />

Dr Whitaker is a Fellow <strong>of</strong> the Royal<br />

Australian Historical Society and the<br />

Royal Historical Society, and a<br />

member <strong>of</strong> the Pr<strong>of</strong>essional<br />

Historians <strong>Association</strong> (NSW) and<br />

the Australian Catholic Historical<br />

Society.<br />

Dr Whitaker was the winner <strong>of</strong> a<br />

2010 National Trust <strong>Heritage</strong> Award<br />

for ‘Sydney Parks - Signage and<br />

History Website’.<br />

She is also the NSW State Library’s<br />

CH Currey Memorial Fellow for<br />

2011 - 2012.<br />

Annual meeting marks 6 years <strong>of</strong> achievement<br />

The existing management<br />

committee <strong>of</strong> BMACHO under the<br />

presidency <strong>of</strong> Pamela Smith for the<br />

past 12 months, has continued to<br />

provide innovative initiatives to serve<br />

the heritage sector.<br />

Continuing on BMACHO’s list <strong>of</strong><br />

achievements in its first 5 years the<br />

committee’s major milestones this<br />

year include; the publishing <strong>of</strong> the<br />

second <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> History<br />

Journal, several seminars or<br />

workshops, the publication <strong>of</strong><br />

another 6 editions <strong>of</strong> the newsletter<br />

HERITAGE, support and advice on<br />

various issues as well as planning<br />

and organising the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

History conference for later this year.<br />

The committee has been particularly<br />

pleased to see achieved in 2011 one<br />

<strong>of</strong> its strategic aims, the creation by<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Council <strong>of</strong> a<br />

heritage advisory committee which<br />

in past years has seen a major task<br />

<strong>of</strong> lobbying by BMACHO.<br />

The annual general meeting is<br />

scheduled for Saturday, March 14 at<br />

2pm at the Grandview Hotel,<br />

Wentworth Falls.<br />

In the past year, once again there<br />

has been a very compatible group <strong>of</strong><br />

experienced men and women who<br />

have looked after the affairs <strong>of</strong> the<br />

association.<br />

Particular mention is made <strong>of</strong><br />

president Pamela Smith who has not<br />

had an easy job balancing her<br />

commitments, but has shown a<br />

strong lead in the affairs <strong>of</strong> the<br />

association particularly in the<br />

organisation <strong>of</strong> this year’s major<br />

event the conference in October<br />

2012.<br />

Dr Anne - Maree Whitaker<br />

The extraordinary capacity and<br />

ability <strong>of</strong> Jan Koperberg who as<br />

secretary has not only developed a<br />

very effective and timely<br />

communication with organisational<br />

and individual members, but in the<br />

wider heritage community continues<br />

to serve well past that <strong>of</strong> most<br />

others.<br />

<strong>No</strong>minations for all position close on<br />

March 9.<br />

Pictured below is Pamela Smith<br />

during a meeting with National<br />

Trust CEO Will Holmes a Court<br />

HERITAGE 4<br />

March - April 2012

Review <strong>of</strong> role and future directions<br />

for heritage association<br />

A REVIEW OF BMACHO’s past and<br />

possible future roles will be<br />

undertaken by a small subcommittee<br />

which will provide the<br />

management committee with a<br />

report and recommendations by<br />

June 30, 2012.<br />

Former BMACHO president John<br />

Leary has said, “Voluntary<br />

organisations such as those in the<br />

heritage sector play a vital role in<br />

society, but without strong<br />

management much <strong>of</strong> their hard<br />

work can be wasted.<br />

“From time to time an organisation<br />

needs to review its overall strategic<br />

direction.<br />

“All organisations need a strategic<br />

plan and that plan needs to answer<br />

three things: where are we now as<br />

an organisation, where do we want<br />

to be in three years time and how<br />

do we get from where we are now to<br />

where we want to be?.<br />

“In the six years <strong>of</strong> its existence<br />

BMACHO has achieved much and<br />

now is the time to capitalise on<br />

these successes.<br />

“For the review to be a success we<br />

need input and suggestions as to<br />

what members would like to see the<br />

association provide in the way <strong>of</strong><br />

services,” Mr Leary said.<br />

‘Organisations<br />

need strong,<br />

visionary,<br />

experienced<br />

people to<br />

provide<br />

strategic<br />

direction’<br />

The committee will comprise<br />

BMACHO’s president, Pamela<br />

Smith, secretary, Jan Koperberg,<br />

and former president, John Leary<br />

with vice president Ian Jack and<br />

former treasurer, Peter Stanbury<br />

available to also provide advice.<br />

The decision to conduct the review<br />

has been discussed for some time<br />

and recently the NSW Department<br />

<strong>of</strong> Fair Trading recommended this<br />

action should be taken every couple<br />

<strong>of</strong> years.<br />

It is 6 years since BMACHO was<br />

established and it is now<br />

considered to be an appropriate<br />

time to look at various aspects <strong>of</strong><br />

the association’s role.<br />

The review will consider the<br />

following issues:<br />

i. the quality and<br />

appropriateness <strong>of</strong> the services<br />

being supplied to members;<br />

ii. the expectations <strong>of</strong> both<br />

organisational and individual<br />

members;<br />

iii. the need and ability to<br />

provide extended and other<br />

services<br />

iv. the ramifications <strong>of</strong> the<br />

possible extension <strong>of</strong> the area to be<br />

served by the association;<br />

v. the necessity and<br />

desirability <strong>of</strong> a change in name for<br />

the association;<br />

vi. the desirability <strong>of</strong><br />

affiliating or associating with one or<br />

more universities; and<br />

vii. any other area which<br />

the committee may think<br />

appropriate.<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> the issues the subcommittee<br />

will investigate include:<br />

* The advantage or<br />

disadvantages <strong>of</strong> increasing<br />

BMACHO’s constituency to include<br />

neighbouring, but historically linked<br />

areas, such as Hawkesbury,<br />

Penrith, Oberon or even<br />

Bathurst<br />

∗ The benefit to historical<br />

societies and other heritage groups<br />

from having pr<strong>of</strong>essional advice and<br />

guidance on site for e.g. exhibit<br />

display and management or<br />

archiving or restoration work.<br />

∗ The advisability and<br />

capability <strong>of</strong> BMACHO to provide<br />

support within the capacity <strong>of</strong> its<br />

members in their pursuit <strong>of</strong> heritage<br />

advocacy.<br />

∗ The need to broaden<br />

BMACHO’s financial base to allow<br />

more services to be provided to<br />

members.<br />

∗ The possibility <strong>of</strong> linking<br />

BMACHO with a university and<br />

other research facilities.<br />

The sub-committee will also look at<br />

ways to ensure that the association<br />

operates within the principle <strong>of</strong> ‘best<br />

practice’.<br />

Anyone interested in making a<br />

submission should make contact<br />

with Jan Koperberg at<br />

j.koperberg@bigpond.com<br />

Internet and<br />

e-mail<br />

workshops<br />

A series <strong>of</strong> four introductory<br />

workshops for people wishing to<br />

improve their skills in the use <strong>of</strong><br />

the internet and email will be<br />

<strong>of</strong>fered by BMACHO on Thursday<br />

mornings April 5, 12 19 and 26.<br />

The workshops will be free and<br />

are funded by a generous grant<br />

from Telstra Connected Seniors<br />

Program.<br />

The Workshops will be held at<br />

Hobby’s Reach, the home <strong>of</strong> the<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society,<br />

99/101 Blaxland Road,<br />

Wentworth Falls.<br />

The class size is limited and<br />

preregistration is essential.<br />

Further information from Barrie<br />

Reynolds: phone 4757 4725;<br />

email barrie.r@bigpond.net.au<br />

HERITAGE 5<br />

March - April 2012

Scenic World Sculpture<br />

awards announced<br />

A SCULPTURE <strong>of</strong> wool and wire<br />

has taken out the inaugural<br />

Sculpture at Scenic World $20,000<br />

acquisitive award for pushing the<br />

medium’s boundaries into the 21st<br />

Century.<br />

Greer Taylor’s work, Distant Time, is<br />

one <strong>of</strong> 26 sculptures by 27 artists<br />

from Katoomba to Belfast to be<br />

displayed along Scenic World’s<br />

ancient temperate rainforest<br />

walkway, during the independent<br />

exhibition open until until March 11,<br />

2012.<br />

The award was presented by Scenic<br />

World’s new joint managing<br />

directors, Anthea and David<br />

Hammon, on behalf <strong>of</strong> the Hammon<br />

Family Council during the <strong>of</strong>ficial<br />

exhibition opening last month.<br />

Taylor’s winning sculpture<br />

comprises two parts, small and<br />

large formal pyramids composed<br />

with red woollen thread woven<br />

around steel wire, installed among<br />

the ancient trees to reflect a distant<br />

time that both contrasts and<br />

compliments the landscape.<br />

Ms Taylor said after the presentation<br />

it was a privilege to create artwork<br />

for a beautiful natural environment<br />

that was being protected by the<br />

Hammon family’s Scenic World.<br />

“The respect for the art, artists and<br />

the environment is what inspired me<br />

to apply for this exhibition,” Ms<br />

Taylor said.<br />

“Distant Time reflects this forest. It’s<br />

a web <strong>of</strong> random gatherings and by<br />

placing this form in the rainforest<br />

the sculpture and surroundings are<br />

mirrored and magnified by their<br />

differences.”<br />

The winning sculpture was selected<br />

by independent judges, UWS<br />

Curator Monica McMahon and<br />

Macquarie University Sculpture<br />

Park Curator, Leonard Janiszewski.<br />

The works <strong>of</strong> Cassandra Scott-Finn,<br />

Infinity?, Elianna Apostilades,<br />

Amber 302, and Heidi Kenyon, I’m<br />

Still Here, have each been awarded<br />

highly commended by the judges.<br />

They stated:<br />

“Scott-Finn’s work achieves a<br />

mesmerising kaleidoscope <strong>of</strong><br />

constantly changing colour and<br />

form that absorbs both viewer and<br />

environment as elements <strong>of</strong> its<br />

ongoing visual dance.<br />

“Similarly, Elianna Apostilades<br />

successfully sculpts form, light,<br />

movement, environment and time,<br />

transcending preconceived notions<br />

The sculpture ‘Distant Time’,<br />

displayed along Scenic World’s<br />

ancient temperate rainforest<br />

walkway<br />

<strong>of</strong> the traditional key canons <strong>of</strong><br />

sculpture.<br />

“Heidi Kenyon’s magical work<br />

exposes the intricate preciousness<br />

<strong>of</strong> the organic through light, form<br />

and environment.<br />

“The strength <strong>of</strong> all three works lies<br />

in their ability to challenge,<br />

readdress, reconstitute, and<br />

reinvigorate sculpture in the 21st<br />

century as an art form whose<br />

fundamental visual language<br />

incorporates environmental<br />

elements as essential.”<br />

Scenic World is an inaugural<br />

member <strong>of</strong> BMACHO and the<br />

Hammon family is active in the<br />

conservation and preservation <strong>of</strong><br />

the early mining ventures in the<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>. Phil Hammon is<br />

the co-author with Phillip Pells <strong>of</strong><br />

The Burning Mists <strong>of</strong> Time - A<br />

Technological and Social History <strong>of</strong><br />

Mining at Katoomba.<br />


BMACHO newsletter HERITAGE<br />

from January 2009 to December<br />

2011 has been index by Joan<br />

Edwards <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Family History Society.<br />

Joint managing directors <strong>of</strong> Scenic World, Anthea and David Hammon with<br />

winner <strong>of</strong> the inaugural Scenic World Sculpture award Greer Taylor<br />

(holding the Keith Rowe trophy) with exhibition curator Lizzy Marshall).<br />

Photograph by Peter Stanbury, OAM<br />

The index is available on the<br />

BMFHS website at http://<br />

www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/<br />

~nswbmfhs/res/bmacho.htm<br />

HERITAGE 6<br />

March - April 2012

The Red Admiral - an exhibition <strong>of</strong><br />

Patrick White’s years at Mt Wilson<br />

IN 2012, the Mt Wilson and Mt<br />

Irvine Historical Society will<br />

celebrate the centenary <strong>of</strong> Patrick<br />

White’s May 28, 1912 birth date by<br />

holding a year-long exhibition at the<br />

Turkish Bath Museum at Mt Wilson.<br />

Patrick White spent his formative<br />

years as a young child at Mt Wilson<br />

in the 1920s and 1930s; the<br />

exhibition will highlight the impact <strong>of</strong><br />

both the Australian natural<br />

environment and the influence <strong>of</strong><br />

working class and wealthy society<br />

individuals and families that were to<br />

strongly shape him for the<br />

remainder <strong>of</strong> his life, as an<br />

individual and as a writer <strong>of</strong><br />

international acclaim.<br />

The story <strong>of</strong> Patrick White and his<br />

family at Mt Wilson in the 1920s<br />

and 30s (the so-called ‘Golden Age’<br />

<strong>of</strong> Hill Station life in Australia) is rich<br />

in historical interest, and yet,<br />

remains well hidden to most people.<br />

The project aims to heighten<br />

awareness <strong>of</strong> the formative years <strong>of</strong><br />

White’s life in an easily accessible<br />

and understood manner.<br />

The exhibition has been specifically<br />

designed not to be an academic<br />

treatment <strong>of</strong> his literature, nor does<br />

it require an understanding or<br />

appreciation <strong>of</strong> White, or his works.<br />

The goal is to foster a recognition <strong>of</strong><br />

a vital influence on White that has<br />

previously been ignored, or<br />

misunderstood, for many years,<br />

despite the amount <strong>of</strong> research<br />

undertaken on the most famous and<br />

renowned Australian author.<br />

The exhibition will be in the form <strong>of</strong><br />

a series <strong>of</strong> framed A1 sized posters<br />

designed by a local pr<strong>of</strong>essional<br />

graphics artist.<br />

The title <strong>of</strong> the exhibition is taken<br />

from the name White used as a tenyear<br />

old. His first published pieces<br />

were about Mt. Wilson. The ‘Red<br />

Admiral’ was his favourite butterfly.<br />

The exhibition is to be opened at<br />

11am on Sunday June 17, by the<br />

Governor <strong>of</strong> NSW, Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Marie<br />

Bashir AC CVO at the Mt Wilson<br />

Village Hall.<br />

Ruth White, the mother <strong>of</strong> Patrick White, on the verandah <strong>of</strong><br />

Withycombe with an unidentified friend in 1923. Photograph Mt Wilson<br />

& Mt Irvine Historical Society Collection<br />

In association with the exhibition,<br />

the Mt Wilson and Mt Irvine<br />

Historical Society is hosting an<br />

open gardens weekend on Saturday<br />

and Sunday April 28 - 29.<br />

Three beautiful gardens –<br />

Withycombe, Sylvan Close and<br />

Bisley - that are seldom open to the<br />

public will be featured. Late April is<br />

traditionally the time <strong>of</strong> year when<br />

Mt Wilson’s famous autumn colours<br />

are at their peak.<br />

Withycombe was the childhood<br />

home <strong>of</strong> Patrick White. His parents,<br />

Dick and Ruth, bought the property<br />

in 1921 and held it until 1938 until it<br />

was sold to the Church <strong>of</strong> England<br />

for ten shillings.<br />

Near the front gate <strong>of</strong> Withycombe<br />

is a tree which still carries, albeit<br />

very faintly, the initials PW carved<br />

into its trunk some ninety years ago.<br />

The combined entrance fee to the<br />

three gardens is $20 per adult;<br />

children are admitted without<br />

charge. Tickets are available at the<br />

entrance <strong>of</strong> any <strong>of</strong> the three<br />

gardens.<br />

The gardens will be open from<br />

10am to 4pm. Food, drink and toilet<br />

facilities are available on the<br />

weekend from the Mt Wilson Village<br />

Hall.<br />

Additionally, the Mt Wilson Turkish<br />

Bath Museum will be open in<br />

conjunction on both days.<br />

This unique heritage listed building<br />

is situated within the Wynstay<br />

Estate at the end <strong>of</strong> The Avenue,<br />

Mount Wilson.<br />

It was one <strong>of</strong> the first properties to<br />

be established in Mount Wilson, as<br />

early as 1875, by Mr Richard<br />

Wynne who also established the<br />

Wynne Landscape & Sculpture<br />

Prize in 1895.<br />

The building was in use for a few<br />

years for its initial purpose, as a<br />

Turkish Bath, but now partly<br />

restored it houses a museum <strong>of</strong><br />

local history operated by the Mt<br />

Wilson and Mt Irvine Historical<br />

Society.<br />

The building itself is very stylish,<br />

featuring many original features<br />

including arched windows <strong>of</strong> stained<br />

and hand painted glass. It has<br />

exterior walls <strong>of</strong> polychrome<br />

brickwork with Italianate decoration<br />

and an elaborate turret with cast<br />

iron finials and ro<strong>of</strong> decoration.<br />

Ornate ro<strong>of</strong> decorations on<br />

Turkish bath house, Mt Wilson<br />

HERITAGE 7<br />

March - April 2012

Dowell O’Reilly … father <strong>of</strong> Eleanor Dark an<br />

author and poet in his own right<br />

WHAT can we give in return<br />

For her beauty and mystery<br />

Of flowering forest, infinite plain,<br />

by Pamela Smith - Springwood Historians<br />

McCulloch is perhaps better<br />

known in the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> as<br />

the owner <strong>of</strong> the - now derelict -<br />

cottage ‘Eurama’ located at<br />

Linden.<br />

Deep sky and distant mountainchain,<br />

And her triumphant sea,<br />

Thundering old songs <strong>of</strong> liberty? 1<br />

DOWELL O”REILLY, better known<br />

perhaps as the father <strong>of</strong> author<br />

Eleanor Dark, was a schoolmaster<br />

turned parliamentarian and an<br />

author and poet in his own right.<br />

Dowell, born in Sydney on July 18<br />

1865, was the second <strong>of</strong> four<br />

children born to Anglican<br />

clergyman, Rev. Thomas O’Reilly<br />

and second wife Rosa (nee<br />

Smith). 22<br />

He was educated at Sydney<br />

Grammar School and took up a<br />

teaching post at ‘Hayfield’ to assist<br />

his mother after his father died in<br />

1881. 3<br />

It was there that he met Eleanor<br />

McCulloch – the music teacher -<br />

who he married in a quiet, almost<br />

secretive, ceremony on December<br />

28 1895. 4<br />

The bride’s parents and close<br />

friends were absent which,<br />

according to Barbara Brooks and<br />

Judith Clark caused ‘quite a stir’<br />

when the union became common<br />

knowledge. 5<br />

Albert Bathurst Piddington, who a<br />

year later married Dowell’s sister<br />

Marion Louisa, was his best man.<br />

Piddington, like Dowell, had been<br />

educated at Sydney Grammar.<br />

Marriage to Eleanor Grace<br />

McCulloch meant that he became<br />

the son-in-law <strong>of</strong> the controversial<br />

politician, Andrew Hardie<br />

McCulloch.<br />

The ruins <strong>of</strong> the cottage are a<br />

familiar sight to road and rail<br />

traffic as they pass by today.<br />

O’Reilly was also related to Dr<br />

Charles Badham, Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong><br />

Classics at Sydney University,<br />

through Badham’s first marriage<br />

to Julia, sister to O’Reilly’s<br />

mother. 6<br />

There is some speculation that<br />

Badham may have assisted<br />

O’Reilly’s mother when she opened<br />

‘Hayfield’ as a preparatory school<br />

for boys at Parramatta. 7<br />

Scott; they became firm friends. 12<br />

In 1898 he returned to Sydney<br />

Grammar where he remained a<br />

master until 1909. 13<br />

An article in the Illustrated Sydney Although his literary career began in<br />

News in 1889, suggested that the 1880s, it was somewhat less<br />

‘Hayfield,’ presided over by Mrs. than spectacular.<br />

O’Reilly, was an efficient and<br />

comfortable school. 8<br />

He is known to have destroyed<br />

volumes <strong>of</strong> A Pedlar’s Pack,<br />

Dowell and Eleanor had their first because sales <strong>of</strong> the book <strong>of</strong> verse<br />

child, named for his father, in 1899. had been inadequate. 14<br />

Eleanor, named for her mother, was<br />

born in 1901, while Brian arrived in By the 1890s his literary career<br />

1905. 9<br />

seemed to have picked up because<br />

he regularly contributed poems and<br />

Dowell junior died in 1926, Brian short stories to the Bulletin and<br />

married <strong>No</strong>rah Wilson and died at other publications. 15<br />

Wentworth Falls in 1985 in the<br />

same year as sister Eleanor (then Night classes at the University <strong>of</strong><br />

Eleanor Dark), who died in<br />

Sydney in 1889 brought him into<br />

Katoomba.<br />

contact with scholar and writer,<br />

John Le Gay Brereton, and the<br />

In 1886/87, Dowell played cricket equally talented poet, author and<br />

for Central Cumberland against the scholar, Christopher Brennan.<br />

visiting English side, and in 1888,<br />

he was commissioned second One-time Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> Economics,<br />

lieutenant in the Parramatta<br />

Robert Francis Irvine, was also a<br />

Volunteer Rifles. 10 He transferred to mutual friend.<br />

the reserves in 1898.<br />

The men were involved in<br />

Dowell was elected to the<br />

publication <strong>of</strong> the short-lived<br />

Legislative Assembly for Parramatta Australian Magazine and were<br />

in 1894, on a free trade ticket. members <strong>of</strong> the Casual Club. 16<br />

Shortly after, he moved a motion in<br />

parliament in favour <strong>of</strong> female<br />

suffrage. 11<br />

Dowell’s sympathies for female<br />

suffrage endeared him to Rose<br />

Dowell Philip O’Reilly<br />

In 1910 Dowell contested the seat<br />

<strong>of</strong> Parramatta as a Labour<br />

candidate and counted WM Hughes<br />

among his circle <strong>of</strong> friends. 17<br />

Continued page 9<br />

HERITAGE 8<br />

March - April 2012

Continued from page 8<br />

Friendship<br />

with<br />

controversial<br />

prime minister<br />

‘Billy’ Hughes<br />

WM Hughes,CH,KC - Prime<br />

Minister <strong>of</strong> Australia 1915 - 23<br />

His friendship with Hughes was to<br />

have long term effects and was<br />

thought to have caused a rift with<br />

his brother-in-law, AB Piddington. 18<br />

A column in the Sydney Morning<br />

Herald called ‘Sydney Day by Day’<br />

carried a very tongue in cheek view<br />

<strong>of</strong> Dowell.<br />

The article implied that he was<br />

somewhat <strong>of</strong> the ‘Bohemian order,’<br />

and well thought <strong>of</strong> in ‘local literary’<br />

circles. 19<br />

The article went on to suggest that<br />

Dowell found favour among the<br />

‘womenfolk <strong>of</strong> the State’ although<br />

‘not an enormous number,’ who, by<br />

that time, had won the right to vote.<br />

The Herald correspondent<br />

suggested that Dowell had written<br />

some ‘acceptable poetry’ and his<br />

‘crisp and appetising’ style was<br />

reflected in a letter sent to the paper<br />

regarding his feud with Piddington. 20<br />

Michael Roe suggested that while<br />

Piddington was intellectually gifted,<br />

he was <strong>of</strong> a turbulent disposition<br />

and prone to recurrent ‘displays <strong>of</strong><br />

wayward emotion.’ 21<br />

Thus, O’Reilly’s claim (see below)<br />

may have been correct. However,<br />

over recent years a darker side to<br />

this feud has been revealed by<br />

Helen O’Reilly and Marivic<br />

Wyndham, which had little to do<br />

with politics but more to do with<br />

personal issues within the family. 22<br />

Years <strong>of</strong> illness preceded the death<br />

<strong>of</strong> Eleanor Grace O’Reilly, who<br />

eventually died in 1914. 23 Dowell’s<br />

second wife, Marie Rose Beatrice<br />

(Mollie) Miles, who he married in<br />

1917, was a cousin he met in<br />

England in 1879. 24<br />

He continued contributing to<br />

periodicals and in 1913 published<br />

Tears and Triumph, that, while<br />

fiction, sketched an ‘outline <strong>of</strong> his<br />

suffragette philosophy.’ 25<br />

The local studies collection in<br />

Springwood library hold several <strong>of</strong><br />

Dowell O’Reilly’s works including<br />

Tears and Triumph, Fivecorners,<br />

The prose and verse <strong>of</strong> Dowell<br />

O’Reilly and Dowell O’Reilly from<br />

his letters.<br />

Dowell died <strong>of</strong> pneumonia and<br />

vascular disease at Leura in 1923<br />

and was buried in the cemetery at<br />

Blackheath.<br />

Endnotes<br />

1<br />

First verse <strong>of</strong> Australia by Dowell<br />

O’Reilly.<br />

2<br />

Michael Sharkey, ‘O’Reilly, Dowell<br />

Philip (1865–1923)’, Australian<br />

Dictionary <strong>of</strong> Biography, National<br />

Centre <strong>of</strong> Biography, Australian<br />

National University, http://adb.anu.<br />

edu.au/biography/oreilly-dowellphilip-<br />

7917/text13773, accessed 21<br />

September 2011.<br />

3<br />

Ibid.<br />

4<br />

Barbara Brooks & Judith Clark,<br />

Eleanor Dark, A Writers Life,<br />

Macmillan, 1998, p. 9.<br />

5<br />

Ibid.<br />

6<br />

Michael Sharkey.<br />

7<br />

Ibid.<br />

8<br />

Illustrated Sydney News,<br />

3.10.1889, p. 19.<br />

9<br />

NSW Births, Deaths and Marriage<br />

Indexes,<br />

10<br />

Michael Sharkey.<br />

11<br />

Ibid.<br />

12<br />

Judith A. Allen, Rose Scott,<br />

Oxford University Press, Oxford,<br />

1994, p. 254.<br />

13<br />

Ibid.<br />

14<br />

Michael Sharkey.<br />

15<br />

Ibid.<br />

16<br />

Ibid.<br />

17<br />

Ibid.<br />

18<br />

Sydney Morning Herald, The High<br />

Court, Identity <strong>of</strong> Mr X, Attack on Mr<br />

Piddington, 15.12.1922, p. 11; The<br />

Argus, Appearance <strong>of</strong> “X”<br />

Remarkable Statement, “Mud Nine<br />

Years Old,” 15.12.1922, p. 11. The<br />

incident referred to questions asked<br />

by Piddington about the part<br />

O’Reilly & Hughes played in his<br />

appointment to the High Court and<br />

his subsequent resignation because<br />

he felt compromised. O’Reilly<br />

argued back that it was Piddington’s<br />

hysterical nature that caused him to<br />

resign.<br />

19<br />

Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney<br />

Day by Day, 16.12.1922, p. 30.<br />

20<br />

Ibid.<br />

21<br />

Michael Roe, ‘Piddington, Albert<br />

Bathurst (1862-1945),’ Australian<br />

Dictionary <strong>of</strong> Biography, National<br />

Centre <strong>of</strong> Biography, Australian<br />

National University, http://<br />

adb.anu.edu.au/biography/oreillydowell-philip-<br />

7917/text13773,<br />

accessed 21 September 2011<br />

22<br />

Abuse as a muse, The Sydney<br />

Morning Herald Blogs,<br />

Entertainment, http://<br />

blogs.smh.com.au/entertainment,<br />

accessed 20.6.2011.<br />

23<br />

Marivic Wyndham, ‘A world-pro<strong>of</strong><br />

life’: Eleanor Dark, a writer in her<br />

times, 1901-1985, UTSePress,<br />

Sydney, 2007, p. 26.<br />

24<br />

Michael Sharkey.<br />

25<br />

Ibid.<br />

The author<br />

Pamela Smith a regular<br />

contributor to HERITAGE , is<br />

currently president <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Cultural</strong><br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> Organisations Inc, a<br />

founding member <strong>of</strong> Springwood<br />

Historians and a member <strong>of</strong> <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> City Council’s heritage<br />

advisory committee.<br />

Pamela has a BA (Hons) degree<br />

in History as well as an Advanced<br />

Diploma in Local Family and<br />

Applied History. Her honours<br />

thesis focused on private<br />

education in the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>,<br />

while an earlier thesis dealt with<br />

the presence <strong>of</strong> the fascist Old<br />

Guard Movement in the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> in the 1930s.<br />

She is currently enrolled in the<br />

Master <strong>of</strong> History degree course<br />

at the University <strong>of</strong> New England,<br />

Armidale and has a special<br />

interest in non-government private<br />

venture schools, local/public<br />

history, the Old and New Guard<br />

and women’s history, especially<br />

women involved in politics and<br />

local government.<br />

HERITAGE 9<br />

March - April 2012

Sydney the s<strong>of</strong>t touch<br />

By Andrew Tink - Biographer <strong>of</strong> Lord Sydney<br />

IN AN AGE when convicts could be transported for the<br />

most trifling <strong>of</strong>fences, it may come as a surprise to read<br />

that the home secretary who sent the First Fleet to<br />

Botany Bay was a s<strong>of</strong>t touch.<br />

While the sentencing <strong>of</strong> convicts was a matter for the<br />

criminal courts, those who had been condemned to death<br />

could plead to the king for clemency. As home secretary,<br />

Lord Sydney was responsible for the paperwork and he<br />

<strong>of</strong>ten tested George III’s patience with his lenient attitude.<br />

When Sydney made sympathetic representations on<br />

behalf <strong>of</strong> a convict sentenced to death for forgery, the<br />

king replied testily: ‘there cannot be the smallest reason<br />

for any farther delay as to the law taking its course on<br />

George Owen…the execution <strong>of</strong> this unhappy convict [is]<br />

absolutely necessary as an example’.<br />

Sydney was once even castigated by a minister <strong>of</strong><br />

religion. ‘I am told that you have now obtained a pardon<br />

for a man convicted <strong>of</strong> the horrid crime <strong>of</strong> wilful murder’,<br />

the Reverend Charles Hardy said. ‘Do I now live in a<br />

country where a secretary <strong>of</strong> state can in effect annul our<br />

laws?’<br />

On Sydney’s ministerial watch, the Transportation Act <strong>of</strong><br />

1784 had passed the British Parliament.<br />

Among other things it provided that convict overseers<br />

‘could inflict…such moderate punishment…as may be<br />

inflicted by law on persons committed to a House <strong>of</strong><br />

Correction’. Crude as it was, this imposed a duty <strong>of</strong> care<br />

on Lord Sydney and all others involved in organising the<br />

First Fleet.<br />

Sydney’s most important decisions included the choice <strong>of</strong><br />

Arthur Phillip, a firm but fair man, to be the convict<br />

colony’s first governor. And they shared the same vision<br />

for NSW:<br />

• There was to be no slavery;<br />

• The convicts would be encouraged to redeem<br />

themselves through emancipation and land<br />

grants;<br />

• The ordinary rule <strong>of</strong> law rather than military law<br />

would apply to them;<br />

• The Europeans were to live in ‘amity and<br />

kindness’ with the Aborigines.<br />

In this short article Andrew Tink writes about the man<br />

who gave Sydney its name. The book Lord Sydney:<br />

The life and times <strong>of</strong> Tommy Townshend rrp $39.95, is<br />

available from all good booksellers (in Sydney –<br />

including, but not limited to: Lindfield Bookshop, The<br />

Children’s Bookshop, Abbey’s Bookshop, Berkelouw<br />

Books, Dymocks booksellers, <strong>No</strong>vella Fine Books,<br />

Lesley McKay’s, Shearer’s on <strong>No</strong>rton, Pages & Pages<br />

Bookseller, Potts Point Bookshop, Hordern House Rare<br />

Books).<br />

Equally importantly, Sydney resolved that the convicts<br />

on the First Fleet were to be as generously<br />

provisioned as soldiers going to the toughest<br />

outposts in the British Empire.<br />

In all, Sydney spent £ 58,000 to transport about 750<br />

convicts and 250 military men to Botany Bay, using a<br />

competent contractor, William Richards, to organise<br />

things.<br />

As a result, there were only about 25 deaths during<br />

the voyage. Sydney’s generosity was criticised by<br />

some <strong>of</strong> his cabinet colleagues though. And soon<br />

after the return <strong>of</strong> the First Fleet ships to England,<br />

Sydney retired.<br />

Determined not to be a ‘s<strong>of</strong>t touch’, Sydney’s<br />

replacement as home secretary, the 29 year old<br />

political up and comer, George Grenville, ordered that<br />

the Second Fleet be prepared with ‘least expense to<br />

the public’.<br />

Richards was replaced by a firm <strong>of</strong> slavers, Camden<br />

Calvert and King. And over 1,000 convicts were<br />

shipped for just £22,370. As a result, 267 died.<br />

Had Sydney the s<strong>of</strong>t touch organised the First Fleet<br />

the way young George Grenville organised the<br />

Second, the first European settlement <strong>of</strong> Australia<br />

would have failed.<br />

HERITAGE 10<br />

March - April 2012

Hazelbrook and Woodford history, 2nd edition<br />

A SECOND edition <strong>of</strong> the 2007 National Trust awardwinning<br />

Hazelbrook and Woodford history has recently<br />

been published.<br />

As the first edition <strong>of</strong> Hazelbrook and Woodford: a<br />

story <strong>of</strong> two <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> towns launched in early<br />

October 2006 had sold out by 2008, the historian and<br />

author Ken Goodlet thought it time to do a second<br />

edition for Christmas last year. That first edition is now<br />

in, roughly, one in four households in Woodford/<br />

Hazelbrook, but new residents have since moved in<br />

whom he thought might be interested in getting a<br />

copy.<br />

Besides, new information and photographs had come<br />

to light and Ken wanted to incorporate in the history<br />

the events <strong>of</strong> the last five years, so there are more<br />

photographs, more general information, more<br />

appendices and obviously more pages. Important<br />

features are specialist chapters by Dr Eugene Stockton<br />

on geology and Aboriginal heritage and by Judy and<br />

Peter Smith on native animal and plant life.<br />

The bulk <strong>of</strong> the book is about the early settlers, the<br />

holidaymakers, the community-minded spirits and the<br />

later suburban-dwellers in these two communities that<br />

have reinvented themselves over the decades.<br />

While the book includes the fruit <strong>of</strong> research by earlier<br />

historians and by Ken, it also includes the memories <strong>of</strong><br />

over 100 local people interviewed by him, supported by<br />

some 340 local photos and maps.<br />

When Ken first undertook the Hazelbrook/Woodford<br />

project, he had hoped that there could be up-to-date<br />

histories <strong>of</strong> all mountains towns. The fine work by Dr<br />

Peter Rickwood on Blackheath has been a further step<br />

in that process. The new edition at $30 is available<br />

from local bookshops and from the author at<br />

4758 6591.<br />

Ken Goodlet’s book cover image — A Christmas<br />

Journey, by T. Walter Wilson, Woodford Station,<br />

1881. (The date indicates the drawing was the third<br />

<strong>of</strong> four stations at Woodford. The station pictured<br />

was, slightly west <strong>of</strong> the present station, just above<br />

the recently demolished old railway cottages.)<br />

This picture has also been painted inside the<br />

waiting room <strong>of</strong> Woodford railway station.<br />

An outstanding Mount Wilson potter <strong>of</strong> yesteryear<br />

MT WILSON and Mt Irvine<br />

Historical Society have overseen<br />

the publication <strong>of</strong> an important new<br />

book that celebrates the life and<br />

creative output <strong>of</strong> an outstanding<br />

local identity, Fred Mann<br />

Fred Mann’s Mount Wilson Pottery<br />

was primarily the result <strong>of</strong> the<br />

efforts <strong>of</strong> two well - known local<br />

residents.<br />

The book was the brainchild <strong>of</strong><br />

Wendy Holland who has driven the<br />

project with extraordinary passion,<br />

energy and vision over the last two<br />

and half years.<br />

Roger Howard-Smith shot most <strong>of</strong><br />

the photographs in the book and<br />

most generously covered the initial<br />

printing costs<br />

The book, to paraphrase John<br />

Valder, ‘remains a cherished<br />

reminder <strong>of</strong> a generous, cheerful,<br />

friendly man’.<br />

Many local or past residents <strong>of</strong> Mt<br />

Wilson and Mt Irvine <strong>of</strong>fered their<br />

much loved pieces for inclusion in<br />

the book.<br />

The book is truly a local community<br />

effort celebrating the pottery that<br />

emerged from the white clay from<br />

diggings at Yengo. Jess Delbridge,<br />

grand-daughter <strong>of</strong> Arthur Delbridge<br />

a talented graphic designer who<br />

lives at Mt Wilson was responsible<br />

for technical layout <strong>of</strong> the book.<br />

The book can be ordered directly<br />

from Wendy Holland 4756 2094,<br />

Florence Smart 9416 1957 or Tim<br />

Gow 4756 2031 for $20. All<br />

proceeds <strong>of</strong> the sale <strong>of</strong> this book go<br />

to Mt Wilson and Mt Irvine<br />

Historical Society to underwrite<br />

future projects.<br />

Republished from Mt Wilson & Mt Irvine<br />

Historical Society <strong>Newsletter</strong> <strong>No</strong> 28<br />

HERITAGE 11<br />

March - April 2012

The blacksmith and his anvil the symbol<br />

<strong>of</strong> runaway marriages<br />

BLACKSMITHING is a dying trade<br />

and with it the blacksmith tools <strong>of</strong><br />

trade, the most prominent being the<br />

anvil, writes John Leary.<br />

There are many references to anvils<br />

in ancient Greek and Egyptian<br />

writings, including Homer’s works.<br />

Because anvils are very ancient<br />

tools and were at one time very<br />

commonplace, they have acquired<br />

symbolic meaning beyond their use<br />

as utilitarian objects.<br />

But by far the most romantic<br />

reference to the anvil is attributed to<br />

the anvil priest <strong>of</strong> Gretna Green, in<br />

Scotland site <strong>of</strong> the famous<br />

‘runaway marriage”.<br />

Scottish law allowed for ‘irregular<br />

marriages’, meaning that if a<br />

declaration was made before two<br />

witnesses, almost anybody had the<br />

authority to conduct the marriage<br />

ceremony.<br />

In the 18 th and 19 th century almost<br />

every European village had a<br />

blacksmith and some carried on the<br />

trade near inns or staging posts.<br />

Local folklore has it that at Gretna<br />

Green it was not unknown for the<br />

blacksmith to be one <strong>of</strong> the two<br />

witnesses.<br />

The blacksmiths in Gretna Green<br />

became known as “anvil priests”<br />

The local<br />

blacksmith and<br />

his anvil have<br />

become the<br />

lasting<br />

symbols <strong>of</strong><br />

Gretna Green,<br />

Scotland<br />

weddings<br />

where the<br />

ceremony is<br />

usually<br />

performed<br />

over an iconic<br />

blacksmith’s<br />

anvil.<br />

Gretna’s famous ‘runaway<br />

marriages’ began in 1753 when<br />

Lord Hardwicke’s Marriage Act was<br />

passed in England; it stated that if<br />

both parties to a marriage were not<br />

at least 21 years old, then parents<br />

had to consent to the marriage.<br />

The Act did not apply in Scotland,<br />

where it was possible for boys to<br />

marry at 14 and girls at 12 years <strong>of</strong><br />

age with or without parental<br />

consent.<br />

Many elopers fled England, and the<br />

first Scottish village they<br />

encountered was Gretna Green on<br />

the old coaching route from London<br />

to Edinburgh.<br />

The tradition <strong>of</strong> eloping English<br />

couples searching for blacksmiths<br />

resulted legally from the fact that<br />

blacksmiths were necessarily<br />

citizens and could <strong>of</strong>ten be<br />

recognised by strangers by their<br />

presence at their forge and anvil<br />

The Old Blacksmith’s Shop, built<br />

around 1712, and Gretna Hall<br />

Blacksmith’s Shop (1710) became,<br />

in popular folklore at least, the focal<br />

tourist points for the marriage trade.<br />

The Old Blacksmith’s opened to the<br />

public as a visitor attraction as early<br />

as 1887.<br />

Since 1929 both parties in Scotland<br />

have had to be at least 16 years<br />

old, but they still may marry without<br />

parental consent.<br />

An anvil photograhed at Lithgow Mining Museum by John Leary,OAM<br />

In England and Wales, the age for<br />

marriage is now 16 with parental<br />

consent and 18 without.<br />

Today there are several wedding<br />

venues in and around Gretna<br />

Green, from former churches to<br />

purpose-built chapels.<br />

The services at all the venues are<br />

always performed over an iconic<br />

blacksmith’s anvil.<br />

There are an estimated 5000<br />

weddings services in the area each<br />

year and one <strong>of</strong> every six Scottish<br />

weddings.<br />

Anvils have today lost their former<br />

commonness. Anvils are still used<br />

by blacksmiths and metal workers<br />

<strong>of</strong> all kinds in producing custom<br />

work. They are also essential to the<br />

work done by farriers.<br />

As much as the author <strong>of</strong> this article,<br />

would like to have been able to<br />

write, that the anvil on this page was<br />

one on which marriages were<br />

solemnised at Gretna Green or<br />

anywhere else this blacksmith’s<br />

anvil is one which John Leary,<br />

photographed in a recent visit to the<br />

Lithgow Mining Museum.<br />

Nevertheless, the anvil has an<br />

interesting history, as Ray Christison<br />

writes on the following page.<br />

But well<br />

before Gretna<br />

Green the<br />

concept <strong>of</strong> an<br />

anvil may<br />

predate<br />

humanity.<br />

Chimpanzees<br />

have been<br />

observed<br />

using large<br />

sticks as<br />

hammers to<br />

crack nuts,<br />

using logs as<br />

anvils.<br />

HERITAGE 12<br />

March - April 2012

Large anvils still used by resident<br />

blacksmith at Lithgow Mining Museum<br />

In its heyday the Lithgow State Coal<br />

Mine employed numerous<br />

blacksmiths, farriers and welders.<br />

These men made and sharpened<br />

tools, repaired machinery, shod<br />

horses and ensured that the<br />

haulage ropes in the mine were<br />

safe and functional.<br />

They worked from the large<br />

workshops building located at the<br />

northern end <strong>of</strong> the colliery<br />

headworks.<br />

These were tough, muscular men<br />

who gained a reputation for their<br />

physical prowess.<br />

Many trained in the art <strong>of</strong> boxing<br />

and quite a few obtained<br />

championship status.<br />

Reg Kerrison, former Lithgow State Coal Mine master blacksmith<br />

working on an anvil at a colliery in the Illawarra.<br />

Blacksmith’s striker Billy Boyce<br />

came close to winning gold in his<br />

class at the 1948 Olympics.<br />

When the mine closed in 1964 the<br />

blacksmiths’ shop was cleaned out<br />

and was used for storage.<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> and the internet seminar<br />

BMACHO, with a generous grant<br />

from Telstra Connected Seniors<br />

program, will be <strong>of</strong>fering a public<br />

seminar on <strong>Heritage</strong> and the<br />

internet on Thursday, May 10 at<br />

9.30 am.<br />

Speakers will include Dr. Carol<br />

Liston (UWS), Michael Lech<br />

(Historic Houses Trust) and Dr.<br />

Peter Rickwood (UNSW and<br />

Blackheath). They will be speaking<br />

on the internet in heritage research,<br />

in the management and researching<br />

<strong>of</strong> museum collections and as a tool<br />

for publishing historical journals.<br />

Each speaker plans to distribute a<br />

list <strong>of</strong> relevant websites for the<br />

benefit <strong>of</strong> those attending.<br />

The seminar will be held in the<br />

meeting room <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Historical Society at Hobby’s<br />

Reach, 99-101 Blaxland Road,<br />

Wentworth Falls.<br />

For further details: phone Barrie<br />

Reynolds 4757 4725; email<br />

barrie.r@bigpond.net.au .<br />

Refreshments will be available and<br />

a gold coin donation will be<br />

appreciated.<br />


CONFERENCE 2012<br />

To be held at the historic Carrington Hotel,<br />

Katoomba on, Satutrday, October 20<br />

Conference title: Colonial Society<br />

For further information and early bookings (capacity<br />

limited to 120 participants) contact Jan Koperberg at<br />

j.koperberg@bigpond.com or<br />

bmacho.heritage@gmail.com<br />

When the NSW Government<br />

Railway Workshops at Chullora<br />

were closed in the late 1990s the<br />

City <strong>of</strong> Greater Lithgow Mining<br />

Museum Inc was <strong>of</strong>fered the<br />

blacksmithing equipment from that<br />

facility.<br />

This was gratefully received and<br />

formed the basis <strong>of</strong> a major<br />

restoration.<br />

Among the pieces gifted to the<br />

museum were two large<br />

engineering anvils.<br />

These are now regularly used by<br />

the museum’s resident blacksmith<br />

and others involved in training<br />

courses.<br />

The Chullora equipment is a<br />

significant ensemble within the<br />

museum’s collection.<br />

The Chullora blacksmiths’ shop<br />

manufactured components for<br />

railway carriages and locomotives.<br />

During the Second World War this<br />

equipment was turned to the<br />

manufacture <strong>of</strong> Beaufort bombers<br />

and Sentinal tanks.<br />

The anvils are an important<br />

component <strong>of</strong> this historic<br />

ensemble.<br />

HERITAGE 13<br />

March - April 2012

Wall hangings recalls pioneer ancestors<br />

RECENTLY the Lithgow Learning<br />

Centre (Library) was the venue for<br />

The Lithgow & District Family<br />

History Society Inc. to celebrate the<br />

launch <strong>of</strong> a wall hanging in<br />

remembrance <strong>of</strong> pioneer ancestors.<br />

Each member took a calico square<br />

and either embroidered, painted or<br />

sketched the details <strong>of</strong> their<br />

pioneers who arrived in the colony<br />

in 1788 - 1888.<br />

The idea came from local member<br />

Velma McFadden and the hanging<br />

was designed by the members, the<br />

squares were then sewn together<br />

by Margaret Buckley and Sandra<br />

Haley.<br />

The quilting was done by Lyn and<br />

Graham Husdon from Portland and<br />

the society would like to thank them<br />

both very much for the wonderful<br />

job they did with the quilting.<br />

The wall hanging was unveiled by<br />

Daryl Jenkins the son <strong>of</strong> the late<br />

Yvonne Jenkins who was the<br />

founding member and first president<br />

<strong>of</strong> the society.<br />

Daryl spoke <strong>of</strong> his mother’s love <strong>of</strong><br />

family history and how for many<br />

years she spent gathering<br />

information on both her own family<br />

and that <strong>of</strong> many other local<br />

families.<br />

She was an incredible lady and<br />

would have loved to have been<br />

present to see the concept <strong>of</strong> the<br />

. Lithgow Family History Society president Eleanor Martin and<br />

Daryl Jenkins beside the wall hanging<br />

wall hanging and the finished<br />

project.<br />

Visitors and members were served<br />

morning tea at the launch and this<br />

gave them time to relate stories <strong>of</strong><br />

their ancestors while being able to<br />

enjoy viewing the quilt.<br />

The wall Hanging will be on display<br />

at the Learning Centre until Friday,<br />

March 16.<br />

There is also a book with<br />

information on each pioneer<br />

available for anyone to view.<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> an Illustrated<br />

Souvenir<br />

Photographer, Andrew Merry, in his<br />

exhibition <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>: an<br />

Illustrated Souvenir responds to<br />

how the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> has been<br />

represented in art over the past<br />

200 years.<br />

The exhibition at Everglades<br />

Historic House, Leura is open by<br />

appointment from 11am to 4pm<br />

from now until 15 April 15<br />

His photographs explore popular<br />

visual styles including ‘the<br />

sublime’, the picturesque and the<br />

postcard traditions.<br />

The images <strong>of</strong>fered are <strong>of</strong> cloud<br />

filled valleys, cliff edges, brooding<br />

landscapes, valley floors, fires<br />

and the rejuvenation <strong>of</strong> the bush.<br />

In doing so this exhibition<br />

presents both a critique <strong>of</strong> clichéd<br />

views and an enjoyment in ‘acting<br />

out’ these clichés.<br />

Locations for the photographs<br />

include the <strong>Blue</strong> Gum Forest,<br />

Hanging Rock, and the Grose and<br />

Jamison Valleys. Enquiries to<br />

4784 1938<br />

For further information contact on<br />

(02) 63531089 on Tuesday nights<br />

from 6 - 9pm or on Fridays from<br />

10am - 4pm or Helen Taylor (02)<br />

63557231 or email<br />

taygun@bigpond.com<br />

Cox’s Road<br />

walk at Linden<br />

GLENBROOK & District Historical<br />

Society will conduct a walk along the<br />

Cox’s Road at Linden on April 28.<br />

Along the Linden section <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Cox’s road there remain some<br />

excellent relics <strong>of</strong> carriageway and<br />

sandstone kerbs hand chiselled by<br />

convicts for whom work on the road<br />

represented emancipation as they<br />

laboured for their freedom.<br />

Dr Grace Karskens writes in An<br />

historical and archaeological study<br />

<strong>of</strong> Cox’s Road and earlycrossing <strong>of</strong><br />

the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> NSW , 1988 ‘...<br />

Cox following the example <strong>of</strong> other<br />

magistrates freely used the promise<br />

<strong>of</strong> pardons as payment for all<br />

aspects <strong>of</strong> the roadwork ... ’A total <strong>of</strong><br />

39 road labourers received between<br />

them 35 emancipations, 3 free<br />

pardons and one ticket <strong>of</strong> leave a<br />

further seven were emancipated for<br />

supplying horses and carts’.<br />

For enquiries about the walk, contact<br />

Doug Knowles on 4751 3275.<br />

HERITAGE 14<br />

March - April 2012

Walk beneath the trade union banner<br />

LITHGOW STATE MINE <strong>Heritage</strong><br />

Park is privileged to again host the<br />

Sydney Trades Hall collection <strong>of</strong><br />

trade union banners.<br />

Representing almost 150 years <strong>of</strong><br />

trade union tradition these<br />

magnificent hand painted banners<br />

are listed on the NSW State<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> Register.<br />

They are rarely available for viewing<br />

by the public as there are few<br />

spaces large enough for them to be<br />

hung.<br />

The former Lithgow State Mine Bath<br />

House is an ideal place in which to<br />

display the banners.<br />

The bath house was originally<br />

constructed in 1923 as a power<br />

station for the colliery. In 1928 it<br />

was decommissioned and<br />

converted to accommodate showers<br />

and change rooms for the more<br />

than 700 men who worked in the<br />

mine.<br />

Free journals<br />

available<br />

THE following free <strong>of</strong>fer will be <strong>of</strong><br />

particular interest to members,<br />

both librarians and curators <strong>of</strong><br />

museums, societies and also<br />

individual researchers.<br />

Back copies <strong>of</strong> the following<br />

heritage and museum publications<br />

are available:<br />

Australian <strong>Heritage</strong><br />

Museums Australia<br />

Museum Matters (NSW)<br />

Artbeat (Fed Dept Arts)<br />

Artfiles Arts Directory 2004<br />

Sydney University Museums News<br />

Museums Journal (UK)<br />

Museum Practice (UK)<br />

Conservation Perspectives (Getty<br />

Institute)<br />

also<br />

CAM, Cambridge University<br />

Magazine<br />

Oxford Today University Magazine<br />

Contact: Barrie Reynolds phone<br />

4757 4725; email<br />

barrie.r@bigpond.net.au<br />

With its open space and high ceiling<br />

the bath house provides a<br />

wonderful place to display the<br />

banners.<br />

The State Mine’s associations with<br />

the history <strong>of</strong> the Miners’ Federation<br />

<strong>of</strong> Australia also make it a most<br />

appropriate venue for this<br />

exhibition.<br />

The banners will be on display at<br />

the State Mine until the end <strong>of</strong> April<br />

2012.<br />

PENRITH City Council and Library’s<br />

History conference Venturing Above<br />

and Beyond will be held on<br />

Saturday, March 10.<br />

This year the conference will be<br />

looking at the crossing <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> and also hear about the<br />

first flight over the Nepean area.<br />

The Nepean River was the<br />

launching point for many<br />

adventurers exploring the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> in search <strong>of</strong> new lands<br />

for the fledgling colony.<br />

Men such as William Dawes,<br />

George Caley and Francis Barrallier<br />

attempted the crossing prior to 1813<br />

and the conference will<br />

acknowledge the efforts <strong>of</strong> these<br />

early explorers.<br />

At this time the settlement at<br />

Castlereagh was less than 20 years<br />

old and the large estates along the<br />

river were not much more than<br />

bushland.<br />

They can be viewed during museum<br />

opening hours, which are noon to<br />

4pm Saturdays, Sundays, school<br />

and public holidays.<br />

Group bookings are welcome at<br />

other times.<br />

Admission fees are $5 per adult and<br />

$3 concession. Tours can be<br />

booked by contacting the museum<br />

at statemin@lisp.com.au or by<br />

phoning museum president Ray<br />

Christison on 6353 1812.<br />

Venturing above and beyond<br />

A century later in 1911, William<br />

Ewart purchased a plane and<br />

brought it to Penrith to learn to fly.<br />

He was the first pilot to obtain his<br />

pilot’s licence in Australia in<br />

December <strong>of</strong> that year.<br />

In January 1912 he established an<br />

aviation school at Penrith before<br />

transferring his operations to Ham<br />

Common (Richmond RAAF)<br />

Keynote speaker at this year’s<br />

conference is Associate Pr<strong>of</strong>essor<br />

Ian Jack, who will present some<br />

history and development <strong>of</strong> the<br />

District <strong>of</strong> Evan.<br />

Dr Jack will be joined by Dr Grace<br />

Karskens, who will be talking about<br />

her research on Castlereagh. Peter<br />

Finlay will be introducing the early<br />

aviators in the Penrith area –<br />

William Ewart and Leslie Jones.<br />

For more information, cost and<br />

registration phone Penrith Library<br />

(02) 4732 7687 or e-mail<br />

alisons@penrithcity.nsw.gov.au<br />

HERITAGE 15<br />

March - April 2012

From the editors mail box............<br />

Old Hartley bridge on Great Western Highway<br />

PAUL CARDOW who kindly<br />

contributed the image (at right) <strong>of</strong><br />

the old Hartley bridge circa. 1920s<br />

which appeared in HERITAGE<br />

January - February edition has<br />

written: ‘I’m not trying to be<br />

pedantic, but the Old Hartley Bridge<br />

is part <strong>of</strong> the Great Western<br />

Highway, not Jenolan Caves Road.<br />

The original caption inscribed on<br />

the glass plate, did say Jenolan<br />

Caves Road, which threw me<br />


HERITAGE published some <strong>of</strong> the<br />

bouquets received in the e-mail.<br />

<strong>No</strong>w published are a few more.<br />

From Dorothy Warwick, Holroyd<br />

Local History Research: Once<br />

again, can I congratulate you on a<br />

great newsletter! I have passed it<br />

on to various other groups that I<br />

belong to as it is such an interesting<br />

read. Congratulations and best<br />

wishes.<br />

From John White, webmaster,<br />

Campbelltown-Airds Historical<br />

Society Inc: I received the Jan/Feb<br />

newsletter via Stella Vernon who<br />

has forwarded it to me. I’m very<br />

pleased to see the list <strong>of</strong> research<br />

web sites with journals <strong>of</strong> explorers<br />

in this edition.<br />

You have saved many people a lot<br />

<strong>of</strong> time by doing the searches for<br />

these sites, now to just get time to<br />

read them. Thanks again, look<br />

forward to future editions.<br />

initially, giving me reason to check<br />

the remains <strong>of</strong> the old bridge.<br />

More accolades<br />

Apart from this, I really enjoyed your<br />

article and the related articles.<br />

I’m more than impressed that Cox’s<br />

road is to be marked out and<br />

signposted. It would be nice to see<br />

Bonaventure and the Old Coach<br />

Roads at Rydal marked out before<br />

they disappear as well.<br />

Thanks for the correction Editor<br />

From Lithgow City Councillor and<br />

managing director Westfund,<br />

Grahame Danaher: An excellent<br />

publication.<br />

From Christo Aitken, <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> City Council’s heritage<br />

advisor: I was on the mailing list<br />

previously and did receive a couple<br />

<strong>of</strong> your newsletters but you’re<br />

right…at some time a gremlin must<br />

have dropped me <strong>of</strong>f the list.<br />

Thanks for putting me back. It’s a<br />

great newsletter…much time and<br />

effort spent by yourselves on its<br />

production…and good that you’re<br />

readership is building.<br />

From Julie Nixon, Holroyd<br />

Historical Family Group: I am<br />

currently researching my family who<br />

grow bigger and bigger the more I<br />

dig through our past. I look forward<br />

to receiving your newsletter,<br />


From Ken Goodlet, local historian<br />

and author: Once again, a great<br />

edition <strong>of</strong> HERITAGE. There is so<br />

much there that I’m interested in.<br />

Bob Debus<br />

to reflect on<br />

30 years in<br />

politics<br />

THE BERYL McLaughlin lecture<br />

2012 will be delivered by former<br />

state and federal minister, Bob<br />

Debus on Saturday, March 3 at<br />

the Wentworth Falls School <strong>of</strong><br />

Arts.<br />

The annual lecture honouring the<br />

memory <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Historical Society’s principal<br />

benefactor, presents the<br />

reflections <strong>of</strong> prominent <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> citizens on both early<br />

and contemporary life in this<br />

region.<br />

Mr Debus was the state member<br />

for <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> from 1981 to<br />

1988 and 1995 to 2007 when he<br />

turned to federal politics as the<br />

member for Macquarie retiring<br />

Minister for Home Affairs after<br />

one term in 2010.<br />

Previous lectures have included<br />

the historian Dr Jim Smith and<br />

artist John Ellison.<br />


IT IS ALMOST as if organisers <strong>of</strong><br />

‘twilight tour’ for Friday, April 13 at<br />

Woodford Academy are tempting<br />

fate.<br />

In March 1843, the convict George<br />

Conway, who was renowned for<br />

constantly escaping from his<br />

guards, met his end at Woodford<br />

Academy; some say his spirit<br />

resides here still.<br />

Hear stories <strong>of</strong> the eccentric and<br />

colourful characters who resided at<br />

the Inn since the 1830’s. Be<br />

welcomed along the front verandah<br />

by genial host <strong>of</strong> the 1840s, Mr<br />

Buss.<br />

Tours commence 6pm, 6.30pm,<br />

7pm and 7.30pm.<br />

Cost $20 adult, $10 child. Supper<br />

included. Bookings essential prior<br />

to April 9 to 4758 7809.<br />

All are welcome to the 10.30am<br />

lecture with admission by gold<br />

coin donation. Morning tea is<br />

available from 10am.<br />

The Wentworth Falls School <strong>of</strong><br />

Arts is located on the Great<br />

Western Highway at Wentworth<br />

Falls, a short distance from<br />

Wentworth Falls Railway Station.<br />

Parking is available in the village<br />

or at nearby Pitt Park.<br />

HERITAGE 16<br />

March - April 2012

Two <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Family History<br />

authors receive awards<br />

THE WINNERS <strong>of</strong> two awards were<br />

announced last month by Vicki<br />

Edmunds, manager, libraries and<br />

customer services for <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> City Council, when she<br />

made presentations to Rhonda<br />

Flowers <strong>of</strong> Woodford and Jo Adam<br />

<strong>of</strong> Lawson after judging<br />

contributions to The Explorers’ Tree<br />

magazines for 2011.<br />

Commenting on the winning article<br />

for The Bob Howard award for best<br />

researched article: Families at War<br />

“Lest We Forget” by Rhonda<br />

Flowers, (The Explorers Tree<br />

March 2011), Vicki said it was a<br />

well written article that sets the<br />

scene by explaining where the<br />

Woodford War Memorial is, the<br />

recent history <strong>of</strong> the site and then<br />

the background to the monument.<br />

“The reader gets an insight into<br />

some <strong>of</strong> the names on the war<br />

memorial.<br />

“Rhonda has linked family<br />

members, discovered resting<br />

places and personalised an<br />

otherwise static sculpture.<br />

“I especially enjoyed the postscript<br />

at the end <strong>of</strong> the article which<br />

encourages us all to remember the<br />

stories and families behind the<br />

names on a war memorial<br />

whenever we visit any town<br />

throughout Australia.”<br />

The Coolgardie Safe award for best<br />

article that does not fit the criteria<br />

for Bob Howard award, but which is<br />

worth preserving and exudes a<br />

breath <strong>of</strong> fresh air was won by Jo<br />

Adam’s entry A Walk Through my<br />

childhood – Tuesday is Washday<br />

(The Explorers Tree March 2011.)<br />

Jo did a wonderful job recreating<br />

her memory <strong>of</strong> washday in 1942<br />

Australia.<br />

“She set the scene very visually<br />

and I could even smell the story in<br />

some parts.<br />

“It reminded me <strong>of</strong> watching my<br />

grandmothers’ wrestle with their<br />

coppers and refusing any modern<br />

up to date washing machines.<br />

“This piece on war-time washing not<br />

only captured what went on during<br />

washday but caught a lot <strong>of</strong> the<br />

social nuances that are hard to<br />

document. (Clothes-props, the<br />

health inspector, what it is like to<br />

have a husband MIA), Vickie said.<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Family History<br />

Society decided during 2011 to<br />

create The Coolgardie Safe award<br />

because so many articles submitted<br />

to the magazine did not fit the Bob<br />

Howard award criteria.<br />

These are the stories that can be<br />

easily forgotten and lost, if not put<br />

into print.<br />

Rhonda and Jo were both<br />

presented with certificates and their<br />

names will go on the shield in the<br />

family history section <strong>of</strong> Springwood<br />

library.<br />

President <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Family History Society Inc. Jan<br />

Koperberg said, thanks go to Vicki<br />

Edmunds for agreeing to judge the<br />

award and for her comments about<br />

both articles.<br />

The society’s thanks also go to<br />

Rhonda Flowers and Jo Adam for<br />

understanding the importance <strong>of</strong><br />

research and recording memories.<br />

Above Viki Edmunds with Rhonda<br />

Flowers and below Viki with Jo<br />

Adams<br />

Text and photographs contributed by Jan Koperberg, president <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> Family History Society Inc.<br />

<strong>Newsletter</strong> editor calls it a day<br />

AFTER 15 years as editor <strong>of</strong> Mt<br />

Wilson & Mt Irvine Historical<br />

Society Inc, Elspeth Callender<br />

has called it a day.<br />

During this period Elspeth has<br />

advanced her career as a<br />

freelance writer and highly skilled<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essional editor. She has<br />

worked for the Mt Wilson & Mt<br />

Irvine Historical Society in an<br />

entirely voluntary capacity with<br />

diligence and dedication.<br />

Former president <strong>of</strong> the Mt Wilson<br />

& Mt Irvine Historical Society,<br />

Florence Smart has said, “That<br />

along with the Turkish Bath, the<br />

newsletter is the public face <strong>of</strong> the<br />

society and thanks to Elspeth, we<br />

enjoy a very positive reputation<br />

throughout the heritage sector and<br />

among our peer groups,”<br />

Elspeth will now devote her time to<br />

editing and pulling together the<br />

large body <strong>of</strong> research and writing<br />

which Mary Reynolds and others<br />

have deposited into the society’s<br />

archive, with the aim <strong>of</strong> producing a<br />

manuscript ready for publication<br />

which will present a history <strong>of</strong> Mt<br />

Wilson in an enjoyable, readable<br />

and saleable form.<br />

The society has received a grant<br />

towards this project from the Royal<br />

Australian Historical Society<br />

HERITAGE 17<br />

March - April 2012

Awards for three Valley Heights<br />

Rail Museum members<br />


Heights Rail Museum have received<br />

recognition with awards from the<br />

Office <strong>of</strong> Rail <strong>Heritage</strong> (OHR)<br />

They are Brian Coker, Dick Butcher<br />

and Phil Robinson<br />

Brian Coker joined the fledgling<br />

New South Wales Rail Transport<br />

Museum at the inaugural meeting in<br />

October 1962.<br />

In 1964, two years after the<br />

formation <strong>of</strong> the NSW Rail<br />

Transport Museum, Brian Coker<br />

was elected to the position <strong>of</strong><br />

treasurer.<br />

Brian remained treasurer for the<br />

next 13 years, standing down from<br />

the position in the late 1970s. For<br />

the next 10 years, he extended his<br />

assistance to the various treasurers<br />

as required.<br />

It was during that time, that Brian<br />

joined a locomotive restoration<br />

team led by Bob Booth (and later<br />

Tony Eyre) working at firstly,<br />

Petersham Cable Shed, then the<br />

RTM site at Enfield locomotive<br />

depot. Brian remained with the<br />

group until the ultimate move <strong>of</strong> the<br />

RTM from Enfield to Thirlmere.<br />

In the 1980s, treasurer’s duties<br />

were, at times, carried out by a<br />

number <strong>of</strong> members (including at<br />

one stage, a full time paid<br />

employee), but Brian Coker was<br />

given the un<strong>of</strong>ficial duty <strong>of</strong> assistant<br />

to the treasurer, a task which Brian<br />

performed long after he retired from<br />

full time employment.<br />

As late as the year 2011, Brian<br />

assisted with RTM accounts,<br />

wages, and general financial duties,<br />

having worked at the various RTM<br />

<strong>of</strong>fices at Burwood, Redfern,<br />

Thirlmere and Central Station.<br />

Apart from 49 years <strong>of</strong> continuous<br />

voluntary work for the NSW RTM at<br />

Enfield, Thirlmere and Sydney,<br />

Brian carries out voluntary financial<br />

work for the Valley Heights group.<br />

Brian has been part <strong>of</strong> that group<br />

for more than five years performing<br />

the role <strong>of</strong> treasurer during that<br />

whole time.<br />

Pictured left to right are Ted Mullett, Peter Berriman and Marianne<br />

Hammerton (OHR) with award recipients Dick Butcher (second from<br />

left) and Phil Robinson (right), Brian Coker (inset left ) Photographs:<br />

courtesy <strong>of</strong> Andrew Tester.<br />

Brian has also been active in the<br />

Museum’s retail department both at<br />

Thirlmere and at Valley Heights<br />

providing customer service to the<br />

museum’s clients.<br />

Richard (Dick) Butcher joined the<br />

NSW Rail Transport Museum in<br />

1966. Dick has had an extensive<br />

service in various RTM activities at<br />

Enfield, Thirlmere and more recent<br />

times at Valley Heights.<br />

These activities have included<br />

supervisory roles, running fitter on<br />

many RTM mainline tours and<br />

exhibit restoration <strong>of</strong> locomotives<br />

5910 and 5711. Dick’s passion for<br />

the railway preservation movement<br />

continued when the Eveleigh<br />

railway precinct was under early<br />

threat <strong>of</strong> redevelopment.<br />

Having worked part <strong>of</strong> his career<br />

within the confines <strong>of</strong> Eveleigh Loco<br />

and the Large Erecting Shop, Dick<br />

knew <strong>of</strong> the industrial treasure that<br />

still existed at Eveleigh and led a<br />

personal campaign, writing many<br />

letters to relevant authorities with<br />

the aim <strong>of</strong> preserving what was left<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Eveleigh Railway Workshops.<br />

Over the years Dick has passed on<br />

his vast knowledge in his railway<br />

trade <strong>of</strong> welding to many <strong>of</strong> his<br />

volunteer counterparts and has<br />

assisted many kindred<br />

organisations with his expertise.<br />

In recent times Dick has been<br />

called upon to assist with some<br />

extensive heavy duty welding<br />

repairs to exhibits belonging to the<br />

Steam Tram & Railway<br />

Preservations Society, at Valley<br />

Heights. During this past year<br />

Richard was asked to assist<br />

Lachlan Valley Railway (LVR) with<br />

some repairs to Steam Locomotive<br />

5917’s firebox.<br />

This required a highly skilled and<br />

knowledgeable person in the field <strong>of</strong><br />

welding. Dick is well known within<br />

the railway preservation movement<br />

for his welding abilities and as a<br />

result <strong>of</strong> his efforts LVR’s<br />

locomotive boiler has successfully<br />

completed hydrostatic tests.<br />

Richard also provided a training<br />

workshop to members <strong>of</strong> the Valley<br />

Heights Division <strong>of</strong> the RTM in the<br />

use <strong>of</strong> the MIG Welding machine.<br />

These members lacked the<br />

knowledge in the use <strong>of</strong> this<br />

valuable piece <strong>of</strong> equipment and<br />

Dick provided his expertise and<br />

training from his many years in the<br />

welding trade to insure it is correct.<br />

HERITAGE 18<br />

March - April 2012

Western crossing commemoration 2013-15<br />

great ideas - thoughts - just being talked about or its really going to happen<br />

Business supporting<br />

Bicentenary<br />

BLUE MOUNTAINS commercial<br />

interests have formed Business<br />

Supporting Bicentenary (BSB) with<br />

a view to securing an estimated $3<br />

million in government grants and<br />

company sponsorship needed to<br />

make the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Bicentenary Crossing reach its<br />

potential.<br />

BSB funded by local businessmen<br />

Phil Hammon <strong>of</strong> Scenic World) and<br />

Tom Colless (Colless Foods) has<br />

prepared a prospectus document<br />

and information guide which<br />

includes a core <strong>of</strong> 12 <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> major events spread<br />

over the years 2013, 2014 and<br />

2105.<br />

Among the proposals are:<br />

• a bicentenary launch in<br />

February 2013 featuring a<br />

grand parade at the Echo<br />

Point precinct, a fly over,<br />

entertainment, fireworks<br />

and an illumination display;<br />

• a. Crossing Milestones<br />

Festival to feature a reenactment<br />

<strong>of</strong> explorers<br />

Blaxland, Wentworth and<br />

Lawson three-weeks<br />

journey <strong>of</strong> discovery over<br />

the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> in May<br />

1813, village events,<br />

fireworks, community and<br />

sporting events,<br />

illumination <strong>of</strong> icons such<br />

as Carrington Hotel<br />

chimney, Three Sisters,<br />

bridges;.<br />

• an Aboriginal art and<br />

cultural event that explores<br />

the response <strong>of</strong> indigenous<br />

Randall Walker, chairperson<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>, Lithgow and<br />

Oberon Tourism<br />

people to the European<br />

crossing;<br />

• A Road Builders<br />

Celebration involving<br />

descendants <strong>of</strong> Cox and<br />

others, soldiers and period<br />

costume, hands on<br />

activities such as stone<br />

Grand parade <strong>of</strong> descendants<br />

MT VICTORIA & District Historical<br />

Society is planning a grand parade<br />

<strong>of</strong> descendants. The parade will<br />

recreate a similar event held for the<br />

175th anniversary. The society will<br />

seek out descendents <strong>of</strong> Blaxland,<br />

Wentworth and Lawson as well as<br />

Phil and Tom are joined on the<br />

committee by leading businessmen<br />

Randall Walker, Bruce Ferrier and<br />

others.<br />

Randall Walker, chairperson <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong>, Lithgow and Oberon<br />

Tourism, said crossing bicentenary<br />

events in the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> have<br />

the potential to reach an annual<br />

audience <strong>of</strong> five million visitors.<br />

William Cox and convict labourers<br />

who built the first road. Organisers<br />

are planning to carry horse drawn<br />

drays some <strong>of</strong> the parade<br />

particiapnts unable to take the walk<br />

to Mt York on May 28, 2013.<br />

Crossing! a Play<br />

Wendy Blaxland, the great-greatgreat-great<br />

grand-daughter <strong>of</strong> the<br />

explorer Gregory Blaxland has<br />

made an impressive presentation to<br />

a recent meeting <strong>of</strong> the Western<br />

Crossing committee concerning the<br />

production <strong>of</strong> a play Crossing!<br />

The play looks at the personalities<br />

<strong>of</strong> the three explorers, the<br />

circumstances that led convicts,<br />

military personnel and free settlers<br />

to leave their homes in England to<br />

come to a unfamiliar land, the<br />

crossing itself and its consequences<br />

and the attitude <strong>of</strong> the Aboriginal<br />

inhabitants <strong>of</strong> the area.<br />

Wendy told the meeting, “Crossing!<br />

is a re-creation <strong>of</strong> the expedition led<br />

by actors, with satisfying ways for<br />

its audience to be involved, not a<br />

theatrical spectacle to watch. Some<br />

individuals from the audience will<br />

become members <strong>of</strong> the expedition,<br />

and the audience itself will act as<br />

the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> terrain, be<br />

invited to participate in songs and<br />

celebrate vital moments with the<br />

actors. The audience will<br />

experience the hardships and<br />

excitements <strong>of</strong> the crossing through<br />

drama, suspense and humour.<br />

“The creative team will be<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essionals. The actors will<br />

interact with the audience to help<br />

populate the stage with the<br />

convicts, horses and dogs who<br />

accompanied the three named<br />

explorers, and the entire audience<br />

will become the terrain through<br />

which they travelled.<br />

“Music will be an integral part <strong>of</strong> the<br />

show, and songs will provide an<br />

authentic feeling <strong>of</strong> the early 19th<br />

century. Costumes and props will<br />

help the audience travel back<br />

imaginatively in time. The play will<br />

last 50 minutes.<br />

“As an experienced writer and<br />

theatre pr<strong>of</strong>essional, I will write,<br />

direct and produce this production.<br />

Other creative talents are being<br />

assembled, from an experienced<br />

and distinguished composer<br />

through to young people with whom<br />

I have worked for some time,” she<br />

said<br />

HERITAGE 19<br />

March - April 2012

State Library puts $1.8m, 194-year Australiana<br />

album on show<br />

A REMARKABLE 194-year-old<br />

album <strong>of</strong> previously unknown<br />

drawings <strong>of</strong> colonial Sydney,<br />

Newcastle and its Indigenous<br />

people, was publicly unveiled at the<br />

Newcastle Art Gallery recently by<br />

NSW Arts Minister George Souris.<br />

The Wallis Album was found in the<br />

back <strong>of</strong> a cupboard <strong>of</strong> a deceased<br />

estate in Ontario, Canada, in<br />

October last year before the State<br />

Library <strong>of</strong> NSW secured its passage<br />

home to Australia for $1.8 million.<br />

The album was largely created and<br />

compiled some 194 years ago by<br />

Captain James Wallis, Commandant<br />

<strong>of</strong> Newcastle between 1816 and<br />

1818.<br />

“The State Library is committed to<br />

connecting the original documents<br />

<strong>of</strong> Australia with local communities,<br />

and we’re thrilled to be partnering<br />

with the Newcastle Art Gallery in<br />



REGISTERED OFFICE 14 Bunnal Ave, Winmalee 2777<br />

E-mail: j.koperberg@bigpond.com or<br />

bmacho.heritage@gmail.com<br />

Website: www.bluemountains.heritage.com<br />

ABN 53 994 839 952<br />

THE ORGANISATION <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Cultural</strong> Organisations Inc. (BMACHO) was established<br />

in April 2006 following a unanimous response to a<br />

proposal from Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Barrie Reynolds at the 2004<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Local History Conference which sought<br />

from <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Council the creation <strong>of</strong> a<br />

cultural heritage strategy for the city.<br />

BMACHO in its constitution uses the definition: “<strong>Cultural</strong><br />

heritage is all aspects <strong>of</strong> life <strong>of</strong> the peoples <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> which was later changed to cover Lithgow and<br />

the villages along the Bell’s Line <strong>of</strong> Roads. It therefore<br />

involves the recording, preserving and interpreting <strong>of</strong><br />

information in whatever form: documents, objects,<br />

recorded memories as well as buildings and sites.”<br />

The objectives <strong>of</strong> the organisation are:<br />

i. To raise public consciousness <strong>of</strong><br />

the value <strong>of</strong> cultural heritage.<br />

ii. To encourage and assist cultural<br />

heritage activities <strong>of</strong> member organisations.<br />

iii. To initiate and support cultural<br />

heritage activities not already covered by<br />

member organisations.<br />

sharing this important artefact that<br />

has obvious historical and emotional<br />

significance to Newcastle,” says Dr<br />

Alex Byrne, NSW State Librarian and<br />

chief executive.<br />

“This remarkable album is the most<br />

significant pictorial artefact to have<br />

been made in colonial NSW during<br />

the 1810s and is a fantastic addition<br />

to the Mitchell Library’s unrivalled<br />

collection relating to the history <strong>of</strong><br />

our nation,” says Dr Byrne.<br />

The Wallis collection comprises 35<br />

watercolours and drawings <strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney and regional views <strong>of</strong> NSW,<br />

portraits <strong>of</strong> Aborigines and natural<br />

history illustrations made in<br />

Newcastle in 1818 by Captain Wallis<br />

and convict artist Joseph Lycett.<br />

“Wallis painted named portraits <strong>of</strong><br />

Awakabal Aboriginal people from the<br />

Newcastle area which are incredibly<br />

rare records <strong>of</strong> this community’s<br />

An untitled drawing by<br />

Joseph Lycett<br />

ancestors,” said Mitchell Librarian<br />

Richard Neville.<br />

“The album includes a Lycett view<br />

<strong>of</strong> Sydney Cove as well as one <strong>of</strong><br />

Wallis’ portraits which feature<br />

Burigon with whom he shared many<br />

pleasurable hunting expeditions.<br />

Wallis album includes early<br />

sketches <strong>of</strong> paintings by Lycett that<br />

are featured on the Macquarie<br />

Collector’s Chest c. 1818, which<br />

Wallis gave to Governor Macquarie<br />

to thank him for his patronage.<br />

MEMBERSHIP The following organisations are members <strong>of</strong><br />

BMACHO: <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Botanic Garden, Mount Tomah,<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Library, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Cultural</strong> <strong>Heritage</strong><br />

Centre, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc., <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> Family History Society Inc., <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>,<br />

Lithgow and Oberon Tourism Limited, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> World<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> Institute, Cudgegong Museums Group Inc., Eskbank<br />

Rail <strong>Heritage</strong> Centre, Everglades Historic House & Gardens,<br />

Friends <strong>of</strong> <strong>No</strong>rman Lindsay Gallery, Glenbrook & District<br />

Historical Society Inc., Hartley Valley District Progress<br />

<strong>Association</strong>, Kurrajong-Comleroy Historical Society Inc,<br />

Lilianfels <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Resort, Lithgow and District Family<br />

History Society Inc., Lithgow Mining Museum Inc., Lithgow<br />

Regional Library – Local Studies, Lithgow Small Arms Factory<br />

Museum Inc, Mid-<strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc, Mt Victoria<br />

and District Historical Society Inc., Mt Wilson and Mt Irvine<br />

History Society Inc. (including Turkish Bath Museum),<br />

Mudgee Historical Society Inc., Mudgee Regional Library,<br />

National Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia (NSW) - <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Branch,<br />

National Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia (NSW) - Lithgow Branch, Scenic<br />

World – <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Limited, Springwood & District<br />

Historical Society Inc., Springwood Historians Inc., Transport<br />

Signal and Communication Museum Inc., The Darnell<br />

Collection Pty Ltd, Valley Heights Locomotive Depot and<br />

Museum, Woodford Academy Management Committee, Zig<br />

Zag Railway Co-op Ltd. The following are individual members:<br />

Ray Christison, Associate Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Ian Jack, Joan Kent,<br />

John Leary OAM, John Low, Ian Milliss, Pastsy Moppett,<br />

Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Barrie Reynolds, Dr Peter Rickwood and Dr Peter<br />

Stanbury OAM.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the aims <strong>of</strong> BMACHO is to bring the various<br />

bodies into closer contact, to encourage them to work<br />

more closely together and to provide a combined voice<br />

on matters <strong>of</strong> importance within the heritage sector.<br />

HERITAGE BMACHO’s <strong>of</strong>ficial newsletter is edited by<br />

John Leary, OAM.<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> History Journal is edited by<br />

Dr Peter Rickwood.<br />

COMMITTEE The committee for 2011-12 is: Pamela Smith<br />

(president), Ian Jack (vice president), Jan Koperberg<br />

(secretary), Joan Kent (treasurer), Jean Arthur, Doug<br />

Knowles, John Leary, Dick Morony (public <strong>of</strong>ficer), Kathie<br />

McMahon-<strong>No</strong>lf, Barrie Reynolds and Peter Stanbury.<br />

.AFFILIATIONS BMACHO is a member <strong>of</strong> the Royal<br />

Australian Historical Society Inc.<br />

HERITAGE 20<br />

March - April 2012

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