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HERITAGENEWSLETTER OF THE BLUE MOUNTAINS ASSOCIATIONOF CULTURAL HERITAGE ORGANISATIONSJULY - AUGUST 20<strong>10</strong> ISSUE <strong>No</strong>. <strong>10</strong>In December 1789, Governor Phillipcharged Lieutenant William Daweswith the task <strong>of</strong> reaching thewestern mountains.This was the first recordedexploration <strong>of</strong> the area, followed bya series <strong>of</strong> adventurers like Tench,Hacking, Bass, Paterson, Wilson,Barrallier and Caley.All those explorations failed to crossthe mountains, but their knowledgewas the real reason that Blaxland,Lawson and Wentworth succeeded.There is no known journal <strong>of</strong>Lieutenant Dawes journey, the onlyrecord was a map dated 1791,signed by Dawes.There is no doubt that Dawes, withhis superior skill at “compass andpace” could produce a traverse <strong>of</strong>his journeys with comparativeaccuracy.The actual line <strong>of</strong> Dawes’ march, asper his inscribed map, can belocated on the modern ordnancemaps prepared by the Army SurveyCorps.The details <strong>of</strong> the creeks on Dawes’traverse favourably compare withthe ordnance sheets.LIEUT. WILLIAM DAWESTo the “line <strong>of</strong> march.” The first dayhe headed due west from Emu Fordto the crest <strong>of</strong> the first ridge, in thevicinity <strong>of</strong> Mount Riverview, andfrom here he had a direct view <strong>of</strong>Round Hill........First recorded white man on the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>by Lindsay Paish, Springwood HistoriansKeeping on, he crossed a series <strong>of</strong>creeks draining to the south side <strong>of</strong>Valley Heights, the ridge to thesouth <strong>of</strong> Springwood at Farm Road,the next ridge south <strong>of</strong> Bee FarmRoad near the rifle range, intoSassafras Gully, then across theMain Ridge close to FaulconbridgeStation.By now “the line <strong>of</strong> march” was halfway through their total route. Thecountry was rougher on the westside <strong>of</strong> Faulconbridge. Most <strong>of</strong> thecreeks and gullies they had crossedwere precipitous with averagegrades being close to 1 in 2.Further on, they encountered aseries <strong>of</strong> deeper gullies – includingLinden and Woodford Creeks –about 900ft [275 m] deep. Thewestern flank <strong>of</strong> Woodford Creek isa long unscaleable cliff, whichforced a deviation around the head<strong>of</strong> the ridge. Back to the ridge top,located north <strong>of</strong> Linden, theyreturned to their “line <strong>of</strong> march.”An extensive view <strong>of</strong> the sceneahead appeared even rougher thanthat they had already negotiated.Immediately west was the deepWentworth Creek, the roughestgully on the mountains and furtherahead, the chasm <strong>of</strong> the GroseRiver.Dawes and his party were nearexhaustion and short <strong>of</strong> provisions,and considering the country theyhad already travelled, the prospect<strong>of</strong> a further, rougher portage, forcedthe party homeward.Continued page <strong>10</strong>Dawes moved his “line <strong>of</strong> march” toa straight traverse and made a beeline for Round Hill crossing the nowline <strong>of</strong> the highway just near theSydney side <strong>of</strong> Warrimoo.Pictured is former Forestry Department cartographer, Lindsay Paishnow 85 years <strong>of</strong> age, looking at the map he drew in 1959 from overlays<strong>of</strong> Dawes 1789 traverses on to Australian Army Survey Corps mapswhich lend credibility to the claim Dawes was the first white man on the<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>. Photograph by John Leary, OAM May 20<strong>10</strong>HERITAGE 1July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


The front page piece by LindsayPaish in this edition <strong>of</strong> HERITAGElike so many historical andheritage based stories is in partwritten as a result <strong>of</strong> research inSydney’s magnificent MitchellLibrary which earlier this yearcelebrated its centenary.On following pages, John Lowalso writes about a <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>connection among the OneHundred treasures on display atthe Mitchell.It is all but impossible to write orread about Australia, the Pacificand the Antarctic without incurringdebts <strong>of</strong> gratitude to the Mitchell.Libraries are the most personalpublic institutions. History neverforgives those who destroy themand it remembers those who arebook donors such as David ScottMitchell.The State Library <strong>of</strong> New SouthWales traces its origins to 1826,with the opening <strong>of</strong> the AustralianSubscription Library. In 1869, theNew South Wales Governmenttook over responsibility for theLibrary and created the SydneyFree Public Library. In 1895 it wasrenamed the Public Library <strong>of</strong> NewSouth Wales, and in 1975 itbecame the State Library <strong>of</strong> NewSouth Wales.The Australian SubscriptionLibrary soon outgrew its premises,and a new wing was built in themid-1880s. By the turn <strong>of</strong> thecentury this too was outgrown, andplans were prepared for acompletely new ‘national’ librarybuilding.PinchgutPinchgut Island (now Fort Denison)once boasted Sydney’s finest weightloss cure – if you could stomach aweek’s solitary confinement.As early as 1788, convicts were putonto Pinchgut for petty crimes such asstealing food. Back then, the placeFrom the president’s pen......The magnificent MitchellLibrary a researcher’s dreamThe stimulus for this was DavidScott Mitchell’s <strong>of</strong>fer <strong>of</strong> his immenseand unrivalled collection <strong>of</strong>Australiana to the people <strong>of</strong> NewSouth Wales. One condition <strong>of</strong> his<strong>of</strong>fer was that a new building beerected to house the collection as aseparate library.Mitchell, book collector and nationalbenefactor, became one <strong>of</strong> the firstundergraduates <strong>of</strong> the University <strong>of</strong>Sydney (BA, 1856; MA 1859). InDecember 1858 he was admitted tothe Bar but never practised thoughhe is said to have later declinedappointment as attorney-general.Mitchell had been reared in acultivated household; never robust,he preferred books and intellectualinterests to business or politics.By 1866 he had won some reputefor scholarship in English literatureand for the next 20 years hecollected mainly English literaryworks, including many fine editionswhich in 1900 exceeded <strong>10</strong>,000volumes.From about 1886, he turned almostsolely to the record <strong>of</strong> Australia andits surrounding region.Book-collecting, which had been anintellectual pastime in youth and ascholarly vocation in maturity,became his all-absorbing purpose.Perhaps it could be said, Mitchellwas favoured: he had wealth,leisure and position, with usefulsocial connections yet was freefrom outside distractions.His scholarly knowledge <strong>of</strong> books,coupled with education, experiencewas little more than a desolate rockyoutcrop in Sydney Harbour.The history <strong>of</strong> the name Pinchgut is alittle hazy. It was named Pinchgut byGovernor John Hunter, It is both an oldnautical term for the point where astream channel narrows and a word forbeing hungry.and a talent for book-collecting,approached genius.After 1895 he was aided andencouraged by HCL Anderson,the principal librarian, who hadseen Mitchell as the chief rival <strong>of</strong>the Public Library <strong>of</strong> New SouthWales and set out to combineforces.Apart from Mitchell, the library hadthe best Australasian collectionand had demonstrated a capacityand will to develop it. Mitchell wasaging and in poor health, with norelations <strong>of</strong> like interests to hisown.In 1898 he <strong>of</strong>fered to bequeath hiscollection to the library trustees.The <strong>of</strong>fer was immediatelyaccepted and eventually hisconditions were met: the trusteeswere incorporated in 1899 and theMitchell wing <strong>of</strong> the new librarybuilding was begun in 1906.Mitchell died in 1907 andbequeathed to the library trusteeshis entire collection with anendowment <strong>of</strong> £70,000. Despitehis fine memory and erudition hewrote nothing and left as his onemain memorial the Mitchell Library.When opened in March 19<strong>10</strong> ithad some 60,000 volumes andmuch other material. It remainsunrivalled in its field and is one <strong>of</strong>the great national collections inthe world.John Leary, OAMPresident, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Cultural</strong> <strong>Heritage</strong>Organisations Inc.HERITAGE 2July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


Greens Party heritage policy to ensure<strong>Heritage</strong> Council’s independenceAt a meeting organized byBMACHO in Springwood last monthMs Sylvia Hale, MLC (pictured)outlined the Greens Party policy onheritage which it will take to the nextstate election.The meeting was the third in aseries organized by BMACHO tolearn <strong>of</strong> heritage policies <strong>of</strong> themajor political parties.Leary, OAM said many in thecommunity especially those in theheritage sector would welcome theproposed policies.Mr Leary said that it was farcical tobelieve that heritage could beadequately protected with thepowers which had been given to theMinister for Planning under Part 3A<strong>of</strong> the Planning Act 2005.The Greens will• Ensure the independence <strong>of</strong>the NSW <strong>Heritage</strong> Council byguaranteeing its funding andmaking it directly accountable to theNSW Parliament in a similar fashionto the Ombudsman’s Office, ratherthan to a minister.• Reconstitute the <strong>Heritage</strong>Council to ensure the appropriaterepresentation <strong>of</strong> community andpr<strong>of</strong>essional organisations.• Provide adequate resources topermit an increase in the rate <strong>of</strong>assessment <strong>of</strong> items for inclusionon the State <strong>Heritage</strong> Register.• Facilitate the extension <strong>of</strong>Interim <strong>Heritage</strong> Protection Ordersto items not on the State <strong>Heritage</strong>Register.• Remove economicdisadvantage as a reason to delist aheritage item.• Remove the right <strong>of</strong> a ministerto unilaterally delist a heritage item.• Require the <strong>Heritage</strong> Council toapprove any recommendation to delistany item on the State <strong>Heritage</strong>Register• Require local councils to notifythe <strong>Heritage</strong> Council <strong>of</strong> any itemthat may be <strong>of</strong> State <strong>Heritage</strong>significance and to seek the<strong>Heritage</strong> Council’s advice prior toapproving demolition or alteration toan item.• Encourage and fund localcouncils to revise and extend theirlocal heritage registers.• Require any application todemolish a heritage item todemonstrate why alternatives suchas adaptation <strong>of</strong> existing structuresare not feasible, and forbid thedemolition <strong>of</strong> any heritage itemwithout prior approval <strong>of</strong> therelevant authority.Thanking Ms Hale for her addressand for answering question from themeeting, BMACHO president, JohnPr<strong>of</strong>essor Ian Jack president <strong>of</strong> theRAHS who has had a longassociation with the former <strong>Heritage</strong>Council also welcomed theproposed policies.SUPPORT FOR HERITAGEADVISORY COMMITTEENew support has recently comefrom a number <strong>of</strong> electedrepresentatives including <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> City Council’s deputymayor Cr Janet May and GreensCrs Eleanor Gibbs and HowardMcCallum<strong>Heritage</strong> advisory committeeshave been established by manyNSW local government units andare in fact widely usedthroughout Australia to allowcouncillors and staff to availthemselves <strong>of</strong> local and expertknowledge on a wide range <strong>of</strong>heritage and historical issues.Formed under Section 377 <strong>of</strong> theLocal Government Act 1993these committees usuallycomprise one councillor and anumber <strong>of</strong> community members,selected by council afternewspaper advertisementscalling for expression <strong>of</strong> interestfrom members <strong>of</strong> the community.Those selected <strong>of</strong>ten includemembers <strong>of</strong> heritage or historysocieties and people eitherworking in or retired from theheritage sector includingacademics.For some time BMACHO hasbeen seeking to have <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> City Council reestablisha heritage advisorycommittee and for several yearsBMACHO’s executive has beenmeeting with council’s senior staff.The suggested objectives <strong>of</strong> aheritage advisory committee are:a. To advise council in relation toreviews <strong>of</strong> local heritage listings;b. To advise council aboutincreasing the community’sawareness <strong>of</strong> heritage matters;c. To advise council on heritagematters relating to developmentapplications before council;d. To advise council about heritageassistance, grant applications,review and recommendations;e. To advise council onimprovements to the care <strong>of</strong>,public access to and siteinformation for existing historicsites, buildings etc. and how theseimprovements might be achieved;f. To advise council in relation tolong term planning <strong>of</strong> significantheritage cemeteries.There is no shortage <strong>of</strong> people inthis region who are eminentlyqualified to serve on a localheritage advisory committee.They comprise long-termenthusiastic and experiencedresearchers <strong>of</strong> heritage and historyor pr<strong>of</strong>essionals and academics inthe heritage sector includingseveral with local governmentexperience. BMACHO is confidentthat they would be prepared toserve on such a committee.HERITAGE 3July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


‘He fought six rounds with the horse police’--- the shooting <strong>of</strong> Bold Jack DonahoeIn the current exhibition at the StateLibrary <strong>of</strong> NSW, celebrating thecentenary <strong>of</strong> the Mitchell Library,there are a number <strong>of</strong> items <strong>of</strong>interest to <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>historians among the One Hundredtreasures on display.The original journals <strong>of</strong> Blaxland,Lawson and Wentworth arefeatured as is a 1930s journal <strong>of</strong>bushwalker Myles Dunphy.by John Low, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc.One item, however, that caught myattention, the relevance <strong>of</strong> whichmay not at first be evident, was alithograph portrait <strong>of</strong> the deadbushranger Jack Donahoeattributed to Thomas Mitchell.While Donahoe died at Bringelly,his death has a slight but interestingconnection with Wentworth Falls (orThe Weatherboard).In 1902 the Warren Heraldpublished a series <strong>of</strong> reminiscencesby Edward Readford whose father,Thomas, had been the licensee <strong>of</strong>the Weatherboard Inn during theyears 1833 to 1837.At the time, the innkeeper’s onlyneighbours were a small troop <strong>of</strong>mounted policemen housed in a‘Police Military Barrack’ opposite.Readford makes particular mention<strong>of</strong> one <strong>of</strong> these, a quiet youngScotsman named John Muggleston,who was stationed there “nearly thewhole time my father kept the hotel”and regularly frequented his father’sestablishment.Fate had given Muggleston adegree <strong>of</strong> notoriety among hisfellows.John Muggleston (also speltMugglestone, Muckelstone,Muccleston, etc.) was born ca. 1804in the Scottish agricultural andA lithograph portrait <strong>of</strong> the dead Jack Donahoecotton milling town <strong>of</strong> Neilston in theLevern Valley south <strong>of</strong> Glasgow.While nothing is known <strong>of</strong> his familyor early life other than that he hadworked as a groom, by thebeginning <strong>of</strong> 1827 he had travelledsouth into England and had takenthe king’s shilling, joining the 39 th(Dorsetshire) Regiment at Coventry.His decision to become a soldierwould take him even further fromhis birthplace for, in June 1827, the39 th Regiment embarked as part <strong>of</strong>the convict guard on board the‘Champion’ and arrived in Sydney alittle over four months later.Following a twelve month tour <strong>of</strong>duty in <strong>No</strong>rfolk Island, Mugglestonjoined the mounted police in March1829.The mounted police had beenestablished by Governor Brisbanein 1825 in response to a generalincrease in bushranging activities, astate <strong>of</strong> affairs that continued toworsen under his successor,Governor Darling.Its principal role was to combat thisand to pursue escaped convictswho contributed mightily to themembership <strong>of</strong> the bushranginggangs.In these early years the mountedpolice had a strong militarycharacter, its <strong>of</strong>ficers and menbeing volunteers seconded from theregiments garrisoned in the colonyand generally returning when thesewere transferred elsewhere.Their uniform also reflected themilitary connection with ‘full dress’resembling the 14 th Light Dragoons,though their ‘bush uniform’ includeda cabbage-tree hat along with thepatrol jacket and trousers.They were armed with a sabre,carbine and horse pistols. By 1830there were about <strong>10</strong>0 mountedpolicemen in the colony.One <strong>of</strong> the most troublesomebushrangers operating at the timeMuggleston joined the ‘horse police’was a young Irish convict escapeewho, following a conviction forhighway robbery on the Sydney-Windsor Road, had dramaticallyavoided the hangman and fled intoto the bush.This was the “wild colonial boy, JackDonahoe by name” whosedepredations and continuedevasion <strong>of</strong> the authorities in theHawkesbury-Nepean and otherdistricts around Sydney werenotorious.In the repressive climate <strong>of</strong>Darling’s administration JohnDonahoe (sometimes speltDonohoe) was rapidly becomingsomething <strong>of</strong> a folk hero among the‘lower orders’ <strong>of</strong> society.Born in Dublin ca. 1806, details <strong>of</strong>Donahoe’s early life and family areas vague as those <strong>of</strong> his Scottishcontemporary.Continued page 5HERITAGE 4July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


The shooting <strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong> bushranger, Jack DonahoeContinued from page 4A couple <strong>of</strong> years younger thanMuggleston, he was sentenced totransportation for life in 1823 afterbeing found guilty <strong>of</strong> “intent tocommit felonry”, a rather vaguecharge that has been interpreted bysome to refer to ‘political’ crimes.As the child <strong>of</strong> a country exploitedeconomically and repressedpolitically, he had good cause todislike the English. Donohoe arrivedin Australia on board the ‘Ann andAmelia’ in early 1825, not longbefore Brisbane’s departure and theadvent <strong>of</strong> Governor Darling.In 1830 Muggleston’s commanding<strong>of</strong>ficer and fellow Scot, LieutenantLachlan McAlister, devised a newstrategy for his mounted police unitbased at Goulburn.Instead <strong>of</strong> the usual reactionarypursuit from place to place, allowingthe villains greater options forescape, his troopers now conductedregular and systematic patrols <strong>of</strong>the known haunts <strong>of</strong> the Donahoegang. It was a good plan and onWednesday, September 1, 1830, itbrought results.As an early spring evening settledon the Bringelly bush, Mugglestonand six other troopers unsaddledtheir horses and prepared to makecamp.In the dusk they spied, somedistance away, three men ridingslowly through the trees leading apackhorse.These were soon identified asDonahoe, William Webber andJohn Walmsley.At the later inquest Mugglestondescribed the situation: “Thebushrangers were in a hollowsurrounded by bush, by whichmeans they were prevented fromobserving our approach.When Donahoe saw us he took hishat <strong>of</strong>f, and waved it three times,threw it in the air, and bid usdefiance ...” Both sides took coverand the bushrangers, with areckless confidence borne <strong>of</strong> theirearlier successes, began tauntingthe troopers with insults,obscenities and shooting.What followed was described indetail in the Sydney Gazette:“Muggleston, who is reckoned one<strong>of</strong> the best shots, kept his eyesteadily fixed on Donahoe, andwhen the latter peeped from behindhis tree, shewing (sic) only his headand part <strong>of</strong> his breast, the warysoldier took aim, fired, and though ahundred yards distant, in less thana minute the vaunting hero was ineternity.”The ‘troublesome’ Jack Donahoewas dead but his memory wouldfuel a legend and inspire numerouspopular ballads that circulatedthroughout Australia and overseasin places as diverse as Ireland,England, the USA, Canada, <strong>No</strong>vaScotia and Newfoundland.His nemesis, the young Scottishsoldier, on the other hand, slippedquietly into obscurity.Prior to his transfer to TheWeatherboard, there are referencesto Muggleston’s involvement inskirmishes with bushranging gangsin the Oberon area and near theFish River (Jenolan) Caves in 1831.He clearly preferred the life <strong>of</strong> amounted trooper to that <strong>of</strong> a footsoldier and twice transferred toother regiments (the 4 th in 1832 andthe 80 th in 1837) in order to remainin Australia.By the end <strong>of</strong> the 1830s he wasstationed at Newcastle and wasprobably involved in the pursuit <strong>of</strong>the ‘Jew Boy’ Gang (led by EdwardDavis, the only Jewish bushrangeron record) who were operatingthroughout the Hunter regionbetween 1839 and the end <strong>of</strong> 1840.John Muggleston died in NewcastleHospital on January 13, 1841 at theearly age <strong>of</strong> 37 and was buried inthe Christ Church CathedralCemetery. I have not, however,been able to establish the cause <strong>of</strong>his death.His colleagues in the mountedpolice erected a substantialheadstone to his memory and, whileno longer marking the spot wherehis body lies, this still exists.On its face are inscribed the words:“Sacred to the memory <strong>of</strong> JohnMuggleston who died January 1841aged about 40 years. This stone iserected by the <strong>of</strong>ficers, noncommissioned<strong>of</strong>ficers and troopers<strong>of</strong> the Mounted Police Force”.REFERENCES[Anonymous] ‘Death <strong>of</strong> Donahoe’,Sydney Gazette, September 4, 1830.Gibbney, H.J. & Smith, Ann G. ABiographical Register 1788-1939: <strong>No</strong>tesfrom the Name Index <strong>of</strong> the AustralianDictionary <strong>of</strong> Biography, Volume 2, L-Z.Canberra: ADB, 1987.MacAlister, Charles. Old PioneeringDays in the Sunny South. Goulburn,NSW: Chas. MacAlister BookPublication Committee, 1907.Meredith, John. The Wild Colonial Boy:Bushranger Jack Donahoe, 1806-1830.Ascot Vale, Victoria: Red Rooster Press,1982.Readford, Edward. ‘Reminiscences <strong>of</strong>Early Days’, Warren Herald, 2 August,1902. [Copy held in the files <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society]Ward, Russell. ‘Donohoe, John (Jack)(1806?-1830)’, Australian Dictionary <strong>of</strong>Biography, Volume 1. Melbourne: MUP,1966.Information supplied by the LocalStudies Librarian, Newcastle RegionLibrary [Letter dated 9 January 2003]MOUNTAIN MURDERSGlenbrook & District HistoricalSociety Inc. will conduct a walk“The Mountain Murders – LeeWeller’s Grave” on Saturday,August 28.For further detailspplinden@yahoo.com.auNATIONALTRUST WALKThe <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Branch <strong>of</strong>National Trust is organising a walkon the lower <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>eastern escarpment for Saturday,July 24.The walk will visit Elizabeth’sLookout, Knapsack Gully andrailway viaduct built in 1867, thentraverse the original Lapstone Zig-Zag, cross the portal <strong>of</strong> theoriginal Lapstone Hill railwaytunnel, the subject <strong>of</strong> ArthurStreeton’s painting ‘Fires on’.Morning tea and lunch will beprovided.For further enquiries RhonaLeach 4757 2424.HERITAGE 5July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


Woodford’s memorial for those who for kingand empire enlisted from this villageIn the aftermath <strong>of</strong> the Great War,communities across Australia builtwar memorials to perpetuate thememory <strong>of</strong> those who served theircountry and who lie buried inforeign soil or beneath the seas.Their memory must not bediminished by the passage <strong>of</strong> time.Woodford like so many other townswas to see the creation <strong>of</strong> aMemorial Park in which wasincluded a war memorial housed ina pavilion.Often the memorials were built atthe instigation <strong>of</strong> local residentswho banded together inorganisations such as progress,citizens and/or ratepayersassociations.In his book Hazelbrook & Woodford–A story <strong>of</strong> two <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>towns local historian Ken Goodlet,records: In February 1917, ‘it wasunanimously decided to form a localprogress association, the objectbeing to formulate plans for theenhancement <strong>of</strong> the district’.The committee included such localidentities as Gustavus Waterhouse(president), Thomas Thomas,Aubrey Murphy and Herbert Dakin 1 .The local press saw this as marking‘an epoch in the history <strong>of</strong> thischarming town’ 2 .The war memorial is described inthe State <strong>Heritage</strong> Inventory as asquare pavilion with an intersectinggable ro<strong>of</strong>.A rock faced stone balustrade withbullneck brick capping spansbetween the piers.On the north side a terrazzo stairwith stone spandrels providesaccess to the shelter.On a monument in the centre <strong>of</strong> thepavilion is a rockfaced sandstonemonument with tapered sides.Marble plaques at the basecommemorate those who enlistedfrom the village in World War 1.Granite plaques commemorateWorld War II 3 .In 1919 details <strong>of</strong> WoodfordMemorial Park appeared in theGovernment Gazette and theWoodford War Memorial andpavilion was designed andconstructed in 1920 by localstonemason and master builderThomas Thomas. The memorial andpavilion was built on a sandstoneoutcrop on the south east portion <strong>of</strong>the park between the train line andthe highway.Thomas Owen Thomas had built hishome in Woodford in 1909 soonafter he emigrated from Wales.At the time <strong>of</strong> his death in 1973 hiscontribution to the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>community was considered to beone <strong>of</strong> the most important in thedevelopment <strong>of</strong> this district.He served as an alderman on <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> Shire Council, was along term president <strong>of</strong> WoodfordProgress <strong>Association</strong>, a chairman <strong>of</strong>Woodford Sights and ReservesTrust, and a member <strong>of</strong> the 530ACommittee [<strong>of</strong> council] caring for theWoodford parks and reserves at thetime <strong>of</strong> his death.In 1921, the Woodford Group <strong>of</strong> the<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Sights Reserveswas established, most <strong>of</strong> the earlyattention going into WoodfordMemorial Park and much <strong>of</strong> the costbeing paid as a loan by GustavWaterhouse 4 .It was not until 1962 that MemorialPark was transferred to <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> Council.In recent times Woodford MemorialPark has been difficult to accessfrom the Great Western Highway orthe footbridge over the rail line.However, there is expected to besome enhancement <strong>of</strong> the park andmemorial which will not be affectedby construction work to upgradethe Great Western Highway.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe editor <strong>of</strong> BMACHO’s newsletterHERITAGE is grateful to Ken Goodletfor permission to use information fromhis book, Hazelbrook & Woodford. Astory <strong>of</strong> two <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> towns.Compilation and photographs by JohnLeary, OAM.ENDNOTES1Goodlet, K., Hazelbrook & Woodford. Astory <strong>of</strong> two <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> towns.2<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Echo. February 2,1917, August <strong>10</strong>, 1917, January 4,1918.3NSW <strong>Heritage</strong> Branch <strong>Heritage</strong>Databases,www.heritage.nsw.gov.auaccessed June <strong>10</strong> 20<strong>10</strong>.4Goodlet, K., Hazelbrook & Woodford. Astory <strong>of</strong> two <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> towns.HERITAGE 6July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


Mrs Macquarie on horse-back bush excursionsContinued from page 7Riding in the carriage gave way tohorseback on just the second dayuntil the Nepean was forded, andthen resumed on and <strong>of</strong>f.Accommodation that night atSpringwood, as for the next 22nights, was in tents, the couplesometimes relaxing with a game <strong>of</strong>cards after dinner.The pass that William Cox hadconstructed down Mount Yorkstunned the Macquaries, the roadbeing so steep that Elizabeth andLachlan had to walk the whole waydown on foot, whilst three hours <strong>of</strong>struggle elapsed before thecarriages and baggage came downsafely.A special halt was called byElizabeth elsewhere, so she couldsketch ‘Mount Evans’ [EvansCrown]. 12Lachlan was proud <strong>of</strong> Elizabeth’sfortitude and pleased with hercompanionship:Mrs M. I am happy to say, hasbore [sic] the fatiguing journeyover the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> to[Bathurst Plains]… wonderfullywell indeed … 13An earlier comment, written in thewilds <strong>of</strong> the Cowpastures, summedup Macquarie’s affection andElizabeth’s varied talents succinctly.While needing fires and guards toencircle their camp site from fear <strong>of</strong>the wild cattle, her husband couldnote <strong>of</strong> Elizabeth:we sat down eight at table to amost comfortable dinner; Mrs. M.tho’ so young a campaignerhaving provided every requisite tomake our tour easy, pleasant andhappy… 14ENDNOTES1M.H. Ellis, Lachlan Macquarie , Angusand Robertson, Sydney, 1978, pp. 121,124-131, 133, 142-143.2Ellis, pp. 123, 143; J.Ritchie,Macquarie: a Biography, MelbourneUniversity Press, Carlton, 1986, pp. 20-21, 91; Lachlan Macquarie, Journals <strong>of</strong>His Tours in New South Wales and VanDiemen’s Land 18<strong>10</strong>-1822, Library <strong>of</strong>Australian History in association with theLibrary Council <strong>of</strong> New South Wales,Sydney, 1979, pp. 3, 113; SydneyGazette 22 December, 18<strong>10</strong>; Personalcommunication from Meg Douglas <strong>of</strong>Bridges Cottage Aros, Mull to JanBarkley Jack and Ian Jack, 27 June1997; field trip to Gruline-Salen-Fishnishon Mull by Jan Barkley Jack and IanJack, 1997.3Ritchie,p. 91.4Ritchie, pp. 211-213, 221, 218-219;Ellis, p. 251; Personal communicationfrom Meg Douglas <strong>of</strong> Bridges CottageAros, Mull to Jan Barkley Jack and IanJack, 27 June 1997.5www.nationaltrust.com.au/properties/macquarie/default.asp6Ellis, p. 134.7Ellis, p. 131.8J. Broadbent, The Australian ColonialHouse, Hordern House in associationwith Historic Houses Trust <strong>of</strong> NSW,Sydney, 1997, pp.124,145; J. Broadbentand Joy Hughes(eds.), The Age <strong>of</strong>Macquarie , Melbourne University Pressin association with Historic Houses Trust<strong>of</strong> New South Wales, Carlton, 1992, pp.11, 168.9Macquarie, pp. 2, 5-16, 25, 27.<strong>10</strong>Macquarie, pp. 23-43, 45-79, 86-87.11Macquarie, pp. 15, 82, 152.12Macquarie, pp. 90-1<strong>10</strong>.13Macquarie, p. 98.14Macquarie, p.7.Governor Macquarie exhibitionOne <strong>of</strong> Governor LachlanMacquarie’s most enduring legacieswas the setting out <strong>of</strong> five towns onthe Hawkesbury River.They were named Richmond,Windsor, Wilberforce, Pitt Town andCastlereagh, and, according toHawkesbury Regional Museumdirector, Kath von Witt, theyguaranteed the survival <strong>of</strong> thecolony <strong>of</strong> New South Wales.“Attempts to farm at Sydney andParramatta had not producedenough food to support thepopulation, and although theHawkesbury had the rich alluvialsoil needed to grow crops and raiselivestock, regular flooding hadswept much <strong>of</strong> it away,” says Kath.“With his five towns, Macquariechanged all that — by situatingtowns above flood level, grain andlivestock could be protected fromflooding and Sydney’s food supplywas assured.“At the same time, Macquariecreated settlements that, 200 yearslater, continue to reflect his townplanning ability, his belief in thecivilising influence <strong>of</strong> BritishTHE AUTHOR. Jan Barkley Jack is ahistorian, educated at the University <strong>of</strong>New England, with a BA (Hons.) fromthe University <strong>of</strong> Western Sydney.She co-authored the Hawkesbury CityCouncil’s Bicentennial book and haswritten many articles.She has promoted history through beingon Hawkesbury Historical Society,National Trust and Hawkesbury CityCouncil heritage and celebrationcommittees, and as honorary curator <strong>of</strong>Hawkesbury Museum for over twentyyears.Jan has presented Community Linkcourses for the University <strong>of</strong> WesternSydney and was a recipient <strong>of</strong> aCommonwealth Centenary Medal in2003 for ‘service to the communitythrough the history and heritage <strong>of</strong> theHawkesbury’.In 2005 she was an advisor to SBSTelevision on historical content in theirLiving History series The Colony. Herlatest book, Hawkesbury SettlementRevealed was published in 2009.institutions, and his willingness tospend public money oninfrastructure.”On show throughout20<strong>10</strong> at the awardwinningmuseum inWindsor, itselflocated on a townallotment grantedby Macquarie toJohn Howe in 1811,is a display aboutMacquarie’s achievements.It includes information about thetime he spent in the area, and thethinking that went into the siting andnaming <strong>of</strong> the towns.Hawkesbury Regional Museum is at8 Baker Street Windsor. Open daily<strong>10</strong>am - 4pm except Tuesdays (prebookedgroups only) Selectedpublic holidays <strong>10</strong>am - 4pm. ClosedChristmas Day, Boxing Day andGood Friday.For further informationPhone 4560 4654 museum@hawkesbury.nsw.gov.auwww.hawkesbury.nsw.gov.auHERITAGE 8July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


THE OLD COMMUNITY HALL - THEHEART OF THE LAWSON TOWNSHIPAlthough the place that was tobecome the modern Lawson hadappeared under its first name <strong>of</strong>Christmas Swamp on John Oxley’s1817 survey, it was not until 1867and the arrival <strong>of</strong> a single-trackrailway line that the township had itsreal beginnings.Up to this time its major functionhad been to serve the needs <strong>of</strong> thesteadily increasing movement <strong>of</strong>people and trade both ways acrossthe mountains. The <strong>Blue</strong> MountainInn and an <strong>of</strong>ficial stock resting area(now Douglass Square) togetherwith a good water supply had made<strong>Blue</strong> Mountain as it came to beknown a major stopping place.by Nance Cooper, Mid <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc.After 1867 a settled communitybegan to appear. The name Lawsonappeared in 1879 as part <strong>of</strong> agovernment clean-up <strong>of</strong> placenames.The <strong>Blue</strong> Mountain Inn was movedfrom its original site on what is nowthe public school playground finallyending up where the <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> Hotel now stands and aflourishing small shopping centregrew up to serve the needs <strong>of</strong> boththe permanent residents and theincreasing numbers <strong>of</strong> holidaymakers.By World War I, Lawson was one <strong>of</strong>the major holiday resorts <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong>. By the end <strong>of</strong> the 19 thcentury when the story <strong>of</strong> Lawson’sOld Community Hall begins manyforces were having an impact evenon a quiet mountain township.The development <strong>of</strong> the MechanicsInstitute movement as a social andeducational force was under waythroughout NSW and within theLawson community new needs werebeing felt.The result was at first a smallventure called the Lawson Literaryand Debating Society that was setup in 1896 with eight members andno money.It met in what had been the second<strong>Blue</strong> Mountain Inn (on the presentschool playground).A small library encouraged moremembers, so a move was madeacross the railway line to the C<strong>of</strong>feePalace (later Stratford School <strong>of</strong>which only the tower still remains) inSan Jose Avenue.The purchase <strong>of</strong> a small billiardtable against much oppositionencouraged younger members so apermanent home was sought by theProgress <strong>Association</strong>.In 1899 the state government cameinto the picture and set aside Lot 17Section 1 <strong>of</strong> the Village <strong>of</strong> Lawsonfor a mechanics institute and thesociety with library and billiard tablemoved back across the railway lineto a home in a temporary woodenbuilding.A more substantial masonrybuilding was erected on the site in1903 at the cost <strong>of</strong> £400 paid for bycommunity subscription.About 40,000 bricks from the oldLawson railway station were usedas well as some from Mount Victoriastation, all becoming available asthe result <strong>of</strong> the upgrading <strong>of</strong> therailway line and the need for newstations.Once again the community wasdirectly involved in providing thetransport for such a majormovement <strong>of</strong> building material.The new Lawson MechanicsInstitute building was <strong>of</strong>ficiallyopened in December 1903.The needs <strong>of</strong> current highwaywidening have had the effect <strong>of</strong>restoring the old community hall toits original appearance as createdby the Lawson community.The portico that provided a coveredfront entry to the building was not toappear until at least 30 years afterthe original building was completed.A 1905 photograph shows a set <strong>of</strong>steps from the footpath to thedoorway that still faces the highway.Exactly when the portico was addedis a matter <strong>of</strong> question butphotographic evidence shows thehall without portico up to the time <strong>of</strong>World War II.In all probability its appearancecoincided with the use <strong>of</strong> thebuilding on a regular basis as acinema up to the advent <strong>of</strong>television.The new building was put toimmediate use. By 1905 the library,now a circulating library, hadreached <strong>10</strong>00 volumes andmembership continued to grow. Apermanent caretaker was neededand the library and billiard roomwere open all day in the holidayseason.Continued page <strong>10</strong>HERITAGE 9July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


Lawson Mechanics Institute a venue foruniversity lectures in 1906Continued from page 9It became a venue for young menand women for Christianconferences with up to 200 inattendance and was also used in1906 as the site <strong>of</strong> universitylectures for students from NSW andVictoria.It provided a venue for the new <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> Shire Council that tookover the building temporarily in1907 before relocating to San JoseAvenue, first to Avon on the corner<strong>of</strong> Park Street, then into itspermanent home in what is now thelibrary building where it stayed until1947.A major change occurred in 1911when the Lawson MechanicsInstitute was renamed the LawsonLiterary Institute reflecting achanging attitude to the buildingand its use.In 1909 its move to becomingLawson’s entertainment centreaccelerated. The stage wasenlarged and wings were added.Moving pictures were first exhibitedin the hall by a travelling show andskating appeared as a hall activityin 1912.The connection <strong>of</strong> electricity in 1931increased its availability for a widerange <strong>of</strong> social activities. There arenewspaper reports <strong>of</strong> dances,bazaars, lectures, school prizegivingfunctions and billiardcompetitions and until the early1960s it was the local cinema.In 1991 the building was renamedthe Mid <strong>Mountains</strong> Youth Centre butwas vacated in 2004 for its future tobe determined.While at one stage demolitionseemed inevitable to meet theneeds <strong>of</strong> highway widening, arealignment <strong>of</strong> the new line <strong>of</strong>highway coupled with the removal<strong>of</strong> the portico has made theretention <strong>of</strong> the building possible.REFERENCESEco Design - Studio Lawson MechanicsInstitute .Report for inclusion in BMMC BusinessPaper 29 January 2008.Innes, Paul - Lawson MechanicsChristmas party given by RSL c. 1936 held in Lawson MechanicsInstitute Hall. Photograph by A Manning <strong>of</strong> KatoombaInstitute/Community Hall .Oral history project on behalf <strong>of</strong> BMCCMarch-June 2005.Staas, Robert - Lawson MechanicsInstitute Hall <strong>Heritage</strong> Assessment2004. Prepared for <strong>No</strong>el Bell RidleySmith & Partners Architects Pty Ltd.The Nepean Times. Newspaper 1882-1962. (References throughout relevantperiod)Lt William Dawes named Mt TwissContinued frompage 1Mount Twiss, named after an <strong>of</strong>ficer<strong>of</strong> the Royal Engineers, and DawesRidge are enshrined on theRegister <strong>of</strong> the Geographic NamesBoard.There have been numerousattempts to pinpoint their exactlocation but there is no backing inany journals so their position willslip into the realm <strong>of</strong> mythology.BIBLIOGRAPHYThe notes and extracts used in thisarticle obtained from journals andvolumes contained in the MitchellLibrary and Public Library <strong>of</strong> NSW, whilethe journey mentioned was plotted on astandard Ordnance Map <strong>of</strong> Katoombaand Windsor.The Mid <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Societywas set up in 2000 at a communitymeeting to give a voice to the muchneglected heritage and history <strong>of</strong> thisforgotten part <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>.Preservation, recording and publicising<strong>of</strong> material relating to the area is aparamount object which is reflected inthe Society’s website and variouspublished documentsList <strong>of</strong> PapersComplete account <strong>of</strong> settlement at PortJackson in New South Wales – 1793 byWatkin Tench.New South Wales – Historical Records,vol. 1, pt. 2.Historical Journal <strong>of</strong> Admiral JohnHunter, p. 151.Historical Records <strong>of</strong> Australia, Series 1,vol. 1.History <strong>of</strong> New South Wales, G.B.Barton, vol. 1.Account <strong>of</strong> the English Colony <strong>of</strong> NSW,David Collins.Guide book to the excursions to the<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> and Lithgow, 1923.Pacific Science Congress –Explorations by H.R. Cambage, F.L.S.First crossing <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>, F.Walker, Royal Australian HistoricalSociety Journal, vol. 25, p. 475-519.Macquarie Historical Society, <strong>No</strong>tes onthe Exploration <strong>of</strong> the Lower <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong>. H.Paish.HERITAGE <strong>10</strong>July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


STRANGE DOINGS AT SPRINGWOODBy Shirley EvansNepean Times, February 1, 1890“Petty Thieving. – Petty thieving inand around Springwood seems tobe the popular amusement – meandespicable appropriation <strong>of</strong> otherpeople’s goods – one <strong>of</strong> ourhardworking neighbours has to pickhis ripening fruit every morningbefore he goes to work; if not it issure to go during his absence –another one left a few tools wherehe had been working some littledistance from his house, the nextday they were missing – and onTuesday we met our roadmaintenance man plodding towardsSpringwood with a very dolefulcountenance, his road repairingtools having been left between twodays – we believe some peoplewould steal a dog-leg fence if theycould get it on their shoulders – OTempore ! O Moses! “Nepean Times, May 3, 1890“More petty thieving and wantonmischief in the back blocks, onepoor fellow loses five <strong>of</strong> his besthens, and another has his wirefence cut in various places andsome <strong>of</strong> the wire stolen – this isbeyond a joke. Another had a few(a case or so) late apples on thetree one night – the next morningthey had disappeared . We shallhave to interview the war <strong>of</strong>fice andhave a detachment <strong>of</strong> mountedinfantry sent up here. They couldmake a dear little camp on peachtree flat, and it would be such funfor the girls. We are sure theywould be just as useful in thecountry (even more so) thandisplaying their roosters’ feathers inthe neighbourhood <strong>of</strong> Sydney, and ifour liberal government would supplythem with a little ammunition, wemight get rid <strong>of</strong> our flying foxeswithout trying to blow them up withdynamite. Lor! what a scare thewallabies would get.”Nepean Times, May <strong>10</strong>, 1890“The operations <strong>of</strong> our Springwoodthieves are extending and taking ahigher tone. A few days back theytook advantage <strong>of</strong> Mrs Hoare’sabsence and forced an entranceinto her house 1 , but they wereevidently new at this branch <strong>of</strong> thetrade for they decamped withouttaking anything <strong>of</strong> much value 2 .Their entrance was effected veryclumsily as they had roughly boredholes in the front door and burst apanel in sufficiently wide to get theirhands in and undo the fastenings <strong>of</strong>the door. This is certainly anupward tendency in the style <strong>of</strong> theftfrom robbing orchards, making araid amongst the hen roosts,stealing and cutting wire fences tobarefaced robbery. We shall nexthear <strong>of</strong> them sticking up our localbank or stopping the mail train. Weare as far too go-ahead in villainyas we are slow in other natures.”Nepean Times, June 28, 1890“I daresay you have heard <strong>of</strong> thenefarious proceedings <strong>of</strong> certainA pair <strong>of</strong> antique silver cruets, probably not unlike the set stolen fromMiss Todd’s Springwood home in 1890. Photograph courtesy <strong>of</strong> JohnLeary, OAMFor more than 400 years, since the first ever newspaper, the Relationaller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien was printed inStrassburg, Germany by Johnann Carolus in 1605; newspaper reportinghas undergone many changes in literary styles.From the early 18 th century up until recent times it was not uncommon forprovincial and even some metropolitan newspapers to supplementcrafted writings <strong>of</strong> journalists with contributions from correspondents oras they were sometimes called ‘stringers’ who provided news fromoutlying areas.The writings <strong>of</strong> these correspondents varied from the bland to thebeguiling, the storyline sometimes quaint, sometimes questionable. Theauthors were sometimes humble, sometimes hostile while some triedhomespun humour to get their story read. Unquestionably for futureresearchers and historians these correspondents have left a first-handaccount sometimes complete with hyperbole <strong>of</strong> lifestyles <strong>of</strong> yesteryear.The Nepean Times seems to have employed a ‘stringer’ in the thenoutlying township <strong>of</strong> Springwood. Springwood Historian, Shirley Evans inher ongoing research <strong>of</strong> old newspapers has contributed this interestingarticle. It is well worth the space given to it in this edition <strong>of</strong> HERITAGE.The editor.unknown “gentry” in the district <strong>of</strong>Springwood. Truly, we are in badcase. <strong>No</strong> one when he retires forthe night can say he will have apeaceful time <strong>of</strong> it. He mayexamine under his bed with hisrushlight to see if anyone is there,and he may perchance keep hisrevolver loaded too under his pillow;but for all those precautions he mayfind the next morning that his fowlshave been stolen, or his beehivesdisappeared – the very wires <strong>of</strong> hisfence may have been cut and takenaway, or worse still his house maybe broken into and many <strong>of</strong> hisfavourite articles gone.If he has goods consigned to him byrail and leaves them or his luggageon the Springwood platform, part orthe whole may disappear in thetwinkling <strong>of</strong> an eye without hisauthority. These are not fancifulcases. These things havehappened and that lately. Some noless than last week. You may saythe remedy lies in having onepoliceman stationed here, whosedistrict extends from about Blaxlandright away to Lawson and beyond.Well he is no doubt a very worthyconstable, but so far has beenunable to afford us any relief. Hecannot even find one <strong>of</strong>fender, and Ifear it is hopeless to expect that hewill be able to unless ably assistedby the Inspector General <strong>of</strong> Police’sinstructions.Continued page 12HERITAGE 11July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


From Springwood burglar to Peak Hill murdererContinued from page 11It is plain to me that we want morepolice here if only as a temporaryexpedient, then there may be somehope <strong>of</strong> being able to keep one’sgoods intact. If no help is afforded,and more burglaries and theftsoccur it will have but one ending –somebody will be made a target <strong>of</strong>;perhaps the wrong man whichwould be a lamentable result.Revolvers are to be brought intorequisition by several <strong>of</strong> our folkwho are determined to use them tooif occasion demand it. Perhaps ourProgress Committee will make amove in the desired direction, for atpresent “our” policeman’s lot is nota happy one.”Nepean Times, July 19, 1890“Another petty robbery has occurredin the district. Miss Todd uponreturning home, near the railwaybridge, after a short absence, foundit broken into and some blanketsand a cruet stand abstracted. It is acurious thing that in all the latecases <strong>of</strong> robbery about Springwood,the thieves have appropriated acruet-stand. It does not seem tomatter much whether the stand iselectro or silver it is all the same tothem, it is taken. We wonderwhether he, she or they are going toset up a dining saloon, and are thuscommencing to appropriate thenecessary stock. It’s a risky game;and for our part we would rather buythe articles on terms, and leavebefore payment was required – withthe articles, if not too bulky.Nepean Times, July 26, 1890“Theft. – In the midst <strong>of</strong> life we arein theft, at least we find it so thisside <strong>of</strong> the Zig-Zag, and aconsignment <strong>of</strong> tower muskets willhave to be forwarded to the district.Neither our cruet stands or ourclothes lines are safe. In fact thissystem <strong>of</strong> petty foggingappropriation <strong>of</strong> other people’sunderlinen is the meanest type <strong>of</strong>kleptomania. Last Saturday our twohotels had their clothes linesstripped in a most barefacedmanner, and the night before MrHumphries, a quiet hard workingman, had his home broken into anda quantity <strong>of</strong> wearing apparel andpapers taken. We can understanda starving homeless wretch filchingfrom the super-abundance <strong>of</strong> a richman’s house, the temptation beingso great, but for thieves to break inand steal from a hard working tiller<strong>of</strong> the soil seems the very poorestkind <strong>of</strong> employment.We would just as soon work for ourliving and take our natural rest atnight.”Nepean Times, August 2,1890“<strong>No</strong> more robberies. – Since thestirring events <strong>of</strong> the last week havetranspired, our village has returnedto its usual placid serenity. Wecarefully take in all our washedclothes at night, lock the back gatewith a six inch nail, and shove thecruet stand as far up the chimneyas possible. Having made thesepreparations, we chain the dog upto the grind-stone, and feel easy forthe night.”Nepean Times, August 16, 1890“Mr Parker’s house on Single’sRidge was entered the other day inthe absence <strong>of</strong> the owner, butnothing much was appropriated, butthere has been an increaseddemand for shot, caps and powderat Mr Rayner’s store. We pity themarauders if the vengeance iscarried out that we have heardthreatened them. Life will be aburden and death a happy releaseto them.”Nepean Times, October 11, 1890“A sensation is now beingexperienced through somediscoveries made this week byConstable Illingworth. It will berecollected that our little communitywas moved by feelings <strong>of</strong> alarm andindignation some few months agoin consequence <strong>of</strong> the numerousburglaries and robberies which tookplace in our midst, some which‘took the cake’ for barefacedness.Well the secret is being unearthedat last, much to our relief <strong>of</strong> mind,and very much to those who wereunfortunately wrongly suspected <strong>of</strong>being participants in theproceedings. It is an old saying that‘murder will out’, and it looks as if itis going to prove in our case. Itappears that Mr Larsen 3 had in hisemploy as caretaker and gardener aman named Lars Peter Hansen.This individual enjoyed theconfidence <strong>of</strong> his employer for overa year and left for ‘fresh fields andpastures new”’about a month since.The next news we heard <strong>of</strong> Hansenwas that he had been arrested forsupposed complicity in the murder<strong>of</strong> a man named Charles Duncker inthe Peak Hill district. Opinionsbegan to be expressed here that hemight have been guilty <strong>of</strong> some <strong>of</strong>the crimes in this district. Then didour constable arise to the dignity <strong>of</strong>his pr<strong>of</strong>ession. Without further adohe considered it advisable to makea little search for himself 4 in thehouse and grounds <strong>of</strong> Mr Larsen,and was well rewarded for histrouble by finding a ‘plant’. Awaterhole in the grounds was‘fished’ with the result that two tintrunks and part <strong>of</strong> a leatherportmanteau were found, minus thecontents, the said packages beingthose which were mysteriouslyconveyed away from the stationhere in June last. Heaps <strong>of</strong> rubbishwere overturned, resulting in thediscovery <strong>of</strong> sundry articles, all <strong>of</strong>which have been already identifiedas stolen goods belonging to ourvillagers. In a cooking stove werefound some lumps <strong>of</strong> white metalwhich had evidently been melteddown in the hope <strong>of</strong> it being silver,but which it is probable issomething baser. Much thereforehas been done towards clearing upa great mystery. The circumstantialevidence thus afforded pointsstrongly towards Hansen as theperpetrator <strong>of</strong> at least some <strong>of</strong> therobberies. As at present he issuspected <strong>of</strong> the most serious crime<strong>of</strong> murder, we can afford to wait andsee how he gets on with thatcharge.”A tomahawk like this missingfrom Springwood crime scene.Photograph by John Leary, OAMNepean Times, October 25, 1890“Since Hansen’s departure from ourdistrict we have been free fromrobberies, for which much thanks.The various goods found on MrLarsen’s premises, after Hansen’sarrest for the Peak Hill murder,which is believed to have beenstolen by Hansen, have all beenidentified; some as belonging tosome ladies at Miss Hooper’sschool 5 at <strong>No</strong>rth Springwood, andothers as the property <strong>of</strong> Mrs Hoare.HERITAGE 12July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


Murder <strong>of</strong> the little German on the Peak Hill roadContinued from page 12The only article missed by MrLarsen is a tomahawk which thatgentleman states he could identify.It is hoped he may have anopportunity <strong>of</strong> seeing the tomahawkwhich is said to have been inHansen’s possession about thetime <strong>of</strong> the murder.”Nepean Times, January 24, 1891“Murder will out! We note thatHansen has confessed to themurder <strong>of</strong> the little German on thePeak Hill Road. Who in our littlecommunity would have suspectedthat so quiet a man as Hansenwould have been guilty <strong>of</strong> theseveral robberies here, much lessthe serious crime <strong>of</strong> murder.”***********Lars Peter Hansen, 30 years <strong>of</strong> age,was born in Denmark and arrived inAustralia in about 1889. Afterleaving Springwood (probably withsome <strong>of</strong> his purloined pieces), hewent to Sydney where he stayed inlodgings with a German man,Charles Duncker, aged 23, and aSwedish man called PeterPetersen.In 1889 gold was discovered inPeak Hill in Central New SouthWales between Parkes and Dubbo,hundreds <strong>of</strong> people rushed there toseek their fortune, and the arearapidly expanded into a thrivingtown.Hansen and Duncker decided to trytheir hand at prospecting but rapidlyreached the conclusion that it wasnot for them – as Hansen put it toseveral people he met, “thediggings are all duffered out” and“there were too many people”. [Thiswas not exactly correct as goldmining is still continuing in PeakHill] They decided to return toSydney although Hansen told oneman he was going to catch a trainto Springwood.In September, 1890, Hansen andDuncker walked along the road fromPeak Hill to Dubbo where theyintended to catch a train. Severalpeople remembered seeing the twomen, describing Hansen as a tallstout man about 6 feet 7 or 8 inches[200cm] high with a thick accentand carrying a heavy swag with atomahawk strapped to it. One mansaid he looked fierce andfrightening. Duncker, a shortdistance behind him and hurrying tocatch up, was described as smalland slight and carrying a light swag.The next morning some <strong>of</strong> thesewitnesses found the body <strong>of</strong> a manthey believed was Duncker, lying onthe remains <strong>of</strong> a fire with a knifenearby.Hansen was immediately suspected<strong>of</strong> murdering Duncker and theyfinally found him working on thedocks at Port Kembla.He was known to be trying to earnenough money for his passage toGermany. He was wearing a cap heclaimed to have bought fromDuncker and admitted to thepossession <strong>of</strong> a revolver, alsobought from Duncker, which was inhis box in Market Street. In the boxthey also found a number <strong>of</strong> pawntickets for Duncker’s clothes.When arrested he said, “I nomurder the little German”. He wastaken to Dubbo for the inquest and,on arrival at the railway station, wasgreeted with booing and hissingfrom the crowd. Duncker’s bodywas <strong>of</strong>ficially identified by theSwede, Peter Petersen.The knife was also identified asbelonging to Hansen. The inquestinto the little German’s deathconcluded that “he was murderedby person or persons unknown”.However, Hansen was immediatelycharged with the murder.At the trial he pleaded not guilty andsaid in his defence, “I no guilty. I killhim to save myself”. Mr JusticeStephen [son <strong>of</strong> Sir Alfred Stephen]passed sentence <strong>of</strong> death on him.On June 2, 1891, Lars PeterHansen, attended by ArchdeaconWilson, was led to the gallows <strong>of</strong>Dubbo Gaol 6 showing little anxietyor fear. When asked if he felt safehe replied, “Yes”, shook hands andsaid, “Goodbye”. He was asked ifhe had anything to say and hereplied in his broken English, “I amnot guilty <strong>of</strong> this murder. I die aninnocent man and a Christian, andtrust myself to Jesus Christ.”Although death appeared to beinstantaneous, the doctor said theheart had continued for someminutes after the drop.ENDNOTES1Mrs Alice Hoare, a wealthy widow,owned “Homedale”, a handsome villa,valued at £5,600.0.0 in 1884, located atthe corner <strong>of</strong> Homedale and RailwayParade. Mrs Hoare was the sister <strong>of</strong>John Frazer, benefactor <strong>of</strong> the FrazerMemorial Church. Edward Deaneestablished the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>Grammar School in Homedale in 1918.The house was demolished in 1975 tomake way for Wingara, an agedpersons’ complex.2“A cruet stand is a small stand <strong>of</strong>metal, ceramic or glass which holdscondiments. Typically these include saltand pepper shakers, and <strong>of</strong>ten cruets orbottles <strong>of</strong> vinegar and olive oil.”Wikipedia3Gustav Larsen and his nephew AxelBech were tobacconists in Balmain.They had come from Denmark and theircountry house in Springwood was“Elsinore” situated on the Bathurst Roadon 4 acres <strong>of</strong> land with a frontage <strong>of</strong>550ft stretching eastward from the firstPublic School (now the Springwoodnorthern car park).4Constable Illingworth’s decision tosearch the grounds <strong>of</strong> “Elsinore” wasprompted by Axel Bech’s daughterfalling in the water hole in the grounds.In retrieving the child Bech foundportions <strong>of</strong> three empty trunks. Heimmediately reported this to theConstable.5Miss Hooper’s school for girls was“Hartlands” (now “Hartfields”) on theHawkesbury Road, Springwood.6Dubbo Gaol 1871-1966 Eight menwere hanged at Dubbo Gaol includingJacky Underwood who inspired ThomasKeneally’s “Chant <strong>of</strong> Jimmy Blacksmith.REFERENCESThe Argus (Melbourne, Victoria) –various issues.Australian Encyclopaedia, GrolierSociety <strong>of</strong> Australia, 1963.Cook, Kerrin and Garvey, Daniel, “TheGlint <strong>of</strong> Gold”.Nepean Times – various issues.N.S.W.Family History DocumentServices www.ihr.com.au/secure/docimages/ inquests 1890/gg4115.gifN.S.W. Registry <strong>of</strong> Births, Deaths andMarriages.Sydney Morning Herald – various issuesWikipedia – Old Dubbo Gaolwww.olddubbogaol.com.auCruet Stands http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruet-standsMy thanks to Pamela Smith and JohnMerriman for research assistance,S.Evans.‘Australian history is almost always picturesque....It does notread like history, but like the most beautiful lies’--- Mark Twain, More Tramps Abroad (1897)HERITAGE 13July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>Bi-centenary <strong>of</strong>CrossingOrganisationCommitteeappointed<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Council hasnow decided on the composition<strong>of</strong> the Bicentenary <strong>of</strong> CrossingOrganisation Committee which isas follows:Aboriginal community - GaiMarheine (Darug Community)Chambers <strong>of</strong> Commerce -Graham Reibelt (Lawson), TomColless (Katoomba) and LewHird (Wentworth Falls)Historical/<strong>Heritage</strong> sector -Susan Warmbath (<strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society),Robert Clarke (BM BranchNational Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia) andJean Arthur (Mt Victoria andDistrict Historical Society).Community representatives -Bruce Ferrier, Dr SiobhanLavelle, OAM, John O’Sullivan,John Wakefield, OAM and KerrinO’Grady<strong>Heritage</strong> Identificationand Protection –Revision <strong>of</strong> FAHS<strong>Heritage</strong> HandbookOriginally published in 2002 by theFederation <strong>of</strong> Australian HistoricalSocieties (FAHS), this guide toheritage identification andprotection is intended to provide apractical guide for local historicalsocieties that wish to identify andprotect local heritage places,objects and records. The revision isavailable from the web only:www.history.org.au/<strong>Heritage</strong> identification and protection.htmlNATIONAL TRUSTAPPOINTMENTNational Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia (NSW)has announced the appointment <strong>of</strong>Maisy Stapleton as a new deputyexecutive director.Joan Kent comes on boardJoan Kent <strong>of</strong> Little Hartley hasaccepted an <strong>of</strong>fer to fill a vacancyon BMACHO’s managementcommittee.Following an honours degree inhistory at Macquarie University,Joan spent five years as researchassistant to Pr<strong>of</strong>essor John Ward,then Vice-Chancellor and ChallisPr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> History at SydneyUniversity, followed by some yearsas a consultant historian engaged inthe preparation <strong>of</strong> thematic studiesand conservation plans.An interesting period as theresearch historian at National Parksand Wildlife Service developed herinterest in the conservation <strong>of</strong> thebuilt environment, industrialarchaeology and social history.While living in the UK in the early1990s she advanced this interest bycompleting a masters degree insocial science (industrialarchaeology) which, in betweenbreeding alpacas is now utilised in2.1 million Torrens Titles onlineThe system <strong>of</strong> Torrens Title isnamed after its creator, Sir RobertRichard Torrens who in the 1850sdeveloped this unique method <strong>of</strong>registering land ownership.Robert Torrens’ experience inmerchant shipping law stood him ingood stead when it came todeveloping a way <strong>of</strong> replacing theEnglish land law <strong>of</strong> the time thatwas complex, inefficient, timeconsuming and expensive.Before the Torrens Title wasformulated, a rather inaccuratechain <strong>of</strong> documents existed thatmeant all land dealings had to beexamined and registered, thenplaced on public record.With the Torrens Title system title toa property is created simply byregistering or recording thisownership in a central governmentregister.This simple system proved to be sorevolutionary that the RegistrarGeneral <strong>of</strong> NSW at the time,Christopher Rolleston, travelled allthe way from NSW to SouthAustralia to learn about it.assisting residents in the Hartleyarea in attempting to protect thishighly significant region from theravages <strong>of</strong> four-laned highways andconcrete flyovers.Joan and husband Tom have beenmembers <strong>of</strong> the National Trust <strong>of</strong>Australia (NSW) for 30 years andshe has served as secretary <strong>of</strong> theLithgow Branch.Although he was shipwrecked onhis return trip he managed tosurvive and on his return formulatedthe new titling legislation for NSW.In January 1853 the Real PropertyAct came in operation introducingthe Torrens system <strong>of</strong> Title to NSW.Today, even though Australia is afederation <strong>of</strong> sovereign states, eachstate having a different system <strong>of</strong>land law, all are based on the sameTorrens Title system.After the first Torrens Title (Volume1) was issued in 1863, it took 33years to register the next 250,000titles made up <strong>of</strong> <strong>10</strong>0 volumes. Thenext 1,875,000 titles (7500 volumestook 65 years to register.There are 2.1 million records nowavailable online and can beaccessed on the SIX portal at:www.six.nsw.gov.auThe Torrens system <strong>of</strong> title is alsoone <strong>of</strong> Australia’s most famous legalservices exports operating in manyoverseas countries.Source: NSW Land and PropertyManagement Authority.HERITAGE 14July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


Mt Victoria exhibit recalls eccentriceducator at Osborne Ladies’ CollegeA collection <strong>of</strong> memorabilia, claimedas unique in the world, fromOsborne Ladies’ College formerly <strong>of</strong>Blackheath has been curated as anexhibition at the Mt Victoria andDistrict Historical Society’smuseum.The college was developed by MissGibbins in 1923 on 40 acres atBlackheath overlooking theKanimbla and Megalong Valleys. Itwas renowned for being run in thetradition <strong>of</strong> the Royal Navy.Miss Gibbins started a school atBondi in 19<strong>10</strong> initially for boys, butthe school was later changed togirls. She later moved the school toEpping, changing the name <strong>of</strong> herschool from the Epping Ladies’College to Osborne Ladies’ Collegeafter the Royal Naval College,Osborne on the Isle <strong>of</strong> Wight.The school uniform was in navalblue worn with Royal Navy Buttons.Junior girls <strong>of</strong> the school wereknown as “Middies” from the termmidshipman, with prefects beingaddressed as lieutenant and thehead girl as captain.Military courtesies applied with thesenior girls being saluted. MissGibbins was known as “the admiral”while her governess, Miss VioletEveringham was known as ‘thecommander”.TAFE students to prepare marketing plan for<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Societyhas enlisted the aid <strong>of</strong> studentsfrom two TAFE colleges to look ataspects <strong>of</strong> the future <strong>of</strong> the society.Advanced Diploma in Marketingstudents are working on amarketing plan to grow the society.These mature students havealready completed 3 years part-timestudy and are currently employed inthe relevant sphere.Another group, Diploma andCertificate IV TAFE students arecreating a garden master plan forthe future development <strong>of</strong> theThe rooms <strong>of</strong> the school wereknown by names <strong>of</strong> Royal Navyships such as HMS Dreadnought,HMS Nelson, HMS Neptune,HMS Pelican, HMS Rodney, HMSSirius HMS Sydney and others..An emphasis was placed onphysical fitness, Spartan living (onlyone room was heated at the school,the library) archery, shooting anddramatic arts.The school was closed in 1958following the illness and death <strong>of</strong>Miss Gibbins. The original buildinga hotel built in 1883 was destroyedby fire in 1963.The exhibition curated by Mr RonBrasier will be <strong>of</strong>ficially opened byDr Peter Rickwood on Saturday,July <strong>10</strong>.The exhibition will be open to thepublic at the museum RailwayStation, Station Street, Mt VictoriaWentworth Falls site previouslydeveloped by Colin Slade in 1991.These works will take a year tocomplete, under supervision <strong>of</strong> theirtutors and the two master plans areexpected to be completed by theend <strong>of</strong> this year.To engage private pr<strong>of</strong>essionals forthese plans, the cost would beconsiderable. And as the society isgaining the enthusiasm <strong>of</strong> multiple,bright, young students it can beexpected that the plans might bebetter than perhaps those <strong>of</strong> asingle pr<strong>of</strong>essional.every Saturday and Sunday andpublic holidays and school holidaysbetween 2 and 5 pmSources:Robyn Hanstock ‘In the spirit <strong>of</strong> theNavy’: Violet Gibbins and OsborneLadies’ College, Blackheath. Journal <strong>of</strong>the Royal Australian Historical Society,June 2005.:www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OsbornePhotograph courtesy <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>City Council - Local History StudiesCollection www.bmcc.nsw.gov.au/National FamilyHistory Week<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Family HistorySociety is planning a display in theSpringwood Library for NationalFamily History Week, from Friday,July 31, to Saturday, August 7,20<strong>10</strong>. In addition, there will be twovolunteers on duty each day to givepersonal assistance to members <strong>of</strong>the public wishing to research theirfamily history world- wide.Family History is not just familytrees; the exciting part <strong>of</strong> familyhistory is finding the stories behindthe ancestors or putting “the fleshon the bones”.It is far more interesting finding outabout the history and geography <strong>of</strong>the area/s your family came from,their occupations, anything that canbe found to “bring them to life”, sothat they are not just a name, but aperson. Of course, if there is aconvict in the family, there is awealth <strong>of</strong> information to be foundand usually an easy trail to follow.For further information, pleasecontact Jan Koperbergjank@eftel.com.au or 02 47541544.HERITAGE 15July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


World War II in the<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>In the 1920s and 1930s the <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> had a relatively smallpopulation in the townships alongthe highway and railway.There were service centres, manyguesthouses and holiday cottages,TB Sanatoria, etc. World War IIsaw many families and schools,including SCEGGS and Cranbrookevacuating from Sydney andrelocating boarders in privatehomes, guesthouses, hotels, etc.Workers from the Lithgow SmallArms Factory also occupiedguesthouses on the <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong>. Other guest houseswere taken over as servicehospitals, such as the HydroMajestic for US servicemen andSans Souci for the Brits. In Term 1in 1942, Katoomba school had 350new enrolments.<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Family HistorySociety is compiling informationabout the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> in thisperiod and is seeking any personalstories, photographs and relevantinformation that can be used in thebook that will be published. Pleasecontact Joan Edwardsjoan.ge<strong>of</strong>ocus@gmail.com or JanKoperberg jank@eftel.com.auA Digger’s Best Friendarrives at Eskbank HouseThe Australian War Memorial’stravelling exhibition, A Digger’s BestFriend will be open to the publicevery day until Sunday, July 25,20<strong>10</strong> at Eskbank House, Lithgow.Opening hours are <strong>10</strong>am to 4pm,Wednesday to Sunday. Group andschool bookings are welcome.“Lithgow City Council is delighted tohost this exhibition”, Neville Castle,Mayor <strong>of</strong> Lithgow Council said.“Curators <strong>of</strong> the exhibition havedrawn together a fascinating array<strong>of</strong> images from the Memorial’sNational Collection, which havebeen specially chosen to suit thelearning needs <strong>of</strong> children.”A Digger’s Best Friend <strong>of</strong>fers an Ato Z <strong>of</strong> animals in war, from mascotsand messengers to creepy-crawlies.Animals are put to many uses inwar. Sometimes they have jobs todo: the horses, camels, mules, anddonkeys used to transport soldiersand equipment, as well as carrierpigeons and tracker dogs with theirspecial talents.Mt Wilson & Mt Irvine Historical Society Inc.<strong>No</strong>tice <strong>of</strong> mid-year general meetingA warm invitation is extended to all members and friends tothe Society’s mid-year general meeting with guest speaker,Associate Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Ian Jack.Saturday, 31st July 20<strong>10</strong> at <strong>10</strong>.30am at theMt Wilson Village Hall, The Avenue, Mt Wilson11.00am General meeting with committee reports and anupdate on the Society’s ongoing projects and activities. We areespecially pleased to announce the awarding <strong>of</strong> Honorary LifeMemberships to Arthur Delbridge and Bruce Wright.12.00noon Guest speaker Associate Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Ian Jack,President <strong>of</strong> the Royal Australian Historical Society will tell us about hisrecent research on the history <strong>of</strong> Fernmount at Kurrajong. This historicproperty was created in the 19th Century by William Scott, the veryinteresting Government Astronomer, Warden <strong>of</strong> St Paul’s College andmaverick clergyman. It seems that Fernmount attracted similarlyunusual owners in the twentieth century.While animals are <strong>of</strong>ten used asmascots and pets, or as symbols onbadges and flags, A Digger’s BestFriend also looks at thoseunwelcome animals, such asinsects, rats, and wild creatures thatmake life in the field even moredifficult and dangerous.The exhibition has been developedwith a young audience in mind, butvisitors <strong>of</strong> all ages will enjoy itsfascinating and moving stories.The Australian War Memorial’sTravelling Exhibitions Program isfunded by the AustralianGovernment’s CommemorationsProgram.For further information contactNaomi Parry, Lithgow City Council’s<strong>Cultural</strong> Development Officer on6354 9999 or e-mail:naomi.parry@lithgow.nsw.gov.auMILITARYMEMORABILIADISPLAY<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical SocietyInc. is organising a display <strong>of</strong>military memorabilia at Tarella,Wentworth Falls for Saturday,September 18.Members and guests are invited to enjoy a warming lunch after thepresentation. There will be a gold coin donation at the door to covercosts.FOR CATERING PURPOSES, PLEASE LET US KNOW IF YOU ARECOMING MARY REYNOLDS: 4756 2006 / HELEN CARDY: 9871 3661OR FLORENCE SMART: 4756 2063 EMAIL: westring@bigpond.comThe society is seeking additionalmaterial from members and anyonewho may have items <strong>of</strong> interest isasked to contact Susan Warmbathon 4757 3402.HERITAGE 16July- August 20<strong>10</strong>


Dig finds world’s oldest leather shoeIt is size six, has lace up design,and was worn more than <strong>10</strong>00years before the pyramids werebuilt in Egypt.Dated at 5500 years old, it is theworld’s most ancient leather shoe.Its owner apparently cared enoughabout it to stuff it with grass to keepit in shape while in storage.The well-preserved shoe made froma single piece <strong>of</strong> cow hide and wornon the right foot was unearthed in acave in Armenia and studied by ateam led by Dr Ron Pinhasi <strong>of</strong>University College Cork in Ireland.While the shoe is small, about awoman’s size six, it was not knownBLUE MOUNTAINS ASSOCIATION OF CULTURALHERITAGE ORGANISATIONS INC.REGISTERED OFFICE 14 Bunnal Avenue,Winmalee 2777E-mail: jank@eftel.com.au orbmacho.heritage@gmail.comWebsite: www.bluemountains.heritage.comTHE ORGANISATION <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Cultural</strong> Organisations Inc.(BMACHO) was established in April 2006 followinga unanimous response to a proposal from Pr<strong>of</strong>.Barrie Reynolds at the 2004 <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> LocalHistory Conference which sought from <strong>Blue</strong><strong>Mountains</strong> City Council the creation <strong>of</strong> a culturalheritage strategy for the city.BMACHO in its constitution uses the definition:“<strong>Cultural</strong> heritage is all aspects <strong>of</strong> life <strong>of</strong> thepeoples <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> which was laterchanged to cover Lithgow and the villages alongthe Bell’s Line <strong>of</strong> Roads. It therefore involves therecording, preserving and interpreting <strong>of</strong>information in whatever form: documents, objects,recorded memories as well as buildings and sites.”The objectives <strong>of</strong> the organisation are:i. To raise public consciousness <strong>of</strong>the value <strong>of</strong> cultural heritage.ii. To encourage and assist culturalheritage activities <strong>of</strong> memberorganisations.iii. To initiate and support culturalheritage activities not already covered bymember organisations.One <strong>of</strong> the aims <strong>of</strong> BMACHO is to bring the variousbodies into closer contact, to encourage them towork more closely together and to provide acombined voice on matters <strong>of</strong> importance withinthe heritage sector.whether it belonged to a woman orman. Dr Pinhasi said. “The shoecould have well fitted a man fromthat era.”It was discovered along withhousehold goods, including largecontainers, many <strong>of</strong> which heldwheat, barley and apricots. A bonefrom a deer, with some meat stillattached, two horns <strong>of</strong> a wild goatand fish bones were also foundnear the shoe.The contents <strong>of</strong> the cave had beencovered with a thick layer <strong>of</strong> sheepdung, which had kept them driedand preserved for thousands <strong>of</strong>years, said the researchers, whosestudy is published in the sciencejournal PLoS ONE.MEMBERSHIP The following organisations aremembers <strong>of</strong> BMACHO: <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Library,<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>Family History Society Inc., <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> TourismLimited, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> World <strong>Heritage</strong> Institute,Cudgegong Museums Group Inc, Friends <strong>of</strong> <strong>No</strong>rmanLindsay Gallery, Glenbrook & District Historical SocietyInc, Kurrajong-Comleroy Historical Society Inc,Lilianfels <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Resort, Lithgow MiningMuseum Inc, Lithgow Regional Library – Local Studies,Lithgow Small Arms Factory Museum Inc, Mid-<strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc, Mid Western RegionalCouncil Library, Mt Tomah Botanic Gardens, Mt Victoriaand District Historical Society Inc, Mt Wilson and MtIrvine History Society Inc (including Turkish BathMuseum), Mudgee Historical Society Inc, MudgeeRegional Library, National Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia (NSW) -<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Branch (including Woodford Academy),National Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia (NSW) - Lithgow Branch,Scenic World – <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Limited, Springwood &District Historical Society Inc., Springwood Historiansinc, Transport Signal and Communication Museum Inc.,Two Centuries <strong>of</strong> Elegance, Valley Heights LocomotiveDepot and Museum, Zig Zag Railway Co-op Ltd. Thefollowing are individual members: Ray Christison,Associate Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Ian Jack, Joan Kent, John LearyOAM, John Low, Ian Milliss, Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Barrie Reynolds,and Dr Peter Stanbury OAM.COMMITTEE The committee for 20<strong>10</strong>-11 is: JohnLeary, (president), Ian Jack (vice president), JanKoperberg (secretary), Kathie McMahon-<strong>No</strong>lf(treasurer), Jean Arthur, Joan Kent, Doug Knowles,Dick Morony (public <strong>of</strong>ficer), Barrie Reynolds and PeterStanbury. AUDITOR: Sue McMahon, B Comm CPA.AFFILIATIONS BMACHO is a member <strong>of</strong> the RoyalAustralian Historical Society Inc.HERITAGE is BMACHO’s <strong>of</strong>ficial newsletter.HERITAGE 17July- August 20<strong>10</strong>

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