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The Prepress Magazine

issue #5 / a u g u s t 2020


A magical mystery tour


The packaging is attractive –

but is it smart?


How to wrap a fragrance

On Corporate Identity

Or: the long road from

red to green

e d i t o r i a l

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Dear Reader,

It's a colourful world, to paraphrase Louis Armstrong. Yet this is

a reality that means something different to each of us. It is an

aspect of our world that we now take for granted, but it hasn't

always been that way. Homer describes the sea as being winecoloured

or purple. Were he and his fellow Greeks colour blind?

Probably not, according to scholars. For us humans the world

has always been full of colours, yet for a long time we didn't

have the words for them.

Our sector would be unthinkable without colour. That's why the

topic runs like a golden thread all the way through LINKED#5.

This edition outlines how colours have been produced through

the centuries, highlighting the most daring substances and

methods, some of which even proved lethal! It reports on the

broad advancements that have resulted in high-performance

state-of-the-art printing ink. And it looks at the effect of colours

and the importance for brand identity and artwork of presenting

them uniformly in all markets and through all channels.

Our mission is to promote the diversity and brilliance of colours.

In a metaphorical sense "colourful" means that our company

values, respects and supports individuality and the diversity

which that implies. In a more literal sense we use innovations

and know-how to ensure that our clients' world – and the world

in general – remain full of colour.

So let me invite you to join us on a journey through this fascinating

world and allow yourself to be surprised by the many different

aspects of colour revealed to you in this edition in an informative

and entertaining way – by Janoschka and Linked2Brands.

With this in mind: We wish you an enjoyable read!


Alexander Janoschka

member of the executive board

4 c o n t e n t s

contents issue #5






6 Colours

A magical mystery tour

22 Sustainability

The packaging is attractive –

but is it smart?

knowledge & competence

38 High-tech Printing Inks

Functional and visually appealing

42 Testing the Waters!

How consumers help to

design packaging

face to face

46 On Corporate Identity

Or: the long road from red to green

28 Soap-Making

How to wrap a fragrance

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network & people

52 Colours of Linked

What brings colour to your life?

to tell the truth

66 Do you know why…

It took three men to invent a column?

58 Recognisable Appeal

Brand consistency through perfect

artwork and colour cards

62 The magic and radiance

of colours

Of light and matter


70 Stefan Gutheil, CFO

Janoschka’s excellence cluster

72 Linked2Brands

Global brand continuity

74 Streams

Design lifecycle management

6 i n s i g h t s

a magical



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Between alchemy

and high-tech

We live in a colourful world. Everywhere we look there are colours.

Ever since pre-historic times, humans have used colour to brighten up their environment:

from ochre, the very first pigment known to have been used as a dye by all cultures

250,000 years ago, all the way to "Vantablack" – the world’s "blackest black", which absorbs

99.96 per cent of the light and was developed by British researchers in 2014.

Audacious experiments, daring methods and chance discoveries – not to mention countless

animal victims – mark the bizarre, occasionally macabre and not seldom fatal cultural history

of colour pigments through the centuries.

8 i n s i g h t s

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Toxic green and

perfidious marketing

Napoleon Bonaparte, French emperor and conqueror of

a global empire, survived many fierce battles – even

Waterloo – during his life as a general. But his glorious

career – and indeed his life – came to an inglorious end

in a room decorated with gold and green patterned


As was customary at the time, the dye used to colour

the wallpaper was so-called Schweinfurt Green – a

gorgeous emerald green whose use would have horrific

consequences: for it also proved to be the most

toxic dye in history. The intensive radiance of the most

brilliant shade of green around at the time was derived

from a compound of copper acetate and arsenic.

Around 1778, the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm

Scheele discovered copper arsenite by chance while

performing an experiment. Copper arsenite is a lustrous

and above all durable green. Because green dyes

were in short supply at the time, this light-resistant

pigment immediately became very popular under the

name Scheele’s Green.

Schweinfurt Green, named after the place where it was

produced industrially, appeared on the scene in 1808 as

copper acetate arsenite, a further advancement on the

original compound.

The world of interior design and fashion fell in love

with the luminous green pigment. Since it was cheap,

and the paint industry was hungry for new dyes, mass

production began almost immediately and the dye

quickly spread all over Europe. The arsenic compound

was used particularly for printing and colouring

wallpaper and textiles, but also to dye dresses, artificial

flowers, candles and even children’s toys.

Green was booming. It has been estimated that by the

mid-nineteenth century some 250 square kilometres

of wall had been hung with copper arsenite dyed wallpaper

in Great Britain alone: in palaces, apartments,

hospitals and station waiting rooms.

The Times reported that around 500 to 700 tons of this

dye were being produced every year in order to satisfy

the constantly growing demand for brilliant colours.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele left behind

an important scientific legacy,

which made the world more colourful

– but also more toxic

10 i n s i g h t s

Nothing seemed to stand in the way of a triumph

for Schweinfurt Green. Even after it was revealed

that arsenic was the chemical responsible for the

pigment’s radiant colour, the public did not realise

the danger. But then some worrying rumours

began to emerge about a series of suspicious

deaths. A milliner who had spent months decorating

hats with fashionable artificial flowers died

after suffering nausea, rashes and faintness.

A child died after putting a green painted toy

in its mouth. A patient in a London hospital was

poisoned by a curtain round his bed. Similar symptoms

appeared in a growing number of people.

Doctors and scientists began testing the various

green objects and discovered that the pigment

reacted with humidity to produce toxic arsenic

fumes. They published their findings about wallpaper

poisonings in medical journals. The newspapers

reprinted them and some reports made

national headlines.

The Fife Herald, for instance, reported that four or

five grams of this compound would be fatal for a

human being "and the mixture is applied so thickly

that any lady wearing an emerald green dress would

be carrying enough poison on her delicate person

to kill forty or fifty of her fellow human beings …".

The Arsenic Waltz: the new dance

of death (dedicated to green-loving

milliners and seamstresses).

Scheele himself had already suspected when he

discovered the pigment that it might be poisonous.

Yet he was more concerned about whether someone

else might steal his invention and make money out of

it. Once it was no longer possible to conceal the deadly

danger posed by the fashionable colour, the manufacturers

tried to "disguise" their sales with a trick:

they simply marketed the pigment over and over again

renaming it each time. Eventually, there were around

eighty different names denoting the same colour:

among them, Imperial Green, Paris Green, Viennese

Green, Kassel Green, Neuwied Green, Mitis Green and

Mountain Green.

Although scientists had proved in the early nineteenth

century that the pigment was highly toxic, its production

was not banned until around 150 years later, in the


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4Cu 2+

O - O O -

As As

O -

O O H 3 C C

As 2 2

O -

O - Schweinfurt Green

12 i n s i g h t s


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Dead heads and mummies

In 1904, the renowned London paint manufacturer

Messrs Charles Roberson & Co. placed an advertisement

in the Daily Mail that was unusual even for

those times. It offered an appropriate sum to anyone

who could provide a mummy: "Mummy sought

with which to produce paint", the advertisement

read. Probably to assuage fears, it added the following

explanation: "The 2,000-year-old mummy of an

Egyptian monarch can of course be used to decorate

a precious fresco without offending the soul of

the deceased gentleman or his descendants . . . "

(S. Woodcock, 1996).

In the early twentieth century, the rather naive

use of ancient Egyptian mummies of humans and

animals was still common practice. Sold under the

label Mumia, Mumie or caput mortuum (dead head),

this rich potion consisted mainly of white pitch and

myrrh mixed with ground up ancient Egyptians and

their pets.

Since Antiquity, people had sworn by Mumia as a

mystical remedy for curing an extraordinary range of

disorders: from toothache to heartache.

This conviction originated from the medical use of

bitumen. 'Mumiya' was the Persian word for the black

tar used to embalm the dead, while later it was used

to seal the conserved bodies.

Mumia was highly valued as a pigment from the

Middle Ages onwards on account of its transparent,

rich brown colour. In the sixteenth century, trade in

mummified remains from Egypt flourished and mass

production began in Europe. In 1712, a Paris paint

trader who was quite up front about this business,

calling it "À la Momie", sold pulverised Mumia, dyes,

paints and myrrh. The pigment reached the height of

its popularity in the mid-nineteenth century when it

was "quite en vogue".

Gradually, supplies from Egypt began to dry up. In addition,

the gruesome origin of the paint became ever

more widely known. Society was steadily developing

a greater respect for other cultures and their rites.

The production, sale and use of the pigment were no

longer approved. Mumia went out of fashion.

We do not know whether the mummy ad was successful.

What we do know is that the traditional

London paint manufacturer Roberson revealed to

Time Magazine only about fifty-five years ago that

the company had sold out of mummies. "We might

have a few odd limbs lying around somewhere",

he apologised, "but not enough to make any more

paint. We sold our last complete mummy some

years ago for, I think, £3. Perhaps we shouldn’t have.

We certainly can’t get any more."

By 1964 the spectre was gone.

A curious funeral

Rudyard Kipling, author of 'The Jungle Book', describes in his

memoirs a memorable experience in the house of the painter

Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones: "[Burne-Jones] descended in broad

daylight with a tube of ‘Mummy Brown’ in his hand, saying

that he had discovered it was made of dead Pharaohs and we must

bury it accordingly. So we all went out and helped – according to

the rites of Mizraim and Memphis I hope – and to this day I could

drive a spade within a foot of where that tube lies."

Mumia – this pigment is exactly

what its gruesome name suggests.

14 i n s i g h t s

How a beetle painted

the town red

Whereas a single mummy was able to cover demand for

brown pigment for several years, around 50,000 dead beetles

are required to obtain around 100 grams of red pigment.

The "beetle" in question is the scale insect or Coccoidea,

which originally came from South America and subsequently

colonised the entire world.

Cochineal is the term for brilliant scarlet red, one of the reddest

reds that nature has to offer. The beetle produces carmine

acid to protect itself from enemies, but this defence

system was to prove its downfall.

Red cloth has always been hard to come by, expensive and

endowed with powerful symbolism as the sumptuous privilege

of the rich and powerful. In ancient Rome, red signified

status. That is why the most powerful men in the city were

known as "coccinati", meaning those clothed in red. Popes

and kings wore red, and red robes clothed both the Emperor

of China and the Shah of Persia.

Even for those who were in on the secret of carmine production,

red was always a source of wealth and power from

ancient times onwards. Cochineal or carmine red was one of

the longest- and best-kept secrets in the history of dyes.

The cochineal beetle, dactylopius

coccus, thrives best in the warm

dry climate of the southern Mexican

highlands. Today, it is still an

important trading item for the Mexican

city of Oaxaca, where it continues

to be bred in the traditional way.

Female beetles capable of reproduction

are released onto prickly pears.

There they wait for fertilisation by the

males. Unlike the females with their

round, woodlouse type bodies,

the males are thin flying insects.

They live only for the few days it takes

them to fertilise the females.

Once the female has laid her eggs,

she also dies and lays herself over her

offspring like a "shield".

After ten to twelve weeks, hundreds of

fat beetles have developed,

which are then collected. A practiced

picker harvests up to a kilogram of

beetles a day. He kills them using hot

steam and dries them in the sun.

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16 i n s i g h t s

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The Incas and the Aztecs also valued the intensive

luminescence of the dye and considered it a luxury.

Subjects paid their tribute to their ruler, Montezuma,

in sacks containing millions of dried cochineal

beetles. In 1519, cochineal caught the attention

of the Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés at one of

Mexico’s largest markets.

The conquistadores immediately shipped it to

Europe. Never before had the Old World seen a

brighter or richer red. The cochineal beetle soon

became one of Spain’s main exports and the Kingdom

of Spain made a fortune with its monopoly on

the dye. In order not to reveal its origin, they called

it grana (grain) cochineal or else claimed that it was

actually a vegetable.

The British, French, Dutch and other Europeans

tried desperately to solve the mystery of this precious

red, and even attempted to kidnap the beetle.

The rest is history: as well as serving as a clothing

dye the perfect scarlet red of carmine proved

to be perfect for the lips of prostitutes; and to

this day it is used as colouring in cocktails (e.g.

Campari), sausages, sweets, fruit juice, jam and

even medicines.

Dried cochineal beetles

resemble grains or berries.

Prickly pear plantation for

cultivating the dye. The cactus

leaves are "vaccinated” with

mother beetles. For the cactus

the beetle is a parasite that lives

by sucking its juice.

18 i n s i g h t s

The "Black Market" battle:

Vantablack versus Black 3.0

Abysmal and dangerous: that is black. But currently an abyss

is opening up between two artists competing to produce the

blackest black in human history.

It all began in 2014 when the British company Surrey

NanoSystems developed "Vantablack" – the darkest man-made

substance ever: only black holes in space absorb more light.

Vantablack is less a colour than a state of the art high-tech

material. It consists of nanotubes arranged vertically on a surface.

Vanta is the acronym for Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays.


Light that falls on this surface bounces back and forth between

the tubes until it has been almost completely – 99.96 per cent –

absorbed. For non-scientific minds, imagine how dark it would

be in a forest whose trees are around three kilometres high –

extremely dark. The human eye does not perceive black but

instead the lack of any light whatsoever. Wherever Vantablack

appears it looks as if there were a hole in the world. Objects lose

their dimensions, their depth. Wired wrote: "You look at Vantablack,

but nothing looks back at you."

Can you see ? You see nothing!

Without the light, the 3D

impression disappears.

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20 i n s i g h t s


Anish Kapoor, Commander of the Order of the

British Empire, Royal Academician, winner

of the Turner Prize and the Praemium Imperiale.

His works fetch some of the highest prices in

the art world.

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Artists were immediately fascinated by this super-black – above all the

British-Indian sculptor Anish Kapoor. He managed to secure exclusive

rights of use for the new colour in his art. Nobody else is allowed to use

Vantablack. Just imagine how furious his fellow artists were.

In response another artist, Stuart Semple, decided to produce his own

"blackest black": a mixture of the pigments pinkest pink, yellowest yellow,

loveliest blue and greenest green. Semple sells this DIY black

online under the name "Black 3.0". According to his web shop it is a

"super matt, ultra-black acrylic paint". It absorbs between 98 and

99 per cent of visible light and thus comes close to the

"black hole-ishness" of Vantablack. With the hashtag #sharetheblack,

Semple made it clear that anyone could buy Black 3.0 – anyone, that is,

except Anish Kapoor.

The hashtag went viral. Images of artworks painted using Semple

pigments were posted all over the web, including one of an

outstretched middle finger dipped in Semple’s pinkest pink. No prizes

for guessing that the finger was Anish Kapoor’s.

*Note: By adding this product to your cart you confirm that

you are not Anish Kapoor, you are in no way affiliated to

Anish Kapoor, you are not purchasing this item on behalf of

Anish Kapoor or an associate of Anish Kapoor. To the best

of your knowledge, information and belief this material

will not make its way into the hands of Anish Kapoor.


But that’s water under the bridge. At the end of last year, the

Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced that it had

discovered a black that absorbs 99.995 per cent of the light –

"the blackest material ever measured". A German artist demonstrated

it at the New York Stock Exchange: instead of a twinkling 16.78 caret

diamond worth two million dollars, visitors saw precisely nothing.

Like a camouflage cloak, the new black made the diamond invisible.

Stuart Semple – doesn’t always look

on the dark side. In a bid to

highlight and spread happiness

worldwide he sent "Happy Clouds"

up into the skies over London,

Milan, Moscow, Dublin und

Geelong (Australia)

We do not know whether anyone will ever find the remaining 0.005 of

black. What we do know is that people find colours inspiring and that

the end of this magical mystery tour is a long way off.

22 i n s i g h t s

The Packaging Is Attractive –

But Is It Smart?

Manufacturers are currently facing the enormous challenge of making radical changes to their packaging

concepts in the space of just a few years. As well doing the accustomed job of ensuring that

products are kept intact, fresh and durable, the new packaging is also supposed to be environmentally compatible.

And while the logistics people have their eye on packaging that is optimal in terms of volume and

weight as goods are moved from one place to another, consumers need to be provided with all the

relevant product information as well. As if that weren’t enough, it also needs to be eye-catching and maintain

brand consistency, making the product instantly recognisable so that customers are happy to buy it

wherever they find it. This makes for a highly complex undertaking driven by a variety of different factors.

Is it really possible to square the circle here?

All over the world, modern lifestyles, especially

in industrialised nations, are consuming

ever more resources and producing increasing

volumes of emissions and waste. However,

people are starting to realise that running an

economy along these lines is not practicable in

the long term, since it is driving the planet –

and the human beings who inhabit it – towards


Yes, we are in danger of drowning in rubbish,

but what should we do with that empty packet

of biscuits and the bottle of shampoo out of

which the last drops have been squeezed? And,

after we have finished scraping out our yoghurt

pots and pressing all our pills out of the blister

packaging, how should we dispose of the


For our existence to become sustainable, both

the current economic system and consumer

behaviour must change radically. In its Sustainable

Development Goals issued in 2015, the

United Nations outlined precisely what needs

to be done. Goal 12 is: "Ensure sustainable consumption

and production patterns."

The goal is to bring about a major reduction in

the volume of waste by 2030. The three Rs:

reduce, reuse and recycle,

are what is meant here.

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Countries have translated this demand into concrete

political strategies based on the circular economy.

The idea is that, through intelligent product design,

goods and raw materials will become part of a cycle.

One of the secondary effects and goals of this will be

to create more regional and local jobs and sustainable

value – and ideally no more waste.

In 2018, the EU came up with a strategy specifically

for plastics, and in recent years many major companies

have voluntarily committed themselves to achieving

these goals over the next five to ten years.

1 st place:


global annual

production of


plastic bottles

To date, the cycle of goods has often functioned as

follows: raw materials are purchased to produce packaging.

Industrial customers use these to package their

products, which reach the end-consumer after travelling

a long or short distance. At the end of the product’s

lifecycle, the packaging ends up as rubbish in a

sheer endless flow of waste. In 2017, Germany alone

generated 18.7 million tons of packaging waste, which

amounts to 226 kilograms of plastic waste per capita.

While in Germany most of this waste is burned, in other

countries it often ends up in landfills, or worse still, in

the environment.

88 000 000 000




31 TIMES ( 384,400 km )

plastic waste

of the largest consumer goods groups

in tons per year

3 000 000

1700 000

750 000 610 000

this corresponds to

a production RATE OF

167,000 bottles

per minute

coca-cola nestlé danone UNIlever

PLASTIKATLAS 2019 / DUH, macarthur

24 i n s i g h t s

what do we use

plastic for?

usage by industry in

millions of tons in 2015

global plastic


In millions of tons

















1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030






over half

of the plastic ever produced

has been produced since 2000.

forecast increasing.








(mostly used

only once)

In 2015, over 400 tons

of plastic were produced worldwide.

Packaging accounted for more than a third

of all plastics manufactured.


of single-use plastic items,

by region, 2014




South America





% 17




% 1











Asia and




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Everything you need. Nothing that you don’t need.

This is the principle underlying Colgate’s mission.

The goal is to make all products completely

recyclable by 2025.

How willing are we

to trash our principles?

We can already see today that flexible packaging will

have a key role to play in avoiding waste. In a bid to find

optimal solutions, packaging material is permanently

changing as the parameters of packageability and

stability are constantly tested and adapted. Of course,

people are coming up with whole new packaging concepts,

too. Who says, for example, that the design of

today’s yoghurt pot should be the benchmark for the

future? It is entirely possible that in two to three years

a completely different, more practicable and resourcesaving

design will have become the norm.

Taking just the food industry, we can see two trends

that run diametrically counter to attempts to minimise

waste and throw-away packaging. First of all, the increasing

number of single households means there

is growing demand for smaller packets. Secondly, in

working life, convenience products that use a lot of

packaging are becoming more and more popular as

people grab a quick bite to eat at lunchtime. As the

latter point illustrates, when it comes to convenience

or speed, our cherished principles and values all too

easily fall by the wayside.

So how can we reduce (plastic) packaging waste? One

idea is to dispense almost entirely with plastic packaging

and use cardboard instead, without giving customers

the feeling that this means a decline in quality.

In 2017, Apple once again demonstrated that this was

an entirely viable approach. The company started packing

its mobile devices in smaller, cardboard packages,

sourcing its packaging material from its own forests.

Other brands that have followed the trend away from

plastic in favour of paper include the German chocolate

brand Ritter Sport, while the frozen food producer

Frosta has introduced paper packaging with the goal of

banishing plastic from deep freezers.

Fiber & Plastic Mass (g)

iPhone 6s

iPhone 7

0 40 80 120 160

Changes to packaging from iPhone 6s

to iPhone 7 reduced the amount of

plastic used and increased the use of

recycled fiber.

Virgin Fiber Recycled Fiber Plastic

Apple’s Paper and Packaging Strategy, October 2017

26 i n s i g h t s


Polyethylene terephthalate


Polyethylene high density


Polyvinyl chloride


Polyethylene low density



e.g. food bottles,

polyester fibers,

foils, food packaging

e.g. pipes for gas and drinking

water, detergent containers,

plastic bottles

e.g. boots, shower curtains,

window frames, pipes,

electrical cables, leatherette

e.g. plastic bags, cling film,

garbage bags, tubes,

milk carton coatings

e.g. food packaging,

DVD cases, interior panels,

bumpers, child seats

Plastic: theory and practice

Yet nowadays plastic as a packaging material needn’t

be ashamed of itself. The use of ever thinner materials

has brought about major reductions in the volume

of waste. What is more, if the packaging is made of

only one substance (mono-material) such as pure polyethylene

(PE) or polypropylene (PP), then repeated

recycling is already on the horizon.

Nevertheless, the reality to date is that environmental

aspects tend to play a secondary role when packaging

materials are selected. And in purely economic terms,

recycling is often not worthwhile.

Although plastics can theoretically be reused five

or six times, they are often used only once. One of

the reasons for this is that they are comprised of too

many different materials. The packages used for sliced

meats or cheese, for instance, may well be made of

up to eight different plastics, and no sorting facility is

going to be able to separate those from each other in

a cost-effective manner. Not least because many of

them are still composite materials. While the layperson

sees them simply as thin plastic film, in fact they are

comprised of many different layers, each of them only

a few micrometres thick, which in combination serve a

whole host of functions.

But even mono-materials present a major challenge,

especially as different countries have different standards

for defining them. In Sweden, they may contain

up to 50 per cent of other materials and still be categorised

as a mono-material, but in many other European

countries the proportion of the main material has to

be 50 to 85 per cent. The United States also uses the

85 per cent threshold as a guideline. In Germany, by

contrast, a packaging material only counts as a monomaterial

if the main material comprises at least 95 per

cent of the total.

In the future, deciding which packaging material to use

will involve honestly weighing up the pros and

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e.g. food packaging,

polystyrene packaging,



Various Plastics

e.g. toys, cases, DVDs, clothing,

ropes, parachutes, toothbrushes,

casing of electrical appliances

A world without plastic? Hard to imagine, isn’t it?

Your day starts with a plastic alarm clock.

Then you take a shower using shampoo out of a

bottle that wouldn’t even exist without plastic

any more than the water pipes would. Then

there’s the plastic steering wheel in your car, your

plastic jogging shirt, desk and telephone.

You round off the day watching a plastic TV,

eating snacks out of a plastic container. Before

bed you brush your teeth with a plastic toothbrush.

cons and analysing all the follow-on costs of a

given product as well as providing consumers

with more information. Without this information,

consumers are unable to make purchasing decisions

based on the sustainability of a product.

What we need are new solutions for different

kinds of mono-plastics as well as entirely novel

solutions for paper and cardboard packaging.

If packaging material is to be recycled, the quality

of the so-called recyclate – i.e. the granules

of recyclable plastic – will need to be improved.

One way of doing this is to ensure that overprints

can be separated from the basic material

as easily as possible. Currently, new solutions

and processes for de-inking – i.e. dissolving the

printing ink out of the packaging material – are

being developed and tested.

For printed paper, de-inking is already an established

industrial process. For plastic, it is

currently not yet available on an industrial scale.

But even today, high-quality recyclate is already

a scarce commodity, and demand is likely to

increase considerably in the future. We don’t

need to be soothsayers to realise that since

de-inking is a key technology for obtaining highquality

recyclate, we can expect major technical

advances in this area in the near future.

The crowning achievement –

Frosch washing liquid,

the frog "king"

Reverse engineering means starting at the end of a product

cycle and thinking backwards. In other words, starting

with the question of what properties does a piece of used packaging

have to have in order to be recycled into a raw material

of virtually the same quality as the original material?

This packet of washing liquid is composed of 100% recyclable

mono-material. Even the de-inking problem has already

been solved, because the printing is not on the packaging itself

but on a thin banderol of the same material that can be

peeled off and hence separated during the recycling process.

This especially sustainable solution won the company a World-

Star Award in 2020 and the German Packaging Prize in 2019.


f a c e t o f a c e

" when i smell something, i have no conception

of its form or how distant or near it is,

the smell tells me only how i feel."

Immanuel Kant

How to Wrap

a Fragrance

Even soap will only produce

the sweet smell of success

if it is properly packed.

The salty spray of the sea, glowing embers, a forest after the rain,

wood warmed by the sun, leather: a fragrance is an essence –

sublime, sometimes ephemeral. We can’t see a fragrance, we can

rarely describe it, we can merely smell it. Yet in a split second

it opens doors to our emotions, conjuring up scenes in our heads,

arousing memories, changing our mood.

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Even if only for a moment, we enter

a world that is wholly sensual.

This is reflected in the words we

use to describe fragrances: earthy,

soft, verdant, mossy, fruity, warm,

tangy, powdery, spicy or flowery.

The list is long and our imagination

knows no limits.

But how can we capture, mix,

let alone conserve something as

ephemeral as a fragrance. To find

the answer let us travel to Grasse

in the hinterland of the Côte

d’Azur. Here, amid lavender fields

and gardens of lemons, oranges,

roses, jasmine, thyme and rosemary,

is the world centre of perfume-makers.

This is the heart of

Provence, where legendary scents

were created. And it is here that,

ever since the Renaissance, the

master perfumers, known as nez

(nose) on account of their acute

sense of smell, discovered the

most diverse methods for extracting

fragrances in their purest form

and developed and refined them

further. The techniques ranged

from steam distillation, enfleurage

(extraction using fat), maceration

(warm enfleurage) or expression.

All of them were used to wrest

fragrant secrets from the various

herbs, flowers, blossoms, peels,

barks and leaves, transforming

them into sumptuous essences

and filling them into bottles.

And thus perfume, this ethereal

mixture of essential oils and alcohol

that was considered sensual,

expensive and exclusive,

was born. The court of the Sun

King Louis XIV in Versailles soon

became the leading customer for

this luxury article. At the same

time, these fragrant essences

could be processed and refined in

an infinite variety of ways.

With invention of the alambic in

around the ninth century the

Arabs refined the distillation process.

The rising steam condenses on the

walls of the helmet-shaped lid and

flows into the collection vessel.


f a c e t o f a c e

Perfume and soap –

une liaison provençale


City of Tanners and Perfumers

In the Middle Ages, leather from Grasse was known far

and wide, well beyond Provence. This fact made Grasse’s

tanners the masters of the city. Unfortunately, not only the

production process, but also the product itself gave off an

overpoweringly unpleasant smell. To stop his customers

turning up their sensitive noses, the tanner Galimard

coined the idea of soaking his leather gloves in baths scented

with flowers from Provençal gardens, such as lavender,

myrtle, jasmine, roses, wild orange blossom or mimosa.

Thus begins a scented tale.


The Story of a Murderer

But if we stay in Grasse for a moment, we find one name that crops up

time and again: Fragonard. Founded in the 1920s, the products of this

perfume manufacturer – especially their opulent and cleverly designed

packaging – testify to an affinity for a bohemian lifestyle. Along the

coast between Monaco and Cannes, artists of every stripe, musicians,

writers, painters, couturiers and dandies settled to amuse themselves

to the rhythms of the Roaring Twenties.

Soon Fragonard’s exclusive fragrances came to be associated with

another product for which Provence is famous: soap. In the buildings

of the so-called "usine historique" alongside full-bellied copper

alambics and other mysterious and wondrous objects for perfumemaking,

we find the traditional equipment of a soap studio. This is

where the specialists at Fragonard perfume the soap granules with

luxurious essences. After a number of further steps in the production

process, the soap, now a homogenous mass, is finally "stamped"

into a bar with an unmistakeable shape: a pebble that caresses the

hands, a heart or diamond – not to mention the soaps in the "Jardin du

Fragonard" line, artfully embossed with all manner of flower patterns,

or the cameo series "Tout ce que j’aime" (All that I love).

Grasse is a place of many legends. Patrick Süskind set his

world bestseller Perfume: The Story of a Murderer,

published in 1985, there. The story revolves around the

most fleeting of all the senses. It tells the story of Jean-

Baptiste Grenouille, who is born with an extraordinary

sense of smell yet has no smell of his own. His desire is to

create the mother of all scents, an essence that will

finally make him, the unprepossessing outsider, smellable

and hence visible: the perfect perfume with which

to ultimately make his mark on the world.

Translated into forty-eight languages with more than

20 million copies sold worldwide (as of 2018),

Perfume is one of the most successful German novels of

the twentieth century.


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Luxury and sensuality

that shows

Richly decorated surfaces, opulent

colours and golden elements

emphasise the elegance of classic

fragrances: alongside Patchouli,

the collection includes Santal,

Fleur d’Oranger and Vetiver.

For Fragonard "Tout ce que j’aime" embraces the poetic and

inspiring world of fragrances and soaps – with their sophistication,

sensuality, art, colours … the list is almost infinite.

So it goes without saying that the same special care that

goes into manufacturing the soaps themselves is also applied

to the design of the packaging. One of the mantras

of the sector is that for a scent to make its mark, not only

does its composition have to be just right, but also the design

of its wrapping.

Fragonard’s high-quality soap boxes supply the perfect testimony

to this art, their opulent designs evoking the brilliant

colours of the Midi or else subtly underlining with subdued,

fine, gold-embossed lines on matt paper the elegance of

almost ancient fragrances.

Fragonard’s deep commitment to art together with the

status it assigns to packaging design are exemplified by

its cooperation with Patch New York City. Known for their

glamorous designs inspired by vintage embroidery and

appliqué and bead techniques in surprising palettes and

embellished with details woven together like a kaleidoscope,

the design duo was commissioned to come up with

a new look for Fragonard’s classic, mystical and mysterious

patchouli fragrance. According to legend, the women of

the Orient traditionally wrapped their scarves in patchouli

leaves, so that when they wore them they were swathed

in a beguiling scent.

That was the brief for Patch NYC. The result was an imaginative

holiday collection consisting of five different sets of

fragrances in a limited edition, as enchanting as the stories

from 1001 Nights, as sensual as the beauty of Provence,

and a clear expression of opulence, glamour, elegance and


32 f a c e t o f a c e

Claus Porto –

The dazzling Belle Epoque

Claus Porto’s soaps are likewise pure luxury. Handwrapped

and sealed with varnish in the nostalgic designs

of the Gründerzeit, Art Nouveau and Art Deco,

they pay homage to an era when soap was still a

symbol of incredible wealth.

From the Mediterranean we now journey to Porto

on Portugal's rugged Atlantic coast. Here the narrow,

picturesque alleyways of the old town lie side

by side with imposing Baroque buildings, and the

taste of rich port mingles with the smell of the

sea. This coastal city in north-western Portugal, for

centuries the starting point for daring voyages, has

preserved much of its old charm as well as some

typical Portuguese products.

Thus in the "Ach. Brito" soap factory, Claus Porto

soaps continue to be made in exactly the same

way that the founders Ferdinand Claus and Georges

Schweder began producing them back in 1887.

Evoking bygone eras, they emit aromas of violets,

wild pansies, honeysuckle, tuberose, red poppies,

almonds, musk, pomegranate and jasmine.

Their wrappings are decorated with extravagantly

gorgeous vintage graphics. This artful portfolio

of hand-made, colourful labels and patterns lends

each product its own unique personality. Printed on

glossy paper in a 1920s design they show elegant

tango dancers, garlands of flowers or cool graphics

in the typical colours of Art Deco.

A unique packaging design which, like the products

themselves, is bathed in the spirit and soul of the

people who make them. To this day, the soaps and

perfumes exude the luxurious charm and glamorous

decadence of the Belle Epoque.


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f a c e t o f a c e

"We are all one – or none!"

Dr. Bronner’s soapy messages

Dr. Bronner’s soap lines clearly demonstrate that packaging can have a

very different function from merely wrapping products. Printed with narrow

spacing, their packaging literally bears eloquent testimony to their author’s

deep convictions. Messages like:

1 st If not for me, who am I? Nobody!

2 nd Yet, if I’m only for me, what am I? Nothing!

3 rd If not now, when?!

Emanuel Bronner, the founder of Dr. Bronner’s in America, called these aphorisms

his "Moral ABC": We are responsible for ourselves but also for each

other, and as we grow, we must grow responsibly.

Born Emil Heilbronner, Emanuel came from a Jewish family that had been

making soap for three generations. In 1929, they left Germany and emigrated

to the United States. Emanuel changed his name, removing the "Heil" as a

protest against Nazism. Thereafter he made his vision of a world without war

and hatred in which everybody was equal and coexisted peacefully his life’s


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Sustainable through and through: the all-rounder soap!

It will wash your hands, face and hair and clean your

teeth as well. But you can also use it as an animal shampoo

and for household cleaning – a single

bar of Dr. Bronner’s replaces many other products.

Using his motto: "We are all one – or none." he began giving

lectures in 1950s America in which he admonished people

to live peacefully in harmony with nature. He also gave

away bars of peppermint soap to members of the audience.

When he realised that the soap went down better

than his lectures, he decided to concentrate on soap

production and instead printed his credo on the labels.

It isn’t only the packaging that gives expression to his deeply

rooted value system, but also its contents: fair trade,

organic, natural soaps produced from sustainable agriculture

under just working conditions.

In order to ensure an ecologically sound supply chain, the

company participates in production all over the world,

for example in a sustainable palm oil plantation in Ghana.

In addition, management salaries are nowhere allowed

to be more than five times that of the lowest employee’s

wage. One third of the profits is reinvested, one third paid

out to the employees and one third donated.

"We are all brothers and sisters, and we should take

care of each other on spaceship earth." – emanuel bronner

Every bar of Dr. Bronner’s soap speaks of conscientious

behaviour and respect for one’s fellow human beings and

the environment. Noblesse of a different kind.



f a c e t o f a c e

We don’t know whether the young German label got its idea

from Dr. Bronner’s soaps, but its message is equally clear:

"Stop the Water While Using Me" is both the brand name and

the company philosophy.




The natural cosmetics brand launched in 2011 has made it its

mission to protect, save and donate water. Water is the foundation

for all life and essential for the survival of the human race.

One of the goals of its founder is therefore that before anyone

enters a bathroom they should be clear about what their

attitude to water is. But it’s not only the consumers who should

conserve water. With its initiative Good Water Projects, the

brand, bought by the Beiersdorf concern this year, supports

smart projects for tapping drinking water across the globe.

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And the soap inside this toned-down packaging with

its clear admonition is every bit as minimalist:

"Stop the Water While Using Me" soap contains no

synthetic colouring or artificial fragrances and uses

exclusively natural, essential aromas and oils to

perfume the products. Both the content and the

message stand for sustainability and responsible

handling of precious resources.

Whether it is the expression of exquisite luxury

or a conveyor of sustainable ideas, packaging for

perfume and soap is always, like its contents, the

result of a two-stage translation process. It translates

ethereal and abstract sensuality into an idea

and the idea into an object. In the case of soap, the

message literally rubs off.

Soap boiling –

an art going back

many millennia

Humanity’s first known soap recipe was found

on a clay tablet of the Sumarians, scratched

onto the tablet in cuneiform in 2,500 BC.

The principle of soap-making has not changed

since then. The Sumerians used burnt plants

and wood to extract an alkali potash,

which was then boiled with oils.

The chemical reaction between these two substances

produced soap. One of its properties

was to reduce the surface tension of water;

another was to dissolve otherwise non watersoluble

fats, the components of most kinds

of dirt, in water.



k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e

They’ve Got

the Power


Printing Inks

Functional and

Visually Appealing

Our world is full of colour. When we walk into the chemist’s or a supermarket, we are

immediately confronted with a whole range of eye-catching products – carefully packed

in large or small boxes, filled into tubes standing on their heads or rustling in pouches.

They all try to grab our attention. "Buy me!", they seem to say. And the message is made

all the more powerful by the colours carefully chosen by marketing experts to match

the product. After all, colourful and attractive designs are the name of the game in selling

products the world over, regardless of culture.

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A recipe for success

To master a challenge

The sustainability targets that the UN set in its Agenda

2030 in 2015 call for more sustainable consumption

and production.

Colours and packaging are so much more than that,

though. Let’s stay with the example of supermarkets:

until the 1950s, most of the food people bought was

wrapped in paper. Then plastics arrived. Their numerous

advantages made them ever more popular and

they became increasingly sophisticated. Plastics not

only allowed food to be packaged more securely and

to be stored longer; consumers also started to be

seduced by the colourful plastic packaging and came

to believe that the food inside was of higher quality

than comparable products in simple wrapping.

For a long time, plastic was a success. But more

recently plastic waste has come in for enormous criticism.

The problem is that, from a global viewpoint,

the value creation chain has been mainly linear up to

now. People purchased products without giving much

thought to what would happen to the discarded packaging.

To this day, the vast majority of plastic packaging

is still not recycled and recovered. Instead it ends

up in landfills across the world or is burnt. Time and

again, much of it makes its way uncontrolled via rivers

into the oceans.

To achieve sustainability, economies and societies will

have to embark on a completely new course. The idea

of the circular economy, which would decouple growth

from resource consumption, is a key factor here.

The aim is to shift creation of value away from a linear

system towards a circular one. Whole value creation

chains and their associated business models need to

be transformed for this to work, and much of packaging

as we know it needs to be completely reconceived.

This always involves the three R’s:

reduce, reuse and recycle,

whereby recycling is currently the element with the

most potential leverage.

But what has all this got to do with printing inks? Printing

inks and functional coatings are key components

when it comes to finding circular economy solutions

for the packaging industry – solutions that will help us

tackle our virtually unchecked wastage of resources.

But let’s take half a step back …

Printing inks turn packaging

into colourful, eye-catching products


k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e

Highly functional

packaging with highly

functional printing

Among the important tasks that fall to packaging,

protecting consumer goods, especially food, is a

major one. Effective packaging solutions that help

safeguard the supply of goods are crucial in a world

with a growing and increasingly urban population.

Materials (substrates) frequently do not become

effective packaging until printing inks are applied.

"Today, a lot of packaging would not work technically

without printing," comments Dr Ralph Detsch,

who is in charge of Global Technology at Siegwerk

as Chief Technology Officer.

Certain products, like pet food, have to withstand

extreme conditions in sterilisation processes or go

through cooking processes (for example, printed

sausage skins). Other products, like sacks for potting

soil, need to be weather-resistant – the printed

image should not be affected by exposure to rain or

intensive UV rays. The printing can also help stop

the sacks slipping off the stack.

Printing inks along with coatings and primers are

therefore an integral component of packaging

today: during processing, printing inks and coatings

ensure, for example, that the packaging is heatresistant.

In packaging machines, they ensure that

the friction values necessary to enable a high and

steady manufacturing speed in the packaging process

are adhered to.

One key issue with all packaging is product safety.

This is crucial for food, pharmaceuticals and

hygiene items in particular. Today, Siegwerk is

focussing on this complex area, which is known as

the NPH sector (nutrition, pharma, hygiene).

Each of these areas has its own specific challenges.

Moreover, the printing inks used in each

application are subject to very special standards

and controls of their own.

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Safety first!

Printing inks are an integral component of packaging

and need to be formulated so that the contents

are in no way negatively affected. They

need to be protected against sensory influences

(smell and taste) and, above all, product safety

needs to be guaranteed regarding the migration

of constituents right down to trace level.

The scale of the experts’ work in this area

becomes apparent when you consider the unit

of measurement they use: PPT – i.e. parts per

trillion! Toxicology is perhaps the only other field

with similar orders of magnitude and requirements.

But that is precisely what is involved

here: protecting the consumer has top priority.

It goes hand in hand with the importance of packaging

in the supply of safe foods.

Nevertheless, packaging must not only conform

to national and international standards and

requirements for the existing product, it is also

down to manufacturers of modern packaging

solutions to make continuous changes and


For a start, printing companies, like all profitbased

businesses, strive for efficiency and performance.

Printing inks and their management

play a central role in a continuously changing

industrial process. This starts with the selection

and development of the best-fit solution

for the specific application, not to mention the

machines and processing conditions. From the

optimisation of the ink preparation (i.e. the mixing)

and the actual printing operation to the

consistent incorporation of press-return inks

(intended for reuse), there is a wide range of

key factors that can influence efficiency in an

extremely competitive environment.

"Printing companies want to keep complexity to a

minimum so they look for a universal printing ink

that is optimally tailored to their needs. We are

the right people for this." says Detsch, explaining

the role of Siegwerk.

The global megatrends of circularity and digitalisation

are changing our world and hence the

world of packaging as well. The boundaries in

manufacturing processes are constantly shifting.

Many parameters considered to be limits

ten or twenty years ago have been standards for

a while now. Concepts need to be completely

revised and tested. The packaging industry has

developed increasingly sophisticated materials

over the decades. For example, materials have

become much thinner and more efficient. In its

key role, printing ink has made a major contribution

to this – and advances don’t stop there.

The storage life of foods has increased significantly

and less food is wasted. These achievements

are key elements in our lives today and

need to be preserved as far as possible during

the important transformation to a circular economy.

There are many innovative ideas in this area

and new solutions that challenge and expand the

boundaries of technology. "These are really exciting

times for the packaging industry with many

challenges and opportunities," says Detsch.



k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e


the Waters!

How Consumers Help to

Design Packaging

Joint Design Verification by Linked2Brands and Psyma

Most people don’t decide what to buy until they are in the shop. No matter whether they’re

shopping online or in a real supermarket, brands help them to get their bearings.

That’s why the appearance of the packaging is important. But even if the products live up

to what the brand promises, how do manufacturers know whether their products will

appeal to consumers. Why not simply ask the consumers themselves?

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Back in 1984, when Helmut Thoma launched Germany’s first

privately owned TV station RTL, he knew something that is

even truer today: "The bait has to taste good to the fish, not

the fisherman." That’s how the witty Austrian made successful

television; and that’s how companies create brands today.

Never were consumers more powerful than they are now:

the world wide web has put them in a position to check a

brand’s claims themselves in a matter of seconds, to take

a critical stance and thus to put even major companies on

the defensive. Whether it’s Nestlé, Deutsche Bahn or the

ING bank, they can all confirm this from bitter experience.

At the same time, some brands experience hypes that go

way beyond any kind of rationality – when people celebrate

their favourite brands on social media, for instance, and

share their experiences with others. Nike is a good example,

having managed to harness the emotions of a whole nation

with its campaign for the Trump-critical American football

player Colin Kaepernick. Human exchange and dialogue is

where brands emerge in the first place and also where

they become established and change. Companies are thus

well advised to keep their ears to the ground and join in the

conversation. A process that takes some effort but one that

is also refreshingly democratic.

Design Adaptation

Design Adaptation


Need Consumer Test?

Yes >

Go to Design Verification

No >

Go to Artwork






Rejection choice:

Design Modification or Archives

Validate: Go to Artwork

Surveying the market

In this context, dialogue with the consumer conducted

via good, old-fashioned market research

has suddenly come back into vogue. Marketing

people now need to engage in such dialogues before

even beginning to market a product.

"After an initial large-scale market research project,

a lot of time generally passes before the

final product is launched," Oliver Thoma, Strategy

Consultant/Sales Director at Linked2Brands,

points out. "The market changes quickly and the

competition doesn’t sleep but is busy bringing

out new products that didn’t even exist when

the original market research was done." Experts

therefore recommend a crosscheck before the

final market launch: Do consumers understand

the new product? Would they buy it?

This is where Linked2Brands’ extensive experience

comes in, offering a way for brands to raise

their future chances of successful product placement

and at the same time reduce the risk of

expensive launches that turn out to be flops.

The concept is the result of a cooperation with

the private Nuremberg-based market research

institute Psyma, a company with bureaus all over

the world – thirteen all told – including in China,

the United States, Brazil and Mexico.


k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e

The ideal-case scenario goes something like this:

Once Linked2Brands has completed the brand

design development or adaptation together with

the client – embracing the whole range of components

from graphics, images, text and logos to

brand and assortment colours – the final artwork

is created so print tools can be used later on.

In many cases, however, there are several different

design options for a brand new product or a

product relaunch. Here the marketing people are

suddenly spoilt for choice and have to make a

decision. One design may seem more attractive

or more promising than another, but is it really?

Why not let the consumer make the choice, right

from the start?

Thus, for example, the question for a brand

of apple juice called "Your Garden" developed

especially for marketing purposes and produced

by the fictitious company "Farmers Market,

Eger & Cie" is: "Which packaging design appeals

to you most?" The questionnaire is largely standardised,

even though open questions are possible.

In this way, the client’s designs can be easily

compared and they save costs too.

The heat map shows where the respondent’s interests lie.

The comment function and the subsequent

analysis reveal why certain elements are evaluated

positively or negatively.

For this purpose Linked2Brands joined forces

with Psyma to create a tool that is extremely

simple: depending on what the client wants,

the market research institute can have the

design verified by a so-called online access panel

consisting of up to 300 women and men aged

between sixteen and sixty-five from the target

user group. The panel are given two or three

design options to choose from: the old and the

new packaging, say, or the new design, the old

design and the design of a competitor.

The consumers decide via mouse click which of

the design options they find the most convincing,

using criteria such as appearance, brand

compatibility, product features and overall appeal

compared with the design of a competitor and

how motivated they are to purchase the product.

Psyma and Linked2Brands agree on the questions

together with their clients in advance.

"A witty slogan

that fits the product."


x cancel

Then there are the extras, such as the option

of adding a "Heat Map" – so called because the

test subjects are asked to click on elements that

they spontaneously react to either positively or

negatively. The programmed algorithm uses the

results to generate a kind of thermal map – rather

like environmental brochures for building insulation

that show where in a house the most heat

accumulates, or in our case which parts of the

design have a particularly positive or negative

impact. Each click opens a dialogue box where

the participants can enter their evaluation. In this

way, the market research experts find out not

only which aspects of the packaging are appealing,

but also why they are evaluated as positive

or negative. Taking the example of the apple juice

again, the answers might be along the lines of

"I like the picture of the farmer" or "Pure juice.

The name already tells you what’s in it" or

"A witty slogan that fits the product."

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Being persuasive

at the point of sale

One option is for the market researchers to place

the selected designs on a virtual supermarket

shelf but under real market conditions – i.e.

positioned as they would be in reality and lined up

next to a number of competing products. Anyone

who knows that three out of four consumers do

not make a purchase decision until they are in the

shop standing in front of the shelf understands

how important this is. Everything is at stake

at the point of sale! Does my packaging reflect

the brand values? Does it give the customer the

brand experience? Is the brand tangible, even?

And can it hold its own against the competition?

This is where brands provide consumers with a

point of orientation.

The online survey usually takes between five and

ten minutes to complete depending on the level

of detail the client has requested. About two and

half weeks later, the results have been evaluated

and a report has been issued, giving brand managers

empirically sound and objective arguments for

deciding how to optimise their design. Ideally, the

revised version is then put through a new survey.

Irrespective of current trends, the target group

must recognise all the brand’s relevant facets

and messages, as Vera Steger, Associate

Director Consumer Research at Psyma, says.

Fresh, bright colours make a product seem younger

of course. And these days a lot of packaging

has become much more minimalist and straightforward

in response to consumer demand for

organic and sustainable products. As a general

rule, though: "Every product must tell its story in

its own individual language, and in an emotionally

and factually convincing manner that does justice

to the brand."

Clients also benefit from Linked2Brands’ experience

in brand consistency. Thanks to Psyma,

Janoschka’s production agency can now respond

even better to consumer expectations. And that’s

how it should be, because it’s the consumers

who make the rules in corporate communication.

Let’s be sure to put some really tasty bait on the



46 k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e

On Corporate


or: The Long Road

from Red to Green

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"Who am I?"

is a question history’s greatest thinkers

have always asked themselves.

And today all companies, no matter how small, are

asking themselves not only "Who am I?" but also "Who

do I want to be?", "How do I wish to be perceived?".

Translated into the language of branding management

the questions are: "What is my corporate and also my

brand identity?", "What impact should my corporate

identity have?", "How does my corporate design have

to look to achieve this impact?", "How do others perceive

my corporate image in reality?".

Colours play a central role in corporate identity. That is

a truism, of course, yet it is good to remind ourselves

of this fact on a regular basis. For once a company

has succeeded in making a colour or a spectrum of

colours its own, it doesn't necessarily need words to

communicate with its customers. Moreover, a company

that is instantly recognisable by its colour has an

easier time managing its brand.

There are a variety of reasons for redesigning a successful

brand, including changing the colour of the

logo. Sometimes giving a logo a make-over is connected

with a takeover of the company or a new name.

Or perhaps the company’s focus or its products and

services have changed.

When McDonald’s changed its logo in Germany in

2009 – replacing the familiar red background with

the famous golden yellow "M" with a green one – it

explained the change as a statement of respect for

the environment. But people were sceptical. Was

McDonald’s suddenly serving healthy food or was

the change in colour no more than a large-scale attempt

at "greenwashing"? By no means. For by 2009,

McDonald’s was no longer the same company that

had opened its first German branch in Munich in 1971.

The German market was one of the most important

global markets for McDonald’s right from the start.

The US concern regards the German market as the

place to pioneer innovations. Thus, in the early 2000s,

you could already order a coffee from a barista, drink a

quick espresso or enjoy a more leisurely cappuccino at

several branches of McDonald’s in Germany.

And when it came to launching the McCafé concept

on a broader scale in 2003, Germany led the way.


k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e

Consistency vs. change

The McDonald’s logo is one of the most

widely recognised symbols in the world, so

the company was hardly going to change it

at the drop of a hat. If it decided to go ahead

nonetheless, there had to be a good reason.

In the case of McDonald’s the reason was

a desire to change its corporate image.

McDonald’s no longer wanted to be thought

of as a fast-food restaurant serving just the

usual burger with fries and ketchup – symbolised

by the golden yellow "M" on the

red background. McDonald’s had already

taken a big step towards change when it

integrated the McCafés into its corporate

image, thus changing both the company’s

self-image and the public’s perception of

it. Since then, customers have set foot in

McDonald’s who would otherwise have had

little interest in eating in a classic burger joint.

From a psychological point of view the

change in colour at McDonald’s seems to

make sense. The colour red stimulates your

appetite. A burger with fries and a dollop

of red ketchup are a good way of satisfying

hunger pangs quickly. But McDonald’s

had an image problem: junk food had become

passé. Back in 2004, following public

debates about nutrition and changes in

customers’ eating habits, McDonald’s had

gone over to serving lighter meals of salad

and chicken and had developed whole new

product lines.

So now green, being a symbol of healthy,

modest and sustainable consumption, fitted

the bill better than red.

issue #5 ©

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About the right hue

But green is not simply green – as other companies

have discovered time and again in the course of

rebranding processes. As with any other colour,

getting just the right shade is a tricky business:

If the green is too light, it will readily suggest an eco

image that was never intended. If, on the other hand,

it is at the cold, turquoisy end of the spectrum, it will

tend to turn people off.

Indeed, colours can arouse very explicit emotions.

From a psychological angle, therefore, the colour of

a product is much more important than its name.

Colours can have such a strong effect on us that they

can even deceive our senses.

For example, a white box will look lighter than a black

one. In German-speaking countries, the post office is

associated with the colour yellow, which was probably

once chosen for Europe’s first postal service

as it had a signal effect on the postilion's uniform

and the stagecoach. Today, we know that a yellow

vehicle will appear to travel faster than one of another

colour even if the speed is in fact the same.

The essence of the design

The choice of a particular colour thus has a particularly

strong effect on how consumers perceive the

brand. Colours are more than just part of a company’s

branding strategy. They form the essence of the


Nowadays, however, developing or changing a corporate

design concept is often far more complex

than it was a few years or decades ago. Increasingly,

a brand has to appeal to customers from different

cultural backgrounds. A few years ago, for example,

the pharmaceutical company Bayer decided to

redesign its corporate image. No fewer than 1,500

people based on five different continents spent a

year and a half working on the new design.

And this is only one of the challenges of rebranding:

we have particular associations, positive or negative,

with a given colour. In every culture, colours have

strong roots and in some cases completely different

associations. To take one of the most striking

examples: whereas in Western cultures black is the

colour of death, in many Asian countries it is white.

ICE – The fastest way to protect the climate. German railways’ colour

and slogan underline its environmentally friendly image. All ICE

and IC trains have been using 100 per cent eco-electricity since 2018.

50 k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e


Back to the roots – back to nature

It all began in the nineteenth century with vegetable soup

and a logo that fitted with healthy and natural food: white

"Knorr" lettering on a green background.

In the years that followed, the company ventured onto the

international market setting up subsidiaries and factories in

around 100 countries. Its product range grew too, as soups

were joined by sauces, stocks, bouillons, seasonings, dressings,

frozen goods and convenience food, but also exotic specialities

and classic Italian cuisine. This development was reflected in

changes to the Knorr logo: yellow and red elements were added

to the white and green and later it even gained a 3D look.

Last year, the brand went back to basics and returned to its

origins with the new logo featuring "Knorr" in the familiar

swept lettering against a green background, thus conveying

the distinct message of naturalness. This clear pledge is reflected

in the products. After all, 95 per cent of the herbs and vegetables

used at Knorr do originate from sustainable farming.




palm tree

hand & flower




sauces or spreads

spice & flavours






ice cream





waves & liquid




Variety and transparency

Unilever is one of the world’s largest producers of

consumer goods with over 400 brands, including

Knorr, in more than fourteen segments.

The spectrum ranges from food and drinks, through

household cleaning products, to hygiene items.

The company therefore sought to depict this diversity

in a new logo.

The result is an elaborate design featuring twentyfive

icons that each have a specific meaning and

symbolise an important aspect for Unilever. Their

arrangement in the familiar "U" shape conveys

openness, friendliness and transparency – values

that are important in the company’s strategy and


issue #5 ©

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It doesn’t have to

be perfect, but

it must be serious

A logo is one of the great constants

in corporate communication,

akin to something sacred.

This applies to the entire corporate

design. Yet a company’s

essence, its corporate identity,

is the sum of many parts: alongside

corporate design, corporate

culture and corporate communication

are also components of

corporate identity.

In view of this, a change in corporate

design should actually be the

crowning, visual culmination of a

substantive de facto repositioning

of the company – the point

when the new position becomes

visible to the outside world

following a process that has

taken months, if not years.

1976 The first image to represent

the computer company featuring

the man who revolutionized

science with his discoveries

on gravity. How did he figure it

out? An apple fell on his head!

Ultimately, then, it is neither the

colour of the logo nor its appearance

that is the key factor determining

a company’s success or

failure. Rather, customers expect

brands to be authentic and honest.

Getting the right feel for corporate

identity and corporate image

requires a very skilled approach.

If a company’s image is to receive

long-term customer approval, the

concept requires a lot of thought,

an academic awareness of style

and extensive experience.


The first bitten apple: The multi-coloured

Apple logo was in use for 22 years.

Steve Jobs, known for his minimalist style,

got rid of it.


Nowadays Apple uses the signet

known as the “Millennial

Logo” in three main colours: silver,

white and black. It embodies the

brand’s hallmarks perfectly: elegance,

intelligence and accessibility.


n e t w o r k & p e o p l e







Ours is a colourful world.

Everyone sees it differently –

so "colour" can mean something

different to everyone.

We wanted to hear about the

experiences of Janoschka and Linked

staff, so we asked them:

what brings


to your life?

issue #5 ©

l i n k e d


Vera Meshcheryakova

Head of Administration & Finance

Janoschka Pavlovsk

Colours are in every lived moment.

Each day has its routine of familiar and often planned

activities. And yet each day small joys bring colour to my

life and make me happy: when my daughter kisses and

hugs me as she wishes me good morning; when my

parents laugh at something funny; or when I savour the

memory of an adventure. I also love the moment when

I'm on vacation and I forget what day it is.

Colourful moments are when I wake up at night and

realise it’s not morning yet and I can sleep for a few more

hours; when I open a new book I want to read; when I

find a parking space in the city centre; the moment when

I have just finished and delivered the financial report.

In the morning I enjoy choosing which shoes to wear,

and in the evening taking my high-heeled shoes off.

Using my favourite fragrance or a smell from my childhood

colour my day, too. I’m happy when these joys

occur – they are the colours of every lived moment!


n e t w o r k & p e o p l e

Colour is life!

Ever since my golden teenage years, I have been intrigued by the beauty of nature and adventure. My true

passion is the unknown underground world: caves and yet more caves. For thirty-five years now I have explored

countless kilometres of underground passages in a completely monochromatic world. Here your only companions

are darkness, rocks, mud and chaos. There is no life, no sounds, no colours – everything is shrouded in

obscurity, illuminated only by the light I am carrying.

After spending hours or even days exploring the darkness, the feeling I get when I walk back towards the

mouth of the cave and start to see daylight is indescribable. Here I am again in the bright light, seeing all the

colours of nature. Ordinary things like trees, birds, the sky, flowers – absolutely each and every thing radiates

its own colour. Here I finally realise... colour is life!

Roberto Brandi

Managing Director

Linked2Brands Brazil

issue #5 © l i n k e d 55

To be happy – I need people.

Monika Wasilewska

Customer Service

Janoschka Polska

Ever since I can remember, it’s people who have

brought colour to my life. I enjoy being around

people, observing them and talking to them.

I particularly like to discover the differences

between us: thanks to these differences, my life

is multi-coloured and never boring.

I absolutely love meeting new people, listening

to their points of view, hearing their stories and

learning from their experiences. I appreciate

every positive influence on my life from others.

Every day, I look for an opportunity to observe

people’s behaviour, to draw conclusions from it

and then to use this in making my decisions.

Conversations with people make me feel good.

They bring a smile to my face, and it makes me

happy to see them smiling too. These positive

interpersonal relationships give me energy,

inspire me and motivate me to improve my way

of communicating. I can’t imagine living on a

desert island... People are very important to me

and make my life colourful.


n e t w o r k & p e o p l e

Kamill Wallach

Account Manager

Linked2Brands Germany

My new-born son Kian.

This question is the easiest one I have had to answer

in years... My new-born son Kian is the brightest

colour in my life. He is a gift of life, produced by

love. When I held him in my hands for the first time

and he stared at me with his sparkling blue eyes in

the cutest pink face, he made me aware that my

life hadn't been colourful enough before. Besides

giving me unlimited joy, Kian makes me aware that

colours, even the ones I didn't know, are here for

us to enjoy, to respect and to treasure.

Although so young, he is already a teacher of life.

I will do my utmost to return the favour by being

the best dad I can be for my son. I am amused by

and a little jealous of the fact that Kian is not limiting

his attention to me and his mother. His smile

melts the heart of everyone in his small world and

infects others with the same colour experience

I was lucky to receive.

So, my son, "keep spreading joy and new colours in

this grey world", and I will support you and be there

for you... always.

issue #5 © l i n k e d 57

Esin Turkan Tuncdamar

Business Development Manager Turkey

Linked2Brands Turkey

The Blue Zone – where people live the longest.

Discovering unique, new places with my husband colours my life.

We once heard a story about longevity, so we went to visit Ikaria in the

Aegean Sea. It was a colourful journey, to feel and discover this Blue

Zone, where people live the longest. The interaction of people and

nature as well as their close relationships are so affecting and inspiring.

In one of the villages people invited us to a wedding: a lovely celebration

with dances and Ikarian wine. Life is about these moments when

we share beauty with one another.

This is the teaching of nature: rocky mountains, amazing seas and

caves, rainy days and sunshine. Nature is what it is. Everything flows.

We need to find a balance without fighting it and keep everything

simple to make our lives festive. These are the colourful memories

from our journey.

58 n e t w o r k & p e o p l e



or: How a Brand

Becomes A Friend

Brand consistency through perfect

artwork and colour cards

Companies often put a great deal of effort into looking after their brands and invest

large sums of money in brand communication. The crucial moment

comes when new products are ready to go to the retailers because all kinds of

mistakes can occur during the production and printing of packaging.

As many as 75 per cent of consumers don't decide what they are going to buy until

they are standing in front of the display, so this is the point when their favourite

brands should be instantly recognisable.

None of us likes advertising; it gets on our nerves. But once we are standing in front of

the supermarket shelves or browsing for goods on the Internet, an advertised

brand suddenly reaches out to us like a good friend. We all know how annoying it is to

be confronted with a dozen varieties of crisps when all we want to do is grab a few snacks

for a picnic or an evening watching the football with friends. And since these events come

round with a fair degree of frequency, this is an all too familiar experience.

issue #5 ©

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The daily decision:

which is the brand for me?

If we consumers were rational creatures, we

would research all the facts about the crisps

market on the spot and weigh up our purchase

decision down to the last detail. Is the price fair,

do the crisps taste good, which kind has the

nicest crunch when we bite into it? Is the cheese

flavouring on the delicate slices of potato actually

cheddar and, while we are at it, did the potatoes

really have a happy life? It would take hours.

It doesn’t end there either: we will need to get in

more than just crisps when we invite our friends

round. There’s beer and biscuits, plus pickles,

tomatoes and butter for the sandwiches still to

be made. This kind of shopping trip would drive

us nuts if we were truly rational. After all, a large

supermarket may sell more than 30,000 different

products. We would have to plan months in

advance just for one evening.

Thankfully brands make things a little easier.

For example, if a familiar brand of crisps appeals

because the slices of potato are so beautifully

thinly sliced yet tasty nonetheless, having been

fried to perfect crispness in sunflower oil and

then nicely seasoned, or if that is at least what

is claimed in an advert, then we will grab them

without more ado. The same goes for brands

like Landliebe butter, Géramont cheese, Bahlsen

biscuits or Amora Maille mustard. We decide in a

split second and, hey presto, the shopping is done

and we have more time to spend with our friends.

There is a catch though: the brand in our heads is

not necessarily the same as the brand in the shop.

The product on offer has to stand out, arouse our

curiosity, feel good and, of course, have been

sustainably produced. Above all, though, it also

has to fit with the brand, make it an experience,

and an unmistakable one at that. This will depend

primarily on the packaging. Staying with the example

of snacks: when we stand in front of a selection

of crisps, peanut flips or twiglets, the bag should

tell us whether it keeps the brand promise. This is

where experts who watch over the brand come in.

Of course, the whole process is intuitive. Nobody

actually realises that a specific brand is so popular

because clever presentation associates it with fun

and leisure time. Each of us has a certain image of

a brand in our mind. How that can be reflected in

the packaging, at the point of sale, either on a shelf

or in ecommerce, is an art that few have mastered

as well as Linked2Brands. Their one hundred or so

staff, who came from the former Janoschka brand

unit, have it down to a T. They have honed communication

between brand customers and consumers

into a fine art, skilfully combining a brand mind-set

with production expertise.

60 n e t w o r k & p e o p l e

Perfect packaging

promises an unmistakable

brand experience

Studies by the market research company Growth from

Knowledge (GfK) suggest that up to 75 per cent of all

purchase decisions are made in the shop. Furthermore,

it has been claimed that people subconsciously form an

idea of the things around them in seconds – that does

not leave much time to reflect.

It is the design details and, above all, the colours that are

decisive. Do the proportions, layout and text blocks on

the packaging look right? And what about the fonts,

graphic elements and images? Not to mention the logo

– does it reflect the brand personality? Does, for example,

the overall appearance support the claim of being

a premium brand?

Or, has a trainee at a new advertising agency ignored

brand guidelines by quickly shifting the brand logo to the

edge of the packaging to make way for a spontaneous

special offer? This misdemeanour will damage the brand

and will fail to pay off despite the promotion – at least in

the long run.

Getting the colours right is even more important. Studies

have shown that this is the main factor. Three out of four

consumers regularly say that colours have a key influence

on their purchase decisions. Nevertheless, colours

are no longer just a visual effect. Today, they are measurable,

defined values. The exact reproduction of the

colour palette boosts brand recognition by 80 per cent

according to research at Loyola University Maryland.

"Brands make a promise that the packaging also has

to live up to," says Stefan Hilss, Managing Director of

Linked2Brands. His agency ensures precisely that: the

design, layout and colour have to create a consistent

brand image – across the world and through all channels.

This is not at all easy: product ranges vary from country

to country as do the legal requirements about what has

to be written on the packaging whether with respect to

contents, customer protection information or origin. For

example, EU directives differ from those in countries on

the other side of the globe.

Furthermore, colour is not just colour. The end result

depends on a range of factors. Firstly, the material

that it is printed onto, what we call the substrate. Has

it been manufactured using recycled cardboard, white

paper, film or aluminium? The colours used, printing

tools, equipment and methods are further factors – up to

seventy variables make a difference. Finally, we also have

to bear in mind the platform where the product packaging

will appear, i.e. printed on the shelf or the Internet.

The manufacturers have defined the ideal for themselves.

If the familiar colour of a brand of crisps appears faded, the

consumer may well recognise the crisps, but might also

think that the bag has been lying on the shelf for quite a

while. They will doubt the quality of the contents, potentially

undermining the entire brand.

issue #5 ©

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Colour cards set

the framework

It is, however, virtually impossible always to achieve the

ideal. The basic parameters vary too much (the substrate

being the key here). Nevertheless, if we want a product

and the brand to appear as consistent as possible even if

compromises do have to be made, they should at least be

consciously weighed up and always go in the same direction.

Linked2Brands has devised so-called colour cards for this

purpose that predict the appearance on a certain substrate

with a specific printing method. Linked2Brands starts out by

analysing the portfolio: the number of substrates, the printing

method, the colours and elements that should be constant.

They cluster these and decide how closely each of the

different scenarios should be managed. The results are

applied in the subsequently printed colour cards. They show the

spectrum of colour deviations that are acceptable and thus

set the standard. Customers will then know what to expect.

Since Linked2Brands likes to work with brand owners through

all stages of packaging production, they provide in-depth

consulting services before starting the analysis. They promise

customers that this will save more time and money because

this method defines the goals before printing starts.

But here, too, absolute perfectionism would be out of

place: "You could go on and on defining the colour scale

until it drove you mad," says Linked2Brands Director Hilss.

The brand experts at Linked2Brands usually concentrate

on two, three or four versions to be cost-effective. This

approach enables clients and printing partners to see the

benchmark that has been set. Once everything works,

the separate file together with a true colour proof and the

colour card is sent to the printer, which is ideally equipped

with Janoschka printing tools.

All this will also make life easier next time we want to watch

the football with our friends: nothing will stand in the way of

quickly grabbing a bag of crisps off the shelf.



- simulate the printing result prior

to production = predictability

- reduce set-up time

- reduce waste

- are more efficient

- save costs

- reach the market faster


k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e


Magic and Radiance

Of light and matter

The human visible spectrum (light)

400 nm 450 nm 500 nm 550 nm 600 nm 650 nm 700 nm 750 nm










high- medium- lowfrequency



hard medium soft

x-ray radiation
















1 fm 1 pm 1 å 1 nm 1 µm 1 mm 1 cm 1 m

1 km

1 Mm

Wavelength (m)

10 -15 10 -14 10 -13 10 -12 10 -11 10 -10 10 -9 10 -8 10 -7 10 -6 10 -5 10 -4 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7

Frequency (Hz) 10 23 10 22 10 21 10 20 10 19 10 18 10 17 10 16 10 15 10 14 10 13 10 12 10 11 10 10 10 9 10 8 10 7 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2

What we know as (visible) light is only the very

narrow wavelength range that the human eye perceives:

from red (750 nm) to violet (400 nm).

The human eye can distinguish 2.4 million different

shades in the light spectrum.

The spectrum of electromagnetic waves ranges

from Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) to

Frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz

Wavelengths from 10,000 to 100,000 km

to Gamma Radiation

Frequencies of 1019 and 1022 Hz (zettahertz)

Wavelength, 10-11 and 10-14 m (10 pm – 0.01 pm, picometres)

issue #5 ©

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Colour systems

Colour systems allow accurate cross-industry

communication of colours among designers,

manufacturers, retailers and customers.

They set global standards that are mainly used

in markets and business fields. They enable

coherent communication and precise definition,

and thus assure quality.


In 1931 (CIE 1931), the CIE (International Commission on Illumination)

defined three primary colours that replaced the colours red, green and

blue in a colour mixing system that uses a three-dimensional colour space.

The CIE colour diagram is formed by projecting these colours onto a plane.

In 1964, the system was further developed to incorporate a field of vision

of 10° – the more typical wide-angle field of vision of humans.







cmyk coated





A subtractive colour system that forms

the technical basis for modern fourcolour

printing. There are three colour

components: cyan, magenta and yellow

plus black, which is traditionally known

as key (K). Standardised by ISO standards

15929 and 15930.

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3


Internationally known reference system,

includes 2,203 colours (2016).

This system is mainly used in the graphics

and printing industries. It enables objective

evaluation and comparison independent

of individual colour perception as well as

reproducibility and communication of

certain colour nuances.

Visible – CIELab


An additive colour system that forms

the basis for displaying colour pictures

using image reproduction equipment.

Forms colour perceptions by mixing

three base colours.

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7


k n o w l e d g e & c o m p e t e n c e


The colour of success

Dual effect: sportspeople who wear red feel superior

and strong – and their opponents perceive them to

be more dominant and intimidating.

Football teams score more goals when they play in red shirts.

Clubs like Liverpool, Manchester United and Arsenal

usually play in red and, over the decades, have been more

successful than teams wearing other colours.

Olympic Games, Athens 2004: Competitors who wore red in

boxing, Taekwondo, Greco-Roman wrestling and

freestyle wrestling events recorded an above-average number

of victories over their rivals in blue.*

Bluffing is an essential part of poker: if you back this tactic

up with a pile of red chips as a stake, you are more likely

to cause your opponent to pass than if you put down blue or

white chips.**


* From a study published in Nature

** Psychologists from the University of Amsterdam

How colours are created


Additive colour

This refers to the changing of the colour impression

perceived by the eye by successively adding another

colour stimulus.

Combining the three primary colours red, green and

blue at the right level of brightness = white.

The perception is black if the sum is zero (no light).

Combining two primary colours produces yellow, cyan

and magenta (secondary colours).

Additive colour occurs with "self-luminous light sources"

(active) and (passive) sensors (eye, camera etc.).


Subtractive colour

This refers to the changing of the colour stimulus upon

reflection from the surface of a body or upon passing

through a medium (colour filter). This removes certain

wavelengths from the light. Starting with white as the

fundamental colour, composite colours are removed by

means of absorption or filtering.

Subtractive colour occurs with "non-self-luminous"

coatings/objects that first have to be illuminated to

appear "visible or coloured".

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Strong brands – strong colours

At an early age, people begin to associate certain brands with specific products.

According to a study by the University of Amsterdam, 67 per cent of the

surveyed children between the ages of two and three could assign a trademark

to the right product while eight year olds managed 100 per cent.

Coca Cola

This brand’s iconic red is its

"second secret formula".

"There is no Pantone colour for

Coca-Cola red, but you recognise

it when you see it."


A special mixture of two Pantone colours.

A purple cow turned our familiar

world of colours on its head and came

to stand for an independent character

that was easily recognisable on a

supermarket’s chocolate shelf.

Red Bull

Red/golden logo on blue

and silver clearly associated

with energy in the minds

of consumers:

"Red Bull gives you wings."


White on blue stands for freshness

and cleanliness. Germany’s first patented

paper handkerchief established

itself as a global brand in 1929.

When Germans say "Tempo",

they very often mean a tissue.

Leibnitz biscuits / Bahlsen

Golden yellow serrated rectangular

biscuits – "only genuine if

they have 52 teeth" and:

in the yellow packaging with the

blue and red logo.


Julius Maggi’s dream was to be just as

omnipresent as salt and pepper

and to feed workers at a fair price.

His brand became famous around the

world with its red and gold colours.


3M has trademarked the canary

yellow of its famous Post-it notes –

even in the virtual world: Microsoft

was not allowed to program this

colour for its digital notes.


Since 1950, just ten years after their

invention, each individual M&M

has been labelled with the now legendary

"m" to distinguish the genuine article

from imitators.

These sweets were named the

"Official Candy of the New Millennium"

because the Roman numeral

MM stands for 2000.


t o t e l l t h e t r u t h

Do you know why ...

it took three men to

invent a column?

or: Morris columns are more eloquent than

digital advertising spaces

We don’t realise the significance of some

things until they start disappearing. Take the

Morris column, for example: last year’s decision

to demolish 2,500 of them in Berlin provoked a

storm of protest.

People were up in arms because for them the

Morris column was not just advertising space

but an urban feature whose multiple layers of

pasted-over posters had many stories to tell

about the city itself.

There was a good reason why the old advertising

columns, which date back to several different

centuries, could not simply be silently removed

– particularly in Berlin. For it was in Berlin that

publisher Ernst Litfaß patented an advertising

column at the end of 1854. At the same time, he

also secured himself a ten-year monopoly on the

bill-posting cylinder that soon became known as

the Litfaßsäule (Litfass column). Never mind the

fact that he never actually built the public toilets

that he had promised the authorities more or less

as part of the deal.

But mid-nineteenth century Berlin, like other

European cities, faced a much greater problem

than a lack of public toilets: extensive industrialisation

was causing the city to grow, and with

urban growth came a mass consumer society.

issue #5 ©

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Modern marketing

for metropoli

Whether in Berlin, London or Paris, advertising was ubiquitous:

on horse-drawn trams, on small coffee tables

and on many everyday items. With electrification, bright

advertising messages lit up the sky, too. In Paris, even

the Eiffel Tower was veiled in illuminated advertisements.

Dedicated advertising media were simply in short supply

back then. Ads were plastered on everything – from

wooden fences to famous monuments. The Paris city

council therefore swiftly passed a law to prevent the

country’s commemorative culture, in particular sculptures

and buildings, from being plastered with notices.

In Berlin, too, the authorities needed a solution – and

Litfaß came up with the answer. Having been raised in

a Berlin publishing family, he was something of a jack of

all trades: early in his career, he had published Germany’s

first city magazine and later also a theatre newspaper.

He thus spent his life making money out of the arts.

Litfaß was the creator and founder of promotional

marketing as we understand it today and with his invention

of the Litfaßsäule he erected a monument to himself.

The column was a classic win-win situation: while the

Berlin authorities could post their public announcements

for free on the initial one hundred columns, Litfaß

was able to make a lot of money fast out of private and

business advertising.


t o t e l l t h e t r u t h

In Paris, too, the rather elegant cylinders

(which probably pre-dated the

Litfaßsäule) rapidly became a common

feature of the city streets.

They advertised theatre performances

and stage shows while their interiors

were used to store all kinds of equipment.

The exclusive rights to build them

were secured in 1868 by French printer

Gabriel Morris after whom they were

named "colonne Morris".

However, the true origins of these new

columns lay in England. There, Londonbased

businessman George Samuel

Harris had been awarded the patent for

an octagonal poster column as early

as 1824. Illuminated from inside, these

columns were carried on horse-drawn

carriages through the city. Interestingly,

in the United Kingdom, advertising

columns are also called "Morris

columns" after their French counterparts

even though Harris was the first person

to invent them.

Harris, Morris and Litfaß – all three

supplied the new media format that

the changing urban public demanded.

The columns soon sprang up everywhere.

They were official gazettes,

newspapers and magazines all in one –

a modern mass medium.

issue #5 ©

l i n k e d


Litfass portrait & Litfass column on

Litfass-Platz in Berlin. Rather

appropriately, the column stands right

in front of a branch of the well-known

advertising agency Scholz & Friends

Forecast of consumer flexible packaging

consumption by product,

2010 – 2020 (thousand metric tons)

From cultural

mediator to

cultural property

For years, the death knell for the old

Litfaßsäulen has tolled on a regular basis,

but as elsewhere: those pronounced dead

live longer. In Berlin the uproar caused

by the proposed dismantlement was so

loud that twenty-four columns have since

become listed buildings. So the matter

is now resolved: the advertising spaces

that, particularly in their early days, were

above all cultural mediators have themselves

become cultural property.

The first advertising columns in Berlin,

London and Paris were once a symbol

of their rapid transition from small, bourgeois

backwaters to cosmopolitan cities

and centres of creativity. Today, older

examples have become charming islands

symbolising slow analogue in the sea of

digital networks and sensory overload

that characterises major cities and the

world in general. The columns onto which

the posters are stuck by hand while

puddles of paste inevitably accumulate

at their bases allow us to experience a

haptic directness that modern LED advertising

boards covered by plexiglass will

probably never have. They allow us to discover

a patina that recalls the life breath

and soul of the city.

I’d be willing to bet that after reading

this article, even if you haven’t given

much thought to advertising columns

before … you’ll look at them with new

eyes tomorrow.

70 n o t e s

issue #5 ©

l i n k e d



e x e c u t i v e b o a r d : c e o j a n o s c h k a a g




Stefan Gutheil has been managing Janoschka’s

global operations since he became

Chief Executive Officer in August 2019

Kippenheim, August 2019:

Stefan Gutheil takes the helm of

Janoschka AG as the new CEO. The

company is slowly reaching calmer

waters after the stormy months that

followed the cyber-attack and the

extensive and successful restructuring.

The effects of the enormous

workload can still be felt among staff.

It has not, however, weakened either

their commitment or their team spirit.

"From my first day at Janoschka,

I was impressed by how staff work

to achieve Janoschka's ambition to

be the most customer-oriented company

in the industry," stresses Gutheil.

"You notice this whenever they deal

with customers, in each product

delivered and in all the services that

Janoschka provides."

Not even three quarters of a year later,

in March 2020, Covid-19 shakes the

world. Once again, Gutheil’s foresight

pays off: staff ensure that projects

stay on track even while working from

home. Some produce printing tools

at the various sites observing strict

hygiene and safety requirements,

while others turn designs into artwork

and repro. Everyone works together to

keep the ship on course.

In these difficult waters, Gutheil

knows he can rely not just on all of his

colleagues, but also on several measures

that have already been successfully

introduced. While optimising

production (operational excellence),

he and his team have also redefined

processes across the group. The

new structures are effective, as the

smooth running of business processes

even under difficult conditions

goes to show.

Customer orientation will continue

to be the company's prime objective.

Responding flexibly to customer needs

is therefore also the key element of the

planned growth strategy (commercial

excellence). In order to stay on course,

Janoschka is working on boosting

marketing for the whole group.

"In all of these areas, Janoschka is benefitting

from its innovative strength

and its expertise in providing solutions

for customers," says Gutheil, analysing

the situation before looking to

the future: "Particularly in the current

sustainability debate, we are all set to

show what we can do. Whether it is

printing on alternative substrates for

packaging or rethinking printing cylinders

so as to move away from chrome

and towards innovative surface materials

and new business models for a

faster and more flexible supply chain.

This represents a dynamic change for

the packaging industry."

Janoschka is playing its part – with

smart ideas and advancements for

the environment and sustainability.

So for the good ship "Innovation Excellence",

it's full speed ahead!


n o t e s


n e t w o r k : l i n k e d 2 b r a n d s

Global Brand

Continuity – It’s a

Small World After All!

Kick-off for Linked2Brands Brazil –

now also in India, Russia and Turkey

Following Linked2Brands Germany, Linked2Brands Brazil

started work last September. Linked2Brands India,

Linked2Brands Russia and Linked2Brands Turkey joined

them this year. All five are full subsidiaries of Janoschka.

Their declared goal is consistent brand presentation for

their clients – at all times and in all markets.

Brands stand for promises, a certain attitude to life – but only

if they are presented uniformly across the globe. Colours,

logos and imagery, the entire brand design in other words,

are where their true value lies, and preserving the brand is

what makes Linked2Brands tick – from Brazil to India, Russia,

Turkey and Germany.

Specialised in design adaptation, layout, photography, artwork,

print and colour management, Linked2Brands supports

brand owners along the whole value creation chain during

the pre-print stage. Another essential area of expertise is

consulting for packaging print projects for food and non-food

products as well as presentation at the point of sale.

This applies in full measure to the team of fourteen led by

Roberto Brandi at their new office near São Paolo, who since

2019 have ensured that brand elements are always identical.

"The packaging market in South and Central America is

constantly changing and steadily growing," explains Roberto

Brandi, Managing Director of

issue #5 ©

l i n k e d


Linked2Brands Brazil, whose clients include food and nonfood

brands on the South and Central American markets.

International market research studies* predict rising sales figures

for the global packaging industry even as it undergoes a

transition. On the one hand, the industry is rather traditional,

in many cases sticking to the same materials. On the other

hand, innovative ideas provide an impetus to seek out new

markets, materials and high-grade market applications. Demographic

changes are another important factor. Many experts

believe that newly formulated customer expectations,

rising purchasing power in threshold countries and the increased

use of technology are leading to a major rethink in

the industry. This can be seen in the expanded product portfolios,

the wider range of packaging sizes and more diverse

manufacturing processes.

In the case of consumer goods (FMCG), packaging forms the

key interface between a brand and its customers. When it is

time to change the packaging, the specialists from Linked-

2Brands step in and ensure that the brand-defining elements

always retain the same appearance on the different packaging

sizes and for each product variant. After all, this is the only

way for them to send the crucial signals that guarantee an

unmistakable identity on the market and provide the typical

brand experience.

* Smithers Pira, The Future of Global Packaging to 2020


74 n o t e s


t e c h n o l o g y : d e s i g n l i f e c y c l e m a n a g e m e n t

Panta rhei


business processes

Streams – the integrated

design lifecycle management application

Streams coordinates processes. This agile

digital platform brings together the things

that belong together – from the design

development to the prepress stage – networking

all the project participants along the way.

Janoschka has developed this design

lifecycle management tool together with its

recently founded subsidiary, Linked2Brands.

Streams manages and controls the entire

process, all deadlines, all product data and

procedures – from the design idea, design

adaptation and photography all the way to

the artwork, repro, print colour management

and the actual printing. This solution cuts

processing times, reduces the workload for

all partners involved in the design and packaging

project and lowers the process costs.

Streams is a single, central, web-based

system that integrates all elements and

processing phases along the design and

prepress value creation chain. It thus enables

transparent, process-optimised and efficient

operations. Thanks to a transparent flow of

information, real-time access to all relevant

documents and information is guaranteed for

stakeholders, such as brand owners, agencies,

packaging manufacturers and printing


issue #5 ©

l i n k e d


At any given moment, the tracking function provides an overview of the order status from the first

draft up to and including cylinder management. When it comes to artwork and repro, the ability

to compare different versions quickly makes correction processes and ultimately design approval

a whole lot simpler. Differences are highlighted, allowing changes to be tracked and reviewed at a

glance. The system informs process participants about scheduled tasks via email. Furthermore, the

management tool interlinks and structures the tasks, presenting them in an organised way for all

users and thus guaranteeing consistent communication.

The individual user cockpit allows optimal time management since it shows both the current status

and the complete workflow in a straightforward milestone view. Tasks – including versions and

approvals – can therefore be scheduled, processed and tracked at any time – just one of the many

functions that make Streams a digital workplace.

"The exact, standardised presentation of a

brand with all its elements, such as logos,

colours, typography, imagery etc., is essential,

no matter what substrate, printing method

or packaging type you are using," says Stefan

Hilss, Managing Director of Linked2 Holding,

summing up just how complex the coherent

reproduction of brand identities is. This is a truly

diverse process. "Depending on the product category

and sector, the participants speak their

very own language and have their own ways

of working that are exclusive to their industry.

Streams coordinates the different requirements

and gets all stakeholders on board. This means

customers save costs and time."

Streams is based on over twenty-five years of

experience and sound know-how. All information

comes together in one place in real-time,

the tool coordinates the activities of everyone

involved and supports the brand services.

Streams can depict any workflow used in the

packaging industry. This is all down to the

configurator at the core of the application that

supports a wide range of processes and RACI

(responsible, accountable, consulted and informed)

matrix structures.

Our experts at Janoschka and Linked2Brands

stage special workshops where the Streams

team sits down with customers to look at the

methods they currently use. The group then

works out and implements alternative scenarios

that will optimise and standardise processes.

In the fast-moving world of consumer goods, a

large number of people, products and information

are increasingly dependent on and linked

to each other. This means that coordinating

content and communication via all channels

and languages is an extremely complex task.

Streams forms the connecting link and is flexible

enough to be able to support many different

scenarios simultaneously.


i m p r i n t







LINKED is Janoschka ’s customer

magazine and appears annually.

Owned & published by:

Janoschka Holding GmbH

Mattweg 1

77971 Kippenheim


© 2020 Janoschka Holding GmbH

All rights reserved. Reprint or electronic

distribution, including in extracts,

is subject to the publisher’s approval.

Editor-in-Chief (with responsibility

according to German press law) & text:

Corina Prutti, das komm.büro, Munich


Ideas & Conceptual Design:

Sabine Joachims, Janoschka Holding

Corina Prutti, das komm.büro

Art Direction, Layout & Graphic Design:

Patrick Brandecker

Print & Binding:

Gotteswinter & Aumaier GmbH, Munich


The information contained within this magazine has

been prepared with the utmost diligence and verified

for accuracy. However, Janoschka does not assume

any liability for inaccurate or incomplete information.

Any liability claim against the organisation due to

inaccurate or incomplete information is excluded.

Image & content copyright:

Alamy: p. 9, 10, 16, 20, 29, 30, 50, 53, 69, 71 /

Ach Brito/ Claus Porto: Titel, p. 4, 32, 33 / Nadia Amura:

p. 21 / Eugène Atget: p. 66 / Patrick Brandecker: p. 23,

24, 26, 45,48, 54, 64, 65, 66 / Brassaï (Gyula Halász):

p. 68 / Pablo Castangnola: p. 51 / Deutsches Apotheken

Museum Heidelberg: p. 13 / Dr. Bronner’s: p. 34, 35 /

Getty Images: p. 11, 42 / Fragonard: p. 30 / iStock p. 4,

5, 6, 12, 14, 15, 28, 29, 40, 43, 47, 55, 60, 62, 64,

66, 68, 69, 77 / Janoschka/Linked2Brands archive:

p. 3, 5, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 63, 72, 74, 76, 77 /

Kremer Pigmente: p. 17 / Adrian Lander: p. 12 / Lorenz:

p. 61, 63 / National Archives: p. 8 / obs/McDonald's

Deutschland: p. 48 / Vera Pache: p. 9 / paris-frivole:

p. 31 / Psyma: p. 46, 47 / Danny Schreckenbach: 69 /

Siegwerk: p. 4, 41, 42 / Shutterstock: p. 5, 29 / Stop the

water while using me!: p. 36, 37 / Stuart Semple:

p. 21 / Surrey Nano Systems: p. 18, 19 / Unilever: p. 52

/ Unilever/Knorr: p. 52 / Werner & Mertz: p. 27 /

Wikipedia: p. 14, 17, 49, 53, 67, 68, 69

For further information on Pigments and Colours see:

David Coles, Chromotopia

(c) Foto: Adrian Lander

If you would like to be added

to our distribution list,

please email us: linked@janoschka.com

Please inform us of any change of address or if you

no longer wish to receive Linked.

issue #5 / a u g u s t 2020

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