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DANZMANN: I think it is

DANZMANN: I think it is self-evident. MOSCATO: Thank you, Professor Danzmann. Your Witness, Ms. Veritas. ASSUMPTA VERITAS (Attorney for the Plaintiffs): Professor Danzmann, let us stipulate that LIGO calibration is a highly complex and highly specialized area of science and technology. Let us leave that aside altogether. Could you, in very simple terms, describe for the jury what calibration is? DANZMANN: Certainly. I will be happy to. Consider a situation familiar to all of us. You have been to the doctor’s office and they put you on that stand which measures your height. They lower the sliding angle until it touches your head, and read off the height from the scale on the stand there. Now, how was that scale marked by the manufacturer of the instrument? What they did is build the stand that is now blank – without any markings. So they take an eight-foot length standard, say. This standard has been measured elsewhere to be exactly eight feet long. The manufacturer places this on his stand and makes a mark for eight foot length. Now he can put the standard away and subdivide that length and place marks every foot, every inch, every half-inch etc. This is calibration. VERITAS: Thank you. And now, staying with your medical analogy, suppose a surgeon has taken out a group of gallstones and needs to measure them. How would he do that? DANZMANN: I don’t know what they actually use, but a pair of Vernier calipers would do very well. It can measure sizes in the millimeter range and below. VERITAS: What length standard would be used in calibrating that instrument? Would the eight-foot standard do? DANZMANN: No. Here they have to use millimeter length standard. VERITAS: Good. Now back to LIGO. Is it true that in the actual situation of detecting a gravitational wave, the LIGO mirror moves to, or is displaced by, the extent of one tenthousandth of a proton diameter? DANZMANN: Yes. VERITAS: And your highly complex LIGO calibration procedure – does it displace the mirror in this range? DANZMANN: No. We move the mirror by a distance that is orders of magnitude larger. 68

VERITAS: So, Professor Danzmann, by what you have explained yourself with regard to length standards, the LIGO instrument was never calibrated for measuring gravitational wave. Do you agree? DANZMANN: No. You have oversimplified the issue. VERITAS: What is there to oversimplify? Either LIGO was calibrated using a displacement standard near ten-thousandth of a proton diameter or it was calibrated using a displacement standard orders of magnitude larger. Which one is it? DANZMANN: It is the larger, but it works for the smaller case also. How it works is much too complicated to describe here. VERITAS: Have you described the justification for this unheard-of orders-of-magnitude extrapolation in any public document? DANZMANN: Well, not directly. VERITAS: Are you saying that this is so complex that trained scientists like Professor Engelhardt who worked at a Max Planck Institute or Dr. De who holds measurement and instrumentation patents cannot understand? Is this the “You do not understand” response for which LIGO has become so famous? DANZMANN: Well, clearly the Nobel evaluators could understand; and clearly the entire physics establishment could understand. So we are talking about a couple of people disagreeing with a total scientific consensus. VERITAS: So now we are moving to the Democracy argument. Is that the ultimate arbiter of science? DANZMANN: Scientific consensus has always been the way science progresses. VERITAS: For the calibration that you did do, have you presented side-by-side comparison of the mirror displacement trace vs your instrument readout trace. If not, why not? DANZMANN: We have not. And the answer is too complicated. VERITAS: Professor Danzmann, I submit to you that – all other faults aside – LIGO was never calibrated for detection of gravitational wave. What calibration you have done is faulty. I submit to you that Professor Engelhardt and Dr. De are the only people on record as having actually understood the LIGO calibration science. I submit to you that all along you have been trying to snow the critics with this complication argument. I submit to you that your vaunted 69

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