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Dignified Adviser

Mahopadyaya Most Venerable

Dr. Pannila Sri Ananda Thero

Chief Prelate of the Aththanagalla Sri Arahantha

Rajamaha Viharaya, Houston Buddhist Temple -

America, First Theravada Buddhist Temple - Taiwan

and the Secretary of the Los Angeles Dharma

Vijaya Buddhist Temple - America, the Chief High

Prelate of the Seenadi Sivu Korale Chapter

Founder / President / Chief Editor

Buddhika Sanjeewa

Creave Director

Wijaya Wagaarachchi

Your comments

Chief Editor,


Meavalokana Buddhist Publicaons Centre,

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Rukgahawila, Sri Lanka.

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“The mind

keep with

deep wisdom

& great


utmost joy”….

- Most Venerable

Bhikkhuni Shih

Ming Dao –

2 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 3

"Possesses the

root of wisdom"….


for awakening


First, fulfill the restraint of sensefaculties

(indriya-saṃvara-sīla) by

exercising control over the sense

organs. Develop the first jhana

(a stage of meditative absorption) by

practicing Ānāpānasati” (mindfulness of

breathing) so as to abandon restlessness

(uddhacca) and dullness(thina-middha).

Meanwhile, develop contemplation

on the unpleasant (asubhānupassin),

loving-kindness (mettā-saññā), the six

recollections (cha anussatiṭṭhānāni)

and the six things conducive to true

knowledge (cha vijjābhāgiyā dhammā).

Cultivate the enlightenment factor

of mindfulness (satisambojjhaṅgo):

discerning, as it actually is, the Twelve

Factors of Relevant Influencing(Paṭiccasamuppāda)

is the core meditation

method, which is alternatively expounded

with the other nine meditation methods,

namely, contemplating the arising and

cessation of the Four Foundation of

Mindfulness (satipaṭṭhāna), of the Five

abstruseness (aggregates), of Six Bases for

Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ),

of the World (loka), of the body in Being

(sakkāya), of the four kinds of Nutriment

President of Buddha's

Sangha Association, The

Chief Monk of Original

Buddhism Sambodhi

Sangha Society in Taiwan,

Saddhamma Cultural

Centre & Holy Buddha

Monastery, Jiaohe City,


Most Venerable Bhikkhu

Vūpasama Maha Thera


(cattārome āhārā), of the base of power

endowed with concentration founded

on discrimination and the fabrications

of exertion (vīriyasāsamādhippadhāna

saṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ),

of the aging-death, and lastly

contemplating the truth of suffering, the

arising and cessation of suffering during

the first round of the four noble truths.

Practice the most crucial parts of the

contemplation of Relevant Influencing --

the 'Seven stages of insight meditation',

'The Forty Four Contemplation

methods', and the 'Ninety-Two Arising

Manifestation' which leads to clarity that

the five abstruseness (aggregates) are

the phenomena of Relevant Influencing

(paṭicca-samuppanna-dhamma), and

therefore phenomenon of Relevant

Influencing (paṭicca-samuppannadhamma)

is impermanent (anicca),

non-ego (anattā) and is not of mine,

and consequently learn that from birth

comes suffering (dukkha).

After seeing clearly that the

five abstruseness (aggregates) are

phenomena of relevant influencing

(paṭicca-samuppanna-dhamma), one

realizes that craving is a trouble-maker

which leads to suffering, dissipation

of craving is the path to cessation of

suffering. The right view that 'with

the dissipation of craving for the five

abstruseness (aggregates) comes the

cessation of suffering' is obtained. Thus,

one sees, as it actually is, how 'the five

abstruseness (aggregates) relevantly

arise and annihilate'; or sees, as it

actually is, the 'arising and cessation

of the Twelve Factors of Relevant

Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)', as

expounded by the Buddha: 'from the

attainment of the knowledge of relevant

influencing (dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇaṃ) comes

the knowledge of Nibbāna', and possess

the seventy seven types of knowledge;

thus dispel ignorance, ego, and doubt;

and consequently acquire indestructible

confidence in Buddha, Dhamma and

Saṅgha; falling no more into the three

evil realms, thus possesses the wisdom

for liberation.

Practice the 'enlightenment factor

of discrimination of Dhamma' (Dhamma

vicaya) as follows: By seeing, as it actually

is, how 'the five abstruseness (aggregates)

relevantly arise and annihilate'; one thus

clearly sees, as it actually is, the path

leading to annihilation of birth, death

and suffering—the Eight-fold Path. This

is also known as 'seeing the noble path

as it actually is', and possessing the forty

four types of knowledge. Thus, one has

clarity of the first four aspects of the first

round of the four noble truths, dissipates

the views of distorted grasp of rules and

vows, and possesses the root of wisdom

and the root of faith, and is definitely

ledto samyak-sambodhi.

Practice the 'enlightenment factor

of diligence (viriya) as follows Having

possessed the clarity as a result of the

first round with the first four aspects of

the four noble truths, then by dwelling in

the right mindfulness and wisdom, one

should cultivate diligently the Six Bases

for Contact(channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ)

(i.e. the five abstruseness[aggregates])

in accordance with dispassion, aversion,

and cessation that lead to liberation,

sequentially practice the holy, can

kerless (Anāsavā) and supra-mundane

Eight-fold path, which is also known

as 'the unexcelled development of the

faculties in the discipline of a noble one.

Thus, apply the root of wisdom to the

development of the root of diligence,

the root of mindfulness and the root of

concentration respectively, one practices

in such a way is destined for cessation

of suffering, liberation, and samyaksambodhi.

In accordance with the sequence of

the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta

Bojjhaṅgā), instructions on 'the fourteen

essential methods on the development

of wisdom and the cessation of craving

will be given. Practice the 'enlightenment

factors of Joy (pīti), Tranquility

(Passaddhi) and Concentration

(Samādhi) as follows: By dwelling in

the right mindfulness and wisdom,

cultivating diligently the Six Bases for

Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ)

for dispelling craving and the bond of the

five abstruseness[aggregates]), one who

practices as such will possess sympathetic

joy from superior renunciation

(enlightenment factors of Joy).

Sympathetic joy gives rise to tranquility

of body and mind (enlightenment factors

of Tranquility); which subsequently leads

to the disengagement from joy-abiding,

thus, enabling pure one-pointedness

concentration (enlightenment factors of


Thus, in accordance with clear

vision as the result of the first round

of the four noble truths, sequentially

practice fulfilling the supra-mundane

Eight-fold path, which consequently leads

to the attainment of right concentration,

detachment from craving and hatred,

the disconnection from the nutriment

of consciousness(viññāṇāhāro),

and liberation. By so achieving, one

completes the second round with the

four aspects of the four noble truths,

and possesses the root of exertion, the

root of mindfulness and the root of


Practice 'the enlightenment factor

of equanimity' as follows: Upon the

attainment of right concentration, one

sequential attains the Five Roots, namely,

the root of wisdom, the root of faith, the

root of exertion, the root of mindfulness,

and the root of concentration. Thus,

dissipation of ignorance, craving, and

hatred, the attainment of liberation

with thorough knowledge and vision

of liberation (vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti)

normally proclaimed as 'Destroyed is

birth, the holy life has been lived, what

has to be done is done, there's no more

this state of being 'is achieved. This is the

completion of the third round with the

four aspects of the four noble truths.

Practicing the seven enlightenment

factors in such a way is the integrated

manifestation of all the noble teachings

of Buddha Sākyamuni of his lifetime.

By so completing the practice of the

'seven factors of enlightenment', the

three rounds with twelve aspects of the

Four Noble Truths is so achieved, thus

possesses enlightenment, dispassion,

the Four Immeasurable Attitudes (viz.

loving-kindness, compassion, joy and

equanimity), liberation (Mokkha), and

Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi. Utmost

applications of the Four Noble Truths:

the most important teachings will be

given to the disciples by the master


Original Buddhism Society - The

Sambodhi Saṅgha adheres to the Suttas

collected by the First Buddhist Council.

It follows the fundamental practice of

the Noble Saṅgha before the Buddhist

schism, and continues transmitting

the Suttas from the ancient tradition

of Ānanda lineage and Upāli lineage.

The Saṅgha abides by the Vinaya and

reinstates an orthodox Saṅgha that

follows the Sutta and Vinaya. The Saṅgha

establishes Original Buddhism Societies

in Taiwan, USA, Australia and Malaysia

to guide the people to rediscover the

Buddha’s path. The societies promote

and transmit the true teaching of the

Buddha in accordance with Causation

and Four Noble Truths. It is Humanistic

Buddhism that is applicable to both the

mundane and supra-mundane worlds.

The objectives of Original Buddhism

Society are to rediscover the Buddha's

original teachings; to support a Saṅgha

that abides by the Buddha’s original

teaching and Vinaya; to adhere to the

Sutta and Vinaya, respect the Saṅgha

and unite lay devotees, uphold equal

rights in gender and segregate religion

from politics.

Sambodhi Sangha - Sambodhi

Sangha's practice and cultivation is

based on the seven Saṃyuttas common

to the Southern lineage Theravada's

Saṃyutta Nikāya and the Northern

lineage's Saṃyukta-Āgama. The seven

Saṃyuttas are the earliest recorded

teachings of the Buddha from the first

council. The practice of Sambodhi

Sangha emphasizes the right view of

“condition arising” and the insight into

the body and mind, putting into practice

the liberation from greed. The monks

and nuns’ communities of Sambodhi

Sangha practice by meditate throughout

the year. The monks and nuns do not

accept, accumulate or use money, nor

are there any attendants who manage

money on their behalf. Sambodhi Sangha

propagates the original teachings of the

Buddha in Taiwan as well as to other

places around the world all year round,

teaching the practice of Seven Factors of

Enlightenment, and to attain in stages the

three rounds and twelve aspects of the

Four Noble Truths which put Buddha's

teaching into real-life application, solving

daily practical problems and leading

towards a bright and successful life.

4 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 5

The Essence

of Zen


Zen is simply your Ordinary Mind.

Keeping nothing in your mind, you can

then be as productive and creative as you

could be! Zen is life itself. If you want to

make your life blossom and open up, you

need to do Zazen. Zen is actually the full

blossoming of your own beautiful life.

Zen gives you a wonderful perspective on

the panorama of Life. Zen's essence itself

is primordially perfect and complete.

You can't find any faults or

imperfections in it. And your life is of

course very rare, wonderful and utterly

precious. You should seize and savor

this precious human life to seek for the

(Chan Master Hsin Tao)

Founder of Museum

of World religion, Ling

Jiou Mountain Buddhist

Society, Museum of World

Religions (MWR), and the

Global Family for Love and

Peace (GFLP)

Most Venerable Dharma

Master Hisn Tao


Ultimate Wisdom of Zen. When you

attain Zen, you can control your life and

death. Unlike the fleeting and eroded

sand and soil, you can now master your

mind and your life. I am promoting

Zen in overseas countries nowadays.

Many westerners are very interested

in Zen meditation. I introduced them a

special type of Zen practice that I called

"Peace Zen" - which has a very clear and

systematic four steps in its practice.

The preliminaries and the results

of this Peace Zen are very clear and

productive, and they can practice it

with unwavering faith and one-pointed

diligence. This systematic approach

enables them to understand, practice

and realize the essence of Zen in a

simpler and more humanistic way.

Ultimately speaking, Chinese Zen (Chan)

has no gradual steps. Either you get it or

not - that's all. There's no way or method

no practice Zen. Since Zen has no specific

steps and gradual methods, it can use

All kinds of methods and approaches.

Its exclusiveness lies within its flexibility

and inclusiveness. Zen is forever lively,

flowing and dynamic.

But no understand the essence of

Zen, you must have a very sharp and

receptive mind. If you are slow and

dumb, then you will need more time and

efforts in getting to realize the essence

of Zen. So, from my own practical

experience, I've now designed Peace Zen

in a very systematic and approachable

way. If you enter into the practice of

Zen in this way, whether you are sharp

or not, you can be assured that you

would realize its essence very easily and

systematically. Actually, the essence of

Zen is within everyone's mind. It's in you

as well, just that you didn't know how to

recognize it. It will be such a waste if you

miss this treasure of Mind within your

own self! You see, our mind is really very

wonderful and amazing.

You must utilize the energy and

function of your meditation to look at

your own mind. By doing meditation,

you're introduced to your own mind. You

are given a chance to understand your

mind so that you could get along with it.

By and by, by knowing your own mind's

characters and nature, you can then use

this very mind to practice the Dharma and

to gain Enlightenment. The Great Buddha

has the same mind as ours as well. He had

nothing besides his own Enlightened and

Pure mind. When the Buddha attained

supreme Enlightenment, all phenomena

were transformed into the world of

Avatamsaka (Flower Adornment).

But what is this Avatamsaka

World? The world of Avatamsaka is

nothing but our wonderful, glorious

and splendid mind. So in order to attain

Enlightenment, we must begin with

knowing and understanding our own

mind. Zen is mind and mind is Zen. From

the practice of Zen, you will find your

True Mind and from this True Mind,

you'll obtain Ultimate Wisdom. The Zen

way is the way to reduce or eliminate

“The Zen control

your life”….

the burdens and hang-ups of your

mind - not to add or increase anything

whatsoever. A man said to a Zen Master,

"I want Happiness." Zen Master said,

first remove "I", that's ego, then remove

"want", that's desire - See now you are

left with only Happiness. From the story

above, you know that it is a fallacy to

be getting something out of your Zen

meditation. No, you won't get anything

in the beginning.

The very purpose of Zen is to know

the Nature of your own mind - which is

egoless, desire-less, devoid of “I” and all

or her relative labels and boundaries. By

knowing the egoless-ness of this mind,

or by eliminating our discursive thoughts

and negative emotions, our True Mind

will shine brightly and sharply; chasing

away all our darkness, ignorance and

problems of life. Zen is a direct way in

penetrating into the core of our mind.

Zen meditation can help you understand

the nature of your essence - just like

peeling the onion, layer by layer, you will

find NOTHING at the end, and nothing is

left in your hands. That nothingness or

emptiness is the source of all. From here

everything begins or has the possibility

to manifest itself - beautifully and


The purpose of Zen is to be

peaceful with your own self. Zen helps

you to eliminate all outer complications,

and it will help you to bring your mind

HOME. When you go back to the Home

of your True Nature of Mind, you let go

of all stress, worries, fear and negative

emotions. You become very relax; you

are AT HOME - finally and ultimately. You

become very at ease.

You are comfortable, joyful and

cozy. True relaxation happens when you

return to the Home of your True Mind,

your ultimate refuge and your true

'comfort zone'. When you practice Zen

meditation, you are actually enjoying a

wonderful journey going back to your

hometown, your motherland or your

sweet 'comfort zone'. This is the most

wonderful enjoyment you could get, and

it is definitely a great treat to yourself

- simply because you deserve it! You

become easily confused, tired, stressed

and irritated when you are overwhelmed

by busyness and speediness in your

complicated day to day personal and

business lives.

Hence, Zen is the best remedy the

best way to reward yourself if you really

know how to love to treasure your body

mind and brain BMB. In the modern

age of IT, Zen meditation is the easiest

and most organic method in bringing

balance, peace and fulfillment into your

busy and hectic life.

6 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 7

The Image of



The Tipitaka literature (esteemed

Buddhist scriptures) was brought

to Bagan from Thaton by King

Anawratha (Aniruddha) with the

help of Thera Shin Arahan in 1044 A.D,

the Bagan period. The king encouraged

the people of his country to establish

monastic schools to enable their children

to study these significant works (Mon,


That shows the laudable motivation

of King Anawratha to facilitate children’s

learning in monastic schools. In addition,

it saved on the country’s expenditure

as no salaries were needed to pay the

teachers as they were Buddhist monks.

The education status of the nation also

reached its peak at this time because the

monastic schools in every village were

led by scholarly monks.

Thanks to monastic education,

both spiritual and secular scholars

evolved in the Bagan period. Then in

the Ava period, eminent monk literary

scholars such as Shin Mahasilavamsa

and Shin Maharatthasara and lay literary

scholars like Myawadi Min Gyi U Sa and

Yaw Mingyi U Pho Hlaing in Konbaung

period emerged.

Even after the dethronement

of the last monarch, King Thibaw of

the Konbaung dynasty in 1885, the

State Advisor, Aggamahasaddhamajotikadhaja,

President Excellent Award,

President, Phaung Daw Oo

International University,

Mandalay, Myanmar.

Most Venerable Nayaka

Maha Thero


monasteries remained intact as the

schools with all the necessary resources

for children to learn. Sir Arthur Phayre,

the first chief commissioner of Burma,

attempted to incorporate the secular

education system with monastic schools

after seeing the facilities and wide spaces

of their monasteries. There were four

thousand nine hundred and nineteen

(4919) monastic education schools in the

British colonial period.

When prime minister U Nu widely

supported the monastic school education

system at the inception of independence,

called the Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom

League (AFPFL) period, there were up to

five thousand five hundred and forty-five

(5545) established monastic education


After 1962, during the Socialist

era, the karma of monastic education

schools fluctuated up and down under

the then government. Eventually, in

1982 all monastic schools were subject

to closure. A decade later, in response

to petitions by the senior monks of

the State Sanghamahanayaka Council,

the military government reopened the

monastic education schools in 1992.

In Myanmar there are currently

one thousand five hundred and eightyone

(1581) monastic education schools

"The Buddhist

education creates

meaningful world”….

of all levels i.e. elementary, postelementary,

secondary, and tertiary. In

order to develop and make progress in

monastic school education, the Monastic

Education Development Group (MEDG)

has been providing teacher training

and administrative courses for monastic

school staff.

The Education System in Myanmar

- The headwaters, from which the

mainstream of Myanmar education has

formed, are monastic education schools

led by Buddhist monks. “The beginning

of Myanmar education is from Monastic

schools” as the saying goes. The position

of Myanmar education today is still

lagging far behind that of international

education, so there is strong support for

the KG+12 education reform plan that

has been initiated by the Ministry of

Education. The scourge of the current

education system in Myanmar is “rote

learning”. The following reforms to

change this system are desperately


Reforming the Entire Education

System - As mentioned above, Myanmar

education is seriously deficient

compared to international provision. In

fact, the present education system of

Myanmar has been inherited from the

British, although that system no longer

exists in Britain as it has long since been

reformed. The timely initiation of the

Ministry of Education to embrace the

formation of a KG+12 system is fully

appreciated. In the 2019/2020 academic

year, it is heartening to know that Grades

1, 2, 3 and 6 have already been reformed.

However, when it comes to

the higher education sector there

are still many aspects to reform. In

national education law, the autonomy

of universities has been enacted by

the Union Parliament. Accordingly,

universities registered in Myanmar have

the right to autonomy, but criticism exists

concerning the limitations surrounding

increased efficiency and competitiveness

(University World News, 2018).

Reforming Teaching Methodology

- At present, the only teaching

methodology applied in Myanmar

education is “rote learning” which pays

most attention to memorizing facts. In

modern teaching systems the students

are taught how to analyze the facts

and to create new entities based on

those facts. When Myanmar students

see a reading passage, they think it has

to be memorized, while students of

other nationalities know it needs to be

analyzed. Myanmar students will receive

high marks if they give specifically

memorized answers in the examination

rather than attempting to answer the

questions themselves.

Visits to many countries to observe

their education systems have revealed

very different approaches. For example

a trip to the United World College

(UWC) in Singapore, witnessed Grade 8

students sitting an examination looking

at a projector screen displaying the

comment “Facts are important, but if

you do not analyze, they are useless”.

The students were using the facts on

the screen and applying them to present

their own views. Given that this situation

is happening worldwide, Myanmar

must urgently reform the teaching

methodologies used by teachers in all


Reforming Assessment - The

present assessment practice in Myanmar,

with matriculation at the end of the

education process, is the legacy of the

British. Britain has reformed its national

education assessment systems many

times since the end of the Second World

War. It is astonishing that Myanmar has

been using the same education system

until now. Daily assessment of the

activities for each and every student is

routinely used in classrooms globally.

Students respond well to this system as

they feel their activities are recognized

and appreciated. These regular

assessment records show the real

capabilities of the students and whether

to upgrade them to the next level yearly.

Examinations only imposed at the end of

an academic year often fail to determine

the real quality of a student. ‘There

are no national tests for pupils in basic

education in Finland’ (FNAFE, 2018). It

has often been purported that ‘Finnish

has one of the best education systems in

the world’ (Jackson, 2016).

In Myanmar, holding summative

examinations for Grade 4 (at township

level) and Grade 8 (at district level) is

really like giving the wrong treatment to a

patient. Deciding the abilities of students

just by holding external summative

examinations is committing a huge

mistake on the part of those innocent

children. Only the teachers who closely

look after the students will accurately

know their real capabilities and levels

of attainment. Worst of all is the terrible

waste of human resources that results

from failing 70 percent of Grade 10

(university entrance level) students.

In Australia, students of Year 12 can

apply to their preferred universities with

a score that takes 50 percent from their

school assessment record and the other

half from external examinations. As

the universities are granted autonomy,

they also have the right to admit their

preferred students. A “No pass, no fail,

all completion” system is exercised at

Year 12 in Australia.

Therefore, given the holistic nature

of international education, we suggest

that the students who pass Grade 10,

as per the status quo, should enter

university directly. Those students who

complete the courses under standard

assessment should be awarded a

completion certificate, then they should

have the chance to apply to their

preferred university and sit an entrance

exam for that university. Alternatively,

there should be another system for

students who have gained a completion

certificate, in so far as they could attend

a particular diploma program and when

they meet the entry requirements,

they could continue their education at

university level. Such a process would

effectively develop the human resources

of Myanmar, whilst simultaneously

the entire education system would

be significantly improved; altogether

creating a better educated society.

8 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 9

Women’s role in


The Chief Abbes -


Bhikkhuni Arama and The

Medicine Buddha Vihara,

Nakhonpathom, Thailand

Most Venerable

Bhikkhuni Dhammananda




There is no direct record from the

Buddha’s time, partly because

when the Buddha allowed

women to join the Order, it

was the Queen Maha Pajapati who

approached him. Because of their close

relationship even if some monks may not

have approved of the decision, no one

made it known to be sufficient evident

for recording. But at the First Council only

three months after the Buddha’s passing

away, with Maha Kassapa presiding over

the council, discontentment was made

known for admitting women to the

Order by asking Ananda to confess that

it was his offence for being an important

mediator to approach the Buddha on

behalf of women and finally got them

admitted to the Order. Venerable Ananda

clearly made his point that he did not see

his intervention as an offence, but with

respect to the Sangha he confessed.

An interesting incident to be

mentioned in this connection is that

Maha Kassapa who presided at this

historic council, was not on good terms

with the bhikkhunis. We found an

incident recorded when he went to give

teaching to the bhikkhuni Sangha, he

was ridiculed by them as the bhikkhunis

expressed their doubts as to how

could he know of any dharma with his

brahminesses background. Apart from

that, the bhikkhunis also made clear

their preference for Ananda’s teaching.

This caused Maha Kassapa to be much

displeased and again Venerable Ananda

had to intervene asking for forgiveness

from Maha Kassapa on the behalf of the

bhikkhunis. This background incident

implies the already existing unpleasant

feeling between Maha Kassapa and the

bhikkhuni Sangha. What followed at the

First Council is understandable. When

the Buddha allowed women to join

the Order, a large number of women

welcomed the opportunity given to

women for the first time in Indian history.

Some wanted to join the Order to escape

the dreadful life of having to remain in

the kitchen for most of their time, some

wanted to escape from a meaningless

life of widowhood, some were doing it as

a fashion, or simply followed their close

relatives. In the latter case, some of them

proved to be trouble for the Sangha,

but for most of the cases, these women

were sincere in their spiritual search as

it was the first time they enjoyed such


There were bhikkhunis who were

recognized by the Buddha as being

foremost in the Vinaya, teaching dharma,

etc. They were active in propagating

the teaching of the Buddha in the

same manner as the bhikkhus. Some

bhikkhunis were well known in preaching

and were popular among ministers

and noble families. Once a king asked a

learned nun to explain certain dharma

and later asked the same question to the

Buddha. He was surprised to find that

the bhikkhuni expounded the dharma

topic the same way as the Buddha. He

was happy and convinced that in fact

the teaching of the Buddha had taken

root properly. The Tripitaka mentions

500 and more. There were 13 who were

singled out and received praise from the

Buddha with their different distinctions:

Maha Pajapati was praised for her

long standing as the first bhikkhuni

KhemaTheri, former queen of King

Bimbisara was praised for her wisdom,

Upalavanna Theri was praised for her

achievement in performing miracles,

Patacara Theri was praised for her good

memory on the Vinaya Dhammadinna

Theri was praised for being capable in

teaching Nanda Theri was praised for

meditation, Sona Theri was praised for

her patience, Sakula Theri was praised

for having divine sights, Kundalakesi

Theri was praised for achieving sudden

enlightenment, Bhadda Kapilani was

praised for remembering past lives,

Bhadda Kaccana (Princess Yasodhara)

was praised for her Great Abhinna, Kisa

Gotami was praised for wearing coarse

robes Sigalamata was praised for holding

fast to faith.

In Patidesaniya, one section in the

Patimokkha, we find such a prohibition.

Checking in the Vibhanga, where we

learn the historical context of the rule,

we found an interesting story. An elder

bhikkhuni of 120 years old went for

aims in the city at the distance of 4 to

5 kms. Upon her return a young monk

was waiting with his empty bowl. Out of

respect for monks as prescribed in the

Garudharma, she reverently offered him

her alms received for that day. The young

monk got an idea of not having to go all

the way for alms himself and received

alms from the same nun on the following

day also. On the third day, the bhikkhuni

went for alms in the city. While roaming

in the city a chariot passed near her path.

She took a step aside, fell down and

fainted. The millionaire who was riding

that chariot came out to make inquiry

and learned from her that she fainted

out of hunger and tiredness, as she had

not eaten for three days. Upon learning

the reason, the millionaire criticized the

young monk and later brought this to

the attention of the Buddha. From then

“Buddhism is

free from gender


on, to protect the nuns from being taken

advantage of, the Buddha laid down the

rule for the monks not to receive alms

from bhikkhunis.

I have already given you the

picture of what the bhikkhunis did in

the previous pages. Here I would like to

mention the role of Visakha as a case

study reflecting on the positive role of

women in Buddhism during the Buddha’s

time. Visakha was born in a Buddhist

family. As a child she used to follow her

grandparents to listen to the teaching

of the Buddha. She was married to an

equally wealthy family. Not only was she

herself interested in Buddhism, she was

also successful to influence Singala, the

millionaire who was her father-in-law to

convert to Buddhism as well. Because of

this, sometimes people addressed her as

“Singalamata” or “mother of Singala” to

honor her.

She had been so involved in

Buddhist circle from childhood that she

was known both to the Buddha and the

Sanghas. Her role was not limited only

to following the teaching of the Buddha

but she also played a significant role of

consultant as well as regular supporter.

Furthermore, she was equally well

versed both in the Dharma and Vinaya.

When she noticed that some monks

were not behaving well she brought it

to the Buddha’s attention and as a result

rules were laid down at her request.

Two Aniyata rules came into existence

because of her suggestion. Bathrobes

for the monks also became a monastic

requirement as suggested by her.

In the role of a consultant to the

Sangha, there was a case of pregnant

bhikkhuni who was expelled by Ven

Devadatta. But this bhikkhuni appealed

to the Buddha and insisted upon her

purity. The Buddha ordered the Sangha

to reinvestigate and Visakha was invited

to the newly appointed committee

to give advice to the Sangha. Visakha

came from a large family. She herself

had many children and grand children,

hence an experienced householder.

Upon her investigation she found out

that the bhikkhuni was pregnant before

being ordained. When the purity of this

bhikkhuni came to light, the Buddha

allowed her to remain without having

to disrobe and the baby was later

adopted by the royal family. Visakha

played a very significant role as a lay

female disciple; she indeed met the

requirement of an established Buddhist

who was responsible for propagating

and establishing Buddhism in the early


10 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 11

“Blessed is the birth of the Buddhas;

Blessed is the enunciation of the sacred

Teaching; Blessed is the harmony of the

Order and Blessed is the spiritual pursuit

of the united Truth-Seekers.”

I have always liked this verse from

the Dhammapada (No. 194) because it

shows the importance of harmony in the

Sangha and points out that maintaining

a united effort in the pursuit of spiritual

goals is essential for achieving success.

Since I ordained as a samanera at the age

of twelve, I have witnessed instances of a

lack of unity and harmony among groups

of Sangha members in my homeland

and in countries throughout the world.

Problems arising from disagreements

and misunderstandings occur among

people everywhere; not being able to

get along is nothing new, but during the

Buddha’s forty-five years of traveling and

teaching the Dhamma there is only the

following example found in the suttas of

such behavior. The Buddha had planned

to spend the rains retreat in Kosambi

when the Vinaya master and the

Chief Sangha Nayake

Thero of America and

President of USA &

Canada Sanga Council,

Chief Abbot & President

of Dharma Vijaya Buddhist

Vihara, Los Angeles,

California, USA.

Most Venerable

Aggamaha Pandita Dr.

Walpola Piyananda Thero


Unity in the


Dhamma master had a disagreement.

The remaining Sangha members got

involved by taking sides escalating the

problem. They adamantly stood their

ground and refused to listen anyone. The

Buddha knowing, they would not listen

to reason, left the monastery to spend

the rains retreat alone.

The lay disciples of Kosambi heard

that the Buddha had left to spend the

rains retreat alone. The two factions

came to their senses when the lay

disciples asked them why the Buddha

had left, and they eventually made peace

with one another. Since the Buddha was

off in the forest for the duration of vasssa,

they had to wait for his return in order

to confess their wrongdoing. When

the Buddha returned to the monastery,

he told them that they were behaving

as if they were going to live forever and

reminded them that they were all going

to die one day therefore it was foolish to

hold grudges. In the Samyutta Nikaya II,

189-190 he says, “Brethren, it is not easy

to find a being who has not formerly been

your mother…father…your brother…

your sister…your son…your daughter in

a previous life of this beginningless cycle

of lives…So it is unjust for me to harbor

anger for him merely because of some

disagreeable thing done to me in this

life.” The Buddha also said that samsara

is a dangerous human condition, so don’t

waste time arguing! The lesson for all of

us is that impermanence exists, and we

should learn to get along. There can

be no spiritual or secular advancement

without unity and harmony. The Buddha

realized that happiness means different

things to different people: material

riches, sensual delights, and good food.

The Buddha told the Sangha, “These

pleasures do not get you out of the

round of rebirths. In this world, these

constitute true happiness: the arising of

a Buddha, the opportunity to hear the

Teaching of the Sublime Truth, and the

harmony among monks.”

Presently, I can think of several

instances of disagreement and

disharmony between Sangha members

in every country where Buddhism

exists – including Western countries

where Buddhism has spread. These

rifts damage all involved – including

temple lay members who are often

called upon to take sides. Arguments

cause animosity and confusion between

people that can last for generations.

Looking in the Sanskrit dictionary the

word “Sangha,” translates as “close

contact or combination,” “a multitude of

sages,” “a society, association, company,

community, clerical community,” and

“the whole community or collective

body or brotherhood of monks.” In the

Pali dictionary we find that it has similar

meanings, and also translates as “unity,”

and “working together.”

In Sanskrit the term,”bhikkhu” or

“bhikkshu,” has its origins in the word

“bhiksh,” which means “to wish to share

or partake.” In Pali bhikkhu translates

as “sharing things with each other.” In

both cases it refers to members of a

Sangha who live communally sharing

everything with one another, both

material and spiritual. This can also

be applied to working together to

achieve a community’s shared goals and

intentions. In North America, I am happy

to see the Sangha members of the over

100 Sri Lankan temples getting along

harmoniously. The North American

Thai Sangha is also quite peaceful and

harmonious. Currently in Sri Lanka there

are some strong external forces that seek

to sow dissention among the Sangha.

Attacks on the Sangha come from

Fundamentalist religious groups, NGO’s,

political organizations, and meddling

foreign governments. To prevent the

success of these groups Sangha members

must stay united. If they are to protect

both themselves and the country, they

must not let the external forces divide

their unity and harmony.

During the conflict regarding the

water of the Rohini River, the Buddha


Sangha needs

to be up to

the task”….

addressed the generals of the opposing

armies with a parable that I would like to

quote here: “Long ago there lived a very

wise quail. He taught many important

practical lessons to his great family of

birds, and as a result, they called him the

Sage. This quail family lived together in

a beautiful green forest with everything

they needed. They lived happy,

contented lives. “One day a hunter came

into the forest and tricked the quail with

his clever bird calls. Thinking he was one

of them, they came near him. In the blink

of an eye he tossed his net over them

and caught them. He scooped them up,

put them in his basket, and took them

to market to sell. “The quail hunter did

this every day, capturing many of the

members of the quail family. Becoming

disturbed and very fearful they decided

to go to the Sage and ask him what to do.

“The quail Sage thought about it and told

them, ‘As soon as the net gets thrown

over you stick your necks in between one

of the rope squares, flap your wings, and

fly up into the sky. If you work together,

your combined strength will let you fly to

the nearest bramble bush where you can

let the net drop in a tangled heap. You

can scurry out from under it to safety.’

“The next day the hunter came and

used his bird calls, he trapped a covey of

quail under his net. Much to his surprise,

the birds poked their heads through the

holes and flew away with the net. He

watched them disappear with great

frustration. He followed the flying birds

to retrieve his net from a bramble bush,

tangled and torn. “For many days he kept

trying to capture the quail, but the birds

kept together as a unit and thwarted his

efforts every time. The hunter continued

trying because he knew that one day the

birds would stop cooperating with one

another. They would lose their mutual

trust and be back in his basket again. “It

wasn’t long afterward that two of the

birds quarreled. A silly incident caused

it, but neither one was willing to let it go

and make peace. They kept on bickering,

allowing the petty disagreement to

escalate until many of the quail nearby

joined in the argument. “The Sage leader

of the quail overheard the birds fighting.

He knew that in such a state of mind they

were in grave danger because they were

no longer in the mood to work together.

He spoke to the rest of the flock and said,

‘Those of you who want to join me and

live together in peace and in a spirit of

mutual cooperation – follow me. Those

who don’t – you’re on your own, but

beware.’ “The next day the hunter came

upon the group of quail that had been

bickering. He threw his net over them

and the two immediately started arguing

again. One of them said, ‘You never do

your share of the work!’ The other one

shot back, ‘I do more than you!’ While

they were busy arguing the hunter

quickly bundled them all up in his net

and stuffed them into his wicker basket.

“After telling the story the Buddha

said to the generals, ‘Even in ancient

times, those who survived were the ones

who learned to work together and settle

their arguments peacefully. Those that

didn’t learn this lesson perished.’ There

are many challenges facing us in the world

today, and I feel that the united Buddhist

Sangha needs to be up to the task of

overcoming them. Issues such as climate

change, poverty, racism, corruption,

addiction, and wealth disparity must be

addressed, and we Sangha members

need to do our part in order to remain

relevant to our respective communities

and the global society at large. I urge

all of my fellow Sangha members to

develop the practice of putting aside any

personal or philosophical differences

they may have with their brothers and

sisters in the community. We must work

together in the face of global change and

upheaval, for if we don’t, then we will all

perish alone – much in the same way the

poor quail were trapped by the clever


12 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 13

Do you



If you want to happy, you need to

plant the karmic seed of happiness.

Gradually accumulating virtue and

acts of kindness raise a kind heart and

do kind deeds. Let it all start from giving

then you will find yourself becoming

happier and happier. From the time we

begin studying Buddhism our state of

mind should start to show corresponding


If we stop pointing the finger at

others we will be surrounded by many

kind and harmonious people. When we

are walking on the path of bodhichitta

we will be more and more similar to

bodhisattvas, thus becoming more and

more popular amongst people.

Don’t use Buddhist Dharma as a

magnifying glass, always picking on the

shortcomings of others. Just focus on

your own shortcomings and problems,

correcting them one by one. Truly reduce

your pride and learn to be modest.

Don’t talk about the business of

others and don’t look at the mistakes of

others. Most important is to constantly

observe your own mind daily. All

Dharmas are impermanent, one’s life

and a precious human body are also

impermanent. Therefore, utilize the

leisure and endowment of human

life, albeit brief and impermanent, to

The President of Life TV,

Abbot of Hong Fa Zen

and other Monasteries in


Most Venerable

Master Hai Tao


“The mind start

to show the


diligently cultivate. Never look for an

excuse to procrastinate.

Desirable or undesirable karma

can both be altered, and this is also a

reason for which we practice Buddhism.

Change the cause and conditions, then

the resulting effect can change. Realize

that all suffering arises from various

karmic forces within our minds. In order

to cease suffering and attain bliss, one

must watch over the mind, give honest

credence to the law of cause and effect

and have boundless compassion towards

living beings.

If one attempts to posses all that

one fancies, reject all that one hates and

fret over gains or losses, this not only

causes vexations, but also creates karmic

causes for descending into the cycle of

reincarnation. Visualize yourself reciting

the Buddha’s name in a place where

there is the most suffering. A lotus flower

blooms with each recitation of Amitabha

Buddha and living beings are able to gain

deliverance. Recite the Buddha’s name

without separation from Bodhicitta, so

the recitations do not become apathetic


A kind heart like a piece of fertile

ground, if there is no sowing of seeds,

irrigation and tending the soil it will be

covered with weeds. Therefore, wisdom

and compassion can’t be just kept in

the heart, we must take action for

the purpose of benefiting oneself and


Merit is not something anyone

can pass on to you, it can only be

accumulated by yourself. The wisdom

taught by the Buddha is like a method

of cultivation for great harvest taught to

the farmers. It is not enough if we only

know the method, it needs us to take

action in cultivating our own land.

Do not forgo practicing good deeds

that are considered minor. Good deeds

in the from of mindfulness or in efforts,

regardless of however minuscule are

seeds that may be nourished through

cultivation into significant merits that are

hundreds of thousands times greater.

Buddha Dhamma is an absolute

truth; believe in cause and effect, so you

can know the truth and accept it. Know

the truth about the universe, so we can

repent sincerely. Eradicate all that is bad

and do all that is good; be deliberate in

your behavior and what you are saying

and have a wonderful and good life.

The way you treat others is a

reflection of the way you treat yourself,

because the Master of our lives are

not deities, geomagnetic omen or the

eight characters of a horoscope; it is

our behavioral reaction which comes

from our patterns of behavior, the way

of speaking and the way you treat others

those all led by our heart.

Only when we have achieved

wisdom will we realize that all the things

we were chasing after in the past were

all troubles brought about by ourselves.

All the worries and sufferings that we

experience are all brought about by


A simple thought of wholesome or

evil, when amplified by the omnipotent

network of the internet, surly would have

influence over countless numbers of

people; thus the karma in consequence

could be unimaginable. Therefore,

maintaining a wholesome frame of mind

while going on line is the particular


Our body is servant to our heart.

It can commit either good or bad deeds.

You can make use of this body as a tool

for liberation or it can plunge you deeper

into samsara. Please take advantage of

all your existing opportunities to meet

your guru and practice dharma.

The reactions of your body are

reflections of your thoughts. Always

keep a compassionate heart and your

life, your body and the world will follow.

There will always be surprises

in your life, so forgive those who are

different and ease your burdens. Aspiring

to change others leads to dissatisfaction

and misery.

Effective advise should begin with

caring words. However, words alone,

regardless of how skillful it could have

been said, would be useless if your

advise was given without all due respect

for the self-esteem of others.

Impermanence governs the world,

whilst bygones are bygones forever.

Being born as a human is extraordinary

and then it is equally precious to have an

opportunity for the learning of Buddha

Dhamma. But, it would be a pity to forgo

this opportunity of a life time to immerse

oneself in the drift of mundane pleasures


If the course of life is compared

to a road then the Buddha’s teachings

are like a roadmap showing the way to

arrive at the shores of safety and felicity.

The key is whether or not we follow the

directions and cultivate diligently.

In order to deliver and save all

living beings, we must first let go of

weighing pros and cons for ourselves.

The exemplification of compassion is to

always have consideration for others,

understanding their needs and their

current situations, while gently guiding

them step by step with warmth and


14 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 15

Bhaddanta Pandavamsa

Maha Saddhama

Jotikadhaja, Honorary

President of WAB

and Chief Abbot

of Aungzabutawya


Monastery, Yangon

Most Venerable Sayadaw

Aungzabu Maha Thero


A story of

kingdom of


“The Buddha once visited a small

town called Kesaputta in the kingdom

of Kosala. The inhabitants of this town

were known by the common name

Kalama. When they heard that the

Buddha was in their town, the Kalamas

paid him a visit and told him: “’Sir,

there are some recluses and brahmanas

who visit Kesaputta. They explain and

illumine only their own doctrines, and

despise, condemn, and spurn others’

doc-trines. Then come other recluses

and brahmanas, and they, too, in their

turn, explain and illumine only their own

doctrines, and despise, condemn and

spurn others’ doctrines. But for us, Sir,

we have always doubt and per-plexity as

to who among these venerable recluses

and brahmanas spoke the truth, and

who spoke falsehood.’

“The Buddha replied, ‘Of course

you are uncertain, Kalamas. Of course,

you are in doubt. When there are

reasons for doubt, uncertainty is born.

So in this case, Kalamas, don’t go by

reports, by legends, by traditions, by

scripture, by logical conjecture, by

inference, by analogies, by agreement

through pondering views, by prob-ability,

or by the thought, “This ascetic is our

teacher.” When you know for yourselves

that, ‘These qualities are unskillful; these

qualities are blameworthy; these qualities

are criticized by the wise; these

qualities, when adopted and carried out,

lead to harm and to suffering’ – then

you should abandon them…By the same

token, when you know for yourselves

that, ‘These qualities are skillful; these

qualities are blameless; these qualities

are praised by the wise; these qualities,

when adopted and carried out, lead to

welfare and to happiness’ – then you

should enter and remain in them.”

“’Kalamas, one who is the disciple

of the Noble One, free from lust, free

from hate, free from confusion, intelligent

and aware, abides with a heart

full of selfless love, compassion, joy

and equanimity. He abides in the entire

boundless cosmos, covering with a heart

full of selfless love, compassion, joy and

equanimity, broadened and expanded,

free from limitations, without enmity,

without hatred.’” Ananda goes on to

recite the rest of the powerful sutta,

putting em-phasis on the following

stanzas: “‘Now, Kalamas, one who is a

disciple of the Noble Ones – his mind

thus free from hostility, free from ill

will, undefiled, and pure – acquires four

assurances in the here-and-now:

“‘If there is a world after death, if

there is the fruit of ac-tions rightly and

wrongly done, then this is the basis by

which, with the break-up of the body,

after death, I will reappear in a good

destination, the heavenly world.’ This

is the first assurance he acquires. “‘But

if there is no world after death, if there

is no fruit of actions rightly and wrongly

done, then here in the pre-sent life I

look after myself with ease – free from

hostility, free from ill-will, free from

trouble.’ This is the second as-surance he

acquires. “‘If evil is done through acting,

still I have willed no evil for anyone.

Having done no evil action, from whence

will suffering touch me?’ This is the third

assurance he acquires. “‘But if no evil is

done through acting, then I can as-sume

myself pure in both respects.’ This is the

fourth as-surance he acquires.’”1

At the end of Ananda’s recitation

Maha Kassapa stands and says to the

council, “We generally don’t discuss the

content of any of the suttas after hearing

them, but I sense that there are things

that some of you would like to say about

the sutta to the Kalamas. In my opinion,

it is a very important discourse.” The

arahants in the assembly hall nod their

heads in approval of the chairman’s

suggestion. Punna stands and says, “I

agree with you, Venerable Chairman.

Hearing Venerable Ananda recite the

Kalama Sutta today reminds me how

revolutionary the Buddha was in his

thinking. No one ever before had dared

to say that one’s direct experience of the

truth was valid; most claimed that their

views, derived from scriptures, hearsay,

or teachers were more valid than the

individual’s direct experience.”

“If I may add,” says Kumara

Kassapa, standing, “the statements in

this sutta prove that the Buddha had

such confidence in his Dhamma that he

knew it would stand up to scrutiny of any

kind – including that of the individual’s

direct experience. The Dhamma needs

no validation from scriptures or teachers;

it validates itself in the lives of those who

live it!” Revata stands, “The freedom of

thought encouraged by the Bud-dha is

unprecedented, and simply unheard of

prior to his appear-ance. The freedom he

teaches is absolutely essential because

emanci-pation or enlightenment

depends upon the individual’s own

realiza-tion of Truth – and not upon

his belief systems. There are countless

things in which to believe, including

a creator being, the efficacy of doing

good works, or the concept of grace; but

none of them leads to Nibbana. In other

words, whatever one believes in, or no

matter how many times one supplicates

a man-made anthropomorphic god,

it won’t make any difference in terms

of achieving the ultimate goal of

arahantship, or enlightenment.”

“The mind

thus free from


Sunita raises his voice to say, “Thank

you, Venerable Ananda, for putting your

emphasis on the ‘life after death’ issue

covered in the sutta. By the Buddha’s

repeated refusal to answer this question

and ei-ther confirm or deny its existence,

he made it very clear that the most

important thing is how we live our lives

now. An afterlife may or may not exist,

and the Buddha didn’t totally rule out

this possibility; how-ever, the ‘here and

now’ is what really matters, as are the

choices we make and the commitments

to do that which is wholesome. Things

will still be ‘as they are,’ and one needs to

cultivate the ability to see things clearly

in order to be free from suffering. This

was a completely revolutionary idea, and

it will have repercussions for millennia, I

am sure.”

Culapantaka, a gifted arahant who

at one time couldn’t even memorize

a four-line stanza after four months of

trying, rises from his seat saying, “The

Kalama Sutta clearly says a number

of things on the subject of truth and

scriptures. First of all, the Buddha says

in essence, ‘Do not take anything as

true without thorough investigation.’

He also says, ‘Use your own judgment;

scripture is only an aid, not a substitute

for thinking.’ Upavana, who was blessed

with having fanned the Buddha before

his parinibbana, adds, “This Kalama

Sutta also says that one should stay

focused on one’s inner experiences

and their consequences, rather than on

conceptual ideas of truth and falsehood.”

This story very useful for understanding

reality of the mind and words.

16 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 17

“Ethics adopt the



Ethics Connotations

and Classification….

Positive ethics, obligation ethics,

and descriptive ethics - The

rationale for why an individual or

a society actually believes how a

person should behave or live (although

it may not be realized) is called positive

ethics (or positive morality). The ideals or

principles that an individual or a society

should believe in regarding how a person

should behave or live, is called obligation

ethics (or obligation morality).

Descriptive ethics, which places

emphasis on the study of history,

anthropology or sociology, uses positive

ethics as its research object. That is, it

investigates the practical connotation

and ethical ideology of human society

in actual practice, as well as its historical

causes and social backgrounds. The

study of ethics is philosophically

inclined to go further in questioning the

reasons behind positive ethics; that is,

investigating the principles of morality.

The process may involve criticism or

reflection (and moral judgment) on

positive ethics. In other words, this is a

study that, based on its observation and

analysis of positive ethics, constructs a

theoretical system for obligation ethics.

Professor – Hsuan Chuang

University and Fu Jen

University, Head of the

Department of Religious

Studies in Hsuan Chuang

University, President

of Hong Shi Buddhist

Cultural and Educational

Foundation, Dean of the

College of Liberal Arts

Hsuan Chuang University

in Taiwan

Most Venerable

Bhikkhuni Chao

Hwei Shih


For example, the study of Chinese

feudal concepts of women during

the Middle Ages and its influence is

an example of descriptive ethics that

is historically inclined. To record the

practical influence of the feudal concept

of women in a particular village, or the

differences in its influences in urban

and rural areas in Taiwan at present,

is a descriptive ethics that adopts a

sociological or anthropological approach.

To further investigate the origin of

the feudal concept of women, which

may also involve rational criticism and

reflection on the ideology, is a normative

ethics and metaethics discussion, which

takes the philosophical approach.

Normative ethics and metaethics

- Normative ethics and metaethics

are two ethical studies that adopt

the philosophical approach. The

relationship between normative ethics

and metaethics are like the relationship

between a language and its grammar.

Normative ethics - Normative ethics

investigates the basic principles of the

norm of our conduct, as well as ethical

judgment in daily life when we are

confronted with morality issues. This is a

study of the wholesomeness (good) and

unwholesomeness (evil) of our conduct;

the right and wrong of our behavior.

What normative ethics wishes to discuss

is the obligation principles of the ethical

behavior. However, it is not telling us

‘what we should do’, but investigates

the various systems of thought, and the

reasoning behind why we should do it.

A concrete ethical judgment (for

example, Mr. San should not kill Mr.

Si) and an abstract moral principle (for

example, do not kill), together form an

‘ethical sentence’. Normative ethics is a

study based on the meaning of obligation

ethics, which forms and proves these

‘ethical sentences. Contemporary

analytic philosophy systematically

investigates which types of mind-sets

and behaviors are ethical and which are

not. What are the reasons behind them?

Are there adequate ethical reasons? This

study that researches the principles of

morality is called the study of normative

ethics. The study of normative ethics can

be further subdivided:

First is fundamental ethics, which

investigates the fundamental theories

of normative ethics. This includes a

set of moral rules that is complete and

applicable to everyone. These are rules

that help to justify the rightness and

wrongness of our behavior. The second

type is applied ethics, which apply moral

rules investigated by fundamental ethics

to various practical areas in life. They

help to clarify and solve specific moral

issues confronted in practical life.

Metaethics - This ethical study

takes ethical justification and morality

rules as its research objects. It is a study

that analyzes the meanings and special

characteristics of ethical phrases or

words (for example, wholesome) and

the ethical sentences formed by ethical

phrases (for example, helping others is a

wholesome act). This is called the study

of metaethics.

What metaethics is concerned

with is not the structure or proof of

ethical phrases and sentences, but

about whether these ethical phrases and

sentences can be defined. In addition, it

also examines whether moral judgment

is a subjective, emotional view or an

objective truth. In other words, it is

trying to find out whether the nature of

ethics as described by ethical phrases is

objectively real and can be recognized.

Or is it unreal, and therefore unable to

be recognized?

Metaethics developed after the

rise of the contemporary study of

analytical philosophy. The traditional

study of normative ethics already

presumed the objective values of moral

truth. Thus, what traditional normative

ethics researchers investigated was not

whether ethical principles had objective

foundations or were reasonable. Rather,

their research was based on what the

objective foundations or valid reasons

that support ethical principles are. As

such, the traditional normative ethics

researchers tended not to doubt the

pre-set objective values. They were

inclined to objectivism and neglected

the subjective implication of the moral


In this book, we will focus our

discussion on a normative ethics study

of Buddhism. We may adopt the ‘meta’

approach of analysis to explore the

ethical phrases if so needed. However,

that is not the core aim of this book.

Thus, we will not be setting aside specific

chapters for a complete and systematic

discussion of Buddhist views with

respect to a metaethics approach.

Religion, Ethics and the Study of

Religious Ethics - From ancient times to

today, ethics has not necessarily relied

on religion to exist. People who believe

in religion and people who do not

believe in religion still have their norms

of conduct on how they should live and

how they should treat others.

On the contrary, must religions,

including Buddhism, touch on issues of

ethics or morality? Or, could religions

narrow the scope of ethics and allow their

members to only concern themselves

with individual ethics (ethics that are

related to an individual’s situation in life),

and not touch on individual-public ethics

(ethics that are related to others and the

public) and environmental ethics (ethics

that are related to the world one is living

in) at all? This is what we discuss here in

this section.

In Christianity, there is a debate

over the ideas between ‘spiritualbelonging’

and ‘world-belonging’. In

Buddhism, there is also an argument

between two paths of practice, ‘other-

worldly’ or ‘world-integrated’. This is an

old, controversial topic of discussion.

However, back to our question, even

for hermits who emphasize cultivating

‘spiritual-belonging’ or ‘other-worldly’

practice, for them to stand in this

world and fulfill their wish of benefiting

themselves, they cannot avoid taking into

consideration individual-public ethics

and environmental ethics. Otherwise,

they may encounter great rejection, or

even disturbance from society. As such,

they will find themselves in difficult

situations, making it impossible to

practice in seclusion.

18 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 19

"Buddhist medicine culture was

regarded as a feudalistic superstition

in the past. Infect that wasn't the case.

Dhyana Medicine holds a holistic view

while the western medicine holds a

partial view and emphasizes the results.

For example, a doctor can clearly know

whether there is a tumor and the size

of the tumor from a laboratory test

report. Buddhist medicine attaches

importance to causes and effects as

well as their connections. Is the illness

in the liver related to the kidney? The

Health and


The Chief Abbot

of Ananda Temple,

China, Head of Shaolin

Pharmaceutical Bureau

at Shaolin Temple Prison,


Most Venerable Master

Shi Yan Lin


western medicine only pays attention to

the presentation. However, no illness is

caused by a single reason. Psychological

treatment should be applied first, for

psychological anxiety occurs first.

Traditional Chinese medicine

attaches importance to balance the

yin and yang among Wu Xing (the five

elements). In case of illnesses caused

by imbalanced diets, we then should

balance our diet. A man is an integral

whole. The Buddhist medicine and the

traditional Chinese medicine happen to

have the same view on this." Man comes

from the nature and should grow in the

nature. Human death is a kind of energy

transfers through nature. If someone can

get rid of worldly annoyances, follow the

law of nature in his diet and living habits

filling himself with positive energy, all

serious illnesses (pathogenicqi) will keep

far away from him.

Therefore, Buddha dharma is the

Rule of Living for all beings. Dhyana

Medicine notes that "the best medicine

nips the illness in the bud; better

medicine cures illness; the common

medicine treats illness." The common

is health maintenance; the better is

nourish ng the qi; the best is nourishing

the heart. If one feels peace in the

heart, he will have enough qi, resulting

in human life and growth in nature. In

brief, the source of "physical illness" lies

in unsmooth and deficient qi and blood;

the source of " psychological illness" lies

in psych ataxia and dyspareunia.

What is health maintenance about

in Buddhism? For example, in Dhyana

Medicine, a doctor can cure hundreds

of illnesses. Why? Here the medical

essences are qi and blood. People get

ill because of stagnation and congestion

of qi circ ul at ion. Traditional Chinese

Medicine devotes particular care to

channels and collaterals. There are many

switches in the human body, which

can be turned on and off easily, just

like lamps. An unhealthy diet will lead

to channel and collateral congestion.

Hitting at certain acupoints can help

dredge the channels and collaterals and

smoothen qi and blood. The best doctor

for the human body is itself. Modern

medicine merely serves as an assistant."

"In front of natural disasters, human

beings are insignificant. Buddhism always

says everything is impermanent and

impermanence brings pain. Life might

have been happy a moment ago but may

well collapse in a second. For this reason,

we are determined to escape from the

mortal world and find salvation."

I feel peace and joy in my mind.

That's enough." where I could find the

best Dhyana Medicine, psychological

treatment. "Human beings come

from the bhassara Worlds. Beautiful

music can cure psychological disease."

Happiness and a good heart are the best

psychological treatment.

How on earth is it related to

traditional Chinese medicine? Yanwu, a

monk doctor with a bachelor's degree

in Traditional Chinese Medicine said.

"Traditional Chinese medicine and

Buddhist medicine are two systems

before Buddhism was introduced

into China. However, after that, the

theoretical system of Buddhist medicine

was integrated into traditional Chinese

medicine. A new theoretical l subject

therefore forms on the basis of traditional

medical theories and in combination

with theoretical guidance of the Buddhi

medicine:· "Harmony in diversity" an be

used to explain the differences between

Buddhist medicine and traditional

Chinese medicine in pathology. Yanwu

put it that the pathology of traditional

Chinese medicine highlighted internal

causes, external causes, non-internal

and nonexternal causes. In case of

lack of harmony among these three,

people will fall ill. Internal causes refer

to physical changes caused by emotion

changes (happy, joyful, distressed and

sad); external causes refer to wind,

coldness, summer-heat, damp, dryness

and heat; non-internal and nonexternal

causes refer to accidents and wounds

from insect or rat bites.

In Buddhist medicine, internal

causes emphasize the three poisons of

"ignorance, attachment and aversion";

external causes highlight unanimousness

in four elements, namely imbalanced

earth, water, fire and wind while

traditional Chinese medicine stresses

inharmoniousness in Wu Xing, i.e. wood,

fire, earth, metal and water. "Before the


happy to do

good turns”….

two met in China, they had something in

common. All religions have a common

understanding of the ultimate fate of the

universe, but they have different means

of expression."

The medicines when exposed

under the sun or in the rain. Even ice and

fire can be used to make medicines. The

essence of medicines is the happiness

of the herbs. Herbs are the home of

happiness. The best medicine is the

happiness that we call psychological

medicine." Medicine, the cycle of causes

and effects.

The music help cultivate one's

moral characters and rejuvenate a

country; music can help drive away

evils, cheer oneself up physically and

psychologically and keep fit. Musical

treatment and self-cultivation with

music should be integrated into one.

In the Records of the Grand Historian

is written, 'Music can intensify the

circulation of blood in vessels, smoothen

the spiritual communication and soothe

the temperament. Therefore, Buddhism

is the real treatment for our mind always.

20 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 21

當 實 相 妙 音 從 空 性 中 注 入 心 中

我 在 奧 地 利 的 林 茲 看 到 大 佛 遇 見 莫

扎 特 這 是 超 越 音 聲 的 旅 程 充 滿 最 美

妙 的 樂 音 滑 入 了 所 有 的 宇 宙 用 銀 河

的 光 芒 成 了 小 提 琴 的 弦 莫 扎 特 在 夢

中 彈 奏 出 最 喜 樂 的 塵 星 當 時 間 停 止

時 時 在 何 處 ? 當 空 間 消 失 時 那 來 宇

宙 ? 當 我 心 止 思 何 處 尋 覓 你 我 的 心

超 越 萬 有 這 絶 美 的 樂 音 就 是 真 、 善 、

美 、 聖 尊 深 寂 靜 演 虛 空 莫 扎 特 在 不

滅 中 聽 聞 了 覺 性 妙 音 我 們 的 心 觸 動

了 美 麗 的 虹 霓 這 是 莫 扎 特 幸 福 的 心 弦

當 下 聽 心 聽 聽 最 淨 美 的 樂 音 莫 扎 特

為 大 佛 所 彈 奏 最 清 麗 的 樂 聲 .

When the truth music

drips into my heart from

emptiness, I see the Great

Buddha meeting Mozart in

Linz, Austria. It’s a trip of soundlessness,

but, full of the most beautiful music,

It slides into all the cosmos, Using the

lights of the Milky Way as the strings

of violins. Mozart plays the joyful stars

in his dream. When time stops, where

is time? When space vanishes, where is

the universe? When our minds cease,

where are our hearts? Beyond all, the

perfect music is truth, goodness, beauty

and sacred. The noble silence is dancing

in the sky. Mozart hears the awakening

music, forever. Our hearts touch the

beautiful rainbow. It’s the strings of

Mozart Happiness. Now, listen to our

minds, we will hear the gorgeous music.

Mozart plays for The Great Buddha.

The heaven music is sounding in the

sky. The heaven drum is heard from the

sky, Mozart’s heart’s rhythm is silence.

We hear nothing from soundlessness,

The Requiem is played by Amadeus’s

The World Famous

Buddha Painting Master,

Earth Zen Person,

International Meditation

Teacher, Founder of

Enlightening Earth

Association, Buddha

Cultural & Bodhisattva

Association in Taiwan

Master Chi Sung Hung






mind. I am just thirty-five years old.

Buddha and Mozart say the same word.

Buddha is enlightened by himself and

sees through the universe. They just look

forward to each other’s hearts. So calm,

so quiet, all beautiful music plays in the

silent heart. Thirty-five is a magic time.

Siddhartha becomes Buddha and Mozart

sings the Requiem. The enlightening

light from The Great Buddha brightens,

Mozart’s playing of the Requiem to

help people beyond death. Oh, Mozart,

Amadeus, through the string of time and

space, we meet in Linz.

When the Great Buddha meets

Mozart on the side of the beautiful blue

Danube. Mozart uses the Requiem to

touch every body’s mind to the heaven.

And the Great Buddha is enlightening all

beings to be Buddha. Oh, please play the

song of Buddhall, all are Buddhas. The

enlightening symphony is playing, all

beings play Instruments made from all

kinds of things from the world and sing

the peace earth. The Great Buddha and

Mozart play the earth, water, fire, wind,

and emptiness instruments to join us.

It’s the time for enlightening and peace

earth. The earth spacecraft will travel

to deep space and shine in the universe


Sitting in the sky, the Great Buddha

and Mozart meet and smile. They talk

about music and heart. So, music is

earth. Music is water. Music is fire. Music

is wind. Music is empty. And music is

our deepest heart. Playing music in

the sky, sun, moon and stars are our

instruments. We play and combine

them to be a symphonic poem. Time

“The silence

is the


and space are our hearts’ strings, Music

travels all around our body, breath and

mind. We are echoes of the cosmos

and the universe is our reflection, then

mutual mirroring each other, and music

understands all. Mozart takes his harp,

wants to play the Concerto for Flute,

Harp and Orchestra (K 299-C).

The Great Buddha enjoys this

and takes his Vaidury Konghon, just

like shining rainbow glass, and wants

to play with Mozart. So harmonious, so

awakening, Mozart plucks the first string,

and, at the same time, the Great Buddha

plays the first string of Konghou as the

same string. Oh, it’s the chord of peace.

The earth hears the beautiful music

and is singing in harmonious chorus to

be peace earth. They play the second

string, at the same time. The sound

of truth echoes in the world. The third

string plays by itself, goodness full of all

beings’ hearts. The most beautiful music

is music itself.

The Great Buddha and Mozart

smile to each other and pluck the

fourth string. All the universe is beyond

everything to holy purity, the fifth string

clears all our hearts and our eyes are

cleansed by the pure tears. The sixth

string from emptiness, Buddha, in the

empty meditation, uses the middle

finger to pluck the sixth string. It’s just

liked the mirror reflection, Mozart in the

same time plays the enlightening wisdom

string. Now, all of us are free people,

beyond all confusion. All are in clear

mind and full of peace and happiness.

Benevolence is from emptiness

and wisdom. When you are in the depth

empty samadhi, and all awakening, there

is only one thing going to show in your

heart. It is the greatest Benevolence, no

beginning no ending. In Great Wisdom,

will be one thing arise in your heart,

it’s the greatest Benevolence showing

itself, no beginning no ending. It fills

your heart, no object and no subject,

it is just this. Buddha and Mozart pluck

the seventh string as one as emptiness.

Suddenly, they see all beings are

Buddhas in whole emptiness. It is the

rhythmic poem of the cosmos. So joyful,

they play glissando to combine all hearts

to join the whole enlightening music.

Only silence of happiness, Oh……

天 樂 鳴 空 天 鼓 的 妙 聲 傳 自 天 際

莫 扎 特 寂 淨 了 心 中 的 旋 律 我 們 從 大 寂

中 聽 聞 了 音 靜 莫 扎 特 的 心 奏 出 吉 祥 的

安 魂 曲 我 剛 好 三 十 五 歲 佛 陀 與 莫 扎

特 說 出 了 同 樣 的 話 佛 陀 開 悟 了 澈 見

了 宇 宙 的 真 實 他 們 相 視 著 對 方 的 心 境

那 麼 的 安 寧 、 那 樣 的 寂 靜 至 美 的 樂 章

發 自 最 靜 的 心 三 十 五 歲 真 是 幻 化 的 時

境 啊 悉 達 多 成 了 佛 而 莫 扎 特 唱 出 了

安 魂 的 曲 聲 大 佛 用 覺 性 的 光 明 照 亮

了 莫 扎 特 當 下 奏 出 的 安 魂 曲 導 引 眾

生 超 越 死 亡 啊 莫 扎 特 , 天 所 佑 者 透

過 了 時 空 的 因 緣 我 們 在 林 茲 相 遇 當

大 佛 與 莫 扎 特 會 遇 在 美 麗 的 藍 色 多 瑙

河 畔 莫 扎 特 用 安 魂 曲 輕 撫 著 每 一 個 人

心 進 入 天 堂 而 大 佛 開 悟 眾 生 成 為 佛 陀

啊 ! 請 奏 出 全 佛 之 歌 所 有 眾 生 全 是 佛

陀 開 悟 的 交 響 樂 章 己 響 起 一 切 生 命

彈 奏 著 以 世 間 萬 物 所 成 的 樂 器 並 唱

出 和 平 地 球 的 樂 章 大 佛 與 莫 扎 特 奏 起

地 、 水 、 火 、 風 、 空 的 樂 器 融 入 大 眾

這 是 開 悟 與 和 平 地 球 的 時 節 地 球 太 空

船 將 航 至 深 邃 的 太 空 在 宇 宙 中 散 發 出

永 恆 的 光 明

22 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 23


directions of

pure mind….

Cultivating the Path of the

Bodhisattva combines the

merits of the Paths of Man,

Devas and Self Liberation. This

path seeks more than to establish good

karmic relationships in the human

world. It entails all sentient beings in

the ten directions of the past, present

and future, as objects of their service,

contribution, concern and care. In

addition, the performance of wholesome

acts is not for the sake of positive karmic

results. Mahayana Buddhism always

encourages the cultivation of the Path

of the Bodhisattva. The path of the

Bodhisattva, however, must begin with

making wishes, generating vows and

fulfilling them.

When we train the mind, it’s not

just a question of using a meditation

technique to bludgeon the mind into the

present moment. If that’s our approach,

the mind is going to start rebelling,

finding ways of slipping around our

defenses, because there are times when

the meditation technique is right for the

situation and times when it isn’t. The

The Secretary General

of Taiwan Buddhist

Association, Secretary

General of the World

Buddhism Bhikkhuni

Association & the Chinese

Buddhism Bhikkhuni

Association, Abbess

of Miau Kuang Chan

Monastery, Wan Fa

Monastery, Zhi Cheng

Monastery, Tai Ming

Monastery & Zheng Jue

Chan Monastery

Most Venerable

Bhikkhuni Shih Jian Yin


times when it isn’t: That’s when the mind

is going to rebel if you single‐mindedly

use just that one technique and don’t

have other techniques or approaches up

your sleeve as well.

Meditation is not just a question of

technique. In training the mind, you have

to remember there’s a whole committee

in there. In the past the committee has

had its balance of power, its likes and

dislikes, and the politics among the

various voices in your mind. Each of them

has different tricks for pushing its agenda

on the rest. So just as these defilements

have lots of tricks up their sleeves, you as

a meditator need to have lots of tricks up

your sleeve, too.

One really basic trick is for when

the mind says, “I’ve got to do this. I want

to do that. I don’t want to meditate.”

You’ve got to ask, “Well why?” And

play kind of dumb, so that the mind

really has to explain itself. It’s like lesson

number one in any journalism class: If

you really want to get a good interview

out of people, you have to play dumb,

ask stupid questions, so that they think

they have to explain things to you very

carefully. And oftentimes they reveal

all kinds of things they wouldn’t have


It’s the same with your own mind.

When greed, anger, and delusion come

into the mind, they usually barge in

with a lot of force and expect to push

you right over. So one thing you have

to do is to ask, “Well, why? Why should

we follow that? Why should we want

instant gratification?” And there will be

an “of course‐ness” to their answer the

first time around. “Of course you want it

this way. Of course you want it that way.”

“Well why?” If you’re persistent in being

block‐headed like this, all the defilements

will start revealing themselves. You’ll see

how shabby they are. You’ll be able to

get around them more easily.

It’s like training a little child.

Sometimes you have to be strict with

the child, other times you have to offer

rewards, patiently explain things. Other

times you have to make up little games.

In other words, you have to use your

full psychology with the mind. But this

time around you’re not using it for the

purpose of deception, which is what the

mind ordinarily does with itself. You’re

using it for the purpose of truth and

honesty, for what’s really in your own

best interest.

What does the wandering mind

do for you? It gives a little bit of instant

gratification and then that gratification

goes, with nothing left to show for itself.

If you keep allowing this to happen,

where are you going to pick up the skills

you’ll really need when aging, illness,

and death hit with full force? This is

why the Buddha stressed the principle

of heedfulness all the time. We can’t

just spend our time sniffing the flowers

and looking at the sky. There’s work to

be done. When the mind is untrained,

it causes us a lot of unhappiness. If the

mind is well trained, if it’s more tractable,

it can bring a lot of happiness our way.

In order for that to happen, you

have to learn how to psyche yourself

into the mood to meditate. Once it starts

meditating and begins to see the results,

it gets more willing and tractable—

most of the time. Then there are times

it starts rebelling all over again, totally

irrationally. So you’ve got to sit down

with it again, work things through with

it again, to see exactly what issue got

covered up the last time around and is

only now getting exposed.

This is one of the ways in which

you learn a lot about your defilements.

It’s not that you have to wait for a totally

solid concentration before you can see

the defilements clearly. A lot of learning

about the defilements lies in learning

how to struggle with them as you bring

the mind to stillness. You begin to see:

“Oh, this is how greed works, this is how

aversion works, this is how I’ve fallen for

this stuff before in the past. Well, this

time around I’m not going to fall.”

Sometimes it’s like a battle. Other

times it’s more a question of learning

how to work together in a way that’s

for your own best interests: how to be

a mediator, a negotiator, or a patient

teacher. You’ve got to have lots of ways

of relating to the different elements in

your mind. The times when you can win

the defilements over to your side: That’s

when it’s best. Your desire turns into a

desire to practice. Your hatred turns into

a hatred of the defilements. You learn

how to use the energy of these things for

your own true benefit.

That’s when you can be said to

be a discerning mediator. You can’t

gain insight simply by following the

rules. Somebody says, “For insight you

need to do one, two, three, four, five,

six, and seven. So you do one, two,

three, four, five, six, seven without any

thinking, without any reflection on what

you’re doing, and yet that doesn’t give

you any true insights. It gives you preprogrammed

insights sometimes, but

the actual startling new understandings

that can come through the meditation

don’t happen because you’re too busy

following the directions.

The directions are there for you to

apply to the mind and then to observe,

to look at what happens, to reflect on

what happens, to make adjustments.

Make the meditation your own and not

just somebody else’s bulldozer running

through your head. After all, the big

issue is how you relate to yourself,

how you relate to the body, how you

relate to feelings, perceptions, thoughtfabrications,

and consciousness. Thatʹs

the area where you’re causing yourself

suffering, so that’s the area where

you’ve got to gain sensitivity and insight.

Nobody else can get into your head and

straighten these things out for you. You

use the techniques of meditation to see

what they reveal about the mind. Then

you build on those lessons so that the

meditation becomes your own.

“Make the meditation

your own”….

24 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 25





& Maha



The "2019 International

Buddhist Conference and Maha

Sanghadana was held at the

National Sports University at

Linkou, Taiwan on August 25, 2019

hosted by Chung Hwa International

Merits Society of Buddha Puja and

Sangha Dana Society in Taiwan. More

than 7000 Buddhist Monks and Nuns

from all districts in Taiwan and overseas

with more than 10,000 devotees

participated this grand occasion. The

Sanghadana held under the blessings

& leading by high Buddhist Masters in

Taiwan. The President of Chung Hwa

International Merits Society of Buddha

Puja and Sangha Dana, Mr. Chen Chia

Uny & Madam Wang Shue Yu, the CEO

and General Secretary of Chung Hwa

International Merits Society of Buddha

Puja and Sangha Dana Society in Taiwan

were coordinated this mass merit event.

Buddhika Sanjeewa

After the visit to Linkou, Taiwan

Official Photographs by

Lin Chun Chieh 官 方 照 片 林 群 傑

– Taiwan

26 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 27

The 16 th International

Sakyadhita Conference

- Australia

The 16th International Sakyadhita

Conference held at Blue

Mountains, Sydney, Australia.

under the concept and

supervision of Most Venerable Bhikkhuni

Jetsunma Tenzin Palmo, the President,

Sakyadhita International. “New Horizons

in Buddhism” was this year them of

the conference and explores changes

within Buddhist circles worldwide. Also,

included talks, workshops, meditations

and discussions led by women from

across the world, engaged in Buddhist

practice, learning and service. Lot of

Bhikkhunis & devotees also participated

this grand occasion.

Buddhika Sanjeewa

After visit to Sydney, Australia

Official Photographs by Olivier Adam

28 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 29

CYBA 30 th Anniversary &

WAB 06 th EXCO in Taiwan….

Chinese Young Buddhist

Association in Taiwan (CYBA)

celebrated 30th anniversary

& World Alliance of Buddhists

(WAB) 06th Executive Council Meeting

(EXCO) held successfully at Ci Fa temple

Premises in Taipei, Taiwan on September

01, 2019. This ceremony held under

the leadership by Most Venerable

Master Shih Ching Yao, The President

of CI-FA Buddhist Temple & Most

Venerable Palawadhammo (Dr. Pornchai

Pinyapong), the President of World

Alliance of Buddhists (WAB) & jointly

hosted by Most Venerable Bhikkhuni

Dr. Ming Yu, the Former President of

CYBA & Most Venerable Bhikkhuni Kai

Shan President of CYBA. International

Organization’s Esteemed Executive

Council members participated this

meeting at Taipei, Taiwan.

Buddhika Sanjeewa

After visit to Taipei, Taiwan

Official Photographs by Pongpan

Ratithammakul (Zung D’voice)

30 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 31





Teaching is not a precise science;

it requires a certain flair or

charismatic qualitythat enables

the teacher to communicate in

a way that captivates the attention. of

students and commands their respect.

Having a sound academic record of

achievement or knowledge does not

automatically qualify an individual to

become a good teacher. For example, you

may have two cooks, equally talented in

baking a delicious cake. If students taste

the two cakes made by these cooks, but

without seeing the cooks, they would not

be able to tell one cake from the other.

However, if the two cooks take separate

classes of pupils and try to teach them

how to bake this delicious cake, one

group of students might succeed in

learning the technique and proceed to be

able to copy exactly the taste and quality

of the cake, while the other group may

fail dismally to remember the process

Vice Abbot of Wat

Phra Dhammakaya,

Vice President of the

Dhammakaya Foundation,

Most Popular and

Respected Dhamma

Teacher & Author in


Most Venerable


(Luang Por Dattajeevo



of combining the ingredients, and fail to

acquire the knowledge and technique

needed to replicate the quality and taste

of the original cake.

Both cooks have the same skill

and knowledge to make the cake but

only one is able to pass on that skill

and knowledge effectively to the pupils.

Let us consider why. One cook looks

the part, neat, suitably attired, well

prepared, clear and precise with the

instructions, plus displays an obvious

and genuine enthusiasm to pass on the

secret of making the delicious cake, so

the students are attentive and absorb

both knowledge and method.

On the other hand, the second

cook looks dishevelled, is ill-prepared,

muddles the instructions and is

unenthusiastic in the process of teaching.

The recipe and method applied to make

the cake may be the same, but the quality

and effectiveness of the teaching is not,

and the pupils are not so attentive and

therefore not absorbing the knowledge

and method as intended by their teacher.

The teacher who possesses the traits of

a good teacher passes on knowledge

whereas the teacher who does not

possess the traits of a good teacher has

the knowledge of the subject but not the

ability or traits required to pass on that


Hence, teaching is an individual

skill, which requires the trainer to pass

knowledge to students effectively and

completely. The best type of teacher



and learn


is the one who can not only teach

but also can guide, advise, direct and

demonstrate directly and indirectly so

that students can understand and learn

thoroughly. This requires trainers who

have not only the first level of wisdom,

which is from memorization, but also

from the second and third levels, which

come from experience and inner light.

The Lord Buddha’s limitless source

of knowledge and wisdom was achieved

without external teaching, through

the power of self-enlightenment to the

reality of all things via the process of

meditation. Enlightenment is the state of

realization and understanding that leads

to the permanent cessation of the cycle

of rebirth by transcending all human

desires and suffering.

When people lack knowledge and

concepts of self-awareness, the world

about them and the effect kilesa will have

upon their lives, their education will tend

to focus on academic studies, academic

achievements and academic standing

among their peers in their professions

or careers. With no attention to moral

application of their learned knowledge,

the consequences of their thoughts

and actions may lack honest application

and good intent. Through incomplete

or flawed education, the results may

prove to be harmful to themselves, the

population and the environment, and

no matter how high personal academic

achievements may be, great personal

and collective suffering will occur.

Inadequate management of

national education causes immeasurable

problems; the system produces people

with knowledge but who lack good

judgement, and causes problems that

lead to them being labelled as fools,

tyrants and people of evil or destructive

intent. This is because they have not

been taught to distinguish between good

and bad, right and wrong, should and

should not, having no concept of boon

nor of baap (impure energy).

An ideal education is one that

appropriately depending on their age

and gender, enables students not only to

acquire knowledge to survive and engage

in their future professions or careers, but

also to be protected and empowered

with the understanding to eradicate

the defilements of thought, word and

deed that lead to suffering, in other

words to overcome what is referred to

in Buddhist Dhamma as kilesa. Students

must be educated to know and combat

kilesa as part of a balanced moral and

academic system of education. Students

must be made aware by their teachers

the benefits of being both smart and


This is achieved by teachers having

a sound knowledge of their subject and

the ability to instil virtuous practice and

behavior in their pupils by guidance,

tuition and their own self-example.

Creating the framework of virtue and

morality requires the pupil to understand

and accept their own self-responsibility

for their thoughts, words and actions.

They must understand the

importance that refraining from killing,

stealing, sexual misconduct and lying

will have on the quality of their lives

and those around them. In developing

self-responsibility, this must be achieved

through right thought without bias,

otherwise wrong views will be formed

towards society. Developing a sense

of socioeconomic responsibility is also

essential. The so-called ‘Roads to Ruin’

is a delusional concept of pleasure and

possession. The term translates directly

from the Pali word, Abayamukha,

which explains the six self-destructive

behavioral vices as drinking, nightlife,

too much indulgence in sensual

pleasure, gambling, associating with bad

company, and laziness. These actions

may not necessarily be considered as

bad action in themselves, but they are

starting points of self-destruction when

one starts committing to any, some or

all of them and becoming addicted.

As a result, we should avoid entering

through this gate as we might otherwise

soon find ourselves succumbing to the

accumulation of unnecessary wealth or

position, consumption of alcohol and

drugs, frequenting unseemly places at

unseemly hours, visiting dubious places

of entertainment, gambling, associating

with fools and bad company, wasting

time and being lazy. The ‘Roads to Ruin’

lead travellers to worship money as a

means to fulfil a self-destructive lifestyle.

32 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 33

The search for a spiritual path is

born out of suffering. It does

not start with lights and ecstasy,

but with the hard tacks of

pain, disappointment, and confusion.

However, for suffering to give birth to a

genuine spiritual search, it must amount

to more than something passively

received from without. It has to trigger

an inner realization, a perception which

pierces through the facile complacency

of our usual encounter with the world

to glimpse the insecurity perpetually

gaping underfoot. When this insight

dawns, even if only momentarily, it can

precipitate a profound personal crisis. It

overturns accustomed goals and values,

mocks our routine preoccupations,

leaves old enjoyments stubbornly


At first such changes generally

are not welcome. We try to deny our

vision and to smother our doubts; we

struggle to drive away the discontent

with new pursuits. But the flame of

inquiry, once lit, continues to burn, and

The world-famous

American Author, New

York, USA

Most Venerable

Bhikkhu Bodhi




if we do not let ourselves be swept away

by superficial readjustments or slouch

back into a patched-up version of our

natural optimism, eventually the original

glimmering of insight will again flare

up, again confront us with our essential

plight. It is precisely at that point, with all

escape routes blocked, that we are ready

to seek a way to bring our disquietude

"Remove the

suffering at it's

source "….

to an end. No longer can we continue to

drift complacently through life, driven

blindly by our hunger for sense pleasures

and by the pressure of prevailing social

norms. A deeper reality beckons us; we

have heard the call of a more stable,

more authentic happiness, and until we

arrive at our destination, we cannot rest


There are two interrelated flaws in

eclecticism that account for its ultimate

inadequacy. One is that eclecticism

compromises the very traditions it draws

upon. The great spiritual traditions

themselves do not propose their

disciplines as independent techniques

that may be excised from their setting

and freely recombined to enhance the

felt quality of our lives. They present

them, rather, as parts of an integral

whole, of a coherent vision regarding

the fundamental nature of reality and

the final goal of the spiritual quest. A

spiritual tradition is not a shallow stream

in which one can wet one's feet and then

beat a quick retreat to the shore. It is a

mighty, tumultuous river which would

rush through the entire landscape of

one's life, and if one truly wishes to travel

on it, one must be courageous enough to

launch one's boat and head out for the


The second defect in eclecticism

follows from the first. As spiritual

practices are built upon visions regarding

the nature of reality and the final

good, these visions are not mutually

compatible. When we honestly examine

the teachings of these traditions, we

will find that major differences in

perspective reveal themselves to our

sight, differences which cannot be easily

dismissed as alternative ways of saying

the same thing. Rather, they point to

very different experiences constituting

the supreme goal and the path that must

be trodden to reach that goal.

Hence, because of the differences

in perspectives and practices that the

different spiritual traditions propose,

once we decide that we have outgrown

eclecticism and feel that we are ready

to make a serious commitment to

one particular path, we find ourselves

confronted with the challenge of

choosing a path that will lead us to

true enlightenment and liberation.

One cue to resolving this dilemma is to

clarify to ourselves our fundamental

aim, to determine what we seek in a

genuinely liberative path. If we reflect

carefully, it will become clear that the

prime requirement is a way to the end

of suffering. All problems ultimately can

be reduced to the problem of suffering;

thus, what we need is a way that will end

this problem finally and completely. Both

these qualifying words are important.

The path has to lead to a complete end

of suffering, to an end of suffering in all

its forms, and to a final end of suffering,

to bring suffering to an irreversible stop.

But here we run up against another

question. How are we to find such a path

— a path which has the capacity to lead

us to the full and final end of suffering?

Until we actually follow a path to its goal

we cannot know with certainty where

it leads, and in order to follow a path to

its goal we must place complete trust

in the efficacy of the path. The pursuit

of a spiritual path is not like selecting a

new suit of clothes. To select a new suit

one need only try on a number of suits,

inspect oneself in the mirror, and select

the suit in which one appears most

attractive. The choice of a spiritual path is

closer to marriage: one wants a partner

for life, one whose companionship will

prove as trustworthy and durable as the

pole star in the night sky.

Faced with this new dilemma, we

may think that we have reached a dead

end and conclude that we have nothing

to guide us but personal inclination, if not

a flip of the coin. However, our selection

need not be as blind and uninformed as

we imagine, for we do have a guideline

to help us. Since spiritual paths are

generally presented in the framework

of a total teaching, we can evaluate

the effectiveness of any particular path

by investigating the teaching which

expounds it.

In making this investigation we

can look to three criteria as standards

for evaluation: (1) First, the teaching

has to give a full and accurate picture

of the range of suffering. If the picture

of suffering it gives is incomplete or

defective, then the path it sets forth will

most likely be flawed, unable to yield a

satisfactory solution. Just as an ailing

patient needs a doctor who can make a

full and correct diagnosis of his illness,

so in seeking release from suffering we

need a teaching that presents a reliable

account of our condition.

(2) The second criterion calls for

a correct analysis of the causes giving

rise to suffering. The teaching cannot

stop with a survey of the outward

symptoms. It has to penetrate beneath

the symptoms to the level of causes, and

to describe those causes accurately. If a

teaching makes a faulty causal analysis,

there is little likelihood that its treatment

will succeed.

(3) The third criterion pertains

directly to the path itself. It stipulates

that the path which the teaching offers

has to remove suffering at its source.

This means it must provide a method to

cut off suffering by eradicating its causes.

If it fails to bring about this root-level

solution, its value is ultimately nil. The

path it prescribes might help to remove

symptoms and make us feel that all is

well; but one afflicted with a fatal disease

cannot afford to settle for cosmetic

surgery when below the surface the

cause of his malady continues to thrive.

To sum up, we find three

requirements for a teaching proposing to

offer a true path to the end of suffering:

first, it has to set forth a full and accurate

picture of the range of suffering; second,

it must present a correct analysis of the

causes of suffering; and third, it must give

us the means to eradicate the causes of


This is not the place to evaluate

the various spiritual disciplines in

terms of these criteria. Our concern is

only with the Dhamma, the teaching

of the Buddha, and with the solution

this teaching offer to the problem of

suffering. That the teaching should be

relevant to this problem is evident from

its very nature; for it is formulated, not

as a set of doctrines about the origin and

end of things commanding belief, but as

a message of deliverance from suffering

claiming to be verifiable in our own

experience. Along with that message

there comes a method of practice, a

way leading to the end of suffering.

This way is the Noble Eightfold Path

(ariya atthangika magga). The Eightfold

Path stands at the very heart of the

Buddha's teaching. It was the discovery

of the path that gave the Buddha's own

enlightenment a universal significance

and elevated him from the status of

a wise and benevolent sage to that of

a world teacher. To his own disciples

he was pre-eminently "the arouser of

the path unrisen before, the producer

of the path not produced before, the

declarer of the path not declared before,

the knower of the path, the seer of the

path, the guide along the path" (MN

108). And he himself invites the seeker

with the promise and challenge: "You

yourselves must strive. The Buddhas are

only teachers. The meditative ones who

practice the path are released from the

bonds of evil" (Dhp. v. 276).

To see the Noble Eightfold Path as

a viable vehicle to liberation, we have to

check it out against our three criteria:

to look at the Buddha's account of the

range of suffering, his analysis of its

causes, and the programme he offers as

a remedy..

34 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 35

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華 正 路 97 號 ( 老 人 文 康 中 心 1 樓 )

屏 東 縣 政 府 社 會 處 前 處 長 倪 榮

春 , 為 整 合 縣 內 慈 善 團 體 資 源 、 倡 導

慈 善 事 業 社 工 化 、 並 合 理 而 有 效 的 幫

助 亟 需 援 助 的 急 難 民 眾 , 以 避 免 資 源

重 疊 浪 費 與 分 配 不 均 的 情 事 發 生 , 因

此 於 民 國 95 年 底 邀 集 縣 內 所 有 慈 善 團

體 開 會 研 商 、 獲 得 共 識 , 開 始 籌 組 「

屏 東 縣 慈 善 團 體 聯 合 協 會 」。 經 半 年

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同 年 8 月 3 日 向 屏 東 地 方 法 院 申 請 登

記 成 立 「 社 團 法 人 」, 自 此 後 以 「 資

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務 宗 旨 , 積 極 展 開 資 源 連 結 、 雪 中 送

炭 、 扶 助 經 濟 弱 勢 家 庭 及 關 懷 街 友 的

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36 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 37



To make the sense of doubt

pervasive, we have to first devote

ourselves to being mindful of the

huatou and focus on the sense

of doubt. Being mindful means firmly

fastening our whole being to the huatou,

making the two inseparables. It is like a

woman who is fully occupied with the

memory of her beloved living far away,

as described by a well-known Chinese

poet Li Qing Zhao (c.1084-1155). We

have to keep the sense of doubt all the

time. According to the chapter in the

Shurangama Sutra, “Bodhisattva

Mahasthamaprata’s Perfection

in the Mindfulness of the Buddha,” to

keep being mindful is to “focus the six

sense organs on mindfulness and purify

the mind-stream.” In other words, we

don’t “shut” our sense organs, but direct

them all to the object, knowing it clearly

without discrimination, attachment or

yearning for deluded thoughts.

Letting go of all the sensations and

feelings of body and mind, we simply

practice the huatou by keeping up the

inquiry. If we can purify our mind-stream

this way, the sense of doubt will naturally

become pervasive. In the same chapter,

mindfulness is likened to the constant

memory between mother and son,

whose deep affection makes them keep

each other in mind, even though they

live separately. We should always keep

the same mindfulness in huatou practice,

devoting ourselves to the questioning,

to the sense of doubt, until there are

no forms or feelings of body and mind.

At this moment we have no idea where

we are. We have nothing to do with

whatever is around us in the external

world. We have no other thoughts but

a clear sense of doubt in the mind. Only

with this mindfulness can we make the

huatou pervasive and expansive. If we

practice the method well, eliminating

all deluded thoughts, attachment,

argument and discrimination, we can

then realize what the Buddhist scriptures

describe as the certainty of seeing the

Buddha – in the present or in the future

– simply by being mindful of the Buddha.

Here, “the Buddha” refers to “the pure

reality,” namely our true mind of purity.

And being mindful of the Buddha does

not only mean reciting his name; as long


and purify the


as we connect with our pure mind, any

method will do. For example, when we

have difficulty in sitting meditation, we

can do prostrations until we feel peaceful

and at ease in body and mind; we can do

this until we have no deluded thoughts

or distractions.

That is also being mindful of the

Buddha. If we always keep the Buddha

in mind, we will then have no deluded

thoughts and our pure mind will

naturally emerge. Then we are sure to

see the Buddha, or our true nature of

purity, now or in the future. Even though

we remain in the burning house of the

three realms of cyclic existence, we can

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Da Xing Fa


Leader Chan

Monk for

Retreats &



of a martial arts studio in Genoa.

While training in martial

arts around the world, he had the

opportunity to encounter Buddhist

teachings, and soon decided to further

investigate Buddhism. In fact, Da Xing

Fa Shi started his studies, took refuge,

and received the Five Precepts under

Venerable Master Tae Hye Sunim. He

continued his learning throughout Asia

and United States, where he attended

several intensive Chan retreats under

the guidance of Venerable Master Sheng

Yen, and other rigorous retreats at the

City of Ten Thousand Buddha in Northern

California, founded by Venerable Master

Hsuan Hua. He spent significant amounts

of time at the Berkeley Buddhist

Monastery, where he studied Buddhism

with the Abbot Venerable Heng Sure.

During these years, he also led solo

retreats of various durations.

In April 2005, after becoming

a novice monk in Taiwan under the

guidance of Venerable Master Sen

Guang, Da Xing Fa Shi received the full

Mahayana monastic ordination under

the supervision of Venerable Master Wei

Chueh at Chung Tai Chan Si Monastery in

Central Taiwan.

In 2011, Da Xing Fa Shi had the

great opportunity to meet his current

teacher, Chan Master Guo Ru, who is

the great disciple of Master Sheng Yen

carrying on the Chinese Chan Sudden

Approach Teaching. From that time on,

he has continued to follow Master Guo

Ru’s instructions to practice Sudden

Chan Approach. Nonetheless, Da Xing

Fashi has been appointed by Master Guo

Ru to assist in teaching and spreading of

Chinese Chan Sudden Approach in China,

and across the world. Now he travels in

different countries conducting retreats

and workshops, determined to practice

Buddhadharma, and to propagate the

Chinese Chan Sudden Approach to

anyone interested in Buddhism.

Moreover, Da Xing loves Chinese

Tea Culture, and started to practice

and teach a method of meditation

involving mindful appreciation of tea:

The Tea Chan, which is a significant and

captivating way to teach Buddhism.

Fascinated by Chinese language and

Chan poems, Da Xing is also practicing

the Chinese language and writing. In

fact, Da Xing Fa Shi is fluent in speaking

Italian, English and Chinese.


Da Xing Fa Shi *was born and

raised in Genoa, Italy, in a typical

Catholic family. From a young age

Da Xing Fa Shi started to learn

Chinese martial arts and Qi Gong and

was trained to become Shifu (Master) of

the sixth generation from the founder of

the Yang Style Tai Ji Quan. Years later, Da

Xing became accomplished in Asian and

Western martial arts. For many years, he

was the owner and the leading teacher

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40 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 41


to be true

and lasting….

which resolves might be harmful.

Some of them involve wanting

to commit outright violence to other

people, or having ill will for other people.

Some of the them involve being attached

to sensual desires— because, as the

Buddha once said, even if it rained gold

coins, we wouldn’t have enough for our

sensual desires. If that’s where we’re

looking for happiness, there’s no end to

it. And how many showers of gold coins

have you seen?

And how many showers would

we need to satisfy every person, every

animal on earth? With no sense of

satisfaction, we’re bound to get into

conflict with one another over what few

gold coins there are. There’s no way that

a true happiness can be found that way.

So you try to learn how to wean yourself

away from sensual desires.

President of the

Outstanding Women

in Buddhism

Awards (OWBA), President

of the Chinese Character

Education Promotion

Association, Deputy

President of the World

Alliance of Buddhists


Most Venerable

Bhikkhuni Dr. Ming Yu


“We’re looking

for a harmless


developing clarity in the mind.

When our pleasure depends on

harming other beings, we tend to have

big blind spots around the harm we’re

doing. We can think of all sorts of ways to

justify the harm we cause to other beings

or to other people in the course of our

quest for pleasure. In doing so, we built

Association of


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The 2 nd


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Join Together ! Work

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We’re doing as we meditate:

We’re looking for a

harmless happiness. This

is a very important way

of being kind to others. Sometimes

meditation is denounced as a selfish

activity because you seem to be just

looking after yourself. But people who

know how to look after themselves are

less of a burden on other people.

That’s why these skills are an

expression of kindness. There’s a passage

where the Buddha says that right resolve,

which is one of the factors of the path,

finds its highest expression in doing right

concentration. In other words, you have

to reflect on the fact that your quest for

happiness is going to have to depend on

your own actions, and you don’t want to

harm anybody else in the course of the

quest. Because your actions come from

your resolves, you have to reflect on

And the best way to do that is to find

a sense of pleasure within. This is why

the Buddha taught right concentration.

It’s not just that you focus on your mind,

but you focus in a way that gives rise to a

sense of ease, a sense of rapture. In this

way you satisfy your immediate need for

pleasure at the same time that you’re

up huge areas of denial and ignorance in

our mind.

But when your pleasure depends

on things that are causing no harm at all,

you can be clearer about where there

is harm in the world, where there is

conflict, because your happiness doesn’t

depend on that harm or conflict.

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42 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 43



in the air”….

We are in Europe


“Pathamam bodhi pallankan

Duthiyansa animissan Thathiyanthan

samnan settan” - First week at the base

of Bodhi, second week looking at Bodhi

without blinking the eyes and third week

Buddha realized that the gods were

uncertain as to whether he had attained

Enlightenment. To dispel their doubts

Buddha spent the third week walking in

one direction walking on a golden plank

he had created with psychic powers in

the air, while another Buddha created

with the supreme psychic powers of

Enlightened walked in the opposite

direction, where too that Buddha also

walked on a golden plank that had been

created by Buddha in the air. Why is it


Week after


that both Buddha did not walk in one

and the same direction?

To find the answer with Dhamma

one needs to go to Dwayathanupassana

Sutra (contemplation of Dyads), where

the stanzas are in pairs. We the mundane

people think we are alone, say when

staying with no one around. But they

are mistaken because in our inglorious

traversing of this Sansara we are never

alone, but with a second person, that

of craving. Even now this second person

craving is with us pushing and pulling us

in all directions.

“Thanhaya duthiyo puriso



Iththabaannanthabhavan sansarn

nathivaththathi” - “With craving as the

second person, all beings will for very

long time will traverse the inglorious

samsara becoming as this and as that

and will never overcome to escape from

it.” Thus, we the beings be they human

or gods are always with a second one,

that of craving all the time until one

finds total liberation of Nirvana where

the consciousness is non-illustrated.

But the Enlightened Ones are all

by themselves having extinguished

craving and their consciousness is nonillustrated.

Thus, even two Enlightened

One are not together. Buddha to show

this fact to the beings, be the Gods or

Brahma and to Humans did so in the

third week after Enlightenment. In the

peons of joy Buddha expressed soon

after Enlightenment, he said that craving

is fully eradicated.

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(Pvt) Ltd.

Formerly Senior

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presently Consultant to

Air India GSA in Sri Lanka.

Sugath Rajapakse


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44 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 45

Lord Buddha the Supreme

Omniscient self - English hood one

has taught thus: To the truly devout

disciples who held in venerable

the overcome the immoral mental

concomitants or papanca dhamma,

such as sensuourdesires ancient urog

views, the agga savaha the most learned

disciples, will surely enjoy the blessings

and benefits which will indeed be

beyond reclosing.

Therefore, it is highly meritorious

to hood in venerable the sacred relics of

the Buddha who had attained nibbana.

Every devotee present hence will know

the Theravada Buddhism which had

enlightened the Myanmar nation and

its people since the Bagan daily, all

though the succeeding epochs such

as Innwa, Pinya, Touugoo Amarapara.

Tatanapura, Konebaug is been reviewed

and sustained up to the present moment

with added aura and auspiciousness.

The teachings of Lord Buddha

(Buddha Sasana) comprises of three

aspects, pariyatti sasana - Doctrine

aspects, palipatt sasana - practical

meditation, pativada sasana - penetrative

insight into the four Noble Truths

It is a useful able fact that the sacred

relics, images, repositories of their relics

such as pagodas, temples, caves and

monasteries were initiated by the most

Dr Bhaddanta

Ariyavamasa Agga Maha

Pandita, Agga Maha

Thaddamma Zawtikadaza,

Maha Thaddamma


Sasana Hitadara,The

Republic of the Union

of Myanmar President's

State Excellence award

holder, Chancellor of

Alodawpyei Monasteries

Most Venerable

Alodawpyei Sayadaw




insight into

the four



revered and venerable shin Arahan. He

had converted King Anawrahta emperor

of the first Bagan empire into Buddhism.

Thus, all attributes and manifestations of

Buddhism in the form of these importing

structures were constricted during the

Bagan period. It was in these holy that

the laughs had resided ad perpetrated

the canonical scrip hues of Buddhist

teaching. It was in deeded the era of the

enlightening of Buddhism.

There were four sacred structures

or objects of worship and veneration

that Lord Buddha had ordained for the

entire 5000 years of Buddha sasana. They

are (1) Dhatin Ceti (2) Dhamma Ceti (3)

Udissa Ceti and (4) Paribogha Ceti. Ceti

is herein defined in Pali, the language of

the scriptures as follows.

"Cayi tabbam, Pujetabbanit

Cetiyani, Jihtakadihi, Citatthava, Ceti

yam., Ceti is defined thus because it is

worthy of praying and veneration OR the

holy structure which is constructed with

stones, brick etc is called ceti. Ceti is such

a venerable symbol of worship by human

celestial beings.

To further elaborate on the

explanation Dhatu Ceti is a repository

of the most sacred relies of Buddha.

pacieba Buddha, Aeahat, and sakkra

ruler of the four continuity Dhamma

Ceti is a compendium of the sacred

teachings of Lord Buddha which include.

Paticca samuppada (law of Dependent

Origination) and causal relation the

maha satipalthana and other dhamma

teachings inscribed on palm leaves, gold

and silver slabs, stone and inscriptions,

etc. The Pariboga Ceti sacred requisites

of Lord Buddha namely. The sacred

Bodhi tree where Buddha attained

Enlightenment; sacred robes. Again,

the teaching have been dined into their

collection or three barkers, commonly

known as Tipitaka in Pali Script, names

So, Sutta pitaka meaning the convention

teaching and discourses, Vinaya pitaka

meaning the authoritarian teaching

which embody the ruler disc plain

highest codes of ethics, Abhidhama

pilaka meaning the highest teaching

which include the ultimate, reality,

(paramaltha) and nibbana, the ultimate


"The convention

teachings” ….

46 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 47

48 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 49




We all know Buddhism is one

of the oldest religions in

the world. It is more than

two and half millennium

development; the contribution of

Buddhism towards world culture is

indeed great. I am being a humble

Buddhist monk; few points will be put

forward in the context of this occasion

will be mostly in Buddhist perspective.

I am though conscious of the fact that

all religions have served humanity for

centuries. What I will say will be primarily

to make aware the positive aspects of

Buddhism and like to recapitulate the


is not

mere religious

brotherhood spirit

either ”….

today’s global scene.

As human beings, we have achieved

a high level of material progress we

would not have even dreamed of barely

a century ago. The marvels of modern

technology have given us enormous

power over the forces of nature. Despite

the miraculous achievement made by

scientists and technologists, the suffering

and miseries of humanity have not

become less. On the contrary, violence,

aggression, confl ict, hatred, mistrust

have manifested at an alarming rate.

Countless human beings are tortured

and killed every day across the world. No

day goes by without fi ghting and killing.

50% of the world’s economic resources

are being spent for manufacturing war

equipments for destructive purposes. At

the same time, it is estimated that about

40,000 children die of hunger or hunger

related disease every day, and more

than 700 million people in the world are

malnourished. Now we are competing in

producing nuclear weapons, which is a

plan to destroy the whole world - global


In the past, wars were fought to win

but now in the nuclear wars, there will

be no winner or loser left, all of us will

perish. Despite amazing breakthroughs

in medical science, diseases like AIDS

are threatening to swamp mankind.

Mental illnesses, stress and loneliness

are some of the serious problem we

now face in our modern society. To

satisfy human greed, most of the world’s

forests are mercilessly beings destroyed.

Industrialists are polluting the air, rivers

and oceans everywhere in pursuit of

profi ts. They are ready to pollute and

destroy the whole environment for their

own selfi sh ends. This has resulted in

weather conditions and the ecological

balance being disturbed. Global warming

(the direct result of deforestation and

toxic emissions) has resulted in the rise

in global temperatures, and the icecaps

and glaciers are melting very quickly.

Some parts of the world are experiencing

deadly fl oods while other areas are

crippled by drought. Innumerable

species of wildlife have been driven

to extinction because of man’s lack of

consideration and thought for others.

In short, the growth mania has led to

intensive depletion of natural balances

and has upset the ecosystem resulting an

insurmountable man made Dukha.

Building a Harmonious Society

- The Universal Loving Kindness and

compassion is the only Panacea for the

ills of today’s world. The development of

loving kindness softens people’s hearts.

In the organizations of nations, instead

of providing military aid, we should

give the pure aid of loving kindness to

the helpless world. It is defi ned as the

sincere wish for the welfare and genuine

happiness of all mankind without

distinction between others and us. “Just

as a mother protects her only child

even at the risk of her own life, even so

one should cultivate boundless lovingkindness

towards all living beings.” This

is the advice of the Buddha. Therefore,

loving kindness is not the passionate

love of mother towards her child. Even

so, our love towards the other nations,

countries must be a sincere wish and

pure love for the genuine peace and

welfare of the world. We should extend

the boundless universal brotherhood

spirit embracing all nations, all races, all

classes, and all countries without barriers

in the differences of political views.

Founder & President of

Mahabodhi International

Meditation Centre, Leh,

Ladakh, India, Founder

& President of Save the

Himalaya Foundation -

New Delhi, Founder &

President of Foundation

of Indian Buddhist New

Delhi, India

Most Venerable Bhikkhu



50 l Mettavalokanaya l September l 2019 l l 2019 l September l Mettavalokanaya l 51

The World’s Largest International Maha

Sanghadana Linkou,Taiwan - August 25, 2019

Chung Hwa International Merits Society of Buddha Puja and

Sangha Dana Society in Taiwan

Official Media Partner - Mettavalokanaya

Buddhika Sanjeewa, as the Founder, President & Chief Editor of Mettavalokana Buddhist Publications Centre, I printed and published this “MettavalokanayaBuddhist Magazine as

52 l Mettavalokanaya a publication of Mettavalokana l October Buddhist l 2018 l Publications

Centre on September 10, 2019 at M. D. Gunasena & Co (Pvt) Ltd, No.20, San Sebastian Hill, Colombo 12, Sri Lanka.

Registered at Department of Post in Sri Lanka - QD/193/News/2018

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