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EACVI Echocardiography Textbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Textbook of Echocardiography 2nd edition

Index Tables, figures,

Index Tables, figures, and boxes are indicated by an italic t, f, and b following the page number. A a’ 33 A-lines 111 A-mode imaging 7 A velocity 149–50, 203 abdominal aortic aneurysm 611–13 abscess 345t, 347–8 accessory beams 5 accreditation 77, 622–3 laboratory 623, 630–6 accuracy 639–40 acoustic impedance 4 acute aortic syndrome 463–9 acute cardiac care 531–40 acute coronary syndromes 216–25 acute care 532 complications 220–3 infarct expansion 223–4 types 217–18 acute dyspnoea 532–4 acute myocardial infarction, see myocardial infarction acute myocarditis 532 acute respiratory distress syndrome 113 acute rheumatic carditis 497 adenosine stress echocardiography 91, 95 adult congenital heart disease 507–27 anomalous pulmonary venous return 514–15 aortic stenosis 235, 322, 515–16 atrial septal defect 86, 507–9, 569–70 atrioventricular septal defects 512–13 coarctation of the aorta 516–17 common arterial trunk 523–5 complex disease 518–27 congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries 522–3 Ebstein’s anomaly 523 obstructive lesions 515–17 persistent ductus arteriosus 32, 513–14 pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect 520–1 right ventricular outflow tract obstruction 313, 517 sequential segmental analysis 518–19 shunt lesions 32, 507–15 subaortic stenosis 321–2, 515–16 tetralogy of Fallot 519–20 transposition of the great arteries 521–2 truncus arteriosus 523–5 univentricular heart 525–7 ventricular septal defect 32, 254–5, 510–12, 520–1, 571 Agatston score 242t AIDS 493 ALCAPA 228 alcohol septal ablation 366 aliasing 28 amyloidosis 363–4, 387, 388, 482–3 anaemia 494 aneurysm abdominal aorta 611–13 coronary 229 interatrial septum 457 left ventricle 221–2 popliteal artery 619 sinus of Valsalva 463 thoracic aorta 462–3, 586 angina, unstable 218 angiosarcomas 456 ankle–brachial index 615–16 ankylosing spondylitis 487–8, 499 anomalous pulmonary venous return 514–15 anthracyclines 553t, 553–4 antiphospholipid syndrome 485, 498–9 aorta 459–69 abdominal aortic aneurysm 611–13 acute aortic syndrome 463–9 age-related differences 460 aortic stenosis 245 atherosclerosis 461–2, 586 biophysics 460–1 coarctation 516–17 dimensions 460 dissection 255, 463–6, 586 distensibility 460 duplex ultrasound 611–13 echocardiography 459 intimal tears 466 intramural haematoma 466–7 normal 459–60 penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer 467–8 perioperative echocardiography 586 pulse wave velocity 460–1 syphilitic aortitis 491 thoracic aortic aneurysm 462–3, 586 trauma 469, 537–8, 586 true lumen identification 466 ulcer-like projections 468 wall compliance 460 aortic dissection 255, 463–6, 586 aortic inflow 261 aortic jet diameter 257 velocities 236–9, 245 aortic pressure gradients 236–9 aortic regurgitation 251–65 acute 263, 536–7 acute aortic syndrome 468 aetiology 252–5 aortic dissection 255 aortic stenosis and 245, 255, 318–19 calcific 253 degenerative 253 diagnosis 251–2 drug-induced 255 follow-up 264–5 functional classification 263, 264f, 264t infective endocarditis 255 inflammatory 255 left ventricle 255 mild 257t mitral regurgitation and 320 mitral stenosis and 321 moderate 257t perioperative echocardiography 585–6 quantification of severity 256–62 recording recommendations 258t rheumatic 253 severe 257t stress echocardiography 262–3 suitability for repair 263–4 three-dimensional echocardiography 262 timing of surgery 264–5 transoesophageal echocardiography 262 ventricular septal defect 254–5 aortic root M-mode echocardiography 23 pathology 232–3 aortic sclerosis 240, 240t, 245

644 index aortic stenosis 231–2, 234–48 acute decompensation 537 aetiology 234–5 aortic regurgitation and 245, 255, 318–19 ascending aorta 245 atrial fibrillation 238 calcific 232, 235, 245–6 congenital 235, 322, 515–16 definition of severity 240–4 follow-up 248 high-gradient 244 left ventricular response 244–5, 246–7 low-flow–low-gradient with preserved LV function 242, 244 low-flow–low-gradient with reduced LV function 241–2, 244 low-gradient 244 mild 240, 240t mitral regurgitation and 245, 319–20 mitral stenosis and 279, 320 moderate 240t, 241 morphology 234 normal flow–low-gradient 242 paradoxical low-flow–low-gradient with preserved LV function 242 perioperative echocardiography 585 progression 244 pseudosevere 241 pulmonary artery pressure 245 quantification of severity 235–40 rheumatic 232, 235 risk stratification 245–8 severe 240t, 241, 242–4 stress echocardiography 108, 241, 246 subvalvular 234, 255 supravalvular 234, 322, 516 timing of valve replacement 245–8 tricuspid regurgitation and 245 true severe 241 valvular 234, 515 aortic valve anatomy 231 area 29, 239–40 bicuspid 235, 254, 515 incompetence 232–3 M-mode echocardiography 23 pathology 231–3 perioperative echocardiography 585–6 replacement valves 327–33 aortic views 55 aorto-iliac stenosis/occlusion 617 apical five-chamber view 20 apical four-chamber view 20, 405 apical long-axis view 20–1 apical three-chamber view 20–1 apical two-chamber view 20 apical views 19–21 appetite suppressants 494 ARCAPA 228 area–length method 133–4, 164 arrhythmias 537, 542–9 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia 389–92, 410–11 artefacts 5, 8, 10, 11f, 12f, 13f, 34, 76–7 arterial switch 521, 522 arteritis 489–90, 500, 610, 613, 615, 618 asymmetrical septal hypertrophy 356–7 atherosclerosis aorta 461–2, 586 carotid 606–10 lower extremities 616–17 renal arteries 614 athlete’s heart 187, 188, 364, 473–5 atrial ejection force 165 atrial electromechanical delay 167 atrial fibrillation 542–8 aortic stenosis 238 cardioversion 546 catheter ablation 86–7, 546–7 left atrial thrombus 445, 545 left ventricular diastolic function 159 non-valvular 542 pulmonary vein ablation 546–7 valvular 542 atrial fraction 165 atrial natriuretic peptide 164 atrial septal defect 507–9 closure 86, 569–70 atrial switch 521 atrioventricular delay 200 atrioventricular septal defects 512–13 attenuation 4 attenuation artefacts 76–7 attenuation coefficient 4 autoimmune disease 486–8, 498–9 B B-lines 111 B-mode imaging 7 backscatter 4 baffle obstruction 521–2 beamforming 60 parallel receive 62–3 Becker muscular dystrophy 402 Behçet’s disease 500, 613 Bernoulli equation 30 bicuspid aortic valve 235, 254, 515 biomarkers 556 biplane (Simpson) method 134, 164, 193, 413 biventricular connections 519 Blalock–Taussig shunt 520 blooming 77 body surface area 177 brachiocephalic trunk stenosis/occlusion 610 Braunwald classification 218t Buerger’s disease 618 bulbo-ventricularis foramen 525 bull’s eye plot 144, 219f C calcific aortic valve disease 232, 235, 245–6, 253 calcium score 242 cancer therapy 495–6, 504, 552–7, 611 carcinoid disease 479–80, 500 cardiac arrest 532 cardiac arrhythmias 537, 542–9 cardiac catheterization 412 cardiac magnetic resonance 342, 410–11, 474 cardiac murmurs 536–7 cardiac oncology 552–7 cardiac output 135 cardiac resynchronization therapy 198–200, 206 cardiac tamponade 422–4, 535 cardiac timing interval 155–6 cardiac transplantation 431–8 acute allograft rejection 434–5 cardiac allograft vasculopathy 435–6 follow-up 436–8 hyperacute allograft rejection 431–2 immediate postoperative period 431–2 isolated right ventricular failure 432 monitoring 436–8 normal features of transplanted heart 432–4 pericardial effusion 432 perioperative echocardiography 431, 588–9 primary graft failure 432 right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy 436 cardiac troponins 556 cardiac tumours 451–8 metastatic 456–7 primary benign 451–6 primary malignant 456 cardiogenic shock 535–6 cardiomyopathy arrhythmogenic right ventricular 389–92, 410–11 eosinophilic 386, 388, 411–12, 491 familial 401–2 peripartum 477–8 Takotsubo 220, 397–9 see also dilated cardiomyopathy; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; restrictive cardiomyopathy cardiotoxicity 552–6 cardioversion 546 Carney complex 451 carotidodynia 611 CARPA 76 Carpentier classification (valvular disease) 263, 264f, 282, 283f, 303 Carpentier nomenclature (mitral valve) 267, 270f catheter ablation 86–7, 546–7 catheter-related femoral arteriovenous fistula 619 catheter-related femoral artery pseudoaneurysm 619 cavitation 14 cavo-pulmonary connection 526 certification 621–5 Chagas disease 494–5 chemotherapy 495–6, 504, 552–7 chest pain 216, 217t, 532 Chiari network 457 chordae tendineae 268 chronic kidney disease 501 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 425, 505 Churg–Strauss syndrome 491–2, 500 cirrhosis 506 coarctation of the aorta 516–17 colour flow mapping 28–9 aortic regurgitation 256–9 mitral regurgitation 285–90 tricuspid regurgitation 307–9 vascular imaging 603 colour tissue Doppler echocardiography 32 common arterial trunk 523–5 common carotid artery coiling 611 stenosis/occlusion 609 competence 47–8, 67, 621–5 complement activation-related pseudo-allergy (CARPA) 76 compliance 152 computed tomography 342 computerized reports 118–19 congenital heart disease, see adult congenital heart disease congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries 522–3

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