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HERITAGE<br />

NEWSLETTER OF THE BLUE MOUNTAINS ASSOCIATION<br />

OF CULTURAL HERITAGE ORGANISATIONS INC.<br />

JULY - AUGUST 2011 ISSUE <strong>No</strong>. <strong>16</strong><br />

The Katoomba Waltz dedicated<br />

to an early chief justice<br />

By John Leary, OAM<br />

NSW HAS A NEW CHIEF JUSTICE, Tom Bathurst.<br />

With the delay in announcing a replacement for the<br />

incumbent, Jim Spigelman; barrister cum journalist<br />

Richard Ackland, published in the Sydney Morning<br />

Herald a speculative piece as to who might fill the <strong>of</strong>fice<br />

and if in fact there is a need for such an <strong>of</strong>fice.<br />

Enchantingly, chief justices still live with us, in name. A<br />

Sydney ferry was named after Sir Leslie Herron’s wife<br />

and Mary McCarron Maguire composed The Katoomba<br />

Waltz in honour <strong>of</strong> Sir Frederick Darley. 1<br />

Asked to name a popular waltz, most will recall the<br />

magic <strong>of</strong> Andre Rieu’s presentations around the world<br />

<strong>of</strong> either the The <strong>Blue</strong> Danube Waltz or the Emperor<br />

Waltz.<br />

However, few other than local historians would be<br />

aware <strong>of</strong> Mary McCarron Maguire’s, Katoomba Waltz<br />

dedicated to Sir Frederick Darley (then Lieutenant<br />

Governor <strong>of</strong> NSW) and Lady Darley who lived in<br />

“Lilianfels”, Katoomba.<br />

Published in 1895, The Katoomba Waltz was first<br />

performed at Government House in Sydney and was<br />

performed at the Tivoli Theatre in August 1895. The<br />

music was added to the repertoire <strong>of</strong> the NSW Artillery<br />

Regiment Band.<br />

The Sydney Morning Herald <strong>of</strong> the day pronounced it ‘a<br />

dashing composition admirably suited to ballroom<br />

purposes’<br />

The rediscovery in 1989 <strong>of</strong> Mary McCarron Maguire’s,<br />

Katoomba Waltz has led to speculation about a ‘lost<br />

school’ <strong>of</strong> popular composers whose works were<br />

inspired by the natural splendours <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong>.<br />

Little is known about Mary McCarron Maguire but she<br />

published two other waltzes, The Antonina and the<br />

Commonwealth during the decade 1890 - 1900, the<br />

Commmonwealth evidently inspired by the coming<br />

Federation in 1901. Two other musical items from 1890<br />

- 1910 are a mazurka, Leura Falls by Alicia <strong>No</strong>lan and<br />

The Cascade Waltz by Louis L Howarde. 2<br />

Very few details are known about Maguire’s life, other<br />

than that she was one <strong>of</strong> two daughters <strong>of</strong> a Woollahra<br />

family.<br />

This beautiful and delicately designed sheet music<br />

cover for the Katoomba Waltz is held in the National<br />

Library <strong>of</strong> Australia, Canberra<br />

which has approved the publication <strong>of</strong> this image<br />

nla.mus-an 10996145-1-v<br />

They lived at “Lansdown” in Edgecliff Road, and were<br />

frequent guests at Government House and Admiralty<br />

House garden parties, and at lord mayoral receptions.<br />

Her sister Blanche was a semi-pr<strong>of</strong>essional actress in<br />

the 1890s.<br />

Sir Frederick Matthew Darley was born on September<br />

18, 1830 in Dublin, Ireland. The first child <strong>of</strong> Henry<br />

Darley <strong>of</strong> Wingfield, Bray County Wicklow and his wife<br />

Maria Louise nee West.<br />

At Hunsdon, Hertfordshire on December 13, 1860,<br />

Darley married Lucy Forest Brown, from Melbourne, a<br />

daughter <strong>of</strong> Captain Sylvester Brown (master mariner)<br />

and his wife Eliza Angell nee Alexander.<br />

Continued page 4<br />

HERITAGE 1<br />

July - August 2011


Contents.........<br />

HERITAGE<br />

July - August 2011<br />

* P1 The Katoomba<br />

Waltz dedicated to<br />

an early chief<br />

justice<br />

* P2 Council’s call for<br />

public<br />

participation in<br />

heritage advisory<br />

role welcomed<br />

* P3 Local history blog<br />

* P3 Grant awarded to<br />

BMACHO<br />

* P3 Telstra grant for<br />

workshops<br />

* P5 Evans opened the<br />

way to the west<br />

* P9 What would you<br />

keep in an empty<br />

jar?<br />

* P11 Dear old golden<br />

rules days<br />

* P13 Crumbled chimney<br />

stack only<br />

reminder <strong>of</strong> Polar<br />

explorer who lived<br />

in Woodford<br />

* P14 Special days in<br />

World War 1<br />

* P<strong>16</strong> Historic 1880s<br />

Carrington Hotel to<br />

be venue for BM<br />

history conference<br />

* P<strong>16</strong> Jean Arthur in BM<br />

Hospital<br />

* P17 School <strong>of</strong> Arts or<br />

Mechanics<br />

Institutes have<br />

their origin in<br />

early 19th century<br />

* P18 Council explains<br />

LEP processes<br />

* P20 <strong>Heritage</strong> briefs<br />

around the world<br />

* P21 The Domesday<br />

Book<br />

From the editor’s pen......<br />

THOSE INTERESTED in the<br />

protection and conservation <strong>of</strong> our<br />

heritage will welcome <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

City Council’s recent decision to<br />

establish a heritage advisory<br />

committee <strong>of</strong> council.<br />

The prompt action <strong>of</strong> council staff in<br />

calling for nominations from the<br />

community soon after the decision is<br />

also worthy <strong>of</strong> commendation.<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Cultural</strong><br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> Organisations (BMACHO)<br />

has for several years been advocating<br />

the establishment <strong>of</strong> a heritage<br />

advisory committee <strong>of</strong> council.<br />

Council’s call for public<br />

participation in heritage<br />

advisory role welcomed<br />

BMACHO has on occasions expressed<br />

concerns at what seemed to be delays<br />

in the process <strong>of</strong> having council accept<br />

the proposal for such a committee<br />

which are not uncommon in other local<br />

government units around the state and<br />

in fact in Australia.<br />

On this occasion credit is due to the<br />

elected members <strong>of</strong> council and it’s<br />

planning staff for the decision which<br />

should ultimately benefit council in its<br />

deliberations on heritage issues.<br />

It is pleasing to BMACHO that council<br />

has acceded to some <strong>of</strong> the requests<br />

made by those in the heritage sector,<br />

both volunteers and pr<strong>of</strong>essionals.<br />

Council’s decision to establish a<br />

heritage advisory council<br />

acknowledges the wealth <strong>of</strong><br />

knowledge concerning the region’s<br />

heritage and history, gained over many<br />

years by members <strong>of</strong> historical and<br />

heritage societies in the region.<br />

In BMACHO’s view there are still some<br />

issues that its members would have<br />

liked to have seen included in the<br />

terms <strong>of</strong> reference for the<br />

establishment <strong>of</strong> the committee.<br />

However, within the wide parameter <strong>of</strong><br />

council’s objectives those who council<br />

decides to appoint to the committee<br />

should be able to provide some<br />

valuable expertise in matters <strong>of</strong><br />

heritage advice.<br />

Those who apply to be considered for<br />

appointment to the heritage advisory<br />

committee need to be very much aware<br />

that heritage is but a small part <strong>of</strong> the<br />

sometimes lengthy process <strong>of</strong> planning,<br />

a point that BMACHO has been stating<br />

for many years.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> council’s stated objectives for<br />

the heritage advisory committee, is a<br />

review <strong>of</strong> the heritage component <strong>of</strong><br />

LEP 1991. This is the type <strong>of</strong> activity on<br />

which those in the heritage sector <strong>of</strong> our<br />

community are well equipped to<br />

provide.<br />

Council recently released a quite<br />

comprehensive and easily understood,<br />

clear language document dealing with<br />

LEP processes and again this has been<br />

a worthwhile initiative <strong>of</strong> council’s<br />

planning staff.<br />

In welcoming council’s decision to work<br />

more closely with the community it<br />

serves, (and in particular the not<br />

insignificant number <strong>of</strong> residents who<br />

have an abiding interest in our heritage<br />

and history) --- it is suggested there are<br />

a number <strong>of</strong> important ingredients to the<br />

ultimate success <strong>of</strong> this heritage<br />

advisory committee.<br />

These are the need for those elected<br />

from the community to understand their<br />

work is limited to heritage issues only<br />

and that there must be an acceptance<br />

by them <strong>of</strong> the necessary and legal<br />

protocols council and its staff must<br />

observe.<br />

There is also a need for council’s staff<br />

to accept the limitations and ambitions<br />

<strong>of</strong> those who volunteer for this<br />

committee.<br />

These community members need to be<br />

given dignity with tasks that allow them<br />

to believe they are contributing<br />

something worthwhile to the community<br />

in which they live, so they may share<br />

pride in achievement and not left to feel<br />

they just ‘rubber stamp’ the work <strong>of</strong><br />

staff, without having had any real input<br />

into the processes.<br />

John Leary, OAM - Past President,<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Cultural</strong> <strong>Heritage</strong> Organisations Inc.<br />

HERITAGE 2<br />

July - August 2011


LOCAL<br />

HISTORY<br />

BLOG<br />

JUST over six months ago<br />

Springwood Historians launched<br />

a public/social history blog, or<br />

weblog.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the newer forms <strong>of</strong><br />

‘engaging and interacting’ with a<br />

wider audience, the blog or<br />

weblog aims to disseminate and<br />

gather historical facts and<br />

information related to the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong>.<br />

The content is eclectic and<br />

changes regularly as new stories<br />

and information are added<br />

almost on a daily basis.<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> the content, like the<br />

personal pr<strong>of</strong>iles <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Springwood Historians, and<br />

maps and general information<br />

related to the area - remain<br />

static, while older posts, which<br />

have been archived, can be<br />

accessed through the search<br />

facility on the weblog.<br />

A ‘comment’ feature on the blog<br />

provides visitors with the ability<br />

to interact, which is something<br />

that Springwood Historians are<br />

keen to encourage. Another<br />

objective is to engage local<br />

schools.<br />

So far the weblog has been<br />

viewed by more than 2,500<br />

visitors from countries like the<br />

USA, UK, Canada, Russia, New<br />

Zealand and South Korea, and<br />

attracted favourable comments<br />

from local historians,<br />

genealogists and public<br />

historian, Cathy Stanton.<br />

Pamela Smith, the editor <strong>of</strong> the<br />

blog, stated that although the<br />

blog is primarily focused on the<br />

Springwood area at present, they<br />

are eager to include stories on<br />

the wider <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>.<br />

The address <strong>of</strong> the weblog is<br />

http://<br />

springwoodhistorians.blogspot or<br />

simply type Springwood<br />

Historians into the Google<br />

Search engine.<br />

Grant awarded to BMACHO<br />

FOR THE FOURTH YEAR in<br />

succession, BMACHO has been<br />

awarded a Commonwealth<br />

Government grant <strong>of</strong> $2,300 by the<br />

Department <strong>of</strong> Sustainability,<br />

Environment, Water, Populations<br />

and Communities under its 2010 -<br />

2011 GVEHO Program.<br />

The program is intended to help<br />

cover administrative operational<br />

costs.<br />

BMACHO is most appreciative <strong>of</strong><br />

this continued generous<br />

Commonwealth support.<br />

It is both recognition <strong>of</strong> the value <strong>of</strong><br />

BMACHO to the heritage<br />

community and a practical<br />

contribution that makes the<br />

organisation’s work possible.<br />

The GVEHO grant is invaluable in<br />

helping to meet the routine<br />

administrative costs <strong>of</strong> the<br />

<strong>Association</strong>.<br />

It has also supported workshops,<br />

the newsletter and other activities<br />

and allows the committee to<br />

concentrate on finding funding from<br />

other sources for special projects<br />

such as the Journal and major<br />

workshops.<br />

Overall, BMACHO has a sound<br />

record (80%) <strong>of</strong> success in its grant<br />

applications.<br />

This year it has applied for two new<br />

project grants that would enable it<br />

to serve its membership more<br />

effectively and to contribute even<br />

more to heritage work in the region.<br />

Grant applications require time and<br />

care in their preparation and, if<br />

successful, in the responsible<br />

management <strong>of</strong> the funds<br />

received.<br />

There are, however, some useful<br />

tips on how to minimise the<br />

workload and increase the chances<br />

<strong>of</strong> success.<br />

A workshop is being planned to<br />

assist members in the grant<br />

programs for their own societies.<br />

Anybody interested in participating<br />

in the workshop, is asked to contact<br />

Barrie Reynolds by phone:<br />

4757 4725, or by email:<br />

barrie.r@bigpond.net.au.<br />

Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Barrie Reynolds,<br />

BMACHO’s grants <strong>of</strong>ficer and<br />

former inaugural secretary<br />

TELSTRA<br />

GRANT FOR<br />

WORKSHOPS<br />

MEANTIME, advice has just been<br />

received <strong>of</strong> BMACHO’s success<br />

with another grant application<br />

Telstra has generously awarded<br />

a grant <strong>of</strong> $5,025 under its Telstra<br />

Connected Seniors Grant<br />

Program, to enable BMACHO to<br />

provide a series <strong>of</strong> training<br />

workshops on the use <strong>of</strong> the<br />

internet for on-line historical<br />

research and information<br />

services in the heritage field.<br />

Anybody interested please<br />

contact Barrie Reynolds:<br />

barrie.r@bigpond.net.au<br />

or 4757 4725.<br />

Telstra Connected Seniors® is a<br />

tailored program created to help<br />

older Australians learn more<br />

about technology.<br />

It <strong>of</strong>fers individual self teach<br />

guides, fun interactive workshops,<br />

and also <strong>of</strong>fers eligible community<br />

groups with the opportunity <strong>of</strong><br />

funding to run successful training<br />

courses around technology.<br />

It is anticipated these workshops<br />

will be conducted between<br />

February and May 2012.<br />

HERITAGE 3<br />

July - August 2011


Darley came to Australia on advice <strong>of</strong><br />

another chief justice<br />

Continued from page 1<br />

Darley and his wife came to<br />

Australia in 1862, on the advice <strong>of</strong><br />

Sir Alfred Stephen (the Chief Justice<br />

<strong>of</strong> NSW) who convinced him that he<br />

would further his career in the<br />

colony.<br />

Sir Frederick was knighted in 1887<br />

and served five times as the<br />

Lieutenant Governor <strong>of</strong> NSW. The<br />

longest and most important being<br />

from January 24, 1900 to May 27,<br />

1902, spanning the creation <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Commonwealth <strong>of</strong> Australia in 1901.<br />

In August 1888, Sir Frederick Darley<br />

purchased more than 11 acres <strong>of</strong><br />

land adjacent to Echo Point in<br />

Katoomba and enlisted Varney<br />

Parkes, the architect son <strong>of</strong> close<br />

friend, Sir Henry Parkes to design<br />

“Lilianfels” as a summer home.<br />

The Darleys had seven children, six<br />

daughters and two sons and it was<br />

Lilian, who died at age 22 suffering<br />

tuberculosis, for whom the<br />

Katoomba property was named: the<br />

ending ‘fels’ has a German<br />

meaning, ‘rocky ground’.<br />

“Katoomba will in the future be historic from having as a resident one<br />

eminent Chief Justice, Sir Frederick Darley and his family at Lilianfels.<br />

Sir Frederick has spared no pains in laying the foundation <strong>of</strong> a fine<br />

garden and is said to have trenched a large portion <strong>of</strong> his property in<br />

order to grow fruit successfully.” Illustrated Sydney News 1890<br />

During the years in which Sir<br />

Frederick and Lady Darley resided<br />

near Echo Point, nearly every noted<br />

visitor to Australia accepted their<br />

hospitality and enjoyed the<br />

magnificent outlook.<br />

Royalty, vice-royalty and princes <strong>of</strong><br />

statesmanship, jurisprudence,<br />

science and art came in turn to view<br />

the mountains from the magnificent<br />

vantage point <strong>of</strong> Lilianfels. 3<br />

Footnotes<br />

1.<br />

Ackland, Richard, The Sydney<br />

Morning Herald May 6, 2011<br />

2.<br />

Leves, Kerry <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> –<br />

Pictorial Memories by John Low<br />

3.<br />

HERITAGE <strong>No</strong>vember-December<br />

2009<br />

Mt Wilson & Mt Irvine Historical Society Inc.<br />

CANCELLATION OF MEETING<br />

Due to severe storm damage ongoing this week in Mt Wilson & Mt Irvine<br />

the mid-year general meeting planned for<br />

Saturday, <strong>16</strong> July, 2011<br />

has been cancelled<br />

The following bulletin issued today, July 6 by Beth Raines, Captain <strong>of</strong> the local Brigade <strong>of</strong> the Rural Fire Service<br />

will give some idea <strong>of</strong> the extent <strong>of</strong> the damage:<br />

On Tuesday afternoon the two<br />

Mounts were hit with a massive<br />

wind storm with pretty devastating<br />

results. High winds have continued<br />

and are expected to abate on<br />

Friday. There have been major tree<br />

losses along all roads and Mt Irvine<br />

Road, Mt Wilson Road and The<br />

Avenue were finally cleared<br />

yesterday morning with all minor<br />

roads (except Waterfall Road) being<br />

cleared by Wednesday evening.<br />

Telephone (landline) services have<br />

been interrupted but are now<br />

restored in places. Power has been<br />

<strong>of</strong>f since Tuesday afternoon and is<br />

not expected to be restored for days<br />

yet - realistically not until next week.<br />

We have had Council crews working<br />

alongside Brigade members to<br />

remove trees <strong>of</strong>f the road to allow<br />

access. Conditions here are very<br />

cold and windy, there is a huge<br />

amount <strong>of</strong> debris everywhere and<br />

power lines are still down in many<br />

places.<br />

I am sure all members and friends <strong>of</strong> the Historical Society will join with me in sending warm wishes <strong>of</strong> support to<br />

all those affected by the widespread storms throughout the region.<br />

Florence Smart Secretary Tel. 94<strong>16</strong> 1957 Email.smart.delbridge@bigpond.com<br />

HERITAGE 4<br />

July - August 2011


EVANS OPENED THE WAY TO THE WEST<br />

By John Leary, OAM<br />

THERE IS A SERIES <strong>of</strong> interrelated<br />

events immediately after<br />

Lawson, Blaxland and Wentworth<br />

crossed the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> in May<br />

and June 1813.<br />

George William Evans began his<br />

survey <strong>of</strong> a roadway across the<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> in <strong>No</strong>vember 1813<br />

and went as far as the future<br />

Bathurst.<br />

William Cox then supervised the<br />

construction <strong>of</strong> the road from July<br />

1814 to January 1815. Governor<br />

Macquarie travelled along the new<br />

road in April and May 1815 and<br />

selected the site <strong>of</strong> Bathurst.<br />

There is however, a body <strong>of</strong> opinion<br />

that in fact Evans was ‘the first<br />

European to cross the Great<br />

Dividing Range’ the three explorers,<br />

Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson<br />

not actually having crossed the<br />

main range.<br />

What is uncontestable is the fact<br />

that in surveying a roadway from<br />

Emu Ford on the Nepean River to<br />

Bathurst and the subsequent<br />

building <strong>of</strong> the road by William Cox,<br />

opened up the interior to ensure the<br />

prosperity <strong>of</strong> the colony.<br />

It allowed the creation and<br />

maintenance <strong>of</strong> a strong national<br />

economy based on pastoral and<br />

rural industries well into the second<br />

half <strong>of</strong> the 20 th century.<br />

Severe drought in the years<br />

immediately before the ‘crossing’<br />

almost forced the small settlement<br />

which would eventually become<br />

Australia’s largest city to be<br />

abandoned.<br />

The crossing <strong>of</strong> the mountains, the<br />

surveying <strong>of</strong> the road and its<br />

construction in quick succession<br />

gave new found impetus to the<br />

colony.<br />

Instructed by Governor Lachlan<br />

Macquarie, Evans the then Deputy-<br />

Surveyor <strong>of</strong> Lands was — “to<br />

proceed in the Attempt <strong>of</strong> Effecting<br />

a Passage over the great Range<br />

and to discover what Description <strong>of</strong><br />

Country lay to the Westward <strong>of</strong><br />

them.” 1<br />

“the first<br />

European<br />

to cross<br />

the Great<br />

Dividing<br />

Range”<br />

Governor Lachlan Macquarie sent<br />

Evans across the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

into the Wiradjuri nation <strong>of</strong> centralwestern<br />

New South Wales to<br />

confirm the findings <strong>of</strong> the<br />

exploration party <strong>of</strong> Blaxland,<br />

Lawson and Wentworth.<br />

He was the first European to record<br />

meeting with the Wiradjuri people <strong>of</strong><br />

the region. 2<br />

Evans generally followed the route<br />

<strong>of</strong> Blaxland, Lawson and<br />

Wentworth, reaching the end <strong>of</strong><br />

their route at a point Evans named<br />

Mount Blaxland.<br />

Evans’ party then moved on and<br />

discovered the Fish River area and<br />

further west near the junction <strong>of</strong> the<br />

now named Fish and Campbell<br />

Rivers and described two plains in<br />

his view, the O’Connell Plains and<br />

the Macquarie Plains.<br />

Evans had made a significant<br />

decision, by determining to carry<br />

out the second part <strong>of</strong> Macquarie’s<br />

instructions first, i.e. by surveying<br />

beyond the explorers’ terminal<br />

point, which he did by starting at the<br />

foot <strong>of</strong> Mt York. Here he marked a<br />

tree on <strong>No</strong>vember 25, 1813 and<br />

measured westward to his later<br />

George William Evans image courtesy National Library <strong>of</strong><br />

Australia pic - vn 3509777 - v<br />

selected objective at the Macquarie<br />

River, reaching there on December<br />

9, 1813.<br />

Returning to his Marked Tree at the<br />

River Lett, which is described in his<br />

Survey Field Book (see AONSW<br />

Ref. Reel 2623) … “About 10<br />

chains from the River Lett, and the<br />

mouth <strong>of</strong> a drain about 4 chains left”<br />

he then started on December 31,<br />

1813, the survey <strong>of</strong> the explorers<br />

track, which he completed to Emu<br />

Ford on January 8, 1814.<br />

Even today, with a team <strong>of</strong><br />

surveyors using modern surveying<br />

equipment including GPS, digital<br />

theodolites and laser distance<br />

measures, such a feat would be<br />

difficult to emulate in a similar<br />

period <strong>of</strong> time and particularly as<br />

Evans had little qualified<br />

assistance.<br />

Evans’ party included Richard Lewis<br />

and James Burns, both ‘Free Men’<br />

and three convicts, James<br />

Cooghan, John Grover and John<br />

Tygh.<br />

Their names were recorded for<br />

posterity by Arthur J Hand, as street<br />

names when he subdivided the<br />

Lapstone Estate.<br />

Continued page 6<br />

HERITAGE 5<br />

July - August 2011


Evans’ reward — £100 and 1000 acres <strong>of</strong> land<br />

Continued from page 5<br />

Macquarie rewarded Evans with<br />

£100 and a grant <strong>of</strong> 1000 acres<br />

(405 ha) on the Coal River near<br />

Richmond, Van Dieman’s Land.<br />

Evans and his family sailed for<br />

Hobart in May 1814, but Macquarie<br />

recalled him in March 1815 to act<br />

as a guide on a tour <strong>of</strong> the recently<br />

discovered country through which<br />

William Cox had constructed a road<br />

to Bathurst. 3<br />

settlement on land granted to him<br />

the previous year.<br />

This venture failed during the<br />

disastrous flood <strong>of</strong> March 1806, but<br />

he remained in occupation until<br />

Lieutenant-Governor William<br />

Paterson appointed him assistant<br />

surveyor at Port Dalrymple in 1809.<br />

However, his services were needed<br />

in Sydney and he did not leave to<br />

take up this <strong>of</strong>fice.<br />

By 1814 Evans was no stranger to<br />

the Australian bush and the hazards<br />

<strong>of</strong> surveying in uncharted territory.<br />

Born on January 5, 1780, the third<br />

child and eldest son <strong>of</strong> William<br />

Evans, secretary to the Earl, <strong>of</strong><br />

Warwick, <strong>of</strong> the Parish <strong>of</strong> St James,<br />

Westminster, England and his wife<br />

Ann nee Southam; young George<br />

served an apprenticeship with an<br />

engineer and architect and gained<br />

some elementary training in<br />

surveying.<br />

In 1798 he married Jennett,<br />

daughter <strong>of</strong> Captain Thomas<br />

Melville, commander <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Britannia in the Third Fleet and<br />

migrated to the Cape <strong>of</strong> Good<br />

Hope.<br />

He was employed in the Naval<br />

Store-keeper’s Department at Table<br />

Bay and remained there until May<br />

1802 when, in compliance with the<br />

treaty <strong>of</strong> Amiens, British forces were<br />

withdrawn.<br />

Evans then aged 22 was persuaded<br />

by Captain William Kent to go to<br />

New South Wales and arrived at<br />

Port Jackson in HMS Buffalo on<br />

October <strong>16</strong>, 1802.<br />

Initially Evans was given the<br />

position <strong>of</strong> store-keeper in charge <strong>of</strong><br />

the receipt and issue <strong>of</strong> grain at<br />

Parramatta, but in August 1803 he<br />

was appointed by Governor King as<br />

acting surveyor-general in the<br />

absence <strong>of</strong> Charles Grimes who<br />

was on leave in England.<br />

In September 1804 he discovered<br />

and explored the Warragamba<br />

River, penetrating upstream to the<br />

present site <strong>of</strong> Warragamba Dam.<br />

Discharged from the Survey<br />

Department by Governor Philip<br />

Gidley King in February 1805, he<br />

began farming at the Hawkesbury<br />

In March 1812, he surveyed the<br />

shores <strong>of</strong> Jervis Bay whence he led<br />

a small party overland on foot to<br />

Appin. This journey <strong>of</strong> two weeks<br />

was conducted under most arduous<br />

circumstances and resulted in the<br />

settlement <strong>of</strong> the Illawarra district<br />

during the drought years that soon<br />

followed.<br />

His success probably induced<br />

Governor Lachlan Macquarie to<br />

later select him for the task <strong>of</strong><br />

penetrating the interior <strong>of</strong> New<br />

South Wales.<br />

In September 1812 he went to Van<br />

Diemen’s Land with the acting<br />

surveyor-general, James Meehan,<br />

to remeasure grants made by<br />

former lieutenant-governors. These<br />

grants were in a deplorable state<br />

through the inefficiency and<br />

misconduct <strong>of</strong> deputy-surveyors<br />

George Harris and Peter Mills. 4<br />

While thus engaged he was<br />

appointed in <strong>No</strong>vember 1812<br />

deputy-surveyor <strong>of</strong> lands, Van<br />

Diemen’s Land, but in August 1813<br />

he was recalled to Sydney and<br />

instructed to try to find a passage<br />

into the interior.<br />

In May and June 1814, Evans led<br />

another expedition from Bathurst<br />

southward to within sight <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Abercrombie River, explored the<br />

middle reaches <strong>of</strong> the Belubula<br />

River, discovered the Lachlan River<br />

eight miles (13 km) downstream<br />

from Cowra, and traced its course<br />

as far as Mandagery Creek.<br />

In July 1815 he returned to Hobart,<br />

remaining until 1817 when he was<br />

required to act as second-incommand<br />

to Surveyor-General<br />

John Oxley in an expedition then<br />

setting out from Bathurst to<br />

determine the course <strong>of</strong> the Lachlan<br />

River.<br />

EVANS’ WATCH. Astronomical<br />

observation are made to determine<br />

azimuths, latitudes and longitudes<br />

on the earth. Evans’ watch would<br />

have been used in the timing <strong>of</strong> the<br />

observations to determine the<br />

the direction <strong>of</strong> true north and the<br />

latitude and longitude <strong>of</strong><br />

Bathurst using solar or star<br />

observations. A watch error<br />

correction is applied to adjust<br />

the azimuth observation related to<br />

the true north meridian based on<br />

Greenwich mean time.<br />

Though forced to return by flooded<br />

marsh country when about nine<br />

miles (14 km) below Booligal; Oxley<br />

paid tribute to Evans’ able advice<br />

and co-operation, and the accuracy<br />

and fidelity <strong>of</strong> his earlier narrative.<br />

In September 1817 Evans returned<br />

to Van Diemen’s Land, but six<br />

months later he was again recalled<br />

to fill the position <strong>of</strong> second-incommand<br />

to Oxley, this time in his<br />

attempt to trace the Macquarie<br />

River to its termination.<br />

Once again flooded marshes<br />

proved too great an obstacle, so the<br />

party turned eastward to Port<br />

Macquarie and thence southward to<br />

Port Stephens. After twenty-three<br />

weeks the exploration was<br />

completed in <strong>No</strong>vember 1818.<br />

Evans returned to Hobart and for<br />

the first time since his appointment<br />

as deputy-surveyor was able to<br />

confine his attention to his duties in<br />

Van Diemen’s Land, where land<br />

surveys were in serious arrears<br />

through inadequate staff and<br />

continual demands for his services<br />

on exploration.<br />

Continued page 7<br />

HERITAGE 6<br />

July - August 2011


Evans’ alleged bribery involvement<br />

Continued from page 6<br />

William Sorell had a high opinion <strong>of</strong><br />

Evans, but the administration was<br />

lax and the surveyor had great<br />

power. <strong>No</strong>t only were mistakes <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

made but, in the issue <strong>of</strong> grants, a<br />

certain discretionary power was<br />

given to surveyors to ‘throw in’<br />

additional pieces <strong>of</strong> land.<br />

Sorell also sanctioned the<br />

acceptance <strong>of</strong> ‘presents <strong>of</strong> <strong>of</strong>fice’ by<br />

surveyors to supplement their<br />

inadequate pay.<br />

This practice understandably<br />

brought complaints and accusations<br />

<strong>of</strong> corruption from disgruntled<br />

settlers and these were supported<br />

by (Sir) George Arthur, who<br />

replaced Sorell in May 1824.<br />

The new lieutenant-governor sent to<br />

the secretary <strong>of</strong> state a lengthy<br />

account <strong>of</strong> Evans’ alleged<br />

involvement in bribery and his<br />

illegal disposing <strong>of</strong> crown lands in<br />

an attempt to force him from <strong>of</strong>fice.<br />

When Evans asked to retire on a<br />

pension, Arthur, in order to expedite<br />

his removal, was prepared to<br />

concede that his practices had been<br />

condoned by Sorell, but the stigma<br />

effectually prevented all further<br />

promotion <strong>of</strong> Evans’ assistant,<br />

Thomas Scott.<br />

Evans resigned in December 1825<br />

on the ground <strong>of</strong> ill health, eight<br />

months after his wife had died.<br />

A despatch from London in May<br />

1826 appointing him the first<br />

surveyor-general <strong>of</strong> Van Diemen’s<br />

Land had only recognised his<br />

position as the Colonial Office knew<br />

it when revising the establishment<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Surveyor-General’s<br />

Department; soon afterwards Earl<br />

Bathurst wrote welcoming his<br />

resignation, confirming his pension<br />

and agreeing to abandon further<br />

investigation <strong>of</strong> his past conduct.<br />

Evans sailed for England with his<br />

second wife, Lucy Parris, daughter<br />

<strong>of</strong> Thomas Lempriere, in <strong>No</strong>vember;<br />

while there, he supplemented his<br />

pension <strong>of</strong> £200 by teaching art, but<br />

in <strong>No</strong>vember 1828, when he heard<br />

<strong>of</strong> Oxley’s death, he applied for<br />

appointment as surveyor-general in<br />

New South Wales, claiming that his<br />

health was fully recovered.<br />

“South West View <strong>of</strong> Hobart Town, Van Dieman’s Land ca.1819”, a watercolour<br />

by Wiliam George Evans. Reproduced with permission <strong>of</strong> State Library <strong>of</strong> NSW.<br />

V6/1819/1<br />

He was unsuccessful but in 1831 he<br />

surrendered his pension for a lump<br />

sum <strong>of</strong> £600, and returned to<br />

Sydney the next year.<br />

Arriving in August he set up as a<br />

bookseller and stationer, and soon<br />

became drawing master at The<br />

King’s School, then housed in<br />

Harrisford, George Street,<br />

Parramatta, while his wife<br />

conducted a finishing school for<br />

young ladies.<br />

He returned to Hobart in 1844 to<br />

live with his family in Warwick<br />

Lodge, his home in New Town. After<br />

his wife died in August 1849, he<br />

moved to Macquarie Street, Hobart,<br />

where he died on October <strong>16</strong>,1852,<br />

aged 72, and was buried in St<br />

John’s churchyard, New Town.<br />

He had at least twelve children,<br />

seven by his first marriage and five<br />

by his second.<br />

As well as being a competent<br />

surveyor and a resolute explorer,<br />

Evans was an artist <strong>of</strong> some note.<br />

His aquatint view <strong>of</strong> Hobart in 1820<br />

was published as a frontispiece in<br />

his Geographical, Historical and<br />

Topographical Description <strong>of</strong> Van<br />

Diemen’s Land … (London, 1822;<br />

second edition, 1824; and a French<br />

edition, Paris, 1823).<br />

The original, with another aquatint<br />

<strong>of</strong> Hobart in 1819, is in the Dixson<br />

Library <strong>of</strong> New South Wales, where<br />

four <strong>of</strong> his views <strong>of</strong> Sydney are also<br />

hanging.<br />

He appears to have drawn a<br />

number <strong>of</strong> sketches and<br />

water-colours, both <strong>of</strong> the settled<br />

areas <strong>of</strong> the colony and <strong>of</strong> the<br />

interior, when he journeyed with<br />

Oxley.<br />

His artistic skill may also have<br />

helped him to win Paterson’s favour<br />

in 1809 and so to restore him to<br />

<strong>of</strong>ficial life at that time. 5<br />

Footsteps<br />

in time<br />

Move forward into the 20th century<br />

and in the decade before 1988,<br />

across Australia towns, cities and<br />

villages were planning projects to<br />

commemorate the 200 th anniversary<br />

<strong>of</strong> the first European settlement at<br />

Port Jackson in 1788.<br />

In the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>, John<br />

Yeaman, BEM, the city engineer<br />

had been considering a project to<br />

recognise the significance <strong>of</strong><br />

Evans’ surveying exploit from the<br />

River Lett at the base <strong>of</strong> Mount York<br />

east to Emu Ford on the Nepean<br />

River at Penrith .<br />

In 1982 after having carried out<br />

research for the Blackheath Rotary<br />

Club’s Historic Blackheath book,<br />

Yeaman put forward the idea that<br />

some action should be taken to<br />

remark the line <strong>of</strong> survey traverse<br />

carried out by Evans in 1813-14.<br />

John Yeaman was another to<br />

contend that the work <strong>of</strong> Evans had<br />

been overshadowed by the<br />

recognition given to Blaxland,<br />

Wentworth and Lawson.<br />

Continued page 8<br />

HERITAGE 7<br />

July - August 2011


Evans’ pillars restored<br />

by surveyors group<br />

Continued from page 7<br />

It was the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> section <strong>of</strong><br />

the survey that interested Yeaman<br />

On February 26, 1983 Yeaman<br />

presented a paper to the Mount<br />

Victoria and District Historical<br />

Society which provides a detailed<br />

picture <strong>of</strong> those who forged the link<br />

between the, then modest<br />

settlement at Port Jackson and the<br />

vast resources <strong>of</strong> the inland<br />

continent. 6.<br />

The remarking <strong>of</strong> the survey line<br />

established by Evans which Cox<br />

followed closely, was conceived as<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the 1988 celebrations.<br />

Evans’ Field Book is stored in the<br />

State Archives (Book <strong>No</strong>.96<br />

AONSW Ref. Reel 2623) and<br />

despite its age and poor condition, it<br />

was possible to obtain details from<br />

it.<br />

There are about 500 survey points,<br />

but initially it was decided to limit<br />

the number <strong>of</strong> points to 12, perhaps<br />

the most important watering holes 7 .<br />

An Australian Bicentennial grant <strong>of</strong><br />

$45,000 was obtained by <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> City Council in 1986<br />

which permitted 14 pillars to be built<br />

marking some <strong>of</strong> Evans’ camping<br />

sites.<br />

Mt York was the first pillar unveiled<br />

in 1988. Mr AK Weatherburn, a<br />

great, great grandson <strong>of</strong> George<br />

Evans and author <strong>of</strong> two books on<br />

the surveyor and his works,<br />

unveiled the Mt York pillar.<br />

Footsteps in Time pillars are located<br />

at Mt York, Mt Victoria, Blackheath,<br />

Katoomba, Wentworth Falls,<br />

Wentworth Falls West, Lawson,<br />

Hazelbrook, Faulconbridge,<br />

Springwood, Warrimoo, Blaxland,<br />

Glenbrook, Lapstone and Emu<br />

Plains.<br />

Each marker is identical to the base<br />

<strong>of</strong> a trigonomical survey pillar, as<br />

used throughout NSW for major<br />

surveys and contains four plaques;<br />

one giving details <strong>of</strong> the project, one<br />

giving details <strong>of</strong> Evans and his<br />

work, one giving reproductions <strong>of</strong><br />

relevant pages <strong>of</strong> his field book and<br />

extract from his diary and one giving<br />

details <strong>of</strong> the individual unveiling<br />

ceremony.<br />

An engraved steel plate on top <strong>of</strong><br />

the marker completes the<br />

construction.<br />

Over time some <strong>of</strong> the pillars have<br />

been vandalized, while others need<br />

refurbishment.<br />

The Restoration <strong>of</strong> the Footsteps in<br />

Time pillars was a project<br />

undertaken by the Seniors Group<br />

Institution <strong>of</strong> Surveyors NSW Inc.<br />

funded by the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City<br />

Council, Perith City Council, Land<br />

and Property Management Authority<br />

and Institution <strong>of</strong> Surveyors NSW 8.<br />

The Seniors Group, Institution <strong>of</strong><br />

Surveyors NSW Inc. conducted a<br />

Mike Rutlidge chairman and<br />

Graham Hunt , survey<br />

monuments curator, Seniors<br />

Group Institute <strong>of</strong> Surveyors NSW<br />

Inc. at the recent unveiling <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Lapstone pillar.<br />

ceremony at the Lapstone pillar in<br />

May 2011 to mark the restoration <strong>of</strong><br />

the 14 pillars .<br />

FOOTNOTES<br />

1.<br />

General Order 12 February 1814<br />

2.<br />

Lowe, David (1994). “Chapter 1.<br />

Winddradyne <strong>of</strong> the Wiradjuri”.<br />

Forgotten Rebels: Black Australians<br />

Who Fought Back. Sydney: ICS and<br />

Associates Pty Ltd. pp. 4–9. http://<br />

www.acr.net.au/~davidandjane/<br />

frebel_200004<strong>16</strong>.pdf.<br />

3.<br />

Australian Dictionary <strong>of</strong> Biography<br />

– Online edition, Evans George<br />

William (1780 – 1852) http://<br />

adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/<br />

A000103430b.htm<br />

4.<br />

ibid.<br />

5.<br />

ibid.<br />

6.<br />

Footsteps in Time – A road<br />

across the mountains brochure<br />

7.<br />

ibid.<br />

8<br />

. Hunt, Graham (2011) survey<br />

monuments curator, Seniors Group,<br />

ISNSW Inc. - George William Evans<br />

(1780 – 1852) a briefing paper.<br />

The asistance <strong>of</strong> Graham Hunt, in<br />

providing material for this article<br />

and the image <strong>of</strong> Evans’ Azimuth<br />

watch is acknowledged and<br />

appreciated.<br />

“Sydney from the western side <strong>of</strong> the Cove ca.1803” a watercolour by Wiliam<br />

George Evans. Reproduced with permission <strong>of</strong> State Library <strong>of</strong> NSW .<br />

XV1/1803/1<br />

The assistance <strong>of</strong> Jan Koperberg in<br />

facilitating the National Library <strong>of</strong><br />

Australia’s image <strong>of</strong> Evans and<br />

other graphics is also<br />

acknowledged and appreciated.<br />

HERITAGE 8<br />

July - August 2011


What would you keep in an empty jar?<br />

CHRISTOPER ROBIN’S friend,<br />

Eyeore, thought that an empty jar<br />

was good place for dead balloons.<br />

But what if the jar was bigger than<br />

those in the Arabian Nights that<br />

held rivers <strong>of</strong> gold and jewels?<br />

What if they were as big as a<br />

person standing up and there were<br />

hundreds <strong>of</strong> them scattered around<br />

the landscape, some in groups <strong>of</strong><br />

scores or more, some standing<br />

alone?<br />

What if they were two thousand<br />

years old? What use can you<br />

imagine?<br />

by Dr Peter Stanbury, OAM<br />

Would you want to research them if<br />

the area in which they are found<br />

has been a war zone for most <strong>of</strong> the<br />

last hundred years?<br />

In the last decade or so most <strong>of</strong> the<br />

cluster bombs and other ordinances<br />

surrounding them have been<br />

destroyed and only shell holes and<br />

bomb craters remain.<br />

<strong>No</strong>w is a good time to carry out<br />

research. In the Lao Peoples<br />

Democratic Republic there are<br />

thousands <strong>of</strong> stone jars.<br />

<strong>No</strong> one really knows what they were<br />

used for. They are thought to be<br />

carved out <strong>of</strong> stone by iron tools.<br />

Perhaps they were used for burials<br />

– but did they hold raw corpses,<br />

mummies, ashes or only goods for<br />

use in the after life? If so, where<br />

are the lids?<br />

The jars are there, but why are<br />

there virtually no lids? What is the<br />

meaning <strong>of</strong> the infrequently found<br />

carved human figures with<br />

outspread arms found on some<br />

examples?<br />

Hundreds <strong>of</strong> these jars <strong>of</strong> unknown origin are scattered across the<br />

landscape<br />

The puzzle is one <strong>of</strong> the foremost<br />

opportunities for prehistory studies<br />

in South East Asia. Xieng Khouang<br />

(pronounced Sieng Kwang) in the<br />

central eastern region <strong>of</strong> Lao is a<br />

plateau about 1200 metres above<br />

sea level.<br />

It has a wonderful climate for the<br />

tropics, warm during the day and<br />

cool at night. Many minerals are<br />

found nearby.<br />

The area is a military strategic point<br />

– like a medieval castle with a view<br />

<strong>of</strong> the surrounding countries and an<br />

excellent position from which to<br />

control the neighbouring peoples.<br />

Although the area is popularly<br />

known as the Plain <strong>of</strong> Jars, many<br />

jars are found on hilltops and in<br />

wooded areas.<br />

Some sites have up to 300 jars;<br />

some sites have a single jar. The<br />

jars are made <strong>of</strong> a variety <strong>of</strong><br />

materials: sandstone, granite,<br />

limestone or a mixed conglomerate<br />

<strong>of</strong> material.<br />

Some sites seem to have a nearby<br />

stone quarry; others appear remote<br />

from a source <strong>of</strong> stone.<br />

So how were the jars transported?<br />

By elephants? By pushing them<br />

over rolling logs?<br />

The mouths <strong>of</strong> some jars are<br />

essentially round; others have a<br />

rectangular or square shape.<br />

The few flat stone discs that remain<br />

are about the right size for lids, but<br />

they may also have been used to<br />

cover holes in the ground that<br />

contained corpses, ashes or objects<br />

<strong>of</strong> worth such as <strong>of</strong>ferings.<br />

It is interesting that the rims <strong>of</strong> the<br />

jars vary: some have an internal<br />

niche around the circumference,<br />

others have an external niche and<br />

yet others have no niche. Just one<br />

jar has a human(?) carved on the<br />

outside; at least one lid has a<br />

similar carving.<br />

Since 1998 UNESCO and the<br />

Government <strong>of</strong> Lao PDR have been<br />

attempting to safeguard and<br />

research the remaining jars.<br />

This jar shows an internal niche at its opening<br />

Some are now broken; either in<br />

recent wars or by human vandalism<br />

over the ages. On many jars bullet<br />

marks can be seen - what is better<br />

than a big jar for target practice?<br />

HERITAGE 9<br />

July - August 2011


Jars crying out to be researched<br />

The first work recently carried out<br />

consisted <strong>of</strong> mapping the position <strong>of</strong><br />

the individual jars, proclaiming as<br />

protected areas the sites where<br />

many jars are found and clearing<br />

(blowing up or removing)<br />

unexploded ordnance.<br />

After that local people have been<br />

inducted into recording and<br />

archaeological practices. Some<br />

excavations have also taken place,<br />

underneath and in the vicinity <strong>of</strong> the<br />

jars.<br />

The finds, however, are meagre. A<br />

relatively small number <strong>of</strong> iron<br />

knives have been found, as well as<br />

the remains <strong>of</strong> bracelets <strong>of</strong> bronze,<br />

necklaces <strong>of</strong> glass beads and<br />

pottery.<br />

These are either stored in the<br />

region or a few items are on display<br />

in the National Museum <strong>of</strong> Lao PDR<br />

in Vientiane.<br />

Unfortunately none are on display<br />

at the sites; <strong>of</strong> which four or five<br />

major ones are accessible to the<br />

public.<br />

Furthermore, the items in storage<br />

are deteriorating due to lack <strong>of</strong><br />

conservation knowledge.<br />

The Plain <strong>of</strong> Jars has been a war zone as seen from this newspaper<br />

clipping which show soldiers reading maps with the large jars in the<br />

background<br />

The only conservators in the<br />

country are the occasional visitors<br />

from overseas.<br />

The major site on an actual plain is<br />

on the outskirts <strong>of</strong> Ponsavan (from<br />

which airplanes and buses disgorge<br />

tourists) and is becoming hemmed<br />

in by farms and other undesirable<br />

developments.<br />

Richmal Crompton’s famous<br />

schoolboy hero, William,<br />

philosophised that he would be an<br />

inventor except that the radio, the<br />

telephone, TV and movies had all<br />

been invented so there was nothing<br />

left to invent.<br />

Some times it seems that research<br />

projects are equally elusive. But<br />

the jars are crying out to be<br />

researched. Is this an opportunity<br />

for you to take one small step?<br />

About the author<br />

Dr Peter<br />

Stanbury,<br />

OAM an<br />

executive<br />

member <strong>of</strong><br />

BMACHO’s<br />

management<br />

committee<br />

and a<br />

regular<br />

contributor<br />

to HERITAGE is a member <strong>of</strong><br />

Australian Business Volunteers.<br />

Peter is also vice chair, UMAC<br />

(ICOM’s International Committee for<br />

University Museums and<br />

Collections) and librarian, Richard<br />

Bailey Library, Australian Society <strong>of</strong><br />

Anaesthetists<br />

As a volunteer he <strong>of</strong>ten travels<br />

overseas to give freely <strong>of</strong> his advice<br />

particularly in museum collections.<br />

At the top <strong>of</strong> this jar there is an external niche<br />

On one <strong>of</strong> his recent trips when in<br />

Laos, Peter visited the Plain <strong>of</strong> Jars<br />

to inspect these 2000 year old man<br />

sized jars <strong>of</strong> uncertain origin and<br />

function. As Peter says this is an<br />

interesting research program just<br />

waiting to be tackled.<br />

HERITAGE 10<br />

July - August 2011<br />

.


Dear Old Golden Rule Days<br />

EDUCATION is something which has, at some time, in some place, touched us all. Whether we left<br />

school before matriculation, attended a tertiary education institution or are one <strong>of</strong> a growing community<br />

<strong>of</strong> ‘life-long learners’, we have all been influenced by education at some time and at some level.<br />

…Elissa MacDonald, Editor In Chief, aMUSine. The museums, galleries and collections zine by<br />

interesting people for interested people.<br />

HERITAGE is indebted to aMUSine for this first hand account <strong>of</strong> life by a young boy at <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Grammar School 75 years ago and before it became an exclusive boys school.<br />

I WAS BORN IN 1926 and had attended five different<br />

schools by the time I turned twelve years <strong>of</strong> age.<br />

This was due to the fact that my father was a<br />

postmaster and was moved around by the Postmaster<br />

General’s Department during my childhood.<br />

I think my most enduring memories are <strong>of</strong> <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> Grammar School, Springwood where I was a<br />

day pupil from fifth class in 1935 to 1938 when my<br />

father’s move to Sydney resulted in my transfer to<br />

Sutherland Intermediate High School.<br />

After starting me <strong>of</strong>f at Springwood Public School<br />

(second and third classes), Dad decided that I should<br />

have the opportunity to develop as a “young gentleman”<br />

and enrolled me as a day pupil at the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Grammar School whose motto was “Nihil sine labore”<br />

(nothing without work).<br />

At that time it was located near Springwood Railway<br />

Station on the corner <strong>of</strong> Macquarie Road and Homedale<br />

Street, Springwood.<br />

The school was established by its first headmaster,<br />

Edward Kenneth Deane, in 1918 in the grand,<br />

Italianate home known as “Homedale”, built in 1882,<br />

and which was demolished in 1975.<br />

I think my father was influenced in this regard by the<br />

Greyfriars stories, written by Frank Richards, which he<br />

had read during his own pre World War 1 boyhood and<br />

by friends in the close knit Springwood community.<br />

I attended <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Grammar School from 1935<br />

to 1938 inclusive and apart from undergoing the usual<br />

bullying by a couple <strong>of</strong> older day boys enjoyed it<br />

immensely.<br />

This faded photograph is <strong>of</strong> Rex Turner in his full<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Grammar uniform. Photograph<br />

courtesy <strong>of</strong> R Turner and C MacDonald<br />

I have very happy memories <strong>of</strong> my days at BMGS. I<br />

remember well the masters, the old classroom building,<br />

the pre-school morning hymn (usually hymn number 1 -<br />

“<strong>No</strong>w that the daylight fills the sky ….. “) being beefed<br />

out by the boys as the headmaster, Ken Deane<br />

accompanied us on the piano, the daily fill <strong>of</strong> the three<br />

R’s, the camaraderie <strong>of</strong> the students around me, and, <strong>of</strong><br />

course, our periods <strong>of</strong> play.<br />

Having been brought up on the type <strong>of</strong> schoolboy<br />

novels which encouraged certain qualities in their boys,<br />

I saw BMGS in some way as the local Greyfriars or St.<br />

Jim’s <strong>of</strong> Frank Richard’s creation, preparing us to be<br />

men worthy <strong>of</strong> the title <strong>of</strong> gentlemen.<br />

The words <strong>of</strong> the first verse <strong>of</strong> Sir Henry John Newbolt’s<br />

Vitae Lampada were especially meaningful to me, and<br />

the afternoon cricket match never failed to remind me<br />

that:<br />

There’s a breathless hush in the Close tonight -<br />

Ten to make and the match to win<br />

A bumping pitch and a blinding light,<br />

An hour to play and the last man in.<br />

And it’s not for the sake <strong>of</strong> a ribboned coat,<br />

Or the selfish hope <strong>of</strong> a season’s fame,<br />

But his Captain’s hand on his shoulder smote –<br />

“Play up! play up! and play the game!”<br />

HERITAGE 11<br />

July - August 2011


Life at <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Grammar School<br />

75 years ago<br />

As I have mentioned, the headmaster was Ken Deane.<br />

He was short, rotund, stern and respected by all his<br />

pupils. I remember him as a fun man.<br />

He had an old, noisy Ford flat top truck (his beloved<br />

“Tin Lizzie”) which he used to take the boys to the<br />

roadside swimming hole at Valley Heights, and to<br />

football matches at the Springwood Sports Ground, and<br />

incidental tasks such as towing the school’s dead cow<br />

from where it had succumbed to an enormous hole<br />

where it was to be interred.<br />

My feelings <strong>of</strong> nostalgia for my old Alma Mater are well<br />

captured in the words <strong>of</strong> the old school song:<br />

“Mother kind, our pride and treasure,<br />

Bold our voices cry, and free,<br />

Moulding us through days <strong>of</strong> pleasure<br />

For our struggles yet to be;<br />

Fate on blackest waves comes surging<br />

Triumphs from our tasks may rise,<br />

Still we strive, her proud words urging,<br />

Labour, labour, wins the prize.<br />

A peach tree planted atop the grave later yielded loads<br />

<strong>of</strong> magnificent fruit. Ken Deane was instrumental in<br />

inculcating in me a realization that I could become a<br />

good student and, in due course I would have the<br />

“makings <strong>of</strong> a gentleman”.<br />

His ability to mould boys into men <strong>of</strong> worth and resolve<br />

set me an example which I have tried to emulate<br />

throughout my life.<br />

Another <strong>of</strong> my teachers was the red headed Irishman<br />

and sportsmaster, Mr Russel who also taught me Latin<br />

(I was quite a dab hand at it) and frightened me on the<br />

sports field (“Who kicked that football back into the<br />

scrum?” – me <strong>of</strong> course, as I didn’t want the bloody<br />

thing or been told what to do with it), and later after I<br />

had been chased over the try line with the ball in my<br />

hands and scored a couple <strong>of</strong> tries (“Good boy Turner, I<br />

didn’t think you had it in you!”).<br />

There was however, one teacher who I consider was<br />

one <strong>of</strong> the greatest influences on my life - the part time<br />

elocution teacher, Mr Gorman.<br />

I know my elocution and language in my early school<br />

days was basic and was a take <strong>of</strong>f <strong>of</strong> the western film<br />

stars who used to entertain me at the local picture<br />

theatre on Saturday afternoons.<br />

He had taken me in hand shortly after I became a<br />

BMGS pupil. One day, I was in the Springwood Post<br />

Office talking to Dad when, for some reason or other I<br />

used the word “Garn!”, meaning <strong>of</strong> course, “Go on”.<br />

I happened to look at the customer side <strong>of</strong> the post<br />

<strong>of</strong>fice counter and standing there was Mr Gorman.<br />

I cringed and repeated what I had just said – this time<br />

saying it correctly. Mr Gorman smiled, nodded and went<br />

on his way. My interest in his teaching was immediate<br />

and far reaching.<br />

He taught me that syllables, consonants and vowels all<br />

had a purpose, and should be uttered clearly so that my<br />

listeners would understand what I wanted to say.<br />

He taught me not to slur my speech, and to enunciate<br />

every word and sound properly. In essence he taught<br />

me to speak, which has been a wonderful attribute in<br />

my progression through life.<br />

Hers the race we run to dying<br />

Hers our triumph’s ringing cheer,<br />

Hers the ball to victory flying,<br />

Hands that strain, the line is near;<br />

Work and play their trophies bringing,<br />

Labour on, our school replies,<br />

Words like bells forever ringing:<br />

Labour, labour, wins the prize.<br />

Glorious school, we laud thee proudly,<br />

Giver <strong>of</strong> our fairest days,<br />

Masters, playmates, singing loudly,<br />

In our swelling song we praise;<br />

Banner ever proudly bearing,<br />

That our school waves in our eyes,<br />

Banner direct battles daring,<br />

Labour, labour, wins the prize.”<br />

Ours was not a political song. “Labour” in its context<br />

meant “Effort”, or, as Calvin Coolidge would have put it,<br />

“Persistence and determination”. I commend its<br />

sentiments, and as Grantland Rice wrote before me,<br />

that . . . “when the One Great Scorer comes to mark<br />

against your name, he writes - not that you won or lost -<br />

But how you played the Game .”<br />

75 years later<br />

Rex Turner a veteran <strong>of</strong> World War 2, now aged 85<br />

considers himself a ‘gentleman <strong>of</strong> leisure’ though in<br />

the past he was chief executive <strong>of</strong> HCF Australia<br />

HERITAGE is indebted to his granddaughter,Elissa<br />

MacDonald, editor In chief, aMUSine who arranged<br />

for this recent photograph <strong>of</strong> Rex who provided<br />

aMUSine his<br />

memories <strong>of</strong><br />

his school<br />

days in the<br />

<strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> 75<br />

years ago.<br />

Rex believes<br />

there may only<br />

be three <strong>of</strong> his<br />

contemporaries<br />

still living.<br />

HERITAGE 12<br />

July - August 2011


Crumbled chimney stack only reminder<br />

<strong>of</strong> Polar explorer who lived in Woodford<br />

By Pamela Smith<br />

MANY NOTABLE POLITICIANS,<br />

successful business people, war<br />

heroes, and inspiring educators<br />

have lived in the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> at<br />

one time or another.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> these was renowned<br />

geologist, polar explorer and<br />

university lecturer Sir Tannatt<br />

William Edgeworth David KBE CMG<br />

DSO DSc FRS with wife Caroline.<br />

The couple purchased twenty-six<br />

acres <strong>of</strong> land at Woodford in 1898;<br />

naming the two-roomed cottage<br />

they built ‘Tyn-y-Coed’ (meaning<br />

house in the wood).<br />

The name reflected Sir David’s<br />

Welsh birth. Born in 1858 at the<br />

rectory <strong>of</strong> St Fagan’s in Wales, he<br />

was the eldest child <strong>of</strong> Rev William<br />

David a fellow <strong>of</strong> Jesus College<br />

Oxford. Sir David graduated BA<br />

from Oxford in 1881.<br />

He arrived in New South Wales to<br />

take up the position <strong>of</strong> assistant<br />

geological surveyor following the<br />

disappearance <strong>of</strong> Lamont H Young<br />

(his predecessor) on a field trip to<br />

Bermagui in 1880.<br />

Sir David arrived in Sydney in 1882<br />

and in July 1885, married English<br />

born Caroline Martha (Cara) Mallet<br />

whom he met on the voyage to<br />

Sydney.<br />

There is a suggestion that Cara<br />

emigrated for reasons <strong>of</strong> health,<br />

however it is more commonly<br />

believed that she came to NSW to<br />

take up an appointment as founding<br />

principal <strong>of</strong> Hurlstone Training<br />

College for female teachers.<br />

Interestingly, she is thought to have<br />

been appointed by Sir Henry<br />

Parkes.<br />

Mackay, David and Mawson raise<br />

the flag at the Magnetic South<br />

Pole January <strong>16</strong>, 1909<br />

William<br />

Edgeworth<br />

David led<br />

first<br />

expedition<br />

to reach<br />

South<br />

Magnetic<br />

Pole<br />

Cara, an orphan from a working<br />

class background received her<br />

education by scholarship from<br />

Whiteland College London and<br />

later, she trained as a teacher.<br />

She was a lecturer at the college<br />

prior to applying for the position at<br />

Hurlstone. Cara, a bright intelligent<br />

woman, became interested in and<br />

assisted with the introduction <strong>of</strong> the<br />

free kindergarten movement in the<br />

inner suburbs <strong>of</strong> Sydney.<br />

She was aided by other early<br />

feminist educators like Louisa<br />

Macdonald and Maybanke<br />

Wolstenholme.<br />

Sir Edgeworth David was appointed<br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> geology in the<br />

University <strong>of</strong> Sydney in 1891.<br />

Sir Ernest Shackleton appointed<br />

him as leader <strong>of</strong> the scientific team<br />

accompanying him to the South<br />

Pole in 1907 - 9.<br />

Sir David led the party that<br />

discovered the South Magnetic Pole<br />

and he and his team scaled the<br />

active volcano Mount Erebus.<br />

At the outbreak <strong>of</strong> the First World<br />

War, Sir David recruited and formed<br />

the Australian Mining Corps that<br />

was composed <strong>of</strong> tough individuals<br />

from the gold, copper, coal and<br />

silver mines <strong>of</strong> Kalgoorlie, Bendigo,<br />

Tasmania and South Australia.<br />

Although little is known about the<br />

corps the most successful operation<br />

carried out by the men serving<br />

under Lieutenant Colonel David was<br />

the mining under and explosion <strong>of</strong><br />

Messines Ridge, in 1917.<br />

In the early part <strong>of</strong> the twentieth<br />

century the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> and<br />

‘Tyn-y-Coed’ became the David’s<br />

main place <strong>of</strong> residence.<br />

The cottage was expanded to meet<br />

the needs <strong>of</strong> the family and<br />

orchards and gardens were<br />

established. In 1909, following his<br />

return from the Antarctic, the Davids<br />

entertained the crew <strong>of</strong> the polar<br />

expedition ship, Nimrod.<br />

They were community minded and<br />

sociable, and members <strong>of</strong> the local<br />

Woodford Anglican Church.<br />

In August 1934 the media <strong>of</strong> the day<br />

announced the death <strong>of</strong> the world<br />

famous scientist. Sir David was<br />

given a State funeral.<br />

It is unfortunate that the crumbled<br />

chimney stack <strong>of</strong> ‘Tyn-y-Coed’<br />

(destroyed by fire) is the only<br />

reminder <strong>of</strong> the David’s time in<br />

Woodford.<br />

References<br />

* The Journal <strong>of</strong> the Women’s<br />

College, Vol. 26 <strong>No</strong>. 1, winter 2010-<br />

11-09, p. 8.<br />

* T.G. Vallance & D.F. Branagan,<br />

‘David, Sir Tannatt William<br />

Edgeworth (1858-1934),’ The<br />

Australian Dictionary <strong>of</strong> Biography,<br />

Volume 8, Melbourne University<br />

Press, 1981, pp 218-221.<br />

* Ken Goodlet, Hazelbrook &<br />

Woodford, Ken Goodlet, 2006, p 40.<br />

* The Argus, 29.8.1934.<br />

* Jennifer Carter, Portrait <strong>of</strong> a Lady:<br />

Caroline Martha David, National<br />

Library <strong>of</strong> Australia, September<br />

2002, Vol. XII <strong>No</strong>. 12.<br />

* Daily Telegraph image<br />

HERITAGE 13<br />

July - August 2011


Special days in World War 1<br />

by Dr Peter C Rickwood<br />

PATRIOTIC FERVOUR was high at<br />

times during World War I and the<br />

civilian population <strong>of</strong> Australia was<br />

eager to contribute to various ‘relief’<br />

funds.<br />

Volunteers <strong>of</strong>ten organised special<br />

days which became formally named<br />

after the particular cause, and<br />

processions 1 , shows, etc. were<br />

organised to attract the populace<br />

with the aim <strong>of</strong> relieving them <strong>of</strong><br />

money.<br />

Whilst some special days were on<br />

specifically designated dates, it was<br />

common for small communities to<br />

hold them on a convenient nearby<br />

day - usually a Saturday when<br />

many were not at work; Sunday<br />

being <strong>of</strong>f-limits due to religious<br />

observances.<br />

This flexibility meant that the same<br />

special day was held on different<br />

dates at different places across<br />

Australia and not all communities<br />

would respond to a particular cause.<br />

Belgium or Belgian Day, variously<br />

reported as having been held for<br />

the Belgian Relief Fund or to raise<br />

funds to provide food for children in<br />

Belgium, was on May 14, 1915 in<br />

the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>, May 15, 1915<br />

in Sydney 2 , but seven weeks earlier<br />

in Victoria on March 26, 1915 3 and<br />

also in Tasmania 4 ; in South<br />

Melbourne it was called Belgian<br />

Rose Day and reputedly was held<br />

on April 8,1915 5 . <strong>No</strong>te that it was<br />

not held on the National Day <strong>of</strong><br />

Belgium, which is July 21, and<br />

marks the accession <strong>of</strong> King<br />

Leopold I in 1831!<br />

A few special days were held in<br />

successive years, e.g. Red Cross<br />

Day.<br />

Towards the end <strong>of</strong> the war there<br />

must have been some negative<br />

reaction to continual appeals for<br />

donations, and when the Armistice<br />

was declared local residents would<br />

have resisted these appeals with<br />

the intention <strong>of</strong> donating to the<br />

expected welcome home<br />

ceremonies for the volunteers from<br />

their community - many <strong>of</strong> which<br />

eventuated.<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> the names <strong>of</strong> these special<br />

days in the 1914 - 18 period were<br />

unusual, and would not be known<br />

by many 21st Century residents, so<br />

I have attempted to compile a list.<br />

The intent was also to show which<br />

‘days’ were observed in which<br />

places in the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>, but<br />

observances held in some villages<br />

may have been missed as most<br />

events were not advertised in<br />

newspapers, and post-celebration<br />

reports were <strong>of</strong>ten brief and<br />

concealed in articles with titles that<br />

do not convey all <strong>of</strong> their content.<br />

Australian troops resting from the battle in Peronne (Somme) during<br />

World War 1. Image courtesy Australian War Memorial.<br />

THE AUTHOR<br />

The author, Dr Peter C Rickwood,<br />

a former president <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc.<br />

is the inaugural editor <strong>of</strong><br />

BMACHO’s <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

History Journal the second<br />

edition <strong>of</strong> which will be published<br />

online later this year.<br />

Peter is a visiting senior research<br />

fellow at the School <strong>of</strong> Biological,<br />

Earth & Environmental Science<br />

at the University <strong>of</strong> New South<br />

Wales.<br />

The article first appeared in the<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical<br />

Society’s newsletter Hobby’s<br />

Outreach Volume 23 Number 2 –<br />

June-July 2011<br />

<strong>No</strong>t all villages in the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> observed any particular<br />

special day and there was great<br />

inconsistency <strong>of</strong> effort, but<br />

Katoomba and Leura would appear<br />

to have been the most co-operative.<br />

Some <strong>of</strong> the designated special<br />

days are not known to have been<br />

observed by any <strong>of</strong> our <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> villages e.g. Sand Bag<br />

Day.<br />

I am grateful to Mr John Merriman,<br />

Local Studies Librarian, Springwood<br />

for steering me to the Australian<br />

War Memorial website which has a<br />

list <strong>of</strong> these days. (http://<br />

www.awm.gov.au/findingaids/<br />

special/Souvenirs/Appeals.xml )<br />

References<br />

(For brevity, authors and titles <strong>of</strong><br />

articles in newspapers have been<br />

omitted.)<br />

1 e.g. p.41 in Smith, N., 1996.<br />

Grandfather worked on the pool;<br />

tales <strong>of</strong> Old Blackheath. <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc.,<br />

Wentworth Falls. 59pp.; <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> City Library, Local<br />

Studies Image PF 493. The<br />

celebration at Katoomba is<br />

recorded in a photograph in <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society<br />

collection, <strong>No</strong>.786.<br />

2 Sydney Morning Herald 17 May<br />

1915, p.8, col.8.<br />

3 Kalgoorlie Western Argus, March<br />

30, 1915, p.8, col.1. 4<br />

The Mercury, 26 March 26, 1915,<br />

p.4, col.3 & March 27, 1915, p.7,<br />

col.3. 5 The Argus, July 8, 19<strong>16</strong>,<br />

p.20, col.8.<br />

HERITAGE 14<br />

July - August 2011


SPECIAL DAYS CELEBRATED IN THE BLUE MOUNTAINS<br />

Date From the Australian From other sources Celebrated at References<br />

War Memorial<br />

1 Feb 1914 Red Cross Day<br />

14 May 1915 Belgian Day Blackheath, Katoomba, Leura & BME 30 Apr 1915, p.4, col.5;<br />

Wentworth Falls<br />

7 May 1915, p.3, col.3; p.3,<br />

col.4; p.5, col.3 & 14 May<br />

1915, p.3, col.3.<br />

30 July 1915 Australia Day Blackheath, Katoomba, Leura, BME 30 Jul 1915, p.4 col.2<br />

Lawson & Hazelbrook<br />

etc.<br />

4 <strong>No</strong>v 1915 Allies Day SMH 5 <strong>No</strong>v 1915, p.4, col.2.<br />

19 <strong>No</strong>v 1915 Allies Day Leura BME 19 <strong>No</strong>v 1915, p.5, col.3.<br />

10 Dec 1915 Sand Bag Day<br />

12 Apr 19<strong>16</strong> Allies Day<br />

7 Jul 19<strong>16</strong> War Chest Day Blackheath BME 7 Jul 19<strong>16</strong>, p.3, col. 2.<br />

15 Dec 19<strong>16</strong> Repatriation Day<br />

23 Feb 1917 Win-the-War Day Katoomba BME 23 Feb 1917, p.2, col.4;<br />

2 Mar 1917, p.1, col.5.<br />

24 Feb 1917 Win-the-War Day<br />

14 Jul 1917 France’s Day (sic) Blackheath, Katoomba & Leura BME 20 Jul 1917, p4., col.4;<br />

p.6, cols.2-3.<br />

28 Sep 1917 War Chest Day Leura, Lawson & Hazelbrook; BME 7 Sep 1917, p2., col. 3;<br />

Sydney<br />

21 Sep 1917, p.4 col. 3; 5 Oct<br />

1917, p.3, col.4<br />

29 Sep 1917 War Chest Day Katoomba BME 7 Sep 1917, p.2, col.3.<br />

6 Apr 1918 Red Cross Day Medlow Bath BME 26 Apr 1918, p.4, col. 3.<br />

24 Apr 1918 Red Cross Day Leura BME 10 May 1918, p.4, col.4<br />

c. 4 May 1918 c. 4 May 1918 Red Cross Day Blackheath, Glenbrook, Mt Victoria BME 12 Apr 1918, p.5, col. 4;<br />

SMH 8 May 1918 p.10, col. 6<br />

29 Jun 1918 Italy or Italian Day Katoomba BME 28 Jun 1918, p.2, col.<br />

4; 5 Jul 1918, p2. col. 4.<br />

14 Jul 1918 France’s Day Katoomba BME 19 Jul 1918, p.3, col.3.<br />

.<br />

26 Jul 1918 Australia day<br />

2 Aug 1918 AIF Memorial Day<br />

13 Sep 1918 Soldiers Homes Day<br />

14 Sep 1918 Soldiers Homes DayLeura BME 20 Sep 1918, p.1, col. 2<br />

1 <strong>No</strong>v 1918 Jack’s Day Katoomba, Leura, Wentworth BME 1 <strong>No</strong>v 1918, p.2, col. 4;<br />

Falls<br />

8 <strong>No</strong>v 1918, p. 4, col. 3; p.5,<br />

col. 4.<br />

2 <strong>No</strong>v 1918 Jack’s Day Hazelbrook BME 1 <strong>No</strong>v 1918, p.4, col. 4;<br />

8 <strong>No</strong>v 1918, p. 4, col. 3.<br />

5 <strong>No</strong>v 1918 Jack’s Day Blackheath BME 8 <strong>No</strong>v 1918, p. 4, col. 3.<br />

30 <strong>No</strong>v 1918 War Chest Day Katoomba, Leura, Wentworth BME 22 <strong>No</strong>v 1918, p. 3, col.<br />

Falls 4; 29 <strong>No</strong>v 1918, p.3, col. 3;<br />

p5, col.6; 6 Dec 1918, p.1,<br />

col. 5; p. .6, col.3.<br />

Key: Jack’s Day = Sailors’ BME = <strong>Blue</strong> Mountain Echo<br />

Day<br />

SMH = Sydney Morning<br />

Herald<br />

HERITAGE 15<br />

July - August 2011


Historic 1880s Carrington Hotel to be venue<br />

for <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> history conference<br />

HISTORIC CARRINGTON HOTEL,<br />

Katoomba has been chosen as the<br />

venue for the 2012 <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong>’<br />

history conference<br />

“The early years <strong>of</strong> the colony” is<br />

the title chosen by the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Cultural</strong><br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> Organisations for its first<br />

conference to be held on Saturday,<br />

October 20, 2012.<br />

The conference follows earlier <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> history conferences<br />

organised under the auspices <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Council’s local<br />

studies section.<br />

BMACHO, president Pamela Smith<br />

who was involved in the<br />

organisation <strong>of</strong> earlier conferences,<br />

said the event would focus on life in<br />

the early years before the colony<br />

was explored west <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong>.<br />

The <strong>Association</strong> is planning to<br />

present an affordable event with a<br />

range <strong>of</strong> well-informed speakers.<br />

Closer to the event more details and<br />

cost to participants will be<br />

promoted.<br />

The keynote speaker is expected to<br />

be well known historian, Dr Shirley<br />

Fitzgerald.<br />

Dr Fitzgerald was the City Historian<br />

for the City <strong>of</strong> Sydney from 1987 -<br />

2009, when she delivered a<br />

program connecting the community<br />

to their history using diverse<br />

formats from radio chats to formal<br />

lectures.<br />

She has taught in NSW schools,<br />

lectured at the University <strong>of</strong> New<br />

England, and established the<br />

inaugural Master <strong>of</strong> Letters degree<br />

in Public History at the University <strong>of</strong><br />

Sydney.<br />

Dr Fitzgerald has held a number <strong>of</strong><br />

pr<strong>of</strong>essional positions, including<br />

president <strong>of</strong> the History Council <strong>of</strong><br />

NSW, 1996 - 99 and chair <strong>of</strong> State<br />

Records NSW, 2001 - 2007.<br />

She was the inaugural chair <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Dictionary <strong>of</strong> Sydney Trust and<br />

continues to be involved in this<br />

exciting project.<br />

The 1880s heritage Carrington Hotel at Katoomba<br />

She is currently Adjunct Pr<strong>of</strong>essor<br />

in the Faculty <strong>of</strong> Humanities and<br />

Social Sciences at the University <strong>of</strong><br />

Technology, Sydney.<br />

Topics will focus on:<br />

* Fashions from frockcoat and<br />

crinolines to convict canvas and<br />

cabbage palm leaf hats;<br />

* Convict Women, prostitution,<br />

imbalance <strong>of</strong> women - their fears<br />

and fate in a foreign environment;<br />

* Indigenous history – First<br />

encounters, food, language.<br />

Indigenous interaction - From<br />

genocide to government arrogance.<br />

The above are only working titles<br />

and obviously wil be refined both by<br />

JEAN ARTHUR, the secretary <strong>of</strong><br />

Mount Victoria & District Historical<br />

Society; a remarkable woman with<br />

a wealth <strong>of</strong> knowledge about the<br />

Mount Victoria district, had a fall<br />

last month and fractured her<br />

shoulder, which resulted in her<br />

being admitted to <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

District Anzac Memorial Hospital.<br />

On the evening <strong>of</strong> the fall, Jean<br />

did not feel like cooking dinner<br />

and crossed the highway to the<br />

garage to buy fish and chips.<br />

On the way back she tripped in a<br />

pothole on the corner <strong>of</strong> Mt York<br />

Road and the Great Western<br />

Highway and there she lay till a<br />

gentleman from the Talisman<br />

the committee and the speakers as<br />

planning progresses.<br />

Each speaker will be asked to<br />

speak for 45 minutes and there will<br />

be question and discussion time <strong>of</strong><br />

15 minutes at the end <strong>of</strong> each<br />

paper.<br />

Included in the program will be a<br />

musical interlude with Jim Low a<br />

folk singer, historian and writer<br />

guaranteed to wake the audience<br />

after lunch which will be served in<br />

the Carrington’s grand dining room.<br />

For further details contact Jan<br />

Koperberg jank@eftel.com.au<br />

Jean Arthur in <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Hospital<br />

Gallery found her and called the<br />

ambulance.<br />

This chap had closed his shop in<br />

Hartley Valley and had gone for a<br />

bicycle ride up Bergh<strong>of</strong>er’s Pass<br />

and along Mt York Road and was<br />

going back down Victoria Pass.<br />

This was fortunate for Jean,<br />

because she had been lying on the<br />

road for some time, waiting for help,<br />

cold and in pain.<br />

Jean is a member <strong>of</strong> BMACHO’s<br />

management committee<br />

Some members have already<br />

visited Jean in hospital or sent getwell<br />

wishes. All wish Jean all the<br />

the best for a speedy recovery.<br />

HERITAGE <strong>16</strong><br />

July - August 2011


School <strong>of</strong> Arts or Mechanics Institutes<br />

have their origin in early 19th century<br />

IN THE EARLY YEARS <strong>of</strong> the 20 th<br />

century Mechanic’s Institutes or a<br />

School <strong>of</strong> Arts building was a<br />

common feature in most <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> villages.<br />

However, as a “movement” their<br />

history is much older.<br />

The first was established in<br />

Scotland in 1821, with the aim <strong>of</strong><br />

improving the intellect <strong>of</strong> its<br />

members through the “diffusion <strong>of</strong><br />

useful knowledge” and to nurture<br />

“literature, science and art.” 1<br />

by Pamela Smith, Springwood Historians<br />

It was not too long before these<br />

“civilising institutes” appeared in the<br />

new colony.<br />

With a land grant courtesy <strong>of</strong><br />

Governor Richard Bourke the<br />

Sydney Mechanic’s School <strong>of</strong> Arts<br />

opened its doors in 1833 and still<br />

exists to this day.<br />

Springwood was not so lucky<br />

because even though a committee<br />

formed in 1901, fund raising<br />

activities and a promise <strong>of</strong> land by<br />

James Hunter Lawson (owner <strong>of</strong><br />

Braemar and the Oriental Hotel)<br />

came to nought. 2<br />

In fact one <strong>of</strong> the members <strong>of</strong> that<br />

early committee is thought to have<br />

absconded with the funds.<br />

The Springwood School <strong>of</strong> Arts<br />

finally opened its doors in 1913,<br />

with Mr Brinsley Hall MP <strong>of</strong>ficiating.<br />

A commemorative booklet<br />

published for the event stated the<br />

committee overcame “great<br />

difficulties” and “discouragement” to<br />

bring about the end result. 3<br />

The graceful Federation style<br />

building was well-ventilated and lit<br />

with Benzoli air gas lights.<br />

As well as a well stocked library, the<br />

building contained reading and<br />

committee rooms, and a “fine<br />

billiard room” - lined in Australian<br />

timber - containing two excellent<br />

billiard tables. 4<br />

Pictured are the Coo - ee marchers as they marched past the<br />

Springwood School <strong>of</strong> Arts on their way through the <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

from Gilgandra in the central west to Sydney to enlist in World War 1<br />

in 1915 . Local photographer, Jo Booker.<br />

When barely twelve months old the<br />

building provided overnight<br />

accommodation and comfort for<br />

men who took part in the Co - ee<br />

March.<br />

Later, the institute became the<br />

scene <strong>of</strong> World War 1<br />

commemorations when captured<br />

enemy machine guns and the<br />

honour roll were placed in their<br />

keeping.<br />

A newspaper article in 1919<br />

suggested the Springwood School<br />

<strong>of</strong> Arts was “indispensable” and a<br />

fine institution “for our young men”<br />

because no signs <strong>of</strong> gambling or<br />

objectionable behaviour were<br />

tolerated within the “cosy comfort”<br />

<strong>of</strong> its walls.<br />

‘... like an elite<br />

men’s club<br />

catering for the<br />

upper class...’<br />

Mothers and wives were being<br />

asked to encourage their sons and<br />

husbands to join.<br />

Research indicates however that<br />

despite these overtures to the<br />

general community the institution<br />

did not realise its primary objectives<br />

until the 1940s.<br />

Until then it had functioned more<br />

like an elite men’s club catering to<br />

the upper-class demographics <strong>of</strong><br />

the area at that time.<br />

But, by the 1940s all that had<br />

changed. In 1943 the Australian<br />

Labor Party held meetings there<br />

and Red Cross ladies conducted<br />

fund raising activities from the<br />

veranda <strong>of</strong> the building.<br />

During the 1940’s Horace Lindrum,<br />

Australia’s first pr<strong>of</strong>essional snooker<br />

and billiards player was a regular<br />

visitor.<br />

Lindrum (who would go on to win<br />

the world snooker title in 1952) was<br />

featured in a competition to aid the<br />

Australian Comforts Fund in 1944.<br />

An amount <strong>of</strong> £56 was raised.<br />

In 1946 an essay competition held<br />

by the institution was judged by<br />

one-time resident, Supreme Court<br />

Judge and patron <strong>of</strong> the Arts, Rae<br />

Else Mitchell.<br />

Continued page 18<br />

HERITAGE 17<br />

July - August 2011


Council explains LEP processes<br />

AN INFORMATION SHEET on LEP<br />

processes has recently been<br />

released by <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City<br />

Council<br />

The following information provides<br />

some background on previous<br />

council processes, planning<br />

instruments and heritage studies<br />

and why Council is moving towards<br />

a review <strong>of</strong> heritage items under<br />

LEP 1991.<br />

Council currently holds three Local<br />

Environmental Plans which apply to<br />

land throughout the Local<br />

Government Area. They are:<br />

∗<br />

Local Environmental Plan<br />

<strong>No</strong>.4 (LEP 4). This plan<br />

applies to limited sites<br />

throughout the LGA, is the<br />

oldest plan operating in<br />

the LGA and was gazetted<br />

in 1982.<br />

• Local Environmental Plan<br />

1991 (LEP 1991). This<br />

plan applies to outlying<br />

areas, land on the edges<br />

<strong>of</strong> towns and villages and<br />

rural sites throughout the<br />

LGA. It was gazetted in<br />

1991.<br />

Springwood School <strong>of</strong> Arts<br />

Continued from page 17<br />

Over the ensuing years the building<br />

was used by a range <strong>of</strong><br />

organisations like the local historical<br />

society, Boy Scouts & Guides,<br />

dance and musical groups, The Old<br />

Age Pensioners <strong>Association</strong>,<br />

Citizens Recruitment League, Red<br />

Cross and Children’s Library Group<br />

conducted by caricaturist, cartoonist<br />

and artist George Finey.<br />

During its lifetime it provided a<br />

venue for community celebrations,<br />

entertainments as well as charitable<br />

and wartime efforts.<br />

• Local Environmental Plan<br />

2005 (LEP 2005). This<br />

plan applies to the core<br />

villages and towns<br />

throughout the LGA and<br />

was gazetted in 2005.<br />

History on LEP 2005<br />

The development and gazettal <strong>of</strong><br />

LEP 2005 took a number <strong>of</strong> years to<br />

complete and there were a number<br />

<strong>of</strong> draft LEP documents publicly<br />

exhibited and commented upon.<br />

In all the LEP 2005 instrument went<br />

through two exhibition processes,<br />

before it was finally gazetted by the<br />

Department <strong>of</strong> Planning in 2005.<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Draft Local<br />

Environmental Plan 2002 (DLEP<br />

2002) was placed on public<br />

exhibition between October <strong>16</strong> and<br />

December 13, 2002.<br />

Council went through an exhaustive<br />

public review <strong>of</strong> DLEP 2002 in<br />

response to the submissions<br />

received from the community,<br />

internal review <strong>of</strong> the document and<br />

changes in government legislation.<br />

The review <strong>of</strong> the DLEP 2002<br />

resulted in council making a number<br />

In the years following World War 2<br />

the institution, which had never<br />

been strongly supported, faced<br />

competition from new technology<br />

like the advent <strong>of</strong> television.<br />

Nevertheless, the building was used<br />

right up until its demolition in 1969.<br />

The Foundation Stone now graces<br />

the School <strong>of</strong> Arts Town Square.<br />

1<br />

ENDNOTES<br />

The Dictionary <strong>of</strong> Sydney,<br />

www.dictionary<strong>of</strong>sydney.org<br />

2<br />

Nepean Times, 31.8.1901.<br />

3<br />

Booklet in the ownership <strong>of</strong> the<br />

late Ern Lesslie.<br />

4<br />

Nepean Times, 10.5.1913.<br />

Springwood images courtesy <strong>of</strong><br />

Springwood Library and local<br />

studies collection<br />

<strong>of</strong> alterations to to the draft plan.<br />

The substantive bulk <strong>of</strong> the<br />

alterations were minor changes that<br />

did not change the role, operation<br />

and purpose <strong>of</strong> the LEP.<br />

Consequently council adopted<br />

those changes. However, there<br />

were a number <strong>of</strong> alterations which<br />

were more substantive and council<br />

resolved to defer these issues and<br />

seek public comments on these<br />

deferred matters.<br />

A second public exhibition <strong>of</strong><br />

deferred matters was undertaken<br />

between October <strong>16</strong> and<br />

December 13, 2002 and the<br />

exhibition period was extended until<br />

January 17, 2003.<br />

Following exhibition, council<br />

considered submissions and made<br />

appropriate changes to the DLEP<br />

and it was sent to the NSW State<br />

Government for gazettal.<br />

The LEP was named Local<br />

Environmental Plan 2005 and was<br />

gazetted on October 7, 2005.<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> listed site ... Lennox<br />

Bridge, Glenbrook<br />

Springwood School <strong>of</strong> Arts ... a<br />

graceful Federation style building<br />

This article has previously been<br />

published on website <strong>of</strong> Springwood<br />

Historians.www.springwoodhistorians<br />

blogspot.com<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> listed site ... <strong>No</strong>rman<br />

Lindsay Gallery and gardens,<br />

Faulconbridge<br />

Continued page 19<br />

HERITAGE 18<br />

July - August 2011


<strong>Heritage</strong> is only one component <strong>of</strong> an LEP<br />

Continued from page 18<br />

Standard LEP<br />

On March 31, 2006 the NSW<br />

Government gazetted a standard<br />

instrument for preparing new LEPs,<br />

also known as the LEP template.<br />

Local plans across NSW will now<br />

use the same planning language,<br />

making it easier for communities to<br />

understand what is proposed for<br />

their local area.<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Council is<br />

using a staged approach to<br />

achieving a standard LEP<br />

instrument.<br />

The first stage is to review LEP 4<br />

and LEP 1991 and bring these<br />

forward into the LEP 2005<br />

instrument, therefore creating one<br />

LEP for the entire LGA.<br />

The second stage will involve<br />

converting LEP 2005 into the<br />

Standard LEP instrument thereafter.<br />

It is important to understand that<br />

creating an LEP is a lengthy<br />

process and may take a number <strong>of</strong><br />

years to complete.<br />

For example, the expected time<br />

frame for creating one LEP for the<br />

entire LGA is expected to be<br />

completed at the end <strong>of</strong> 2013.<br />

Review <strong>of</strong> LEP 1991<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> is only one component <strong>of</strong><br />

the final comprehensive LEP .<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> listed site ... Chimney<br />

Cottage, Mt Wilson<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> listed site ... Bills horse<br />

trough, Glenbrook<br />

Council has received support from<br />

the Department <strong>of</strong> Planning that<br />

amendments to heritage items be<br />

undertaken to LEP 1991 before it is<br />

amalgamated into LEP 2005.<br />

Therefore council staff are working<br />

towards updating and revising LEP<br />

1991 Schedule 2 – <strong>Heritage</strong> and its<br />

associated mapping before it is<br />

rolled into the revised<br />

comprehensive LEP 2005.<br />

Previous <strong>Heritage</strong> Studies<br />

The first comprehensive heritage<br />

study undertaken in the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> Local Government Area<br />

was a study completed in 1982 by<br />

Cr<strong>of</strong>t and Associates which applied<br />

to numerous sites throughout the<br />

LGA.<br />

This study was later used as a basis<br />

for further heritage work.<br />

Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Ian Jack and Associates<br />

was engaged by council to<br />

undertake various heritage<br />

assessments and reviews to update<br />

heritage listings.<br />

Dr Jim Smith was engaged by<br />

Council in 2010 to undertake a<br />

heritage study on natural areas<br />

covered by LEP 1991.<br />

These include walking tracks,<br />

lookout and other heritage items <strong>of</strong><br />

natural value.<br />

A number <strong>of</strong> the heritage reviews<br />

which have been undertaken over<br />

the years, have not been publicly<br />

exhibited and the information has<br />

not been carried forward into an<br />

LEP instrument.<br />

This is where some confusion may<br />

lie with community members, in that<br />

information from previous<br />

community consultation may not<br />

have resulted in amendments to the<br />

statutory LEP instrument.<br />

Council is now working towards<br />

enacting previous heritage reviews<br />

undertaken and community input<br />

and carrying these forward into a<br />

revised and updated heritage<br />

schedule.<br />

The first stage <strong>of</strong> the process is to<br />

consult with land owners <strong>of</strong><br />

potential heritage items, publicly<br />

exhibit the heritage assessments<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> listed site ... Knapsack<br />

Zig Zag, Lapstone<br />

<strong>Heritage</strong> listed site ... Woodford<br />

Academy<br />

and reviews related to LEP 1991<br />

items and seek council<br />

endorsement <strong>of</strong> these documents.<br />

The second stage <strong>of</strong> the process is<br />

to carry forward the proposed<br />

amendments into an LEP<br />

amendment to LEP 1991.<br />

HAVING<br />

TROUBLE<br />

WITH THE<br />

WEBSITE?<br />

BMACHO’s webmaster, Peter<br />

Hughes has placed the following<br />

message on the BMACHO<br />

website for Calendar <strong>of</strong> Events:<br />

“If the file shows the previous<br />

month click on the refresh<br />

button on your browser or<br />

press F5 on the keyboard”<br />

This message also applies to<br />

archived copies <strong>of</strong> the<br />

HERITAGE newsletter.<br />

The webmaster has also<br />

updated the “Contacts” on the<br />

website and you might have to<br />

use the refresh button or press<br />

F5 on the keyboard to update to<br />

view.<br />

HERITAGE 19<br />

July - August 2011


<strong>Heritage</strong> briefs from around the world<br />

Greeks resist sale <strong>of</strong><br />

heritage sites<br />

A ROYAL PALACE where Prince<br />

Philip was born has been the focus<br />

<strong>of</strong> protests against the sale <strong>of</strong><br />

Greece’s national heritage to pay <strong>of</strong>f<br />

its debts.<br />

The Greek government has plans to<br />

sell state assets in a bid to raise 50<br />

billion Euro.<br />

Mon Repos Palace in Corfu one <strong>of</strong><br />

the largest Greek islands, where<br />

Prince Philip, the Duke <strong>of</strong><br />

Edinburgh, was born 90 years ago,<br />

is one <strong>of</strong> several state-owned<br />

properties to be auctioned.<br />

Prince Philip, Duke <strong>of</strong> Edinburgh<br />

The fear is that places such as this<br />

will be sold <strong>of</strong>f to private foreign<br />

buyers and closed <strong>of</strong>f forever to the<br />

public. Telegraph, London<br />

Fears for prehistoric art<br />

CAVES containing some <strong>of</strong> the<br />

world’s best prehistoric art are to be<br />

opened to the public despite<br />

warnings that human breath will<br />

destroy the 20,000-year-old<br />

paintings.<br />

Scientists have said the decision<br />

carried ‘immeasurable’ risks.<br />

Bligh’s medals up for<br />

auction<br />

TWO GOLD MEDALS (pictured)<br />

awarded to Bounty captain, William<br />

Bligh have been put up for auction<br />

by his descendants.<br />

The first medal<br />

was awarded in<br />

1794 by the Royal<br />

Society in<br />

England for<br />

Bligh’s work<br />

started on the<br />

voyage on the<br />

Bounty, relating to<br />

bread-fruit, which<br />

had been<br />

discovered in Tahiti.<br />

The botanist Sir Joseph Banks was<br />

keen to transplant the crop to the<br />

West Indies as a food source for<br />

slave labourers.<br />

Springwood emblem<br />

controversy<br />

THE MAY-JUNE EDITION <strong>of</strong><br />

HERITAGE , published an article by<br />

Shirley Evans about the design in<br />

1965, by <strong>No</strong>rman Lindsay <strong>of</strong> what<br />

was described as a coat <strong>of</strong> arms.<br />

The Springwood Chamber <strong>of</strong><br />

Commerce decided it was a<br />

propitious time for the town to have<br />

its own coat <strong>of</strong> arms which could<br />

then be permanently displayed in<br />

the new hall.<br />

The second is the Naval Gold<br />

Medal 1795 awarded to ship’s<br />

captains.<br />

Bligh won his for his role at the<br />

Battle <strong>of</strong> Camperdown, a major<br />

naval action on October 11, 1797<br />

between the Royal Navy and the<br />

Dutch Navy in which the British<br />

captured 11 Dutch ships without<br />

loss <strong>of</strong> any <strong>of</strong> their own. The Sydney<br />

Morning Herald<br />

meanings; they are not<br />

interchangeable.<br />

The crest is the top part (<strong>of</strong>ten<br />

animal, piece <strong>of</strong> armour or<br />

sword) on or <strong>of</strong> a coat <strong>of</strong> arms<br />

The vast Altamira caves, discovered<br />

in 1879 in the Cantabria region <strong>of</strong><br />

Spain have been called the Sistine<br />

Chapel <strong>of</strong> Paleolithic art.<br />

They are covered in paintings <strong>of</strong><br />

European bison, bulls and other<br />

animals.<br />

The site is a UNESCO declared<br />

World <strong>Heritage</strong> Site. Telegraph,<br />

London<br />

However, it could not be regarded<br />

as a genuine coat <strong>of</strong> arms, the right<br />

for which needed to be granted by<br />

the Royal College <strong>of</strong> Arms in<br />

London.<br />

The <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Council<br />

already had a coat <strong>of</strong> arms so it was<br />

decided to call it the Springwood<br />

emblem or crest.<br />

It also happened to be the 150th<br />

anniversary <strong>of</strong> the naming <strong>of</strong><br />

Springwood by Governor Lachlan<br />

Macquarie<br />

A reader and contributor to this<br />

newsletter, Dr Peter Stanbury OAM<br />

has correctly pointed out that coat<br />

<strong>of</strong> arms and crest has quite specific<br />

The blazon <strong>of</strong> arms for the above<br />

coat <strong>of</strong> arms would be as follows:<br />

Arms: “Argent, a saltire azure,<br />

cantoned with four markings <strong>of</strong><br />

ermine sable.” (Silver or white<br />

shield with a blue saltire or ‘X’ and<br />

in four-equidistant places the<br />

marking <strong>of</strong> the ermine ‘fur’ in black.)<br />

Crest: “A lion’s head erased azure<br />

langued gules.” (A lion’s head cut<br />

<strong>of</strong>f at the neck with a flourish, in<br />

blue with a red tongue.)<br />

HERITAGE 20<br />

July - August 2011<br />

.


The Domesday Book<br />

THE DOMESDAY BOOK was<br />

commissioned in December 1085<br />

by William the Conqueror, who<br />

invaded England in 1066.<br />

The first draft was completed in<br />

August 1086 and contained records<br />

for 13,418 settlements in the<br />

English counties south <strong>of</strong> the rivers<br />

Ribble and Tees (the border with<br />

Scotland at the time).<br />

The original Domesday Book has<br />

survived over 900 years <strong>of</strong> English<br />

history and is currently housed in a<br />

specially made chest at The<br />

National Archives in Kew, London 1.<br />

“…While spending the Christmas<br />

<strong>of</strong> 1085 in Gloucester William had<br />

deep speech with his counsellors<br />

and sent men all over England to<br />

each shire to find out what or how<br />

much each landholder had in land<br />

and livestock, and what it was<br />

worth,” according to the Anglo-<br />

Saxon Chronicle.<br />

BLUE MOUNTAINS ASSOCIATION OF CULTURAL<br />

HERITAGE ORGANISATIONS INC.<br />

REGISTERED OFFICE 14 Bunnal Ave, Winmalee 2777<br />

E-mail: jank@eftel.com.au or bmacho.heritage@gmail.com<br />

Website: www.bluemountains.heritage.com<br />

THE ORGANISATION <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Association</strong> <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Cultural</strong> Organisations Inc. (BMACHO) was established<br />

in April 2006 following a unanimous response to a<br />

proposal from Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Barrie Reynolds at the 2004<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Local History Conference which sought<br />

from <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Council the creation <strong>of</strong> a<br />

cultural heritage strategy for the city.<br />

BMACHO in its constitution uses the definition: “<strong>Cultural</strong><br />

heritage is all aspects <strong>of</strong> life <strong>of</strong> the peoples <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> which was later changed to cover Lithgow and<br />

the villages along the Bell’s Line <strong>of</strong> Roads. It therefore<br />

involves the recording, preserving and interpreting <strong>of</strong><br />

information in whatever form: documents, objects,<br />

recorded memories as well as buildings and sites.”<br />

The objectives <strong>of</strong> the organisation are:<br />

i. To raise public consciousness <strong>of</strong><br />

the value <strong>of</strong> cultural heritage.<br />

ii. To encourage and assist cultural<br />

heritage activities <strong>of</strong> member organisations.<br />

iii. To initiate and support cultural<br />

heritage activities not already covered by<br />

member organisations.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the aims <strong>of</strong> BMACHO is to bring the various<br />

bodies into closer contact, to encourage them to work<br />

more closely together and to provide a combined voice<br />

on matters <strong>of</strong> importance within the heritage sector.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the main purposes <strong>of</strong> the<br />

survey was to determine who held<br />

what and what taxes had been<br />

liable under Edward the Confessor;<br />

the judgment <strong>of</strong> the Domesday<br />

assessors was final—whatever the<br />

book said about who held the<br />

material wealth or what it was worth,<br />

was the law, and there was no<br />

appeal.<br />

It was written in Latin, although<br />

there were some vernacular words<br />

inserted for native terms with no<br />

previous Latin equivalent, and the<br />

text was highly abbreviated.<br />

Richard FitzNigel, writing around<br />

the year 1179, stated that the book<br />

was known by the English as<br />

‘Domesday’, that is the Day <strong>of</strong><br />

Judgement “for as the sentence <strong>of</strong><br />

that strict and terrible last account<br />

cannot be evaded by any skilful<br />

subterfuge, so when this book is<br />

appealed to ... its sentence cannot<br />

be put, quashed or set aside with<br />

impunity.<br />

Domesday Book and chest at the<br />

National Archives, Kew, London<br />

That is why we have called the book<br />

‘the Book <strong>of</strong> Judgement’ ... because<br />

its decisions, like those <strong>of</strong> the Last<br />

Judgement, are unalterable.”<br />

In August 2006 a complete online<br />

version <strong>of</strong> Domesday Book was<br />

made available for the first time by<br />

the United Kingdom’s National<br />

Archives 2 .<br />

References<br />

1.<br />

www.domesdaybook.co.uk/<br />

2<br />

.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/<br />

Domesday_Book<br />

MEMBERSHIP The following organisations are members <strong>of</strong><br />

BMACHO: <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Botanic Garden, Mount Tomah,<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> City Library, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> <strong>Cultural</strong> <strong>Heritage</strong><br />

Centre, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society Inc., <strong>Blue</strong><br />

<strong>Mountains</strong> Family History Society Inc., <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong><br />

Tourism Limited, <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> World <strong>Heritage</strong> Institute,<br />

Cudgegong Museums Group Inc., Everglades Historic House<br />

& Gardens, Friends <strong>of</strong> <strong>No</strong>rman Lindsay Gallery, Glenbrook &<br />

District Historical Society Inc., Kurrajong-Comleroy Historical<br />

Society Inc, Lilianfels <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Resort, Lithgow and<br />

District Family History Society Inc., Lithgow Mining Museum<br />

Inc., Lithgow Regional Library – Local Studies, Lithgow Small<br />

Arms Factory Museum Inc, Mid-<strong>Mountains</strong> Historical Society<br />

Inc, Mid Western Regional Council Library, Mt Victoria and<br />

District Historical Society Inc., Mt Wilson and Mt Irvine History<br />

Society Inc. (including Turkish Bath Museum), Mudgee<br />

Historical Society Inc., Mudgee Regional Library, National<br />

Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia (NSW) - <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Branch (including<br />

Woodford Academy), National Trust <strong>of</strong> Australia (NSW) -<br />

Lithgow Branch, Scenic World – <strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> Limited,<br />

Springwood & District Historical Society Inc., Springwood<br />

Historians Inc., Transport Signal and Communication Museum<br />

Inc., The Darnell Collection Pty Ltd, Valley Heights<br />

Locomotive Depot and Museum, Zig Zag Railway Co-op Ltd.<br />

The following are individual members: Ray Christison,<br />

Associate Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Ian Jack, Joan Kent, John Leary OAM,<br />

John Low, Ian Milliss, Pr<strong>of</strong>essor Barrie Reynolds, and Dr Peter<br />

Stanbury OAM.<br />

COMMITTEE The committee for 2011-12 is: Pamela Smith<br />

(president), Ian Jack (vice president), Jan Koperberg<br />

(secretary), Joan Kent (treasurer), Jean Arthur, Doug<br />

Knowles, John Leary, Dick Morony (public <strong>of</strong>ficer), Kathie<br />

McMahon-<strong>No</strong>lf, Barrie Reynolds and Peter Stanbury.<br />

HERITAGE BMACHO’s <strong>of</strong>ficial newsletter is edited by<br />

John Leary, OAM.<br />

<strong>Blue</strong> <strong>Mountains</strong> History Journal is edited by<br />

Dr Peter Rickwood.<br />

HONORARY AUDITOR: Sue McMahon, B Comm CPA.<br />

AFFILIATIONS BMACHO is a member <strong>of</strong> the Royal<br />

Australian Historical Society Inc.<br />

HERITAGE 21<br />

July - August 2011

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