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<strong>September</strong> | <strong>2019</strong><br />

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“The mind<br />

keep with<br />

deep wisdom<br />

& great<br />

compassion<br />

utmost joy”….<br />

- Most Venerable<br />

Bhikkhuni Shih<br />

Ming Dao –<br />

2 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 3

"Possesses the<br />

root of wisdom"….<br />

Meditation<br />

for awakening<br />

path….<br />

First, fulfill the restraint of sensefaculties<br />

(indriya-saṃvara-sīla) by<br />

exercising control over the sense<br />

organs. Develop the first jhana<br />

(a stage of meditative absorption) by<br />

practicing Ānāpānasati” (mindfulness of<br />

breathing) so as to abandon restlessness<br />

(uddhacca) and dullness(thina-middha).<br />

Meanwhile, develop contemplation<br />

on the unpleasant (asubhānupassin),<br />

loving-kindness (mettā-saññā), the six<br />

recollections (cha anussatiṭṭhānāni)<br />

and the six things conducive to true<br />

knowledge (cha vijjābhāgiyā dhammā).<br />

Cultivate the enlightenment factor<br />

of mindfulness (satisambojjhaṅgo):<br />

discerning, as it actually is, the Twelve<br />

Factors of Relevant Influencing(Paṭiccasamuppāda)<br />

is the core meditation<br />

method, which is alternatively expounded<br />

with the other nine meditation methods,<br />

namely, contemplating the arising and<br />

cessation of the Four Foundation of<br />

Mindfulness (satipaṭṭhāna), of the Five<br />

abstruseness (aggregates), of Six Bases for<br />

Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ),<br />

of the World (loka), of the body in Being<br />

(sakkāya), of the four kinds of Nutriment<br />

President of Buddha's<br />

Sangha Association, The<br />

Chief Monk of Original<br />

Buddhism Sambodhi<br />

Sangha Society in Taiwan,<br />

Saddhamma Cultural<br />

Centre & Holy Buddha<br />

Monastery, Jiaohe City,<br />

China<br />

Most Venerable Bhikkhu<br />

Vūpasama Maha Thera<br />

China<br />

(cattārome āhārā), of the base of power<br />

endowed with concentration founded<br />

on discrimination and the fabrications<br />

of exertion (vīriyasāsamādhippadhāna<br />

saṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ),<br />

of the aging-death, and lastly<br />

contemplating the truth of suffering, the<br />

arising and cessation of suffering during<br />

the first round of the four noble truths.<br />

Practice the most crucial parts of the<br />

contemplation of Relevant Influencing --<br />

the 'Seven stages of insight meditation',<br />

'The Forty Four Contemplation<br />

methods', and the 'Ninety-Two Arising<br />

Manifestation' which leads to clarity that<br />

the five abstruseness (aggregates) are<br />

the phenomena of Relevant Influencing<br />

(paṭicca-samuppanna-dhamma), and<br />

therefore phenomenon of Relevant<br />

Influencing (paṭicca-samuppannadhamma)<br />

is impermanent (anicca),<br />

non-ego (anattā) and is not of mine,<br />

and consequently learn that from birth<br />

comes suffering (dukkha).<br />

After seeing clearly that the<br />

five abstruseness (aggregates) are<br />

phenomena of relevant influencing<br />

(paṭicca-samuppanna-dhamma), one<br />

realizes that craving is a trouble-maker<br />

which leads to suffering, dissipation<br />

of craving is the path to cessation of<br />

suffering. The right view that 'with<br />

the dissipation of craving for the five<br />

abstruseness (aggregates) comes the<br />

cessation of suffering' is obtained. Thus,<br />

one sees, as it actually is, how 'the five<br />

abstruseness (aggregates) relevantly<br />

arise and annihilate'; or sees, as it<br />

actually is, the 'arising and cessation<br />

of the Twelve Factors of Relevant<br />

Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)', as<br />

expounded by the Buddha: 'from the<br />

attainment of the knowledge of relevant<br />

influencing (dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇaṃ) comes<br />

the knowledge of Nibbāna', and possess<br />

the seventy seven types of knowledge;<br />

thus dispel ignorance, ego, and doubt;<br />

and consequently acquire indestructible<br />

confidence in Buddha, Dhamma and<br />

Saṅgha; falling no more into the three<br />

evil realms, thus possesses the wisdom<br />

for liberation.<br />

Practice the 'enlightenment factor<br />

of discrimination of Dhamma' (Dhamma<br />

vicaya) as follows: By seeing, as it actually<br />

is, how 'the five abstruseness (aggregates)<br />

relevantly arise and annihilate'; one thus<br />

clearly sees, as it actually is, the path<br />

leading to annihilation of birth, death<br />

and suffering—the Eight-fold Path. This<br />

is also known as 'seeing the noble path<br />

as it actually is', and possessing the forty<br />

four types of knowledge. Thus, one has<br />

clarity of the first four aspects of the first<br />

round of the four noble truths, dissipates<br />

the views of distorted grasp of rules and<br />

vows, and possesses the root of wisdom<br />

and the root of faith, and is definitely<br />

ledto samyak-sambodhi.<br />

Practice the 'enlightenment factor<br />

of diligence (viriya) as follows Having<br />

possessed the clarity as a result of the<br />

first round with the first four aspects of<br />

the four noble truths, then by dwelling in<br />

the right mindfulness and wisdom, one<br />

should cultivate diligently the Six Bases<br />

for Contact(channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ)<br />

(i.e. the five abstruseness[aggregates])<br />

in accordance with dispassion, aversion,<br />

and cessation that lead to liberation,<br />

sequentially practice the holy, can<br />

kerless (Anāsavā) and supra-mundane<br />

Eight-fold path, which is also known<br />

as 'the unexcelled development of the<br />

faculties in the discipline of a noble one.<br />

Thus, apply the root of wisdom to the<br />

development of the root of diligence,<br />

the root of mindfulness and the root of<br />

concentration respectively, one practices<br />

in such a way is destined for cessation<br />

of suffering, liberation, and samyaksambodhi.<br />

In accordance with the sequence of<br />

the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta<br />

Bojjhaṅgā), instructions on 'the fourteen<br />

essential methods on the development<br />

of wisdom and the cessation of craving<br />

will be given. Practice the 'enlightenment<br />

factors of Joy (pīti), Tranquility<br />

(Passaddhi) and Concentration<br />

(Samādhi) as follows: By dwelling in<br />

the right mindfulness and wisdom,<br />

cultivating diligently the Six Bases for<br />

Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ)<br />

for dispelling craving and the bond of the<br />

five abstruseness[aggregates]), one who<br />

practices as such will possess sympathetic<br />

joy from superior renunciation<br />

(enlightenment factors of Joy).<br />

Sympathetic joy gives rise to tranquility<br />

of body and mind (enlightenment factors<br />

of Tranquility); which subsequently leads<br />

to the disengagement from joy-abiding,<br />

thus, enabling pure one-pointedness<br />

concentration (enlightenment factors of<br />

Concentration).<br />

Thus, in accordance with clear<br />

vision as the result of the first round<br />

of the four noble truths, sequentially<br />

practice fulfilling the supra-mundane<br />

Eight-fold path, which consequently leads<br />

to the attainment of right concentration,<br />

detachment from craving and hatred,<br />

the disconnection from the nutriment<br />

of consciousness(viññāṇāhāro),<br />

and liberation. By so achieving, one<br />

completes the second round with the<br />

four aspects of the four noble truths,<br />

and possesses the root of exertion, the<br />

root of mindfulness and the root of<br />

concentration.<br />

Practice 'the enlightenment factor<br />

of equanimity' as follows: Upon the<br />

attainment of right concentration, one<br />

sequential attains the Five Roots, namely,<br />

the root of wisdom, the root of faith, the<br />

root of exertion, the root of mindfulness,<br />

and the root of concentration. Thus,<br />

dissipation of ignorance, craving, and<br />

hatred, the attainment of liberation<br />

with thorough knowledge and vision<br />

of liberation (vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti)<br />

normally proclaimed as 'Destroyed is<br />

birth, the holy life has been lived, what<br />

has to be done is done, there's no more<br />

this state of being 'is achieved. This is the<br />

completion of the third round with the<br />

four aspects of the four noble truths.<br />

Practicing the seven enlightenment<br />

factors in such a way is the integrated<br />

manifestation of all the noble teachings<br />

of Buddha Sākyamuni of his lifetime.<br />

By so completing the practice of the<br />

'seven factors of enlightenment', the<br />

three rounds with twelve aspects of the<br />

Four Noble Truths is so achieved, thus<br />

possesses enlightenment, dispassion,<br />

the Four Immeasurable Attitudes (viz.<br />

loving-kindness, compassion, joy and<br />

equanimity), liberation (Mokkha), and<br />

Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi. Utmost<br />

applications of the Four Noble Truths:<br />

the most important teachings will be<br />

given to the disciples by the master<br />

verbally.<br />

Original Buddhism Society - The<br />

Sambodhi Saṅgha adheres to the Suttas<br />

collected by the First <strong>Buddhist</strong> Council.<br />

It follows the fundamental practice of<br />

the Noble Saṅgha before the <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

schism, and continues transmitting<br />

the Suttas from the ancient tradition<br />

of Ānanda lineage and Upāli lineage.<br />

The Saṅgha abides by the Vinaya and<br />

reinstates an orthodox Saṅgha that<br />

follows the Sutta and Vinaya. The Saṅgha<br />

establishes Original Buddhism Societies<br />

in Taiwan, USA, Australia and Malaysia<br />

to guide the people to rediscover the<br />

Buddha’s path. The societies promote<br />

and transmit the true teaching of the<br />

Buddha in accordance with Causation<br />

and Four Noble Truths. It is Humanistic<br />

Buddhism that is applicable to both the<br />

mundane and supra-mundane worlds.<br />

The objectives of Original Buddhism<br />

Society are to rediscover the Buddha's<br />

original teachings; to support a Saṅgha<br />

that abides by the Buddha’s original<br />

teaching and Vinaya; to adhere to the<br />

Sutta and Vinaya, respect the Saṅgha<br />

and unite lay devotees, uphold equal<br />

rights in gender and segregate religion<br />

from politics.<br />

Sambodhi Sangha - Sambodhi<br />

Sangha's practice and cultivation is<br />

based on the seven Saṃyuttas common<br />

to the Southern lineage Theravada's<br />

Saṃyutta Nikāya and the Northern<br />

lineage's Saṃyukta-Āgama. The seven<br />

Saṃyuttas are the earliest recorded<br />

teachings of the Buddha from the first<br />

council. The practice of Sambodhi<br />

Sangha emphasizes the right view of<br />

“condition arising” and the insight into<br />

the body and mind, putting into practice<br />

the liberation from greed. The monks<br />

and nuns’ communities of Sambodhi<br />

Sangha practice by meditate throughout<br />

the year. The monks and nuns do not<br />

accept, accumulate or use money, nor<br />

are there any attendants who manage<br />

money on their behalf. Sambodhi Sangha<br />

propagates the original teachings of the<br />

Buddha in Taiwan as well as to other<br />

places around the world all year round,<br />

teaching the practice of Seven Factors of<br />

Enlightenment, and to attain in stages the<br />

three rounds and twelve aspects of the<br />

Four Noble Truths which put Buddha's<br />

teaching into real-life application, solving<br />

daily practical problems and leading<br />

towards a bright and successful life.<br />

4 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 5

The Essence<br />

of Zen<br />

Meditation….<br />

Zen is simply your Ordinary Mind.<br />

Keeping nothing in your mind, you can<br />

then be as productive and creative as you<br />

could be! Zen is life itself. If you want to<br />

make your life blossom and open up, you<br />

need to do Zazen. Zen is actually the full<br />

blossoming of your own beautiful life.<br />

Zen gives you a wonderful perspective on<br />

the panorama of Life. Zen's essence itself<br />

is primordially perfect and complete.<br />

You can't find any faults or<br />

imperfections in it. And your life is of<br />

course very rare, wonderful and utterly<br />

precious. You should seize and savor<br />

this precious human life to seek for the<br />

(Chan Master Hsin Tao)<br />

Founder of Museum<br />

of World religion, Ling<br />

Jiou Mountain <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Society, Museum of World<br />

Religions (MWR), and the<br />

Global Family for Love and<br />

Peace (GFLP)<br />

Most Venerable Dharma<br />

Master Hisn Tao<br />

Taiwan<br />

Ultimate Wisdom of Zen. When you<br />

attain Zen, you can control your life and<br />

death. Unlike the fleeting and eroded<br />

sand and soil, you can now master your<br />

mind and your life. I am promoting<br />

Zen in overseas countries nowadays.<br />

Many westerners are very interested<br />

in Zen meditation. I introduced them a<br />

special type of Zen practice that I called<br />

"Peace Zen" - which has a very clear and<br />

systematic four steps in its practice.<br />

The preliminaries and the results<br />

of this Peace Zen are very clear and<br />

productive, and they can practice it<br />

with unwavering faith and one-pointed<br />

diligence. This systematic approach<br />

enables them to understand, practice<br />

and realize the essence of Zen in a<br />

simpler and more humanistic way.<br />

Ultimately speaking, Chinese Zen (Chan)<br />

has no gradual steps. Either you get it or<br />

not - that's all. There's no way or method<br />

no practice Zen. Since Zen has no specific<br />

steps and gradual methods, it can use<br />

All kinds of methods and approaches.<br />

Its exclusiveness lies within its flexibility<br />

and inclusiveness. Zen is forever lively,<br />

flowing and dynamic.<br />

But no understand the essence of<br />

Zen, you must have a very sharp and<br />

receptive mind. If you are slow and<br />

dumb, then you will need more time and<br />

efforts in getting to realize the essence<br />

of Zen. So, from my own practical<br />

experience, I've now designed Peace Zen<br />

in a very systematic and approachable<br />

way. If you enter into the practice of<br />

Zen in this way, whether you are sharp<br />

or not, you can be assured that you<br />

would realize its essence very easily and<br />

systematically. Actually, the essence of<br />

Zen is within everyone's mind. It's in you<br />

as well, just that you didn't know how to<br />

recognize it. It will be such a waste if you<br />

miss this treasure of Mind within your<br />

own self! You see, our mind is really very<br />

wonderful and amazing.<br />

You must utilize the energy and<br />

function of your meditation to look at<br />

your own mind. By doing meditation,<br />

you're introduced to your own mind. You<br />

are given a chance to understand your<br />

mind so that you could get along with it.<br />

By and by, by knowing your own mind's<br />

characters and nature, you can then use<br />

this very mind to practice the Dharma and<br />

to gain Enlightenment. The Great Buddha<br />

has the same mind as ours as well. He had<br />

nothing besides his own Enlightened and<br />

Pure mind. When the Buddha attained<br />

supreme Enlightenment, all phenomena<br />

were transformed into the world of<br />

Avatamsaka (Flower Adornment).<br />

But what is this Avatamsaka<br />

World? The world of Avatamsaka is<br />

nothing but our wonderful, glorious<br />

and splendid mind. So in order to attain<br />

Enlightenment, we must begin with<br />

knowing and understanding our own<br />

mind. Zen is mind and mind is Zen. From<br />

the practice of Zen, you will find your<br />

True Mind and from this True Mind,<br />

you'll obtain Ultimate Wisdom. The Zen<br />

way is the way to reduce or eliminate<br />

“The Zen control<br />

your life”….<br />

the burdens and hang-ups of your<br />

mind - not to add or increase anything<br />

whatsoever. A man said to a Zen Master,<br />

"I want Happiness." Zen Master said,<br />

first remove "I", that's ego, then remove<br />

"want", that's desire - See now you are<br />

left with only Happiness. From the story<br />

above, you know that it is a fallacy to<br />

be getting something out of your Zen<br />

meditation. No, you won't get anything<br />

in the beginning.<br />

The very purpose of Zen is to know<br />

the Nature of your own mind - which is<br />

egoless, desire-less, devoid of “I” and all<br />

or her relative labels and boundaries. By<br />

knowing the egoless-ness of this mind,<br />

or by eliminating our discursive thoughts<br />

and negative emotions, our True Mind<br />

will shine brightly and sharply; chasing<br />

away all our darkness, ignorance and<br />

problems of life. Zen is a direct way in<br />

penetrating into the core of our mind.<br />

Zen meditation can help you understand<br />

the nature of your essence - just like<br />

peeling the onion, layer by layer, you will<br />

find NOTHING at the end, and nothing is<br />

left in your hands. That nothingness or<br />

emptiness is the source of all. From here<br />

everything begins or has the possibility<br />

to manifest itself - beautifully and<br />

intricately.<br />

The purpose of Zen is to be<br />

peaceful with your own self. Zen helps<br />

you to eliminate all outer complications,<br />

and it will help you to bring your mind<br />

HOME. When you go back to the Home<br />

of your True Nature of Mind, you let go<br />

of all stress, worries, fear and negative<br />

emotions. You become very relax; you<br />

are AT HOME - finally and ultimately. You<br />

become very at ease.<br />

You are comfortable, joyful and<br />

cozy. True relaxation happens when you<br />

return to the Home of your True Mind,<br />

your ultimate refuge and your true<br />

'comfort zone'. When you practice Zen<br />

meditation, you are actually enjoying a<br />

wonderful journey going back to your<br />

hometown, your motherland or your<br />

sweet 'comfort zone'. This is the most<br />

wonderful enjoyment you could get, and<br />

it is definitely a great treat to yourself<br />

- simply because you deserve it! You<br />

become easily confused, tired, stressed<br />

and irritated when you are overwhelmed<br />

by busyness and speediness in your<br />

complicated day to day personal and<br />

business lives.<br />

Hence, Zen is the best remedy the<br />

best way to reward yourself if you really<br />

know how to love to treasure your body<br />

mind and brain BMB. In the modern<br />

age of IT, Zen meditation is the easiest<br />

and most organic method in bringing<br />

balance, peace and fulfillment into your<br />

busy and hectic life.<br />

6 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 7

The Image of<br />

Monastic<br />

Education….<br />

The Tipitaka literature (esteemed<br />

<strong>Buddhist</strong> scriptures) was brought<br />

to Bagan from Thaton by King<br />

Anawratha (Aniruddha) with the<br />

help of Thera Shin Arahan in 1044 A.D,<br />

the Bagan period. The king encouraged<br />

the people of his country to establish<br />

monastic schools to enable their children<br />

to study these significant works (Mon,<br />

2014).<br />

That shows the laudable motivation<br />

of King Anawratha to facilitate children’s<br />

learning in monastic schools. In addition,<br />

it saved on the country’s expenditure<br />

as no salaries were needed to pay the<br />

teachers as they were <strong>Buddhist</strong> monks.<br />

The education status of the nation also<br />

reached its peak at this time because the<br />

monastic schools in every village were<br />

led by scholarly monks.<br />

Thanks to monastic education,<br />

both spiritual and secular scholars<br />

evolved in the Bagan period. Then in<br />

the Ava period, eminent monk literary<br />

scholars such as Shin Mahasilavamsa<br />

and Shin Maharatthasara and lay literary<br />

scholars like Myawadi Min Gyi U Sa and<br />

Yaw Mingyi U Pho Hlaing in Konbaung<br />

period emerged.<br />

Even after the dethronement<br />

of the last monarch, King Thibaw of<br />

the Konbaung dynasty in 1885, the<br />

State Advisor, Aggamahasaddhamajotikadhaja,<br />

President Excellent Award,<br />

President, Phaung Daw Oo<br />

<strong>International</strong> University,<br />

Mandalay, Myanmar.<br />

Most Venerable Nayaka<br />

Maha Thero<br />

Myanmar<br />

monasteries remained intact as the<br />

schools with all the necessary resources<br />

for children to learn. Sir Arthur Phayre,<br />

the first chief commissioner of Burma,<br />

attempted to incorporate the secular<br />

education system with monastic schools<br />

after seeing the facilities and wide spaces<br />

of their monasteries. There were four<br />

thousand nine hundred and nineteen<br />

(4919) monastic education schools in the<br />

British colonial period.<br />

When prime minister U Nu widely<br />

supported the monastic school education<br />

system at the inception of independence,<br />

called the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom<br />

League (AFPFL) period, there were up to<br />

five thousand five hundred and forty-five<br />

(5545) established monastic education<br />

schools.<br />

After 1962, during the Socialist<br />

era, the karma of monastic education<br />

schools fluctuated up and down under<br />

the then government. Eventually, in<br />

1982 all monastic schools were subject<br />

to closure. A decade later, in response<br />

to petitions by the senior monks of<br />

the State Sanghamahanayaka Council,<br />

the military government reopened the<br />

monastic education schools in 1992.<br />

In Myanmar there are currently<br />

one thousand five hundred and eightyone<br />

(1581) monastic education schools<br />

"The <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

education creates<br />

meaningful world”….<br />

of all levels i.e. elementary, postelementary,<br />

secondary, and tertiary. In<br />

order to develop and make progress in<br />

monastic school education, the Monastic<br />

Education Development Group (MEDG)<br />

has been providing teacher training<br />

and administrative courses for monastic<br />

school staff.<br />

The Education System in Myanmar<br />

- The headwaters, from which the<br />

mainstream of Myanmar education has<br />

formed, are monastic education schools<br />

led by <strong>Buddhist</strong> monks. “The beginning<br />

of Myanmar education is from Monastic<br />

schools” as the saying goes. The position<br />

of Myanmar education today is still<br />

lagging far behind that of international<br />

education, so there is strong support for<br />

the KG+12 education reform plan that<br />

has been initiated by the Ministry of<br />

Education. The scourge of the current<br />

education system in Myanmar is “rote<br />

learning”. The following reforms to<br />

change this system are desperately<br />

needed:<br />

Reforming the Entire Education<br />

System - As mentioned above, Myanmar<br />

education is seriously deficient<br />

compared to international provision. In<br />

fact, the present education system of<br />

Myanmar has been inherited from the<br />

British, although that system no longer<br />

exists in Britain as it has long since been<br />

reformed. The timely initiation of the<br />

Ministry of Education to embrace the<br />

formation of a KG+12 system is fully<br />

appreciated. In the <strong>2019</strong>/2020 academic<br />

year, it is heartening to know that Grades<br />

1, 2, 3 and 6 have already been reformed.<br />

However, when it comes to<br />

the higher education sector there<br />

are still many aspects to reform. In<br />

national education law, the autonomy<br />

of universities has been enacted by<br />

the Union Parliament. Accordingly,<br />

universities registered in Myanmar have<br />

the right to autonomy, but criticism exists<br />

concerning the limitations surrounding<br />

increased efficiency and competitiveness<br />

(University World News, 2018).<br />

Reforming Teaching Methodology<br />

- At present, the only teaching<br />

methodology applied in Myanmar<br />

education is “rote learning” which pays<br />

most attention to memorizing facts. In<br />

modern teaching systems the students<br />

are taught how to analyze the facts<br />

and to create new entities based on<br />

those facts. When Myanmar students<br />

see a reading passage, they think it has<br />

to be memorized, while students of<br />

other nationalities know it needs to be<br />

analyzed. Myanmar students will receive<br />

high marks if they give specifically<br />

memorized answers in the examination<br />

rather than attempting to answer the<br />

questions themselves.<br />

Visits to many countries to observe<br />

their education systems have revealed<br />

very different approaches. For example<br />

a trip to the United World College<br />

(UWC) in Singapore, witnessed Grade 8<br />

students sitting an examination looking<br />

at a projector screen displaying the<br />

comment “Facts are important, but if<br />

you do not analyze, they are useless”.<br />

The students were using the facts on<br />

the screen and applying them to present<br />

their own views. Given that this situation<br />

is happening worldwide, Myanmar<br />

must urgently reform the teaching<br />

methodologies used by teachers in all<br />

schools.<br />

Reforming Assessment - The<br />

present assessment practice in Myanmar,<br />

with matriculation at the end of the<br />

education process, is the legacy of the<br />

British. Britain has reformed its national<br />

education assessment systems many<br />

times since the end of the Second World<br />

War. It is astonishing that Myanmar has<br />

been using the same education system<br />

until now. Daily assessment of the<br />

activities for each and every student is<br />

routinely used in classrooms globally.<br />

Students respond well to this system as<br />

they feel their activities are recognized<br />

and appreciated. These regular<br />

assessment records show the real<br />

capabilities of the students and whether<br />

to upgrade them to the next level yearly.<br />

Examinations only imposed at the end of<br />

an academic year often fail to determine<br />

the real quality of a student. ‘There<br />

are no national tests for pupils in basic<br />

education in Finland’ (FNAFE, 2018). It<br />

has often been purported that ‘Finnish<br />

has one of the best education systems in<br />

the world’ (Jackson, 2016).<br />

In Myanmar, holding summative<br />

examinations for Grade 4 (at township<br />

level) and Grade 8 (at district level) is<br />

really like giving the wrong treatment to a<br />

patient. Deciding the abilities of students<br />

just by holding external summative<br />

examinations is committing a huge<br />

mistake on the part of those innocent<br />

children. Only the teachers who closely<br />

look after the students will accurately<br />

know their real capabilities and levels<br />

of attainment. Worst of all is the terrible<br />

waste of human resources that results<br />

from failing 70 percent of Grade 10<br />

(university entrance level) students.<br />

In Australia, students of Year 12 can<br />

apply to their preferred universities with<br />

a score that takes 50 percent from their<br />

school assessment record and the other<br />

half from external examinations. As<br />

the universities are granted autonomy,<br />

they also have the right to admit their<br />

preferred students. A “No pass, no fail,<br />

all completion” system is exercised at<br />

Year 12 in Australia.<br />

Therefore, given the holistic nature<br />

of international education, we suggest<br />

that the students who pass Grade 10,<br />

as per the status quo, should enter<br />

university directly. Those students who<br />

complete the courses under standard<br />

assessment should be awarded a<br />

completion certificate, then they should<br />

have the chance to apply to their<br />

preferred university and sit an entrance<br />

exam for that university. Alternatively,<br />

there should be another system for<br />

students who have gained a completion<br />

certificate, in so far as they could attend<br />

a particular diploma program and when<br />

they meet the entry requirements,<br />

they could continue their education at<br />

university level. Such a process would<br />

effectively develop the human resources<br />

of Myanmar, whilst simultaneously<br />

the entire education system would<br />

be significantly improved; altogether<br />

creating a better educated society.<br />

8 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 9

Women’s role in<br />

Buddhism….<br />

The Chief Abbes -<br />

Songdhammakalyani<br />

Bhikkhuni Arama and The<br />

Medicine Buddha Vihara,<br />

Nakhonpathom, Thailand<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Bhikkhuni Dhammananda<br />

(Dr.Chatsumarn<br />

Kabilsingh)<br />

Thailand<br />

There is no direct record from the<br />

Buddha’s time, partly because<br />

when the Buddha allowed<br />

women to join the Order, it<br />

was the Queen Maha Pajapati who<br />

approached him. Because of their close<br />

relationship even if some monks may not<br />

have approved of the decision, no one<br />

made it known to be sufficient evident<br />

for recording. But at the First Council only<br />

three months after the Buddha’s passing<br />

away, with Maha Kassapa presiding over<br />

the council, discontentment was made<br />

known for admitting women to the<br />

Order by asking Ananda to confess that<br />

it was his offence for being an important<br />

mediator to approach the Buddha on<br />

behalf of women and finally got them<br />

admitted to the Order. Venerable Ananda<br />

clearly made his point that he did not see<br />

his intervention as an offence, but with<br />

respect to the Sangha he confessed.<br />

An interesting incident to be<br />

mentioned in this connection is that<br />

Maha Kassapa who presided at this<br />

historic council, was not on good terms<br />

with the bhikkhunis. We found an<br />

incident recorded when he went to give<br />

teaching to the bhikkhuni Sangha, he<br />

was ridiculed by them as the bhikkhunis<br />

expressed their doubts as to how<br />

could he know of any dharma with his<br />

brahminesses background. Apart from<br />

that, the bhikkhunis also made clear<br />

their preference for Ananda’s teaching.<br />

This caused Maha Kassapa to be much<br />

displeased and again Venerable Ananda<br />

had to intervene asking for forgiveness<br />

from Maha Kassapa on the behalf of the<br />

bhikkhunis. This background incident<br />

implies the already existing unpleasant<br />

feeling between Maha Kassapa and the<br />

bhikkhuni Sangha. What followed at the<br />

First Council is understandable. When<br />

the Buddha allowed women to join<br />

the Order, a large number of women<br />

welcomed the opportunity given to<br />

women for the first time in Indian history.<br />

Some wanted to join the Order to escape<br />

the dreadful life of having to remain in<br />

the kitchen for most of their time, some<br />

wanted to escape from a meaningless<br />

life of widowhood, some were doing it as<br />

a fashion, or simply followed their close<br />

relatives. In the latter case, some of them<br />

proved to be trouble for the Sangha,<br />

but for most of the cases, these women<br />

were sincere in their spiritual search as<br />

it was the first time they enjoyed such<br />

freedom.<br />

There were bhikkhunis who were<br />

recognized by the Buddha as being<br />

foremost in the Vinaya, teaching dharma,<br />

etc. They were active in propagating<br />

the teaching of the Buddha in the<br />

same manner as the bhikkhus. Some<br />

bhikkhunis were well known in preaching<br />

and were popular among ministers<br />

and noble families. Once a king asked a<br />

learned nun to explain certain dharma<br />

and later asked the same question to the<br />

Buddha. He was surprised to find that<br />

the bhikkhuni expounded the dharma<br />

topic the same way as the Buddha. He<br />

was happy and convinced that in fact<br />

the teaching of the Buddha had taken<br />

root properly. The Tripitaka mentions<br />

500 and more. There were 13 who were<br />

singled out and received praise from the<br />

Buddha with their different distinctions:<br />

Maha Pajapati was praised for her<br />

long standing as the first bhikkhuni<br />

KhemaTheri, former queen of King<br />

Bimbisara was praised for her wisdom,<br />

Upalavanna Theri was praised for her<br />

achievement in performing miracles,<br />

Patacara Theri was praised for her good<br />

memory on the Vinaya Dhammadinna<br />

Theri was praised for being capable in<br />

teaching Nanda Theri was praised for<br />

meditation, Sona Theri was praised for<br />

her patience, Sakula Theri was praised<br />

for having divine sights, Kundalakesi<br />

Theri was praised for achieving sudden<br />

enlightenment, Bhadda Kapilani was<br />

praised for remembering past lives,<br />

Bhadda Kaccana (Princess Yasodhara)<br />

was praised for her Great Abhinna, Kisa<br />

Gotami was praised for wearing coarse<br />

robes Sigalamata was praised for holding<br />

fast to faith.<br />

In Patidesaniya, one section in the<br />

Patimokkha, we find such a prohibition.<br />

Checking in the Vibhanga, where we<br />

learn the historical context of the rule,<br />

we found an interesting story. An elder<br />

bhikkhuni of 120 years old went for<br />

aims in the city at the distance of 4 to<br />

5 kms. Upon her return a young monk<br />

was waiting with his empty bowl. Out of<br />

respect for monks as prescribed in the<br />

Garudharma, she reverently offered him<br />

her alms received for that day. The young<br />

monk got an idea of not having to go all<br />

the way for alms himself and received<br />

alms from the same nun on the following<br />

day also. On the third day, the bhikkhuni<br />

went for alms in the city. While roaming<br />

in the city a chariot passed near her path.<br />

She took a step aside, fell down and<br />

fainted. The millionaire who was riding<br />

that chariot came out to make inquiry<br />

and learned from her that she fainted<br />

out of hunger and tiredness, as she had<br />

not eaten for three days. Upon learning<br />

the reason, the millionaire criticized the<br />

young monk and later brought this to<br />

the attention of the Buddha. From then<br />

“Buddhism is<br />

free from gender<br />

bias”….<br />

on, to protect the nuns from being taken<br />

advantage of, the Buddha laid down the<br />

rule for the monks not to receive alms<br />

from bhikkhunis.<br />

I have already given you the<br />

picture of what the bhikkhunis did in<br />

the previous pages. Here I would like to<br />

mention the role of Visakha as a case<br />

study reflecting on the positive role of<br />

women in Buddhism during the Buddha’s<br />

time. Visakha was born in a <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

family. As a child she used to follow her<br />

grandparents to listen to the teaching<br />

of the Buddha. She was married to an<br />

equally wealthy family. Not only was she<br />

herself interested in Buddhism, she was<br />

also successful to influence Singala, the<br />

millionaire who was her father-in-law to<br />

convert to Buddhism as well. Because of<br />

this, sometimes people addressed her as<br />

“Singalamata” or “mother of Singala” to<br />

honor her.<br />

She had been so involved in<br />

<strong>Buddhist</strong> circle from childhood that she<br />

was known both to the Buddha and the<br />

Sanghas. Her role was not limited only<br />

to following the teaching of the Buddha<br />

but she also played a significant role of<br />

consultant as well as regular supporter.<br />

Furthermore, she was equally well<br />

versed both in the Dharma and Vinaya.<br />

When she noticed that some monks<br />

were not behaving well she brought it<br />

to the Buddha’s attention and as a result<br />

rules were laid down at her request.<br />

Two Aniyata rules came into existence<br />

because of her suggestion. Bathrobes<br />

for the monks also became a monastic<br />

requirement as suggested by her.<br />

In the role of a consultant to the<br />

Sangha, there was a case of pregnant<br />

bhikkhuni who was expelled by Ven<br />

Devadatta. But this bhikkhuni appealed<br />

to the Buddha and insisted upon her<br />

purity. The Buddha ordered the Sangha<br />

to reinvestigate and Visakha was invited<br />

to the newly appointed committee<br />

to give advice to the Sangha. Visakha<br />

came from a large family. She herself<br />

had many children and grand children,<br />

hence an experienced householder.<br />

Upon her investigation she found out<br />

that the bhikkhuni was pregnant before<br />

being ordained. When the purity of this<br />

bhikkhuni came to light, the Buddha<br />

allowed her to remain without having<br />

to disrobe and the baby was later<br />

adopted by the royal family. Visakha<br />

played a very significant role as a lay<br />

female disciple; she indeed met the<br />

requirement of an established <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

who was responsible for propagating<br />

and establishing Buddhism in the early<br />

period.<br />

10 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 11

“Blessed is the birth of the Buddhas;<br />

Blessed is the enunciation of the sacred<br />

Teaching; Blessed is the harmony of the<br />

Order and Blessed is the spiritual pursuit<br />

of the united Truth-Seekers.”<br />

I have always liked this verse from<br />

the Dhammapada (No. 194) because it<br />

shows the importance of harmony in the<br />

Sangha and points out that maintaining<br />

a united effort in the pursuit of spiritual<br />

goals is essential for achieving success.<br />

Since I ordained as a samanera at the age<br />

of twelve, I have witnessed instances of a<br />

lack of unity and harmony among groups<br />

of Sangha members in my homeland<br />

and in countries throughout the world.<br />

Problems arising from disagreements<br />

and misunderstandings occur among<br />

people everywhere; not being able to<br />

get along is nothing new, but during the<br />

Buddha’s forty-five years of traveling and<br />

teaching the Dhamma there is only the<br />

following example found in the suttas of<br />

such behavior. The Buddha had planned<br />

to spend the rains retreat in Kosambi<br />

when the Vinaya master and the<br />

Chief Sangha Nayake<br />

Thero of America and<br />

President of USA &<br />

Canada Sanga Council,<br />

Chief Abbot & President<br />

of Dharma Vijaya <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Vihara, Los Angeles,<br />

California, USA.<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Aggamaha Pandita Dr.<br />

Walpola Piyananda Thero<br />

USA<br />

Unity in the<br />

Sangha….<br />

Dhamma master had a disagreement.<br />

The remaining Sangha members got<br />

involved by taking sides escalating the<br />

problem. They adamantly stood their<br />

ground and refused to listen anyone. The<br />

Buddha knowing, they would not listen<br />

to reason, left the monastery to spend<br />

the rains retreat alone.<br />

The lay disciples of Kosambi heard<br />

that the Buddha had left to spend the<br />

rains retreat alone. The two factions<br />

came to their senses when the lay<br />

disciples asked them why the Buddha<br />

had left, and they eventually made peace<br />

with one another. Since the Buddha was<br />

off in the forest for the duration of vasssa,<br />

they had to wait for his return in order<br />

to confess their wrongdoing. When<br />

the Buddha returned to the monastery,<br />

he told them that they were behaving<br />

as if they were going to live forever and<br />

reminded them that they were all going<br />

to die one day therefore it was foolish to<br />

hold grudges. In the Samyutta Nikaya II,<br />

189-190 he says, “Brethren, it is not easy<br />

to find a being who has not formerly been<br />

your mother…father…your brother…<br />

your sister…your son…your daughter in<br />

a previous life of this beginningless cycle<br />

of lives…So it is unjust for me to harbor<br />

anger for him merely because of some<br />

disagreeable thing done to me in this<br />

life.” The Buddha also said that samsara<br />

is a dangerous human condition, so don’t<br />

waste time arguing! The lesson for all of<br />

us is that impermanence exists, and we<br />

should learn to get along. There can<br />

be no spiritual or secular advancement<br />

without unity and harmony. The Buddha<br />

realized that happiness means different<br />

things to different people: material<br />

riches, sensual delights, and good food.<br />

The Buddha told the Sangha, “These<br />

pleasures do not get you out of the<br />

round of rebirths. In this world, these<br />

constitute true happiness: the arising of<br />

a Buddha, the opportunity to hear the<br />

Teaching of the Sublime Truth, and the<br />

harmony among monks.”<br />

Presently, I can think of several<br />

instances of disagreement and<br />

disharmony between Sangha members<br />

in every country where Buddhism<br />

exists – including Western countries<br />

where Buddhism has spread. These<br />

rifts damage all involved – including<br />

temple lay members who are often<br />

called upon to take sides. Arguments<br />

cause animosity and confusion between<br />

people that can last for generations.<br />

Looking in the Sanskrit dictionary the<br />

word “Sangha,” translates as “close<br />

contact or combination,” “a multitude of<br />

sages,” “a society, association, company,<br />

community, clerical community,” and<br />

“the whole community or collective<br />

body or brotherhood of monks.” In the<br />

Pali dictionary we find that it has similar<br />

meanings, and also translates as “unity,”<br />

and “working together.”<br />

In Sanskrit the term,”bhikkhu” or<br />

“bhikkshu,” has its origins in the word<br />

“bhiksh,” which means “to wish to share<br />

or partake.” In Pali bhikkhu translates<br />

as “sharing things with each other.” In<br />

both cases it refers to members of a<br />

Sangha who live communally sharing<br />

everything with one another, both<br />

material and spiritual. This can also<br />

be applied to working together to<br />

achieve a community’s shared goals and<br />

intentions. In North America, I am happy<br />

to see the Sangha members of the over<br />

100 Sri Lankan temples getting along<br />

harmoniously. The North American<br />

Thai Sangha is also quite peaceful and<br />

harmonious. Currently in Sri Lanka there<br />

are some strong external forces that seek<br />

to sow dissention among the Sangha.<br />

Attacks on the Sangha come from<br />

Fundamentalist religious groups, NGO’s,<br />

political organizations, and meddling<br />

foreign governments. To prevent the<br />

success of these groups Sangha members<br />

must stay united. If they are to protect<br />

both themselves and the country, they<br />

must not let the external forces divide<br />

their unity and harmony.<br />

During the conflict regarding the<br />

water of the Rohini River, the Buddha<br />

"<strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Sangha needs<br />

to be up to<br />

the task”….<br />

addressed the generals of the opposing<br />

armies with a parable that I would like to<br />

quote here: “Long ago there lived a very<br />

wise quail. He taught many important<br />

practical lessons to his great family of<br />

birds, and as a result, they called him the<br />

Sage. This quail family lived together in<br />

a beautiful green forest with everything<br />

they needed. They lived happy,<br />

contented lives. “One day a hunter came<br />

into the forest and tricked the quail with<br />

his clever bird calls. Thinking he was one<br />

of them, they came near him. In the blink<br />

of an eye he tossed his net over them<br />

and caught them. He scooped them up,<br />

put them in his basket, and took them<br />

to market to sell. “The quail hunter did<br />

this every day, capturing many of the<br />

members of the quail family. Becoming<br />

disturbed and very fearful they decided<br />

to go to the Sage and ask him what to do.<br />

“The quail Sage thought about it and told<br />

them, ‘As soon as the net gets thrown<br />

over you stick your necks in between one<br />

of the rope squares, flap your wings, and<br />

fly up into the sky. If you work together,<br />

your combined strength will let you fly to<br />

the nearest bramble bush where you can<br />

let the net drop in a tangled heap. You<br />

can scurry out from under it to safety.’<br />

“The next day the hunter came and<br />

used his bird calls, he trapped a covey of<br />

quail under his net. Much to his surprise,<br />

the birds poked their heads through the<br />

holes and flew away with the net. He<br />

watched them disappear with great<br />

frustration. He followed the flying birds<br />

to retrieve his net from a bramble bush,<br />

tangled and torn. “For many days he kept<br />

trying to capture the quail, but the birds<br />

kept together as a unit and thwarted his<br />

efforts every time. The hunter continued<br />

trying because he knew that one day the<br />

birds would stop cooperating with one<br />

another. They would lose their mutual<br />

trust and be back in his basket again. “It<br />

wasn’t long afterward that two of the<br />

birds quarreled. A silly incident caused<br />

it, but neither one was willing to let it go<br />

and make peace. They kept on bickering,<br />

allowing the petty disagreement to<br />

escalate until many of the quail nearby<br />

joined in the argument. “The Sage leader<br />

of the quail overheard the birds fighting.<br />

He knew that in such a state of mind they<br />

were in grave danger because they were<br />

no longer in the mood to work together.<br />

He spoke to the rest of the flock and said,<br />

‘Those of you who want to join me and<br />

live together in peace and in a spirit of<br />

mutual cooperation – follow me. Those<br />

who don’t – you’re on your own, but<br />

beware.’ “The next day the hunter came<br />

upon the group of quail that had been<br />

bickering. He threw his net over them<br />

and the two immediately started arguing<br />

again. One of them said, ‘You never do<br />

your share of the work!’ The other one<br />

shot back, ‘I do more than you!’ While<br />

they were busy arguing the hunter<br />

quickly bundled them all up in his net<br />

and stuffed them into his wicker basket.<br />

“After telling the story the Buddha<br />

said to the generals, ‘Even in ancient<br />

times, those who survived were the ones<br />

who learned to work together and settle<br />

their arguments peacefully. Those that<br />

didn’t learn this lesson perished.’ There<br />

are many challenges facing us in the world<br />

today, and I feel that the united <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Sangha needs to be up to the task of<br />

overcoming them. Issues such as climate<br />

change, poverty, racism, corruption,<br />

addiction, and wealth disparity must be<br />

addressed, and we Sangha members<br />

need to do our part in order to remain<br />

relevant to our respective communities<br />

and the global society at large. I urge<br />

all of my fellow Sangha members to<br />

develop the practice of putting aside any<br />

personal or philosophical differences<br />

they may have with their brothers and<br />

sisters in the community. We must work<br />

together in the face of global change and<br />

upheaval, for if we don’t, then we will all<br />

perish alone – much in the same way the<br />

poor quail were trapped by the clever<br />

hunter.<br />

12 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 13

Do you<br />

need<br />

happy?….<br />

If you want to happy, you need to<br />

plant the karmic seed of happiness.<br />

Gradually accumulating virtue and<br />

acts of kindness raise a kind heart and<br />

do kind deeds. Let it all start from giving<br />

then you will find yourself becoming<br />

happier and happier. From the time we<br />

begin studying Buddhism our state of<br />

mind should start to show corresponding<br />

changers.<br />

If we stop pointing the finger at<br />

others we will be surrounded by many<br />

kind and harmonious people. When we<br />

are walking on the path of bodhichitta<br />

we will be more and more similar to<br />

bodhisattvas, thus becoming more and<br />

more popular amongst people.<br />

Don’t use <strong>Buddhist</strong> Dharma as a<br />

magnifying glass, always picking on the<br />

shortcomings of others. Just focus on<br />

your own shortcomings and problems,<br />

correcting them one by one. Truly reduce<br />

your pride and learn to be modest.<br />

Don’t talk about the business of<br />

others and don’t look at the mistakes of<br />

others. Most important is to constantly<br />

observe your own mind daily. All<br />

Dharmas are impermanent, one’s life<br />

and a precious human body are also<br />

impermanent. Therefore, utilize the<br />

leisure and endowment of human<br />

life, albeit brief and impermanent, to<br />

The President of Life TV,<br />

Abbot of Hong Fa Zen<br />

and other Monasteries in<br />

Taiwan<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Master Hai Tao<br />

Taiwan<br />

“The mind start<br />

to show the<br />

true”….<br />

diligently cultivate. Never look for an<br />

excuse to procrastinate.<br />

Desirable or undesirable karma<br />

can both be altered, and this is also a<br />

reason for which we practice Buddhism.<br />

Change the cause and conditions, then<br />

the resulting effect can change. Realize<br />

that all suffering arises from various<br />

karmic forces within our minds. In order<br />

to cease suffering and attain bliss, one<br />

must watch over the mind, give honest<br />

credence to the law of cause and effect<br />

and have boundless compassion towards<br />

living beings.<br />

If one attempts to posses all that<br />

one fancies, reject all that one hates and<br />

fret over gains or losses, this not only<br />

causes vexations, but also creates karmic<br />

causes for descending into the cycle of<br />

reincarnation. Visualize yourself reciting<br />

the Buddha’s name in a place where<br />

there is the most suffering. A lotus flower<br />

blooms with each recitation of Amitabha<br />

Buddha and living beings are able to gain<br />

deliverance. Recite the Buddha’s name<br />

without separation from Bodhicitta, so<br />

the recitations do not become apathetic<br />

numbers.<br />

A kind heart like a piece of fertile<br />

ground, if there is no sowing of seeds,<br />

irrigation and tending the soil it will be<br />

covered with weeds. Therefore, wisdom<br />

and compassion can’t be just kept in<br />

the heart, we must take action for<br />

the purpose of benefiting oneself and<br />

others.<br />

Merit is not something anyone<br />

can pass on to you, it can only be<br />

accumulated by yourself. The wisdom<br />

taught by the Buddha is like a method<br />

of cultivation for great harvest taught to<br />

the farmers. It is not enough if we only<br />

know the method, it needs us to take<br />

action in cultivating our own land.<br />

Do not forgo practicing good deeds<br />

that are considered minor. Good deeds<br />

in the from of mindfulness or in efforts,<br />

regardless of however minuscule are<br />

seeds that may be nourished through<br />

cultivation into significant merits that are<br />

hundreds of thousands times greater.<br />

Buddha Dhamma is an absolute<br />

truth; believe in cause and effect, so you<br />

can know the truth and accept it. Know<br />

the truth about the universe, so we can<br />

repent sincerely. Eradicate all that is bad<br />

and do all that is good; be deliberate in<br />

your behavior and what you are saying<br />

and have a wonderful and good life.<br />

The way you treat others is a<br />

reflection of the way you treat yourself,<br />

because the Master of our lives are<br />

not deities, geomagnetic omen or the<br />

eight characters of a horoscope; it is<br />

our behavioral reaction which comes<br />

from our patterns of behavior, the way<br />

of speaking and the way you treat others<br />

those all led by our heart.<br />

Only when we have achieved<br />

wisdom will we realize that all the things<br />

we were chasing after in the past were<br />

all troubles brought about by ourselves.<br />

All the worries and sufferings that we<br />

experience are all brought about by<br />

ourselves.<br />

A simple thought of wholesome or<br />

evil, when amplified by the omnipotent<br />

network of the internet, surly would have<br />

influence over countless numbers of<br />

people; thus the karma in consequence<br />

could be unimaginable. Therefore,<br />

maintaining a wholesome frame of mind<br />

while going on line is the particular<br />

importance.<br />

Our body is servant to our heart.<br />

It can commit either good or bad deeds.<br />

You can make use of this body as a tool<br />

for liberation or it can plunge you deeper<br />

into samsara. Please take advantage of<br />

all your existing opportunities to meet<br />

your guru and practice dharma.<br />

The reactions of your body are<br />

reflections of your thoughts. Always<br />

keep a compassionate heart and your<br />

life, your body and the world will follow.<br />

There will always be surprises<br />

in your life, so forgive those who are<br />

different and ease your burdens. Aspiring<br />

to change others leads to dissatisfaction<br />

and misery.<br />

Effective advise should begin with<br />

caring words. However, words alone,<br />

regardless of how skillful it could have<br />

been said, would be useless if your<br />

advise was given without all due respect<br />

for the self-esteem of others.<br />

Impermanence governs the world,<br />

whilst bygones are bygones forever.<br />

Being born as a human is extraordinary<br />

and then it is equally precious to have an<br />

opportunity for the learning of Buddha<br />

Dhamma. But, it would be a pity to forgo<br />

this opportunity of a life time to immerse<br />

oneself in the drift of mundane pleasures<br />

everyday.<br />

If the course of life is compared<br />

to a road then the Buddha’s teachings<br />

are like a roadmap showing the way to<br />

arrive at the shores of safety and felicity.<br />

The key is whether or not we follow the<br />

directions and cultivate diligently.<br />

In order to deliver and save all<br />

living beings, we must first let go of<br />

weighing pros and cons for ourselves.<br />

The exemplification of compassion is to<br />

always have consideration for others,<br />

understanding their needs and their<br />

current situations, while gently guiding<br />

them step by step with warmth and<br />

kindness.<br />

14 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 15

Bhaddanta Pandavamsa<br />

Maha Saddhama<br />

Jotikadhaja, Honorary<br />

President of WAB<br />

and Chief Abbot<br />

of Aungzabutawya<br />

Dhammayeiktha<br />

Monastery, Yangon<br />

Most Venerable Sayadaw<br />

Aungzabu Maha Thero<br />

Myanmar<br />

A story of<br />

kingdom of<br />

Kosala….<br />

“The Buddha once visited a small<br />

town called Kesaputta in the kingdom<br />

of Kosala. The inhabitants of this town<br />

were known by the common name<br />

Kalama. When they heard that the<br />

Buddha was in their town, the Kalamas<br />

paid him a visit and told him: “’Sir,<br />

there are some recluses and brahmanas<br />

who visit Kesaputta. They explain and<br />

illumine only their own doctrines, and<br />

despise, condemn, and spurn others’<br />

doc-trines. Then come other recluses<br />

and brahmanas, and they, too, in their<br />

turn, explain and illumine only their own<br />

doctrines, and despise, condemn and<br />

spurn others’ doctrines. But for us, Sir,<br />

we have always doubt and per-plexity as<br />

to who among these venerable recluses<br />

and brahmanas spoke the truth, and<br />

who spoke falsehood.’<br />

“The Buddha replied, ‘Of course<br />

you are uncertain, Kalamas. Of course,<br />

you are in doubt. When there are<br />

reasons for doubt, uncertainty is born.<br />

So in this case, Kalamas, don’t go by<br />

reports, by legends, by traditions, by<br />

scripture, by logical conjecture, by<br />

inference, by analogies, by agreement<br />

through pondering views, by prob-ability,<br />

or by the thought, “This ascetic is our<br />

teacher.” When you know for yourselves<br />

that, ‘These qualities are unskillful; these<br />

qualities are blameworthy; these qualities<br />

are criticized by the wise; these<br />

qualities, when adopted and carried out,<br />

lead to harm and to suffering’ – then<br />

you should abandon them…By the same<br />

token, when you know for yourselves<br />

that, ‘These qualities are skillful; these<br />

qualities are blameless; these qualities<br />

are praised by the wise; these qualities,<br />

when adopted and carried out, lead to<br />

welfare and to happiness’ – then you<br />

should enter and remain in them.”<br />

“’Kalamas, one who is the disciple<br />

of the Noble One, free from lust, free<br />

from hate, free from confusion, intelligent<br />

and aware, abides with a heart<br />

full of selfless love, compassion, joy<br />

and equanimity. He abides in the entire<br />

boundless cosmos, covering with a heart<br />

full of selfless love, compassion, joy and<br />

equanimity, broadened and expanded,<br />

free from limitations, without enmity,<br />

without hatred.’” Ananda goes on to<br />

recite the rest of the powerful sutta,<br />

putting em-phasis on the following<br />

stanzas: “‘Now, Kalamas, one who is a<br />

disciple of the Noble Ones – his mind<br />

thus free from hostility, free from ill<br />

will, undefiled, and pure – acquires four<br />

assurances in the here-and-now:<br />

“‘If there is a world after death, if<br />

there is the fruit of ac-tions rightly and<br />

wrongly done, then this is the basis by<br />

which, with the break-up of the body,<br />

after death, I will reappear in a good<br />

destination, the heavenly world.’ This<br />

is the first assurance he acquires. “‘But<br />

if there is no world after death, if there<br />

is no fruit of actions rightly and wrongly<br />

done, then here in the pre-sent life I<br />

look after myself with ease – free from<br />

hostility, free from ill-will, free from<br />

trouble.’ This is the second as-surance he<br />

acquires. “‘If evil is done through acting,<br />

still I have willed no evil for anyone.<br />

Having done no evil action, from whence<br />

will suffering touch me?’ This is the third<br />

assurance he acquires. “‘But if no evil is<br />

done through acting, then I can as-sume<br />

myself pure in both respects.’ This is the<br />

fourth as-surance he acquires.’”1<br />

At the end of Ananda’s recitation<br />

Maha Kassapa stands and says to the<br />

council, “We generally don’t discuss the<br />

content of any of the suttas after hearing<br />

them, but I sense that there are things<br />

that some of you would like to say about<br />

the sutta to the Kalamas. In my opinion,<br />

it is a very important discourse.” The<br />

arahants in the assembly hall nod their<br />

heads in approval of the chairman’s<br />

suggestion. Punna stands and says, “I<br />

agree with you, Venerable Chairman.<br />

Hearing Venerable Ananda recite the<br />

Kalama Sutta today reminds me how<br />

revolutionary the Buddha was in his<br />

thinking. No one ever before had dared<br />

to say that one’s direct experience of the<br />

truth was valid; most claimed that their<br />

views, derived from scriptures, hearsay,<br />

or teachers were more valid than the<br />

individual’s direct experience.”<br />

“If I may add,” says Kumara<br />

Kassapa, standing, “the statements in<br />

this sutta prove that the Buddha had<br />

such confidence in his Dhamma that he<br />

knew it would stand up to scrutiny of any<br />

kind – including that of the individual’s<br />

direct experience. The Dhamma needs<br />

no validation from scriptures or teachers;<br />

it validates itself in the lives of those who<br />

live it!” Revata stands, “The freedom of<br />

thought encouraged by the Bud-dha is<br />

unprecedented, and simply unheard of<br />

prior to his appear-ance. The freedom he<br />

teaches is absolutely essential because<br />

emanci-pation or enlightenment<br />

depends upon the individual’s own<br />

realiza-tion of Truth – and not upon<br />

his belief systems. There are countless<br />

things in which to believe, including<br />

a creator being, the efficacy of doing<br />

good works, or the concept of grace; but<br />

none of them leads to Nibbana. In other<br />

words, whatever one believes in, or no<br />

matter how many times one supplicates<br />

a man-made anthropomorphic god,<br />

it won’t make any difference in terms<br />

of achieving the ultimate goal of<br />

arahantship, or enlightenment.”<br />

“The mind<br />

thus free from<br />

hostility”….<br />

Sunita raises his voice to say, “Thank<br />

you, Venerable Ananda, for putting your<br />

emphasis on the ‘life after death’ issue<br />

covered in the sutta. By the Buddha’s<br />

repeated refusal to answer this question<br />

and ei-ther confirm or deny its existence,<br />

he made it very clear that the most<br />

important thing is how we live our lives<br />

now. An afterlife may or may not exist,<br />

and the Buddha didn’t totally rule out<br />

this possibility; how-ever, the ‘here and<br />

now’ is what really matters, as are the<br />

choices we make and the commitments<br />

to do that which is wholesome. Things<br />

will still be ‘as they are,’ and one needs to<br />

cultivate the ability to see things clearly<br />

in order to be free from suffering. This<br />

was a completely revolutionary idea, and<br />

it will have repercussions for millennia, I<br />

am sure.”<br />

Culapantaka, a gifted arahant who<br />

at one time couldn’t even memorize<br />

a four-line stanza after four months of<br />

trying, rises from his seat saying, “The<br />

Kalama Sutta clearly says a number<br />

of things on the subject of truth and<br />

scriptures. First of all, the Buddha says<br />

in essence, ‘Do not take anything as<br />

true without thorough investigation.’<br />

He also says, ‘Use your own judgment;<br />

scripture is only an aid, not a substitute<br />

for thinking.’ Upavana, who was blessed<br />

with having fanned the Buddha before<br />

his parinibbana, adds, “This Kalama<br />

Sutta also says that one should stay<br />

focused on one’s inner experiences<br />

and their consequences, rather than on<br />

conceptual ideas of truth and falsehood.”<br />

This story very useful for understanding<br />

reality of the mind and words.<br />

16 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 17

“Ethics adopt the<br />

philosophical<br />

approach”….<br />

Ethics Connotations<br />

and Classification….<br />

Positive ethics, obligation ethics,<br />

and descriptive ethics - The<br />

rationale for why an individual or<br />

a society actually believes how a<br />

person should behave or live (although<br />

it may not be realized) is called positive<br />

ethics (or positive morality). The ideals or<br />

principles that an individual or a society<br />

should believe in regarding how a person<br />

should behave or live, is called obligation<br />

ethics (or obligation morality).<br />

Descriptive ethics, which places<br />

emphasis on the study of history,<br />

anthropology or sociology, uses positive<br />

ethics as its research object. That is, it<br />

investigates the practical connotation<br />

and ethical ideology of human society<br />

in actual practice, as well as its historical<br />

causes and social backgrounds. The<br />

study of ethics is philosophically<br />

inclined to go further in questioning the<br />

reasons behind positive ethics; that is,<br />

investigating the principles of morality.<br />

The process may involve criticism or<br />

reflection (and moral judgment) on<br />

positive ethics. In other words, this is a<br />

study that, based on its observation and<br />

analysis of positive ethics, constructs a<br />

theoretical system for obligation ethics.<br />

Professor – Hsuan Chuang<br />

University and Fu Jen<br />

University, Head of the<br />

Department of Religious<br />

Studies in Hsuan Chuang<br />

University, President<br />

of Hong Shi <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Cultural and Educational<br />

Foundation, Dean of the<br />

College of Liberal Arts<br />

Hsuan Chuang University<br />

in Taiwan<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Bhikkhuni Chao<br />

Hwei Shih<br />

Taiwan<br />

For example, the study of Chinese<br />

feudal concepts of women during<br />

the Middle Ages and its influence is<br />

an example of descriptive ethics that<br />

is historically inclined. To record the<br />

practical influence of the feudal concept<br />

of women in a particular village, or the<br />

differences in its influences in urban<br />

and rural areas in Taiwan at present,<br />

is a descriptive ethics that adopts a<br />

sociological or anthropological approach.<br />

To further investigate the origin of<br />

the feudal concept of women, which<br />

may also involve rational criticism and<br />

reflection on the ideology, is a normative<br />

ethics and metaethics discussion, which<br />

takes the philosophical approach.<br />

Normative ethics and metaethics<br />

- Normative ethics and metaethics<br />

are two ethical studies that adopt<br />

the philosophical approach. The<br />

relationship between normative ethics<br />

and metaethics are like the relationship<br />

between a language and its grammar.<br />

Normative ethics - Normative ethics<br />

investigates the basic principles of the<br />

norm of our conduct, as well as ethical<br />

judgment in daily life when we are<br />

confronted with morality issues. This is a<br />

study of the wholesomeness (good) and<br />

unwholesomeness (evil) of our conduct;<br />

the right and wrong of our behavior.<br />

What normative ethics wishes to discuss<br />

is the obligation principles of the ethical<br />

behavior. However, it is not telling us<br />

‘what we should do’, but investigates<br />

the various systems of thought, and the<br />

reasoning behind why we should do it.<br />

A concrete ethical judgment (for<br />

example, Mr. San should not kill Mr.<br />

Si) and an abstract moral principle (for<br />

example, do not kill), together form an<br />

‘ethical sentence’. Normative ethics is a<br />

study based on the meaning of obligation<br />

ethics, which forms and proves these<br />

‘ethical sentences. Contemporary<br />

analytic philosophy systematically<br />

investigates which types of mind-sets<br />

and behaviors are ethical and which are<br />

not. What are the reasons behind them?<br />

Are there adequate ethical reasons? This<br />

study that researches the principles of<br />

morality is called the study of normative<br />

ethics. The study of normative ethics can<br />

be further subdivided:<br />

First is fundamental ethics, which<br />

investigates the fundamental theories<br />

of normative ethics. This includes a<br />

set of moral rules that is complete and<br />

applicable to everyone. These are rules<br />

that help to justify the rightness and<br />

wrongness of our behavior. The second<br />

type is applied ethics, which apply moral<br />

rules investigated by fundamental ethics<br />

to various practical areas in life. They<br />

help to clarify and solve specific moral<br />

issues confronted in practical life.<br />

Metaethics - This ethical study<br />

takes ethical justification and morality<br />

rules as its research objects. It is a study<br />

that analyzes the meanings and special<br />

characteristics of ethical phrases or<br />

words (for example, wholesome) and<br />

the ethical sentences formed by ethical<br />

phrases (for example, helping others is a<br />

wholesome act). This is called the study<br />

of metaethics.<br />

What metaethics is concerned<br />

with is not the structure or proof of<br />

ethical phrases and sentences, but<br />

about whether these ethical phrases and<br />

sentences can be defined. In addition, it<br />

also examines whether moral judgment<br />

is a subjective, emotional view or an<br />

objective truth. In other words, it is<br />

trying to find out whether the nature of<br />

ethics as described by ethical phrases is<br />

objectively real and can be recognized.<br />

Or is it unreal, and therefore unable to<br />

be recognized?<br />

Metaethics developed after the<br />

rise of the contemporary study of<br />

analytical philosophy. The traditional<br />

study of normative ethics already<br />

presumed the objective values of moral<br />

truth. Thus, what traditional normative<br />

ethics researchers investigated was not<br />

whether ethical principles had objective<br />

foundations or were reasonable. Rather,<br />

their research was based on what the<br />

objective foundations or valid reasons<br />

that support ethical principles are. As<br />

such, the traditional normative ethics<br />

researchers tended not to doubt the<br />

pre-set objective values. They were<br />

inclined to objectivism and neglected<br />

the subjective implication of the moral<br />

truth.<br />

In this book, we will focus our<br />

discussion on a normative ethics study<br />

of Buddhism. We may adopt the ‘meta’<br />

approach of analysis to explore the<br />

ethical phrases if so needed. However,<br />

that is not the core aim of this book.<br />

Thus, we will not be setting aside specific<br />

chapters for a complete and systematic<br />

discussion of <strong>Buddhist</strong> views with<br />

respect to a metaethics approach.<br />

Religion, Ethics and the Study of<br />

Religious Ethics - From ancient times to<br />

today, ethics has not necessarily relied<br />

on religion to exist. People who believe<br />

in religion and people who do not<br />

believe in religion still have their norms<br />

of conduct on how they should live and<br />

how they should treat others.<br />

On the contrary, must religions,<br />

including Buddhism, touch on issues of<br />

ethics or morality? Or, could religions<br />

narrow the scope of ethics and allow their<br />

members to only concern themselves<br />

with individual ethics (ethics that are<br />

related to an individual’s situation in life),<br />

and not touch on individual-public ethics<br />

(ethics that are related to others and the<br />

public) and environmental ethics (ethics<br />

that are related to the world one is living<br />

in) at all? This is what we discuss here in<br />

this section.<br />

In Christianity, there is a debate<br />

over the ideas between ‘spiritualbelonging’<br />

and ‘world-belonging’. In<br />

Buddhism, there is also an argument<br />

between two paths of practice, ‘other-<br />

worldly’ or ‘world-integrated’. This is an<br />

old, controversial topic of discussion.<br />

However, back to our question, even<br />

for hermits who emphasize cultivating<br />

‘spiritual-belonging’ or ‘other-worldly’<br />

practice, for them to stand in this<br />

world and fulfill their wish of benefiting<br />

themselves, they cannot avoid taking into<br />

consideration individual-public ethics<br />

and environmental ethics. Otherwise,<br />

they may encounter great rejection, or<br />

even disturbance from society. As such,<br />

they will find themselves in difficult<br />

situations, making it impossible to<br />

practice in seclusion.<br />

18 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 19

"<strong>Buddhist</strong> medicine culture was<br />

regarded as a feudalistic superstition<br />

in the past. Infect that wasn't the case.<br />

Dhyana Medicine holds a holistic view<br />

while the western medicine holds a<br />

partial view and emphasizes the results.<br />

For example, a doctor can clearly know<br />

whether there is a tumor and the size<br />

of the tumor from a laboratory test<br />

report. <strong>Buddhist</strong> medicine attaches<br />

importance to causes and effects as<br />

well as their connections. Is the illness<br />

in the liver related to the kidney? The<br />

Health and<br />

Buddhism….<br />

The Chief Abbot<br />

of Ananda Temple,<br />

China, Head of Shaolin<br />

Pharmaceutical Bureau<br />

at Shaolin Temple Prison,<br />

China<br />

Most Venerable Master<br />

Shi Yan Lin<br />

China<br />

western medicine only pays attention to<br />

the presentation. However, no illness is<br />

caused by a single reason. Psychological<br />

treatment should be applied first, for<br />

psychological anxiety occurs first.<br />

Traditional Chinese medicine<br />

attaches importance to balance the<br />

yin and yang among Wu Xing (the five<br />

elements). In case of illnesses caused<br />

by imbalanced diets, we then should<br />

balance our diet. A man is an integral<br />

whole. The <strong>Buddhist</strong> medicine and the<br />

traditional Chinese medicine happen to<br />

have the same view on this." Man comes<br />

from the nature and should grow in the<br />

nature. Human death is a kind of energy<br />

transfers through nature. If someone can<br />

get rid of worldly annoyances, follow the<br />

law of nature in his diet and living habits<br />

filling himself with positive energy, all<br />

serious illnesses (pathogenicqi) will keep<br />

far away from him.<br />

Therefore, Buddha dharma is the<br />

Rule of Living for all beings. Dhyana<br />

Medicine notes that "the best medicine<br />

nips the illness in the bud; better<br />

medicine cures illness; the common<br />

medicine treats illness." The common<br />

is health maintenance; the better is<br />

nourish ng the qi; the best is nourishing<br />

the heart. If one feels peace in the<br />

heart, he will have enough qi, resulting<br />

in human life and growth in nature. In<br />

brief, the source of "physical illness" lies<br />

in unsmooth and deficient qi and blood;<br />

the source of " psychological illness" lies<br />

in psych ataxia and dyspareunia.<br />

What is health maintenance about<br />

in Buddhism? For example, in Dhyana<br />

Medicine, a doctor can cure hundreds<br />

of illnesses. Why? Here the medical<br />

essences are qi and blood. People get<br />

ill because of stagnation and congestion<br />

of qi circ ul at ion. Traditional Chinese<br />

Medicine devotes particular care to<br />

channels and collaterals. There are many<br />

switches in the human body, which<br />

can be turned on and off easily, just<br />

like lamps. An unhealthy diet will lead<br />

to channel and collateral congestion.<br />

Hitting at certain acupoints can help<br />

dredge the channels and collaterals and<br />

smoothen qi and blood. The best doctor<br />

for the human body is itself. Modern<br />

medicine merely serves as an assistant."<br />

"In front of natural disasters, human<br />

beings are insignificant. Buddhism always<br />

says everything is impermanent and<br />

impermanence brings pain. Life might<br />

have been happy a moment ago but may<br />

well collapse in a second. For this reason,<br />

we are determined to escape from the<br />

mortal world and find salvation."<br />

I feel peace and joy in my mind.<br />

That's enough." where I could find the<br />

best Dhyana Medicine, psychological<br />

treatment. "Human beings come<br />

from the bhassara Worlds. Beautiful<br />

music can cure psychological disease."<br />

Happiness and a good heart are the best<br />

psychological treatment.<br />

How on earth is it related to<br />

traditional Chinese medicine? Yanwu, a<br />

monk doctor with a bachelor's degree<br />

in Traditional Chinese Medicine said.<br />

"Traditional Chinese medicine and<br />

<strong>Buddhist</strong> medicine are two systems<br />

before Buddhism was introduced<br />

into China. However, after that, the<br />

theoretical system of <strong>Buddhist</strong> medicine<br />

was integrated into traditional Chinese<br />

medicine. A new theoretical l subject<br />

therefore forms on the basis of traditional<br />

medical theories and in combination<br />

with theoretical guidance of the Buddhi<br />

medicine:· "Harmony in diversity" an be<br />

used to explain the differences between<br />

<strong>Buddhist</strong> medicine and traditional<br />

Chinese medicine in pathology. Yanwu<br />

put it that the pathology of traditional<br />

Chinese medicine highlighted internal<br />

causes, external causes, non-internal<br />

and nonexternal causes. In case of<br />

lack of harmony among these three,<br />

people will fall ill. Internal causes refer<br />

to physical changes caused by emotion<br />

changes (happy, joyful, distressed and<br />

sad); external causes refer to wind,<br />

coldness, summer-heat, damp, dryness<br />

and heat; non-internal and nonexternal<br />

causes refer to accidents and wounds<br />

from insect or rat bites.<br />

In <strong>Buddhist</strong> medicine, internal<br />

causes emphasize the three poisons of<br />

"ignorance, attachment and aversion";<br />

external causes highlight unanimousness<br />

in four elements, namely imbalanced<br />

earth, water, fire and wind while<br />

traditional Chinese medicine stresses<br />

inharmoniousness in Wu Xing, i.e. wood,<br />

fire, earth, metal and water. "Before the<br />

“Buddhism,<br />

happy to do<br />

good turns”….<br />

two met in China, they had something in<br />

common. All religions have a common<br />

understanding of the ultimate fate of the<br />

universe, but they have different means<br />

of expression."<br />

The medicines when exposed<br />

under the sun or in the rain. Even ice and<br />

fire can be used to make medicines. The<br />

essence of medicines is the happiness<br />

of the herbs. Herbs are the home of<br />

happiness. The best medicine is the<br />

happiness that we call psychological<br />

medicine." Medicine, the cycle of causes<br />

and effects.<br />

The music help cultivate one's<br />

moral characters and rejuvenate a<br />

country; music can help drive away<br />

evils, cheer oneself up physically and<br />

psychologically and keep fit. Musical<br />

treatment and self-cultivation with<br />

music should be integrated into one.<br />

In the Records of the Grand Historian<br />

is written, 'Music can intensify the<br />

circulation of blood in vessels, smoothen<br />

the spiritual communication and soothe<br />

the temperament. Therefore, Buddhism<br />

is the real treatment for our mind always.<br />

20 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 21

當 實 相 妙 音 從 空 性 中 注 入 心 中<br />

我 在 奧 地 利 的 林 茲 看 到 大 佛 遇 見 莫<br />

扎 特 這 是 超 越 音 聲 的 旅 程 充 滿 最 美<br />

妙 的 樂 音 滑 入 了 所 有 的 宇 宙 用 銀 河<br />

的 光 芒 成 了 小 提 琴 的 弦 莫 扎 特 在 夢<br />

中 彈 奏 出 最 喜 樂 的 塵 星 當 時 間 停 止<br />

時 時 在 何 處 ? 當 空 間 消 失 時 那 來 宇<br />

宙 ? 當 我 心 止 思 何 處 尋 覓 你 我 的 心<br />

超 越 萬 有 這 絶 美 的 樂 音 就 是 真 、 善 、<br />

美 、 聖 尊 深 寂 靜 演 虛 空 莫 扎 特 在 不<br />

滅 中 聽 聞 了 覺 性 妙 音 我 們 的 心 觸 動<br />

了 美 麗 的 虹 霓 這 是 莫 扎 特 幸 福 的 心 弦<br />

當 下 聽 心 聽 聽 最 淨 美 的 樂 音 莫 扎 特<br />

為 大 佛 所 彈 奏 最 清 麗 的 樂 聲 .<br />

When the truth music<br />

drips into my heart from<br />

emptiness, I see the Great<br />

Buddha meeting Mozart in<br />

Linz, Austria. It’s a trip of soundlessness,<br />

but, full of the most beautiful music,<br />

It slides into all the cosmos, Using the<br />

lights of the Milky Way as the strings<br />

of violins. Mozart plays the joyful stars<br />

in his dream. When time stops, where<br />

is time? When space vanishes, where is<br />

the universe? When our minds cease,<br />

where are our hearts? Beyond all, the<br />

perfect music is truth, goodness, beauty<br />

and sacred. The noble silence is dancing<br />

in the sky. Mozart hears the awakening<br />

music, forever. Our hearts touch the<br />

beautiful rainbow. It’s the strings of<br />

Mozart Happiness. Now, listen to our<br />

minds, we will hear the gorgeous music.<br />

Mozart plays for The Great Buddha.<br />

The heaven music is sounding in the<br />

sky. The heaven drum is heard from the<br />

sky, Mozart’s heart’s rhythm is silence.<br />

We hear nothing from soundlessness,<br />

The Requiem is played by Amadeus’s<br />

The World Famous<br />

Buddha Painting Master,<br />

Earth Zen Person,<br />

<strong>International</strong> Meditation<br />

Teacher, Founder of<br />

Enlightening Earth<br />

Association, Buddha<br />

Cultural & Bodhisattva<br />

Association in Taiwan<br />

Master Chi Sung Hung<br />

Taiwan<br />

Great<br />

Buddha<br />

meets<br />

Mozart….<br />

mind. I am just thirty-five years old.<br />

Buddha and Mozart say the same word.<br />

Buddha is enlightened by himself and<br />

sees through the universe. They just look<br />

forward to each other’s hearts. So calm,<br />

so quiet, all beautiful music plays in the<br />

silent heart. Thirty-five is a magic time.<br />

Siddhartha becomes Buddha and Mozart<br />

sings the Requiem. The enlightening<br />

light from The Great Buddha brightens,<br />

Mozart’s playing of the Requiem to<br />

help people beyond death. Oh, Mozart,<br />

Amadeus, through the string of time and<br />

space, we meet in Linz.<br />

When the Great Buddha meets<br />

Mozart on the side of the beautiful blue<br />

Danube. Mozart uses the Requiem to<br />

touch every body’s mind to the heaven.<br />

And the Great Buddha is enlightening all<br />

beings to be Buddha. Oh, please play the<br />

song of Buddhall, all are Buddhas. The<br />

enlightening symphony is playing, all<br />

beings play Instruments made from all<br />

kinds of things from the world and sing<br />

the peace earth. The Great Buddha and<br />

Mozart play the earth, water, fire, wind,<br />

and emptiness instruments to join us.<br />

It’s the time for enlightening and peace<br />

earth. The earth spacecraft will travel<br />

to deep space and shine in the universe<br />

forever.<br />

Sitting in the sky, the Great Buddha<br />

and Mozart meet and smile. They talk<br />

about music and heart. So, music is<br />

earth. Music is water. Music is fire. Music<br />

is wind. Music is empty. And music is<br />

our deepest heart. Playing music in<br />

the sky, sun, moon and stars are our<br />

instruments. We play and combine<br />

them to be a symphonic poem. Time<br />

“The silence<br />

is the<br />

happiness”….<br />

and space are our hearts’ strings, Music<br />

travels all around our body, breath and<br />

mind. We are echoes of the cosmos<br />

and the universe is our reflection, then<br />

mutual mirroring each other, and music<br />

understands all. Mozart takes his harp,<br />

wants to play the Concerto for Flute,<br />

Harp and Orchestra (K 299-C).<br />

The Great Buddha enjoys this<br />

and takes his Vaidury Konghon, just<br />

like shining rainbow glass, and wants<br />

to play with Mozart. So harmonious, so<br />

awakening, Mozart plucks the first string,<br />

and, at the same time, the Great Buddha<br />

plays the first string of Konghou as the<br />

same string. Oh, it’s the chord of peace.<br />

The earth hears the beautiful music<br />

and is singing in harmonious chorus to<br />

be peace earth. They play the second<br />

string, at the same time. The sound<br />

of truth echoes in the world. The third<br />

string plays by itself, goodness full of all<br />

beings’ hearts. The most beautiful music<br />

is music itself.<br />

The Great Buddha and Mozart<br />

smile to each other and pluck the<br />

fourth string. All the universe is beyond<br />

everything to holy purity, the fifth string<br />

clears all our hearts and our eyes are<br />

cleansed by the pure tears. The sixth<br />

string from emptiness, Buddha, in the<br />

empty meditation, uses the middle<br />

finger to pluck the sixth string. It’s just<br />

liked the mirror reflection, Mozart in the<br />

same time plays the enlightening wisdom<br />

string. Now, all of us are free people,<br />

beyond all confusion. All are in clear<br />

mind and full of peace and happiness.<br />

Benevolence is from emptiness<br />

and wisdom. When you are in the depth<br />

empty samadhi, and all awakening, there<br />

is only one thing going to show in your<br />

heart. It is the greatest Benevolence, no<br />

beginning no ending. In Great Wisdom,<br />

will be one thing arise in your heart,<br />

it’s the greatest Benevolence showing<br />

itself, no beginning no ending. It fills<br />

your heart, no object and no subject,<br />

it is just this. Buddha and Mozart pluck<br />

the seventh string as one as emptiness.<br />

Suddenly, they see all beings are<br />

Buddhas in whole emptiness. It is the<br />

rhythmic poem of the cosmos. So joyful,<br />

they play glissando to combine all hearts<br />

to join the whole enlightening music.<br />

Only silence of happiness, Oh……<br />

天 樂 鳴 空 天 鼓 的 妙 聲 傳 自 天 際<br />

莫 扎 特 寂 淨 了 心 中 的 旋 律 我 們 從 大 寂<br />

中 聽 聞 了 音 靜 莫 扎 特 的 心 奏 出 吉 祥 的<br />

安 魂 曲 我 剛 好 三 十 五 歲 佛 陀 與 莫 扎<br />

特 說 出 了 同 樣 的 話 佛 陀 開 悟 了 澈 見<br />

了 宇 宙 的 真 實 他 們 相 視 著 對 方 的 心 境<br />

那 麼 的 安 寧 、 那 樣 的 寂 靜 至 美 的 樂 章<br />

發 自 最 靜 的 心 三 十 五 歲 真 是 幻 化 的 時<br />

境 啊 悉 達 多 成 了 佛 而 莫 扎 特 唱 出 了<br />

安 魂 的 曲 聲 大 佛 用 覺 性 的 光 明 照 亮<br />

了 莫 扎 特 當 下 奏 出 的 安 魂 曲 導 引 眾<br />

生 超 越 死 亡 啊 莫 扎 特 , 天 所 佑 者 透<br />

過 了 時 空 的 因 緣 我 們 在 林 茲 相 遇 當<br />

大 佛 與 莫 扎 特 會 遇 在 美 麗 的 藍 色 多 瑙<br />

河 畔 莫 扎 特 用 安 魂 曲 輕 撫 著 每 一 個 人<br />

心 進 入 天 堂 而 大 佛 開 悟 眾 生 成 為 佛 陀<br />

啊 ! 請 奏 出 全 佛 之 歌 所 有 眾 生 全 是 佛<br />

陀 開 悟 的 交 響 樂 章 己 響 起 一 切 生 命<br />

彈 奏 著 以 世 間 萬 物 所 成 的 樂 器 並 唱<br />

出 和 平 地 球 的 樂 章 大 佛 與 莫 扎 特 奏 起<br />

地 、 水 、 火 、 風 、 空 的 樂 器 融 入 大 眾<br />

這 是 開 悟 與 和 平 地 球 的 時 節 地 球 太 空<br />

船 將 航 至 深 邃 的 太 空 在 宇 宙 中 散 發 出<br />

永 恆 的 光 明<br />

22 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 23

The<br />

directions of<br />

pure mind….<br />

Cultivating the Path of the<br />

Bodhisattva combines the<br />

merits of the Paths of Man,<br />

Devas and Self Liberation. This<br />

path seeks more than to establish good<br />

karmic relationships in the human<br />

world. It entails all sentient beings in<br />

the ten directions of the past, present<br />

and future, as objects of their service,<br />

contribution, concern and care. In<br />

addition, the performance of wholesome<br />

acts is not for the sake of positive karmic<br />

results. Mahayana Buddhism always<br />

encourages the cultivation of the Path<br />

of the Bodhisattva. The path of the<br />

Bodhisattva, however, must begin with<br />

making wishes, generating vows and<br />

fulfilling them.<br />

When we train the mind, it’s not<br />

just a question of using a meditation<br />

technique to bludgeon the mind into the<br />

present moment. If that’s our approach,<br />

the mind is going to start rebelling,<br />

finding ways of slipping around our<br />

defenses, because there are times when<br />

the meditation technique is right for the<br />

situation and times when it isn’t. The<br />

The Secretary General<br />

of Taiwan <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Association, Secretary<br />

General of the World<br />

Buddhism Bhikkhuni<br />

Association & the Chinese<br />

Buddhism Bhikkhuni<br />

Association, Abbess<br />

of Miau Kuang Chan<br />

Monastery, Wan Fa<br />

Monastery, Zhi Cheng<br />

Monastery, Tai Ming<br />

Monastery & Zheng Jue<br />

Chan Monastery<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Bhikkhuni Shih Jian Yin<br />

Taiwan<br />

times when it isn’t: That’s when the mind<br />

is going to rebel if you single‐mindedly<br />

use just that one technique and don’t<br />

have other techniques or approaches up<br />

your sleeve as well.<br />

Meditation is not just a question of<br />

technique. In training the mind, you have<br />

to remember there’s a whole committee<br />

in there. In the past the committee has<br />

had its balance of power, its likes and<br />

dislikes, and the politics among the<br />

various voices in your mind. Each of them<br />

has different tricks for pushing its agenda<br />

on the rest. So just as these defilements<br />

have lots of tricks up their sleeves, you as<br />

a meditator need to have lots of tricks up<br />

your sleeve, too.<br />

One really basic trick is for when<br />

the mind says, “I’ve got to do this. I want<br />

to do that. I don’t want to meditate.”<br />

You’ve got to ask, “Well why?” And<br />

play kind of dumb, so that the mind<br />

really has to explain itself. It’s like lesson<br />

number one in any journalism class: If<br />

you really want to get a good interview<br />

out of people, you have to play dumb,<br />

ask stupid questions, so that they think<br />

they have to explain things to you very<br />

carefully. And oftentimes they reveal<br />

all kinds of things they wouldn’t have<br />

otherwise.<br />

It’s the same with your own mind.<br />

When greed, anger, and delusion come<br />

into the mind, they usually barge in<br />

with a lot of force and expect to push<br />

you right over. So one thing you have<br />

to do is to ask, “Well, why? Why should<br />

we follow that? Why should we want<br />

instant gratification?” And there will be<br />

an “of course‐ness” to their answer the<br />

first time around. “Of course you want it<br />

this way. Of course you want it that way.”<br />

“Well why?” If you’re persistent in being<br />

block‐headed like this, all the defilements<br />

will start revealing themselves. You’ll see<br />

how shabby they are. You’ll be able to<br />

get around them more easily.<br />

It’s like training a little child.<br />

Sometimes you have to be strict with<br />

the child, other times you have to offer<br />

rewards, patiently explain things. Other<br />

times you have to make up little games.<br />

In other words, you have to use your<br />

full psychology with the mind. But this<br />

time around you’re not using it for the<br />

purpose of deception, which is what the<br />

mind ordinarily does with itself. You’re<br />

using it for the purpose of truth and<br />

honesty, for what’s really in your own<br />

best interest.<br />

What does the wandering mind<br />

do for you? It gives a little bit of instant<br />

gratification and then that gratification<br />

goes, with nothing left to show for itself.<br />

If you keep allowing this to happen,<br />

where are you going to pick up the skills<br />

you’ll really need when aging, illness,<br />

and death hit with full force? This is<br />

why the Buddha stressed the principle<br />

of heedfulness all the time. We can’t<br />

just spend our time sniffing the flowers<br />

and looking at the sky. There’s work to<br />

be done. When the mind is untrained,<br />

it causes us a lot of unhappiness. If the<br />

mind is well trained, if it’s more tractable,<br />

it can bring a lot of happiness our way.<br />

In order for that to happen, you<br />

have to learn how to psyche yourself<br />

into the mood to meditate. Once it starts<br />

meditating and begins to see the results,<br />

it gets more willing and tractable—<br />

most of the time. Then there are times<br />

it starts rebelling all over again, totally<br />

irrationally. So you’ve got to sit down<br />

with it again, work things through with<br />

it again, to see exactly what issue got<br />

covered up the last time around and is<br />

only now getting exposed.<br />

This is one of the ways in which<br />

you learn a lot about your defilements.<br />

It’s not that you have to wait for a totally<br />

solid concentration before you can see<br />

the defilements clearly. A lot of learning<br />

about the defilements lies in learning<br />

how to struggle with them as you bring<br />

the mind to stillness. You begin to see:<br />

“Oh, this is how greed works, this is how<br />

aversion works, this is how I’ve fallen for<br />

this stuff before in the past. Well, this<br />

time around I’m not going to fall.”<br />

Sometimes it’s like a battle. Other<br />

times it’s more a question of learning<br />

how to work together in a way that’s<br />

for your own best interests: how to be<br />

a mediator, a negotiator, or a patient<br />

teacher. You’ve got to have lots of ways<br />

of relating to the different elements in<br />

your mind. The times when you can win<br />

the defilements over to your side: That’s<br />

when it’s best. Your desire turns into a<br />

desire to practice. Your hatred turns into<br />

a hatred of the defilements. You learn<br />

how to use the energy of these things for<br />

your own true benefit.<br />

That’s when you can be said to<br />

be a discerning mediator. You can’t<br />

gain insight simply by following the<br />

rules. Somebody says, “For insight you<br />

need to do one, two, three, four, five,<br />

six, and seven. So you do one, two,<br />

three, four, five, six, seven without any<br />

thinking, without any reflection on what<br />

you’re doing, and yet that doesn’t give<br />

you any true insights. It gives you preprogrammed<br />

insights sometimes, but<br />

the actual startling new understandings<br />

that can come through the meditation<br />

don’t happen because you’re too busy<br />

following the directions.<br />

The directions are there for you to<br />

apply to the mind and then to observe,<br />

to look at what happens, to reflect on<br />

what happens, to make adjustments.<br />

Make the meditation your own and not<br />

just somebody else’s bulldozer running<br />

through your head. After all, the big<br />

issue is how you relate to yourself,<br />

how you relate to the body, how you<br />

relate to feelings, perceptions, thoughtfabrications,<br />

and consciousness. Thatʹs<br />

the area where you’re causing yourself<br />

suffering, so that’s the area where<br />

you’ve got to gain sensitivity and insight.<br />

Nobody else can get into your head and<br />

straighten these things out for you. You<br />

use the techniques of meditation to see<br />

what they reveal about the mind. Then<br />

you build on those lessons so that the<br />

meditation becomes your own.<br />

“Make the meditation<br />

your own”….<br />

24 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 25

<strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>International</strong><br />

<strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Conference<br />

& Maha<br />

Sanghadana<br />

Taiwan….<br />

The "<strong>2019</strong> <strong>International</strong><br />

<strong>Buddhist</strong> Conference and Maha<br />

Sanghadana was held at the<br />

National Sports University at<br />

Linkou, Taiwan on August 25, <strong>2019</strong><br />

hosted by Chung Hwa <strong>International</strong><br />

Merits Society of Buddha Puja and<br />

Sangha Dana Society in Taiwan. More<br />

than 7000 <strong>Buddhist</strong> Monks and Nuns<br />

from all districts in Taiwan and overseas<br />

with more than 10,000 devotees<br />

participated this grand occasion. The<br />

Sanghadana held under the blessings<br />

& leading by high <strong>Buddhist</strong> Masters in<br />

Taiwan. The President of Chung Hwa<br />

<strong>International</strong> Merits Society of Buddha<br />

Puja and Sangha Dana, Mr. Chen Chia<br />

Uny & Madam Wang Shue Yu, the CEO<br />

and General Secretary of Chung Hwa<br />

<strong>International</strong> Merits Society of Buddha<br />

Puja and Sangha Dana Society in Taiwan<br />

were coordinated this mass merit event.<br />

Buddhika Sanjeewa<br />

After the visit to Linkou, Taiwan<br />

Official Photographs by<br />

Lin Chun Chieh 官 方 照 片 林 群 傑<br />

– Taiwan<br />

26 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 27

The 16 th <strong>International</strong><br />

Sakyadhita Conference<br />

- Australia<br />

The 16th <strong>International</strong> Sakyadhita<br />

Conference held at Blue<br />

Mountains, Sydney, Australia.<br />

under the concept and<br />

supervision of Most Venerable Bhikkhuni<br />

Jetsunma Tenzin Palmo, the President,<br />

Sakyadhita <strong>International</strong>. “New Horizons<br />

in Buddhism” was this year them of<br />

the conference and explores changes<br />

within <strong>Buddhist</strong> circles worldwide. Also,<br />

included talks, workshops, meditations<br />

and discussions led by women from<br />

across the world, engaged in <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

practice, learning and service. Lot of<br />

Bhikkhunis & devotees also participated<br />

this grand occasion.<br />

Buddhika Sanjeewa<br />

After visit to Sydney, Australia<br />

Official Photographs by Olivier Adam<br />

28 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 29

CYBA 30 th Anniversary &<br />

WAB 06 th EXCO in Taiwan….<br />

Chinese Young <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Association in Taiwan (CYBA)<br />

celebrated 30th anniversary<br />

& World Alliance of <strong>Buddhist</strong>s<br />

(WAB) 06th Executive Council Meeting<br />

(EXCO) held successfully at Ci Fa temple<br />

Premises in Taipei, Taiwan on <strong>September</strong><br />

01, <strong>2019</strong>. This ceremony held under<br />

the leadership by Most Venerable<br />

Master Shih Ching Yao, The President<br />

of CI-FA <strong>Buddhist</strong> Temple & Most<br />

Venerable Palawadhammo (Dr. Pornchai<br />

Pinyapong), the President of World<br />

Alliance of <strong>Buddhist</strong>s (WAB) & jointly<br />

hosted by Most Venerable Bhikkhuni<br />

Dr. Ming Yu, the Former President of<br />

CYBA & Most Venerable Bhikkhuni Kai<br />

Shan President of CYBA. <strong>International</strong><br />

Organization’s Esteemed Executive<br />

Council members participated this<br />

meeting at Taipei, Taiwan.<br />

Buddhika Sanjeewa<br />

After visit to Taipei, Taiwan<br />

Official Photographs by Pongpan<br />

Ratithammakul (Zung D’voice)<br />

30 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 31

Successfully<br />

Transferring<br />

<strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Knowledge….<br />

Teaching is not a precise science;<br />

it requires a certain flair or<br />

charismatic qualitythat enables<br />

the teacher to communicate in<br />

a way that captivates the attention. of<br />

students and commands their respect.<br />

Having a sound academic record of<br />

achievement or knowledge does not<br />

automatically qualify an individual to<br />

become a good teacher. For example, you<br />

may have two cooks, equally talented in<br />

baking a delicious cake. If students taste<br />

the two cakes made by these cooks, but<br />

without seeing the cooks, they would not<br />

be able to tell one cake from the other.<br />

However, if the two cooks take separate<br />

classes of pupils and try to teach them<br />

how to bake this delicious cake, one<br />

group of students might succeed in<br />

learning the technique and proceed to be<br />

able to copy exactly the taste and quality<br />

of the cake, while the other group may<br />

fail dismally to remember the process<br />

Vice Abbot of Wat<br />

Phra Dhammakaya,<br />

Vice President of the<br />

Dhammakaya Foundation,<br />

Most Popular and<br />

Respected Dhamma<br />

Teacher & Author in<br />

Thailand.<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Phrarajbhavanajahn<br />

(Luang Por Dattajeevo<br />

Bhikkhu)<br />

Thailand<br />

of combining the ingredients, and fail to<br />

acquire the knowledge and technique<br />

needed to replicate the quality and taste<br />

of the original cake.<br />

Both cooks have the same skill<br />

and knowledge to make the cake but<br />

only one is able to pass on that skill<br />

and knowledge effectively to the pupils.<br />

Let us consider why. One cook looks<br />

the part, neat, suitably attired, well<br />

prepared, clear and precise with the<br />

instructions, plus displays an obvious<br />

and genuine enthusiasm to pass on the<br />

secret of making the delicious cake, so<br />

the students are attentive and absorb<br />

both knowledge and method.<br />

On the other hand, the second<br />

cook looks dishevelled, is ill-prepared,<br />

muddles the instructions and is<br />

unenthusiastic in the process of teaching.<br />

The recipe and method applied to make<br />

the cake may be the same, but the quality<br />

and effectiveness of the teaching is not,<br />

and the pupils are not so attentive and<br />

therefore not absorbing the knowledge<br />

and method as intended by their teacher.<br />

The teacher who possesses the traits of<br />

a good teacher passes on knowledge<br />

whereas the teacher who does not<br />

possess the traits of a good teacher has<br />

the knowledge of the subject but not the<br />

ability or traits required to pass on that<br />

knowledge.<br />

Hence, teaching is an individual<br />

skill, which requires the trainer to pass<br />

knowledge to students effectively and<br />

completely. The best type of teacher<br />

“Buddhism<br />

understand<br />

and learn<br />

thoroughly”….<br />

is the one who can not only teach<br />

but also can guide, advise, direct and<br />

demonstrate directly and indirectly so<br />

that students can understand and learn<br />

thoroughly. This requires trainers who<br />

have not only the first level of wisdom,<br />

which is from memorization, but also<br />

from the second and third levels, which<br />

come from experience and inner light.<br />

The Lord Buddha’s limitless source<br />

of knowledge and wisdom was achieved<br />

without external teaching, through<br />

the power of self-enlightenment to the<br />

reality of all things via the process of<br />

meditation. Enlightenment is the state of<br />

realization and understanding that leads<br />

to the permanent cessation of the cycle<br />

of rebirth by transcending all human<br />

desires and suffering.<br />

When people lack knowledge and<br />

concepts of self-awareness, the world<br />

about them and the effect kilesa will have<br />

upon their lives, their education will tend<br />

to focus on academic studies, academic<br />

achievements and academic standing<br />

among their peers in their professions<br />

or careers. With no attention to moral<br />

application of their learned knowledge,<br />

the consequences of their thoughts<br />

and actions may lack honest application<br />

and good intent. Through incomplete<br />

or flawed education, the results may<br />

prove to be harmful to themselves, the<br />

population and the environment, and<br />

no matter how high personal academic<br />

achievements may be, great personal<br />

and collective suffering will occur.<br />

Inadequate management of<br />

national education causes immeasurable<br />

problems; the system produces people<br />

with knowledge but who lack good<br />

judgement, and causes problems that<br />

lead to them being labelled as fools,<br />

tyrants and people of evil or destructive<br />

intent. This is because they have not<br />

been taught to distinguish between good<br />

and bad, right and wrong, should and<br />

should not, having no concept of boon<br />

nor of baap (impure energy).<br />

An ideal education is one that<br />

appropriately depending on their age<br />

and gender, enables students not only to<br />

acquire knowledge to survive and engage<br />

in their future professions or careers, but<br />

also to be protected and empowered<br />

with the understanding to eradicate<br />

the defilements of thought, word and<br />

deed that lead to suffering, in other<br />

words to overcome what is referred to<br />

in <strong>Buddhist</strong> Dhamma as kilesa. Students<br />

must be educated to know and combat<br />

kilesa as part of a balanced moral and<br />

academic system of education. Students<br />

must be made aware by their teachers<br />

the benefits of being both smart and<br />

virtuous.<br />

This is achieved by teachers having<br />

a sound knowledge of their subject and<br />

the ability to instil virtuous practice and<br />

behavior in their pupils by guidance,<br />

tuition and their own self-example.<br />

Creating the framework of virtue and<br />

morality requires the pupil to understand<br />

and accept their own self-responsibility<br />

for their thoughts, words and actions.<br />

They must understand the<br />

importance that refraining from killing,<br />

stealing, sexual misconduct and lying<br />

will have on the quality of their lives<br />

and those around them. In developing<br />

self-responsibility, this must be achieved<br />

through right thought without bias,<br />

otherwise wrong views will be formed<br />

towards society. Developing a sense<br />

of socioeconomic responsibility is also<br />

essential. The so-called ‘Roads to Ruin’<br />

is a delusional concept of pleasure and<br />

possession. The term translates directly<br />

from the Pali word, Abayamukha,<br />

which explains the six self-destructive<br />

behavioral vices as drinking, nightlife,<br />

too much indulgence in sensual<br />

pleasure, gambling, associating with bad<br />

company, and laziness. These actions<br />

may not necessarily be considered as<br />

bad action in themselves, but they are<br />

starting points of self-destruction when<br />

one starts committing to any, some or<br />

all of them and becoming addicted.<br />

As a result, we should avoid entering<br />

through this gate as we might otherwise<br />

soon find ourselves succumbing to the<br />

accumulation of unnecessary wealth or<br />

position, consumption of alcohol and<br />

drugs, frequenting unseemly places at<br />

unseemly hours, visiting dubious places<br />

of entertainment, gambling, associating<br />

with fools and bad company, wasting<br />

time and being lazy. The ‘Roads to Ruin’<br />

lead travellers to worship money as a<br />

means to fulfil a self-destructive lifestyle.<br />

32 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 33

The search for a spiritual path is<br />

born out of suffering. It does<br />

not start with lights and ecstasy,<br />

but with the hard tacks of<br />

pain, disappointment, and confusion.<br />

However, for suffering to give birth to a<br />

genuine spiritual search, it must amount<br />

to more than something passively<br />

received from without. It has to trigger<br />

an inner realization, a perception which<br />

pierces through the facile complacency<br />

of our usual encounter with the world<br />

to glimpse the insecurity perpetually<br />

gaping underfoot. When this insight<br />

dawns, even if only momentarily, it can<br />

precipitate a profound personal crisis. It<br />

overturns accustomed goals and values,<br />

mocks our routine preoccupations,<br />

leaves old enjoyments stubbornly<br />

unsatisfying.<br />

At first such changes generally<br />

are not welcome. We try to deny our<br />

vision and to smother our doubts; we<br />

struggle to drive away the discontent<br />

with new pursuits. But the flame of<br />

inquiry, once lit, continues to burn, and<br />

The world-famous<br />

American Author, New<br />

York, USA<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Bhikkhu Bodhi<br />

USA<br />

The<br />

suffering….<br />

if we do not let ourselves be swept away<br />

by superficial readjustments or slouch<br />

back into a patched-up version of our<br />

natural optimism, eventually the original<br />

glimmering of insight will again flare<br />

up, again confront us with our essential<br />

plight. It is precisely at that point, with all<br />

escape routes blocked, that we are ready<br />

to seek a way to bring our disquietude<br />

"Remove the<br />

suffering at it's<br />

source "….<br />

to an end. No longer can we continue to<br />

drift complacently through life, driven<br />

blindly by our hunger for sense pleasures<br />

and by the pressure of prevailing social<br />

norms. A deeper reality beckons us; we<br />

have heard the call of a more stable,<br />

more authentic happiness, and until we<br />

arrive at our destination, we cannot rest<br />

content.<br />

There are two interrelated flaws in<br />

eclecticism that account for its ultimate<br />

inadequacy. One is that eclecticism<br />

compromises the very traditions it draws<br />

upon. The great spiritual traditions<br />

themselves do not propose their<br />

disciplines as independent techniques<br />

that may be excised from their setting<br />

and freely recombined to enhance the<br />

felt quality of our lives. They present<br />

them, rather, as parts of an integral<br />

whole, of a coherent vision regarding<br />

the fundamental nature of reality and<br />

the final goal of the spiritual quest. A<br />

spiritual tradition is not a shallow stream<br />

in which one can wet one's feet and then<br />

beat a quick retreat to the shore. It is a<br />

mighty, tumultuous river which would<br />

rush through the entire landscape of<br />

one's life, and if one truly wishes to travel<br />

on it, one must be courageous enough to<br />

launch one's boat and head out for the<br />

depths.<br />

The second defect in eclecticism<br />

follows from the first. As spiritual<br />

practices are built upon visions regarding<br />

the nature of reality and the final<br />

good, these visions are not mutually<br />

compatible. When we honestly examine<br />

the teachings of these traditions, we<br />

will find that major differences in<br />

perspective reveal themselves to our<br />

sight, differences which cannot be easily<br />

dismissed as alternative ways of saying<br />

the same thing. Rather, they point to<br />

very different experiences constituting<br />

the supreme goal and the path that must<br />

be trodden to reach that goal.<br />

Hence, because of the differences<br />

in perspectives and practices that the<br />

different spiritual traditions propose,<br />

once we decide that we have outgrown<br />

eclecticism and feel that we are ready<br />

to make a serious commitment to<br />

one particular path, we find ourselves<br />

confronted with the challenge of<br />

choosing a path that will lead us to<br />

true enlightenment and liberation.<br />

One cue to resolving this dilemma is to<br />

clarify to ourselves our fundamental<br />

aim, to determine what we seek in a<br />

genuinely liberative path. If we reflect<br />

carefully, it will become clear that the<br />

prime requirement is a way to the end<br />

of suffering. All problems ultimately can<br />

be reduced to the problem of suffering;<br />

thus, what we need is a way that will end<br />

this problem finally and completely. Both<br />

these qualifying words are important.<br />

The path has to lead to a complete end<br />

of suffering, to an end of suffering in all<br />

its forms, and to a final end of suffering,<br />

to bring suffering to an irreversible stop.<br />

But here we run up against another<br />

question. How are we to find such a path<br />

— a path which has the capacity to lead<br />

us to the full and final end of suffering?<br />

Until we actually follow a path to its goal<br />

we cannot know with certainty where<br />

it leads, and in order to follow a path to<br />

its goal we must place complete trust<br />

in the efficacy of the path. The pursuit<br />

of a spiritual path is not like selecting a<br />

new suit of clothes. To select a new suit<br />

one need only try on a number of suits,<br />

inspect oneself in the mirror, and select<br />

the suit in which one appears most<br />

attractive. The choice of a spiritual path is<br />

closer to marriage: one wants a partner<br />

for life, one whose companionship will<br />

prove as trustworthy and durable as the<br />

pole star in the night sky.<br />

Faced with this new dilemma, we<br />

may think that we have reached a dead<br />

end and conclude that we have nothing<br />

to guide us but personal inclination, if not<br />

a flip of the coin. However, our selection<br />

need not be as blind and uninformed as<br />

we imagine, for we do have a guideline<br />

to help us. Since spiritual paths are<br />

generally presented in the framework<br />

of a total teaching, we can evaluate<br />

the effectiveness of any particular path<br />

by investigating the teaching which<br />

expounds it.<br />

In making this investigation we<br />

can look to three criteria as standards<br />

for evaluation: (1) First, the teaching<br />

has to give a full and accurate picture<br />

of the range of suffering. If the picture<br />

of suffering it gives is incomplete or<br />

defective, then the path it sets forth will<br />

most likely be flawed, unable to yield a<br />

satisfactory solution. Just as an ailing<br />

patient needs a doctor who can make a<br />

full and correct diagnosis of his illness,<br />

so in seeking release from suffering we<br />

need a teaching that presents a reliable<br />

account of our condition.<br />

(2) The second criterion calls for<br />

a correct analysis of the causes giving<br />

rise to suffering. The teaching cannot<br />

stop with a survey of the outward<br />

symptoms. It has to penetrate beneath<br />

the symptoms to the level of causes, and<br />

to describe those causes accurately. If a<br />

teaching makes a faulty causal analysis,<br />

there is little likelihood that its treatment<br />

will succeed.<br />

(3) The third criterion pertains<br />

directly to the path itself. It stipulates<br />

that the path which the teaching offers<br />

has to remove suffering at its source.<br />

This means it must provide a method to<br />

cut off suffering by eradicating its causes.<br />

If it fails to bring about this root-level<br />

solution, its value is ultimately nil. The<br />

path it prescribes might help to remove<br />

symptoms and make us feel that all is<br />

well; but one afflicted with a fatal disease<br />

cannot afford to settle for cosmetic<br />

surgery when below the surface the<br />

cause of his malady continues to thrive.<br />

To sum up, we find three<br />

requirements for a teaching proposing to<br />

offer a true path to the end of suffering:<br />

first, it has to set forth a full and accurate<br />

picture of the range of suffering; second,<br />

it must present a correct analysis of the<br />

causes of suffering; and third, it must give<br />

us the means to eradicate the causes of<br />

suffering.<br />

This is not the place to evaluate<br />

the various spiritual disciplines in<br />

terms of these criteria. Our concern is<br />

only with the Dhamma, the teaching<br />

of the Buddha, and with the solution<br />

this teaching offer to the problem of<br />

suffering. That the teaching should be<br />

relevant to this problem is evident from<br />

its very nature; for it is formulated, not<br />

as a set of doctrines about the origin and<br />

end of things commanding belief, but as<br />

a message of deliverance from suffering<br />

claiming to be verifiable in our own<br />

experience. Along with that message<br />

there comes a method of practice, a<br />

way leading to the end of suffering.<br />

This way is the Noble Eightfold Path<br />

(ariya atthangika magga). The Eightfold<br />

Path stands at the very heart of the<br />

Buddha's teaching. It was the discovery<br />

of the path that gave the Buddha's own<br />

enlightenment a universal significance<br />

and elevated him from the status of<br />

a wise and benevolent sage to that of<br />

a world teacher. To his own disciples<br />

he was pre-eminently "the arouser of<br />

the path unrisen before, the producer<br />

of the path not produced before, the<br />

declarer of the path not declared before,<br />

the knower of the path, the seer of the<br />

path, the guide along the path" (MN<br />

108). And he himself invites the seeker<br />

with the promise and challenge: "You<br />

yourselves must strive. The Buddhas are<br />

only teachers. The meditative ones who<br />

practice the path are released from the<br />

bonds of evil" (Dhp. v. 276).<br />

To see the Noble Eightfold Path as<br />

a viable vehicle to liberation, we have to<br />

check it out against our three criteria:<br />

to look at the Buddha's account of the<br />

range of suffering, his analysis of its<br />

causes, and the programme he offers as<br />

a remedy..<br />

34 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 35

Aakash Asia (Thailand)<br />

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春 , 為 整 合 縣 內 慈 善 團 體 資 源 、 倡 導<br />

慈 善 事 業 社 工 化 、 並 合 理 而 有 效 的 幫<br />

助 亟 需 援 助 的 急 難 民 眾 , 以 避 免 資 源<br />

重 疊 浪 費 與 分 配 不 均 的 情 事 發 生 , 因<br />

此 於 民 國 95 年 底 邀 集 縣 內 所 有 慈 善 團<br />

體 開 會 研 商 、 獲 得 共 識 , 開 始 籌 組 「<br />

屏 東 縣 慈 善 團 體 聯 合 協 會 」。 經 半 年<br />

籌 備 , 於 96 年 6 月 17 日 正 式 成 立 , 首<br />

任 理 事 長 為 陳 美 瓊 女 士 ; 同 年 6 月 29<br />

日 經 屏 東 縣 政 府 正 式 核 准 立 案 , 並 於<br />

同 年 8 月 3 日 向 屏 東 地 方 法 院 申 請 登<br />

記 成 立 「 社 團 法 人 」, 自 此 後 以 「 資<br />

源 整 合 、 濟 弱 扶 傾 、 案 主 自 立 」 為 服<br />

務 宗 旨 , 積 極 展 開 資 源 連 結 、 雪 中 送<br />

炭 、 扶 助 經 濟 弱 勢 家 庭 及 關 懷 街 友 的<br />

愛 心 服 務 工 作 , 並 同 時 配 合 屏 東 縣 政<br />

府 社 會 福 利 政 策 之 推 行 , 為 「 幸 福 屏<br />

東 」 的 願 景 共 盡 一 份 心 力 。<br />

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36 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 37

The<br />

Mindfulness….<br />

To make the sense of doubt<br />

pervasive, we have to first devote<br />

ourselves to being mindful of the<br />

huatou and focus on the sense<br />

of doubt. Being mindful means firmly<br />

fastening our whole being to the huatou,<br />

making the two inseparables. It is like a<br />

woman who is fully occupied with the<br />

memory of her beloved living far away,<br />

as described by a well-known Chinese<br />

poet Li Qing Zhao (c.1084-1155). We<br />

have to keep the sense of doubt all the<br />

time. According to the chapter in the<br />

Shurangama Sutra, “Bodhisattva<br />

Mahasthamaprata’s Perfection<br />

in the Mindfulness of the Buddha,” to<br />

keep being mindful is to “focus the six<br />

sense organs on mindfulness and purify<br />

the mind-stream.” In other words, we<br />

don’t “shut” our sense organs, but direct<br />

them all to the object, knowing it clearly<br />

without discrimination, attachment or<br />

yearning for deluded thoughts.<br />

Letting go of all the sensations and<br />

feelings of body and mind, we simply<br />

practice the huatou by keeping up the<br />

inquiry. If we can purify our mind-stream<br />

this way, the sense of doubt will naturally<br />

become pervasive. In the same chapter,<br />

mindfulness is likened to the constant<br />

memory between mother and son,<br />

whose deep affection makes them keep<br />

each other in mind, even though they<br />

live separately. We should always keep<br />

the same mindfulness in huatou practice,<br />

devoting ourselves to the questioning,<br />

to the sense of doubt, until there are<br />

no forms or feelings of body and mind.<br />

At this moment we have no idea where<br />

we are. We have nothing to do with<br />

whatever is around us in the external<br />

world. We have no other thoughts but<br />

a clear sense of doubt in the mind. Only<br />

with this mindfulness can we make the<br />

huatou pervasive and expansive. If we<br />

practice the method well, eliminating<br />

all deluded thoughts, attachment,<br />

argument and discrimination, we can<br />

then realize what the <strong>Buddhist</strong> scriptures<br />

describe as the certainty of seeing the<br />

Buddha – in the present or in the future<br />

– simply by being mindful of the Buddha.<br />

Here, “the Buddha” refers to “the pure<br />

reality,” namely our true mind of purity.<br />

And being mindful of the Buddha does<br />

not only mean reciting his name; as long<br />

“Mindfulness<br />

and purify the<br />

mind-stream”….<br />

as we connect with our pure mind, any<br />

method will do. For example, when we<br />

have difficulty in sitting meditation, we<br />

can do prostrations until we feel peaceful<br />

and at ease in body and mind; we can do<br />

this until we have no deluded thoughts<br />

or distractions.<br />

That is also being mindful of the<br />

Buddha. If we always keep the Buddha<br />

in mind, we will then have no deluded<br />

thoughts and our pure mind will<br />

naturally emerge. Then we are sure to<br />

see the Buddha, or our true nature of<br />

purity, now or in the future. Even though<br />

we remain in the burning house of the<br />

three realms of cyclic existence, we can<br />

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38 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 39

Stay conformable at Buddha's Holy Place in<br />

Bodhgaya, India....<br />

Most<br />

Venerable<br />

Da Xing Fa<br />

Shi<br />

Leader Chan<br />

Monk for<br />

Retreats &<br />

Patriarch<br />

Meditation….<br />

of a martial arts studio in Genoa.<br />

While training in martial<br />

arts around the world, he had the<br />

opportunity to encounter <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

teachings, and soon decided to further<br />

investigate Buddhism. In fact, Da Xing<br />

Fa Shi started his studies, took refuge,<br />

and received the Five Precepts under<br />

Venerable Master Tae Hye Sunim. He<br />

continued his learning throughout Asia<br />

and United States, where he attended<br />

several intensive Chan retreats under<br />

the guidance of Venerable Master Sheng<br />

Yen, and other rigorous retreats at the<br />

City of Ten Thousand Buddha in Northern<br />

California, founded by Venerable Master<br />

Hsuan Hua. He spent significant amounts<br />

of time at the Berkeley <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

Monastery, where he studied Buddhism<br />

with the Abbot Venerable Heng Sure.<br />

During these years, he also led solo<br />

retreats of various durations.<br />

In April 2005, after becoming<br />

a novice monk in Taiwan under the<br />

guidance of Venerable Master Sen<br />

Guang, Da Xing Fa Shi received the full<br />

Mahayana monastic ordination under<br />

the supervision of Venerable Master Wei<br />

Chueh at Chung Tai Chan Si Monastery in<br />

Central Taiwan.<br />

In 2011, Da Xing Fa Shi had the<br />

great opportunity to meet his current<br />

teacher, Chan Master Guo Ru, who is<br />

the great disciple of Master Sheng Yen<br />

carrying on the Chinese Chan Sudden<br />

Approach Teaching. From that time on,<br />

he has continued to follow Master Guo<br />

Ru’s instructions to practice Sudden<br />

Chan Approach. Nonetheless, Da Xing<br />

Fashi has been appointed by Master Guo<br />

Ru to assist in teaching and spreading of<br />

Chinese Chan Sudden Approach in China,<br />

and across the world. Now he travels in<br />

different countries conducting retreats<br />

and workshops, determined to practice<br />

Buddhadharma, and to propagate the<br />

Chinese Chan Sudden Approach to<br />

anyone interested in Buddhism.<br />

Moreover, Da Xing loves Chinese<br />

Tea Culture, and started to practice<br />

and teach a method of meditation<br />

involving mindful appreciation of tea:<br />

The Tea Chan, which is a significant and<br />

captivating way to teach Buddhism.<br />

Fascinated by Chinese language and<br />

Chan poems, Da Xing is also practicing<br />

the Chinese language and writing. In<br />

fact, Da Xing Fa Shi is fluent in speaking<br />

Italian, English and Chinese.<br />


Da Xing Fa Shi *was born and<br />

raised in Genoa, Italy, in a typical<br />

Catholic family. From a young age<br />

Da Xing Fa Shi started to learn<br />

Chinese martial arts and Qi Gong and<br />

was trained to become Shifu (Master) of<br />

the sixth generation from the founder of<br />

the Yang Style Tai Ji Quan. Years later, Da<br />

Xing became accomplished in Asian and<br />

Western martial arts. For many years, he<br />

was the owner and the leading teacher<br />

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40 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 41

Happiness<br />

to be true<br />

and lasting….<br />

which resolves might be harmful.<br />

Some of them involve wanting<br />

to commit outright violence to other<br />

people, or having ill will for other people.<br />

Some of the them involve being attached<br />

to sensual desires— because, as the<br />

Buddha once said, even if it rained gold<br />

coins, we wouldn’t have enough for our<br />

sensual desires. If that’s where we’re<br />

looking for happiness, there’s no end to<br />

it. And how many showers of gold coins<br />

have you seen?<br />

And how many showers would<br />

we need to satisfy every person, every<br />

animal on earth? With no sense of<br />

satisfaction, we’re bound to get into<br />

conflict with one another over what few<br />

gold coins there are. There’s no way that<br />

a true happiness can be found that way.<br />

So you try to learn how to wean yourself<br />

away from sensual desires.<br />

President of the<br />

Outstanding Women<br />

in Buddhism<br />

Awards (OWBA), President<br />

of the Chinese Character<br />

Education Promotion<br />

Association, Deputy<br />

President of the World<br />

Alliance of <strong>Buddhist</strong>s<br />

(WAB)<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Bhikkhuni Dr. Ming Yu<br />

Taiwan<br />

“We’re looking<br />

for a harmless<br />

happiness”….<br />

developing clarity in the mind.<br />

When our pleasure depends on<br />

harming other beings, we tend to have<br />

big blind spots around the harm we’re<br />

doing. We can think of all sorts of ways to<br />

justify the harm we cause to other beings<br />

or to other people in the course of our<br />

quest for pleasure. In doing so, we built<br />

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We’re doing as we meditate:<br />

We’re looking for a<br />

harmless happiness. This<br />

is a very important way<br />

of being kind to others. Sometimes<br />

meditation is denounced as a selfish<br />

activity because you seem to be just<br />

looking after yourself. But people who<br />

know how to look after themselves are<br />

less of a burden on other people.<br />

That’s why these skills are an<br />

expression of kindness. There’s a passage<br />

where the Buddha says that right resolve,<br />

which is one of the factors of the path,<br />

finds its highest expression in doing right<br />

concentration. In other words, you have<br />

to reflect on the fact that your quest for<br />

happiness is going to have to depend on<br />

your own actions, and you don’t want to<br />

harm anybody else in the course of the<br />

quest. Because your actions come from<br />

your resolves, you have to reflect on<br />

And the best way to do that is to find<br />

a sense of pleasure within. This is why<br />

the Buddha taught right concentration.<br />

It’s not just that you focus on your mind,<br />

but you focus in a way that gives rise to a<br />

sense of ease, a sense of rapture. In this<br />

way you satisfy your immediate need for<br />

pleasure at the same time that you’re<br />

up huge areas of denial and ignorance in<br />

our mind.<br />

But when your pleasure depends<br />

on things that are causing no harm at all,<br />

you can be clearer about where there<br />

is harm in the world, where there is<br />

conflict, because your happiness doesn’t<br />

depend on that harm or conflict.<br />

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42 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 43

Now<br />

“Buddha<br />

in the air”….<br />

We are in Europe<br />

Germany....<br />

“Pathamam bodhi pallankan<br />

Duthiyansa animissan Thathiyanthan<br />

samnan settan” - First week at the base<br />

of Bodhi, second week looking at Bodhi<br />

without blinking the eyes and third week<br />

Buddha realized that the gods were<br />

uncertain as to whether he had attained<br />

Enlightenment. To dispel their doubts<br />

Buddha spent the third week walking in<br />

one direction walking on a golden plank<br />

he had created with psychic powers in<br />

the air, while another Buddha created<br />

with the supreme psychic powers of<br />

Enlightened walked in the opposite<br />

direction, where too that Buddha also<br />

walked on a golden plank that had been<br />

created by Buddha in the air. Why is it<br />

Third<br />

Week after<br />

Enlightenment….<br />

that both Buddha did not walk in one<br />

and the same direction?<br />

To find the answer with Dhamma<br />

one needs to go to Dwayathanupassana<br />

Sutra (contemplation of Dyads), where<br />

the stanzas are in pairs. We the mundane<br />

people think we are alone, say when<br />

staying with no one around. But they<br />

are mistaken because in our inglorious<br />

traversing of this Sansara we are never<br />

alone, but with a second person, that<br />

of craving. Even now this second person<br />

craving is with us pushing and pulling us<br />

in all directions.<br />

“Thanhaya duthiyo puriso<br />

digamaddhana<br />

sansaran,<br />

Iththabaannanthabhavan sansarn<br />

nathivaththathi” - “With craving as the<br />

second person, all beings will for very<br />

long time will traverse the inglorious<br />

samsara becoming as this and as that<br />

and will never overcome to escape from<br />

it.” Thus, we the beings be they human<br />

or gods are always with a second one,<br />

that of craving all the time until one<br />

finds total liberation of Nirvana where<br />

the consciousness is non-illustrated.<br />

But the Enlightened Ones are all<br />

by themselves having extinguished<br />

craving and their consciousness is nonillustrated.<br />

Thus, even two Enlightened<br />

One are not together. Buddha to show<br />

this fact to the beings, be the Gods or<br />

Brahma and to Humans did so in the<br />

third week after Enlightenment. In the<br />

peons of joy Buddha expressed soon<br />

after Enlightenment, he said that craving<br />

is fully eradicated.<br />

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44 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 45

Lord Buddha the Supreme<br />

Omniscient self - English hood one<br />

has taught thus: To the truly devout<br />

disciples who held in venerable<br />

the overcome the immoral mental<br />

concomitants or papanca dhamma,<br />

such as sensuourdesires ancient urog<br />

views, the agga savaha the most learned<br />

disciples, will surely enjoy the blessings<br />

and benefits which will indeed be<br />

beyond reclosing.<br />

Therefore, it is highly meritorious<br />

to hood in venerable the sacred relics of<br />

the Buddha who had attained nibbana.<br />

Every devotee present hence will know<br />

the Theravada Buddhism which had<br />

enlightened the Myanmar nation and<br />

its people since the Bagan daily, all<br />

though the succeeding epochs such<br />

as Innwa, Pinya, Touugoo Amarapara.<br />

Tatanapura, Konebaug is been reviewed<br />

and sustained up to the present moment<br />

with added aura and auspiciousness.<br />

The teachings of Lord Buddha<br />

(Buddha Sasana) comprises of three<br />

aspects, pariyatti sasana - Doctrine<br />

aspects, palipatt sasana - practical<br />

meditation, pativada sasana - penetrative<br />

insight into the four Noble Truths<br />

It is a useful able fact that the sacred<br />

relics, images, repositories of their relics<br />

such as pagodas, temples, caves and<br />

monasteries were initiated by the most<br />

Dr Bhaddanta<br />

Ariyavamasa Agga Maha<br />

Pandita, Agga Maha<br />

Thaddamma Zawtikadaza,<br />

Maha Thaddamma<br />

Zawtikadaza,Pariyatti<br />

Sasana Hitadara,The<br />

Republic of the Union<br />

of Myanmar President's<br />

State Excellence award<br />

holder, Chancellor of<br />

Alodawpyei Monasteries<br />

Most Venerable<br />

Alodawpyei Sayadaw<br />

Thero<br />

Myanmar<br />

Penetrative<br />

insight into<br />

the four<br />

Noble<br />

Truths….<br />

revered and venerable shin Arahan. He<br />

had converted King Anawrahta emperor<br />

of the first Bagan empire into Buddhism.<br />

Thus, all attributes and manifestations of<br />

Buddhism in the form of these importing<br />

structures were constricted during the<br />

Bagan period. It was in these holy that<br />

the laughs had resided ad perpetrated<br />

the canonical scrip hues of <strong>Buddhist</strong><br />

teaching. It was in deeded the era of the<br />

enlightening of Buddhism.<br />

There were four sacred structures<br />

or objects of worship and veneration<br />

that Lord Buddha had ordained for the<br />

entire 5000 years of Buddha sasana. They<br />

are (1) Dhatin Ceti (2) Dhamma Ceti (3)<br />

Udissa Ceti and (4) Paribogha Ceti. Ceti<br />

is herein defined in Pali, the language of<br />

the scriptures as follows.<br />

"Cayi tabbam, Pujetabbanit<br />

Cetiyani, Jihtakadihi, Citatthava, Ceti<br />

yam., Ceti is defined thus because it is<br />

worthy of praying and veneration OR the<br />

holy structure which is constructed with<br />

stones, brick etc is called ceti. Ceti is such<br />

a venerable symbol of worship by human<br />

celestial beings.<br />

To further elaborate on the<br />

explanation Dhatu Ceti is a repository<br />

of the most sacred relies of Buddha.<br />

pacieba Buddha, Aeahat, and sakkra<br />

ruler of the four continuity Dhamma<br />

Ceti is a compendium of the sacred<br />

teachings of Lord Buddha which include.<br />

Paticca samuppada (law of Dependent<br />

Origination) and causal relation the<br />

maha satipalthana and other dhamma<br />

teachings inscribed on palm leaves, gold<br />

and silver slabs, stone and inscriptions,<br />

etc. The Pariboga Ceti sacred requisites<br />

of Lord Buddha namely. The sacred<br />

Bodhi tree where Buddha attained<br />

Enlightenment; sacred robes. Again,<br />

the teaching have been dined into their<br />

collection or three barkers, commonly<br />

known as Tipitaka in Pali Script, names<br />

So, Sutta pitaka meaning the convention<br />

teaching and discourses, Vinaya pitaka<br />

meaning the authoritarian teaching<br />

which embody the ruler disc plain<br />

highest codes of ethics, Abhidhama<br />

pilaka meaning the highest teaching<br />

which include the ultimate, reality,<br />

(paramaltha) and nibbana, the ultimate<br />

cessation.<br />

"The convention<br />

teachings” ….<br />

46 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 47

48 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 49

The<br />

Harmonious<br />

Society….<br />

We all know Buddhism is one<br />

of the oldest religions in<br />

the world. It is more than<br />

two and half millennium<br />

development; the contribution of<br />

Buddhism towards world culture is<br />

indeed great. I am being a humble<br />

<strong>Buddhist</strong> monk; few points will be put<br />

forward in the context of this occasion<br />

will be mostly in <strong>Buddhist</strong> perspective.<br />

I am though conscious of the fact that<br />

all religions have served humanity for<br />

centuries. What I will say will be primarily<br />

to make aware the positive aspects of<br />

Buddhism and like to recapitulate the<br />

“Lovingkindness<br />

is not<br />

mere religious<br />

brotherhood spirit<br />

either ”….<br />

today’s global scene.<br />

As human beings, we have achieved<br />

a high level of material progress we<br />

would not have even dreamed of barely<br />

a century ago. The marvels of modern<br />

technology have given us enormous<br />

power over the forces of nature. Despite<br />

the miraculous achievement made by<br />

scientists and technologists, the suffering<br />

and miseries of humanity have not<br />

become less. On the contrary, violence,<br />

aggression, confl ict, hatred, mistrust<br />

have manifested at an alarming rate.<br />

Countless human beings are tortured<br />

and killed every day across the world. No<br />

day goes by without fi ghting and killing.<br />

50% of the world’s economic resources<br />

are being spent for manufacturing war<br />

equipments for destructive purposes. At<br />

the same time, it is estimated that about<br />

40,000 children die of hunger or hunger<br />

related disease every day, and more<br />

than 700 million people in the world are<br />

malnourished. Now we are competing in<br />

producing nuclear weapons, which is a<br />

plan to destroy the whole world - global<br />

destruction.<br />

In the past, wars were fought to win<br />

but now in the nuclear wars, there will<br />

be no winner or loser left, all of us will<br />

perish. Despite amazing breakthroughs<br />

in medical science, diseases like AIDS<br />

are threatening to swamp mankind.<br />

Mental illnesses, stress and loneliness<br />

are some of the serious problem we<br />

now face in our modern society. To<br />

satisfy human greed, most of the world’s<br />

forests are mercilessly beings destroyed.<br />

Industrialists are polluting the air, rivers<br />

and oceans everywhere in pursuit of<br />

profi ts. They are ready to pollute and<br />

destroy the whole environment for their<br />

own selfi sh ends. This has resulted in<br />

weather conditions and the ecological<br />

balance being disturbed. Global warming<br />

(the direct result of deforestation and<br />

toxic emissions) has resulted in the rise<br />

in global temperatures, and the icecaps<br />

and glaciers are melting very quickly.<br />

Some parts of the world are experiencing<br />

deadly fl oods while other areas are<br />

crippled by drought. Innumerable<br />

species of wildlife have been driven<br />

to extinction because of man’s lack of<br />

consideration and thought for others.<br />

In short, the growth mania has led to<br />

intensive depletion of natural balances<br />

and has upset the ecosystem resulting an<br />

insurmountable man made Dukha.<br />

Building a Harmonious Society<br />

- The Universal Loving Kindness and<br />

compassion is the only Panacea for the<br />

ills of today’s world. The development of<br />

loving kindness softens people’s hearts.<br />

In the organizations of nations, instead<br />

of providing military aid, we should<br />

give the pure aid of loving kindness to<br />

the helpless world. It is defi ned as the<br />

sincere wish for the welfare and genuine<br />

happiness of all mankind without<br />

distinction between others and us. “Just<br />

as a mother protects her only child<br />

even at the risk of her own life, even so<br />

one should cultivate boundless lovingkindness<br />

towards all living beings.” This<br />

is the advice of the Buddha. Therefore,<br />

loving kindness is not the passionate<br />

love of mother towards her child. Even<br />

so, our love towards the other nations,<br />

countries must be a sincere wish and<br />

pure love for the genuine peace and<br />

welfare of the world. We should extend<br />

the boundless universal brotherhood<br />

spirit embracing all nations, all races, all<br />

classes, and all countries without barriers<br />

in the differences of political views.<br />

Founder & President of<br />

Mahabodhi <strong>International</strong><br />

Meditation Centre, Leh,<br />

Ladakh, India, Founder<br />

& President of Save the<br />

Himalaya Foundation -<br />

New Delhi, Founder &<br />

President of Foundation<br />

of Indian <strong>Buddhist</strong> New<br />

Delhi, India<br />

Most Venerable Bhikkhu<br />

Sanghasena<br />

INDIA<br />

50 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> l www.mettavalokanaya.com www.mettavalokanaya.com l <strong>2019</strong> l <strong>September</strong> l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> l 51

The World’s Largest <strong>International</strong> Maha<br />

Sanghadana Linkou,Taiwan - August 25, <strong>2019</strong><br />

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Official Media Partner - <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong><br />

Buddhika Sanjeewa, as the Founder, President & Chief Editor of Mettavalokana <strong>Buddhist</strong> Publications Centre, I printed and published this “<strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong>” <strong>Buddhist</strong> <strong>Magazine</strong> as<br />

52 l <strong>Mettavalokanaya</strong> a publication of Mettavalokana l October <strong>Buddhist</strong> l 2018 l Publications www.mettavalokanaya.com<br />

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