Africa Automotive July-August issue 2022

Africa Automotive prides itself to be the ONLY Africa’s leading and MOST authoritative magazine for the automotive industry in Africa with printed copies for the automotive industry decision makers in both government, NGO’s and private sector. The Bi-monthly magazine offers cost effective advertising services that get results and improves growth in the auto B2C and B2B sector, keeping an eye on latest technologies in Africa and across the world, the magazine predominately covers the developments in the Africa auto industry.

Africa Automotive prides itself to be the ONLY Africa’s leading and MOST authoritative magazine for the automotive industry in Africa with printed copies for the automotive industry decision makers in both government, NGO’s and private sector. The Bi-monthly magazine offers cost effective advertising services that get results and improves growth in the auto B2C and B2B sector, keeping an eye on latest technologies in Africa and across the world, the magazine predominately covers the developments in the Africa auto industry.


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<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> <strong>2022</strong> Volume 4 <strong>issue</strong> no. 22<br />

Passanger Tyres<br />

What to look for in Passenger Tyres<br />

In this <strong>issue</strong>......<br />

How to Determine If Your<br />

Passenger Brake Pads Need<br />

Replacement...pg 27<br />

Why passenger cars remain<br />

the most prominent vehicle in<br />

the EV battery market...pg 18<br />

Why Car Manufaacturers<br />

Should Rely on Hydrogen<br />

After all...pg 17<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 1

Contact us:<br />

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Tel: +254 774 288 100<br />

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@ <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Content<br />

Contents<br />

Current Issue<br />

What to look for when<br />

buying Passenger Tyres<br />

& much more...enjoy the<br />

<strong>issue</strong>!<br />


News Briefs 4<br />

23<br />

30<br />

Events 8<br />

Innovation 10<br />

18<br />

Opinion 16<br />

Safety Tips 36<br />

Managing Editor<br />

<strong>August</strong>ine Mwita<br />

27<br />

Editor-in-Chief<br />

Monica Robina<br />


Senior Editor &<br />

Marketing Lead<br />

Dorcas Kang’ereha<br />

Writer<br />

Violet Ambale<br />

Harriet Mkhaye<br />

Irene Joseph<br />

Innocent Momanyi<br />

Sales Executives<br />

East <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Jimmy Mudasia<br />

Lydia Kamonya<br />

Caiser Momanyi<br />

Vincent Murono<br />

Sheila Ing’ayitsa<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Paul Nyakeri<br />

Sean Masangwanyi<br />

Lisa Brown<br />

Thembisa Ndlovu<br />

Nigeria<br />

Emelda Njomboro<br />

Uche Maxwel<br />

Designed and<br />

Published by:<br />

P.O. Box 52248-00100,<br />

Nairobi, Kenya.<br />

Passanger tyres: What to look for in Passenger Tyres<br />

Features<br />

How to Apply <strong>Automotive</strong> Protective Coatings and Overlays<br />

How to Determine If Your Passenger Brake Pads Need<br />

Replacement<br />

How to Avoid Privacy Risks from Third-party <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

Apps<br />

Why Car Manufacturers Should Rely on Hydrogen After all<br />

How to Sell Your Car Privately<br />

How to Change Your Air Filter and Check Your Hoses and<br />

Belts<br />


Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing Ltd...................................................IFC<br />

Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing Ltd...................................................IBC<br />

Graphene Coating ................................................................OBC<br />

Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing Ltd.................................................pg 16<br />

Madico films...........................................................................pg 22<br />

Gislaved...................................................................................pg 26<br />

Glinter.......................................................................................pg 28<br />

Remsa.......................................................................................pg 29<br />

Absa..........................................................................................pg 34<br />

IGL Coatings...........................................................................pg 34<br />

PFK............................................................................................pg 38<br />

36<br />

22<br />

Contact us<br />

Tel: 0774288100<br />

Emaii: info@africaautomotivenews.com<br />

Web: https://africaautomotivenews.com<br />

The Editor accepts letter and manuscripts for publication from readers all over the world. Include your name and address as a sign of good faith although you may<br />

request your name to be withheld from publication. We can reserve the right to edit any material submitted. Send your letters to: info@africaautomotivenews.com<br />

Disclaimer:<br />

Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing Ltd makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of the contents of its publications, but no warranty is made to such accuracy<br />

and no responsibility will be borne by the publisher for the consequences of actions based on information so published. Further, opinions expressed<br />

on interviews are not necessarily shared by Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing Ltd.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 3

News<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.<br />

announces that it has entered<br />

into a definitive agreement<br />

to acquire shares in Vehicle<br />

Energy Japan Inc., a company engaged<br />

in the automotive lithium-ion<br />

batteries business. Nissan will acquire<br />

the shares after the completion of<br />

regulatory procedures, including<br />

necessary approvals and permissions.<br />

Nissan to acquire shares in Vehicle Energy Japan Inc<br />

Nissan will acquire all the common<br />

shares of Vehicle Energy Japan held<br />

by INCJ, Ltd. and subscribe to common<br />

shares <strong>issue</strong>d by Vehicle Energy<br />

Japan. Following the transaction,<br />

Vehicle Energy Japan will become a<br />

consolidated subsidiary of Nissan, in<br />

which it will hold shares alongside<br />

existing shareholders Maxell, Ltd. and<br />

Hitachi Astemo, Ltd.<br />

Vehicle Energy Japan has an integrated<br />

production system from battery<br />

cells to packs, and advanced battery<br />

management system technologies.<br />

It develops, manufactures, and sells<br />

lithium-ion batteries, battery modules,<br />

and battery management systems<br />

for hybrid vehicles that are expected<br />

areas of growth.<br />

Nissan, in its long-term vision,<br />

Nissan Ambition 2030, aims to create<br />

significant value beyond mobility by<br />

placing electrification at the core of its<br />

business strategy and expanding the<br />

possibilities of journeys and society.<br />

As a key supplier to Nissan, Vehicle<br />

Energy Japan will play a crucial role<br />

in its ongoing electrification strategy<br />

under the vision. The investment<br />

will allow Nissan to secure a stable<br />

battery supplier and contribute to<br />

the development of next-generation<br />

batteries with a competitive edge in<br />

terms of both performance and cost.<br />

Vehicle Energy Japan will provide a<br />

stable supply of batteries to Nissan<br />

as well as broad range of other<br />

customers, with ongoing support<br />

from shareholders Maxell and Hitachi<br />

Astemo, along with Nissan.<br />

KEBS unveils SMS Code to verify car details and mileage<br />

Kenya Bureau of Standards<br />

(KEBS) unveiled a short SMS<br />

code to help Kenyans seeking<br />

to buy motor vehicles to<br />

easily confirm their details. According<br />

to the KEBS statement, buyers can<br />

confirm the authenticity of inspection<br />

details and full information regarding<br />

the vehicle they intend to purchase,<br />

whether brand new or used cars. The<br />

short messaging code, 20023, also<br />

enables car buyers to verify mileage.<br />

According to the government<br />

agency, the introduction of the short<br />

messaging platform follows a series<br />

of complaints raised by buyers over<br />

purchasing cars only to find out that<br />

car’s mileages had been altered.<br />

The code will also enable motorists<br />

to identify vehicles legally allowed<br />

to operate on Kenyan roads. While<br />

working with other agencies such as<br />

the National Transport Safety Authority<br />

(NTSA), the introduction of the SMS is<br />

meant to enforce the implementation<br />

of traffic rules.<br />

How to Check<br />

Buyers can confirm the car’s inspection<br />

authenticity and mileage by sending<br />

the chassis number to 20023. VIN,<br />

also known as the Chassis Number,<br />

is an exclusive car identification<br />

number allotted to a car by the<br />

manufacturer. The 17-digit number,<br />

which distinguishes it from other<br />

models and makes, is used by the<br />

registration authorities to register a<br />

car. It is usually encrypted on car boots,<br />

dashboard, rear wheel, registration<br />

certificate and the insurance policy<br />

certificate.<br />

“Get to know how you can verify the<br />

authenticity of the vehicle inspection<br />

details and mileage by sending the<br />

chassis number to 20023,” the KEBS<br />

statement stated.<br />

The verification details come after<br />

KEBS banned the importation of used<br />

mini-buses, double-decker, and large<br />

buses into the country. The directive<br />

which took effect on <strong>July</strong> 1, was<br />

meant to promote and protect local<br />

assemblers.<br />

4 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Kenya introduces digital vehicles number plates to curb tax<br />

evation and crime<br />

The Kenya Government has<br />

rolled out new generation<br />

number plates for all imported<br />

motor vehicles in a bid to<br />

curb tax evasion and theft. This is<br />

according to Dr. Fred Matiang’i, the<br />

country’s Interior Cabinet Secretary<br />

who also termed the move a dragnet<br />

of curtailing the tax evasion within the<br />

car importing business sector.<br />

Kenyans will part with Ksh3,000 to<br />

replace the old motor-vehicle number<br />

plates with the digital ones equipped<br />

with security features to curb crime<br />

and theft cases. The digital plates<br />

were unveiled during the launch of the<br />

new number plates at the GSU Recce<br />

unit Headquarters in Ruiru, Nairobi on<br />

Tuesday, <strong>August</strong> 30.<br />

All automobiles, including motorbikes<br />

and three-wheelers, trailers and<br />

tractors, both private and governmentowned,<br />

and those used by diplomats<br />

and international organizations will<br />

Electric motorcycle companies<br />

are leveraging partnerships with<br />

lenders specialising in asset<br />

finance to drive sales in Kenya<br />

targeting boda boda riders. Swedish-<br />

Kenyan technology company Roam<br />

has partnered with M-KOPA to deliver<br />

a fleet of motorcycles by the end of<br />

<strong>2022</strong> in time for mass deployment in<br />

early 2023.<br />

adopt the new generational plates.<br />

According to Interior CS Fred Matiang’i,<br />

all motorists are required to replace<br />

their old number plates within 18<br />

months. Matiang’i insisted that<br />

exercise is mandatory and urged all<br />

motorists to replace the plates within<br />

the stipulated timelines.<br />

“When the NTSA team calls on<br />

Kenyans to change the plates, let us<br />

obey and get it done within those 18<br />

months. Issuance of new plates will<br />

begin with newly registered vehicles<br />

from the KDK series and replacement<br />

of existing ones to start from October<br />

1, <strong>2022</strong>,” Matiang’i stated. He added<br />

that the digital number plates would<br />

be synchronised with the Kenya<br />

Revenue Authority (KRA) systems to<br />

nab dealers who relent in paying<br />

taxes.<br />

“We are doing this because we want<br />

E-motorcycle firms banking on asset finance<br />

News<br />

to address the security of our country.<br />

We want to help other agencies such<br />

as KRA to function properly, uplift<br />

the financial sector and improve<br />

transparency,” he stated.<br />

Some of the security features will<br />

be visible to the naked eye whereas<br />

others will only be accessible to<br />

law enforcement agencies. Besides<br />

a unique template, they’ll feature<br />

a specially-imprinted national flag,<br />

hologram, watermark, unique and<br />

different serial numbers for rear<br />

and front plates that are linked to<br />

the vehicle’s chassis number and<br />

customized font.<br />

ARC Ride Kenya which launched a<br />

plant in Kenya producing 500 two<br />

and three-wheeled electric scooters<br />

and bikes each month also partnered<br />

with M-KOPA and Watu Credit to be<br />

able to offer the product through<br />

flexible financing terms. Kenya and<br />

the region are rapidly catching up on<br />

electric mobility but cost remains a big<br />

obstacle to abandoning fossil fuels for<br />

clean energy.<br />

Manufacturers are turning to asset<br />

finance companies that offer flexible<br />

“pay as you go” terms that allow<br />

riders to acquire the units and pay as<br />

they earn an income. Roam said that<br />

by combining the power of digital<br />

micropayments with the Internetof-Things<br />

(IoT) technology, M-KOPA<br />

enables underbanked customers to<br />

access a broad range of products and<br />

services without collateral.<br />

“M-KOPA will aid in the deployment of<br />

the motorcycles through its innovative<br />

‘Pay-As-You-Go’ model, which allows<br />

customers instant access to products<br />

while building ownership over time<br />

through flexible micro-payments,” said<br />

Mikael Gånge, co-founder and chief<br />

commercial officer, Roam.<br />

Kenya is racing against time to catch<br />

up with the rest of the world in the<br />

shift to clean mobility in efforts to<br />

reduce pollution of the environment.<br />

The country has more than 1,000 lowcarbon<br />

emission vehicles with dealers<br />

expecting an increase due to the<br />

high cost of fuel. Recent geopolitical<br />

tensions in Europe following Russia’s<br />

war in Ukraine have seen fuel prices<br />

spike out of reach for most motorists.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 5

News<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Ashok Leyland channel partner Deluxe Trucks and Buses inks<br />

agreement with Kenya Commercial Bank for vehicle financing<br />

Ashok Leyland’s authorized<br />

distributors, Deluxe Trucks and<br />

Buses in Kenya have signed<br />

a partnership with Kenya<br />

Commercial Bank to jointly promote<br />

the Ashok Leyland Brand of Vehicles.<br />

Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB) is one<br />

of the largest financial institutions in<br />

the region offering an array of services.<br />

Ashok Leyland customers will now<br />

be able to access flexible financing<br />

options in a deal from Kenya<br />

Commercial Bank. The partnership<br />

will see customers enjoy up to 95%<br />

financing with an extended repayment<br />

period of 72 months as well as a<br />

comfortable 60-day payment holiday.<br />

Mr. Amandeep Singh, Head<br />

International Operations for Ashok<br />

Leyland expressed his pleasure at the<br />

tie up and noted that, “Ashok Leyland<br />

Trucks and Buses has a wide future<br />

ready portfolio in commercial vehicle<br />

categories ranging from 2.55 Ton GVW<br />

6 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong><br />

to 55 Ton GVW and buses suited for<br />

all applications. The Ashok Leyland<br />

range of vehicles offers the best-inclass<br />

mileage in all these categories.<br />

This partnership with KCB will enable<br />

customers to avail financing options<br />

to purchase Ashok Leyland commercial<br />

vehicles at industry best terms and<br />

conditions.”<br />

Speaking during the event, KCB Bank<br />

Director of Corporate Banking, Esther<br />

Waititu said, “We are delighted to<br />

partner with Deluxe Trucks & Buses,<br />

for financing Ashok Leyland products.<br />

It is a reflection of our commitment<br />

to supporting key customers to derive<br />

value from their long-standing loyalty.”<br />

On his part, Deluxe Trucks & Buses<br />

E.A. Managing Director, Mr. Ameet<br />

Shroff said, “The partnership targets<br />

individuals, Small Medium Size<br />

companies, and large commercial<br />

businesses for flexible financing of up<br />

to 95% of the vehicle cost. Delivering<br />

uptime to customers is our key<br />

objective and we will ensure that our<br />

customers are continuously served<br />

with complete satisfaction.”<br />

Nord Motors, UNILAG sign agreement to build <strong>Africa</strong>’s first<br />

on-campus auto plant<br />

Nord Automobiles Limited,<br />

an indigenous automobile<br />

company, has signed<br />

a memorandum of<br />

understanding with the University<br />

of Lagos (UNILAG) to establish<br />

an automobile assembly and<br />

manufacturing hub in the institution.<br />

The signing of the MoU is a bold step<br />

in the right direction that is positioned<br />

to further intensify the university’s<br />

quest to equip students with all the<br />

necessary skills before graduation, said<br />

Oluwatoyin Ogunleye, vice chancellor,<br />

University of Lagos.<br />

Ogundipe said that this would also<br />

stimulate research and development<br />

activities in the area of automobiles<br />

among members of staff, adding<br />

that any nation with the quest for<br />

development must look inward.<br />

“This is the first time any university is<br />

bringing an automobile company into<br />

its campus in <strong>Africa</strong>. What this means<br />

to us, therefore, is that they will start<br />

assembling the car in this University of<br />

Lagos, putting into consideration the<br />

economic situation of this country,” he<br />

said.<br />

Ogundipe expressed delight that<br />

with the coming of the auto plant,<br />

Engineering students of the university<br />

would be able to gain first-hand<br />

experience, but also students of<br />

Architecture, Finance, Marketing, as<br />

well as those in Creative Arts.<br />

Oluwatobi Ajayi, chief executive<br />

officer, NORD Automobiles Limited,<br />

expressed delight at the development,<br />

noting that it was his little way<br />

of contributing to the country’s<br />

development.<br />

According to him, there is a need<br />

to continuously encourage the<br />

youths, especially students in<br />

tertiary institutions, by making them<br />

understand that they have a future<br />

in engineering especially. The NORD<br />

boss said that in two months’ time,<br />

the company would be establishing<br />

the assembly plant, as well as an<br />

ultra-modern showroom, to be<br />

commissioned by the vice chancellor.<br />

“I have always believed in Nigeria<br />

and in the great talents and natural<br />

resources therein. I will not stop at<br />

doing anything within my disposal<br />

to make Nigeria a pride before the<br />

entire world. It is time for us to<br />

come together to return Nigeria to a<br />

producing nation and not a consumer<br />

nation,” he said.

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

News<br />

Kenya Power to set up electric car charging hubs by September<br />

Kenya Power will, from next<br />

month, start constructing<br />

electric charging systems for<br />

homes, businesses and the<br />

public across the country as the shift<br />

to clean transport gathers momentum.<br />

The State-owned power utility is<br />

seeking a firm to build an e-mobility<br />

network infrastructure system (ENIS)<br />

in Nairobi and Nakuru to pilot the<br />

charging stations.<br />

Kenya, like the rest of the world, is<br />

pushing for clean mobility to reduce<br />

environmental pollution from fossil<br />

fuels, placing Kenya Power at the<br />

centre of the shift due to the need for<br />

electricity supplies for motorists.<br />

The State utility has floated tender<br />

inviting bidders who will build the<br />

infrastructure that will also allow<br />

customers to pay via M-Pesa and credit<br />

like in the traditional fueling stations.<br />

Clean mobility is fast gathering pace<br />

in Kenya, with several companies<br />

already piloting electric-powered<br />

buses and motorcycles, placing Kenya<br />

Power at the centre given the need for<br />

electricity supplies.<br />

“Kenya Power intends to implement<br />

an e-mobility network infrastructure<br />

system. The system will ensure that<br />

e-mobility customers in Kenya can<br />

be served in a seamless manner<br />

countrywide where Kenya Power has<br />

grid presence.”<br />

Clean mobility<br />

Kenya is racing against time to catch<br />

up with the rest of the world in the<br />

shift to clean mobility in efforts to<br />

reduce pollution of the environment.<br />

The European Commission wants to<br />

ban the sale of diesel and petrolpowered<br />

vehicles by 2035, signalling a<br />

global shift that is prompting Kenya to<br />

set the ground for its e-mobility.<br />

President Uhuru Kenyatta has<br />

confirmed the Government<br />

will set up a national<br />

automotive council to facilitate<br />

implementation of the National<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Policy that is geared<br />

towards boosting the local assembling<br />

of motor vehicles.<br />

Speaking when he launched the<br />

locally assembled Euro 4 Mitsubishi<br />

L200 pickup at State House, Nairobi,<br />

President Kenyatta reiterated the<br />

Government’s commitment to creating<br />

an enabling environment for the<br />

growth of the country’s automotive<br />

industry.<br />

Kenyan Government to Set up a National<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Council<br />

“I take note of the <strong>issue</strong> of getting<br />

the council established and that is<br />

something we shall see if we can do<br />

before we leave office to ensure that<br />

we create that enabling environment<br />

for the necessary institutions that will<br />

see this particular industry continue<br />

on its growth trajectory and becomes<br />

once again predominant part of the<br />

Kenyan economy,” President Kenyatta<br />

said.<br />

The Head of State encouraged<br />

stakeholders in the industry<br />

to continue working with the<br />

Government to ensure it achieves its<br />

objectives of reviving and stabilizing<br />

the automotive sector.<br />

He thanked Mitsubishi, Associated<br />

Vehicle Assembly (AVA) and Simba<br />

Corporation for being true partners in<br />

the country’s efforts in growing the<br />

industry.<br />

“I really appreciate the partnership<br />

that we have had that has led to a<br />

revival of this industry that was oncemoribund<br />

and for me to give you my<br />

assurance and my commitment that<br />

we shall continue to work together to<br />

reach the targets that we envisioned<br />

way back in 2019.<br />

“our determination to ensure that<br />

future Government also continue<br />

with the same policy because this<br />

is not only good for increasing the<br />

manufacturing capacity of the country<br />

but also good in terms of skills<br />

transfer, in terms of creating jobs for<br />

our people and in terms of creating<br />

new opportunities,” he said.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 7

News<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Moove signs agreement with MUFG and Suzuki to promote<br />

financial inclusion for Mobility Gig Workers across <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Moove, the world’s first<br />

mobility fintech, has<br />

announced the signing<br />

of a Memorandum of<br />

Understanding [MoU] with MUFG,<br />

one of the world’s leading financial<br />

groups and Suzuki, one of the world’s<br />

leading suppliers of vehicles to<br />

mobility businesses. Through this MoU,<br />

Moove, which provides revenue-based<br />

financing to mobility entrepreneurs,<br />

aims to advance financial inclusion<br />

and job creation as well as upskilling<br />

opportunities in the sector.<br />

Signed at the eighth Tokyo<br />

International Conference on <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

Development [TICAD] conference, the<br />

tri-party agreement is one of the first<br />

to involve an <strong>Africa</strong>n fintech company<br />

and underscores the opportunity to<br />

leverage technology to improve the<br />

livelihoods of millions of people in<br />

emerging markets. Moove’s alternative<br />

credit scoring technology will<br />

enable access to vehicle financing to<br />

mobility entrepreneurs, backed by the<br />

strength of MUFG’s financial services<br />

capabilities and Suzuki’s expertise in<br />

supplying durable, high performance<br />

and fuel efficient vehicles.<br />

Launched in Lagos, Nigeria in 2020,<br />

Moove is a mission-led company<br />

committed to empowering mobility<br />

entrepreneurs to be productive and<br />

successful through providing access to<br />

vehicle financing and other financial<br />

services. Moove has since scaled to<br />

seven markets across sub-Saharan<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> and six markets in MENA, Asia<br />

and Europe, and its customers have<br />

completed over 7 million trips in<br />

Moove-financed vehicles.<br />

The MoU creates a framework for the<br />

parties to work closely together on<br />

solving other challenges in mobility,<br />

including providing access to finance<br />

for more female customers as well<br />

as improving road safety and training<br />

support for mobility entrepreneurs.<br />

NADDC, <strong>Africa</strong>r unveil Nigeria-Assembled Mini-cars for Taxi Services<br />

Vasco Technology Solutions<br />

Limited, popularly known as<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>r, in partnership with<br />

the National <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

Design and Development Council<br />

(NADDC), has introduced a new ridehailing<br />

service to ease transportation<br />

difficulties across the country.<br />

Reports indicate that no fewer than<br />

115 Nigeria-assembled mini-cars have<br />

been launched by the Minister of Trade<br />

and Industry, Otunba Niyi Adebayo, for<br />

shuttle services in Ibadan, Oyo State<br />

capital.<br />

8 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong>r, operating under a<br />

conglomerate known as Stallion Group,<br />

is a platform that has the potential to<br />

transform the transportation industry<br />

by providing both employment<br />

opportunities and low-cost rides.<br />

Speaking during the launching, the<br />

director-general of the National<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Design and Development<br />

Council (NADDC), Jelani Aliyu, said the<br />

launching of the mini-cars, which is of<br />

international standards, is, therefore a<br />

step in the right direction.<br />

Aliyu, represented by the Director,<br />

Industrial Infrastructure Department,<br />

Dr. Nua Omisanya, said the Council<br />

had worked tirelessly to ensure the<br />

survival and growth of the Nigerian<br />

automotive industry, with a view to<br />

enhancing the industry’s contribution<br />

to the national economy.<br />

According to him, the newly introduced<br />

mode of transportation will enhance<br />

basic mobility for all, including<br />

visitors, easing mobility for students,<br />

workers and communities from various<br />

suburban areas to the city centre.<br />

“NADDC continues its unwavering<br />

dedication to the support of local<br />

automotive production, and also<br />

continues to promote some of the<br />

latest technologies being developed,”<br />

he added.<br />

Also speaking, the chief executive<br />

officer (CEO), <strong>Africa</strong>r, Sahil Vaswani,<br />

said all the cars being used for the<br />

project were assembled at Stallion<br />

Group’s Von Plant in Lagos.<br />

He added that the company and<br />

NADDC developed the Bajaj Qute cars<br />

purposely for the new ride-hailing<br />

taxi for Nigeria and would be taken<br />

to other states in the country, after<br />

Ibadan.<br />

He said: “This car is assembled<br />

in Nigeria by Nigerians and is<br />

environmentally friendly, with 50 per<br />

cent lower carbon emissions than the<br />

average car.”

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

News<br />

Vbank, Autochek partner on auto loan product<br />

Vbank a digital bank powered<br />

by VFD Microfinance Bank<br />

has partnered with Autochek,<br />

an automotive technology<br />

firm to make it easier and quicker for<br />

customers to access loans at the most<br />

competitive interest rates to purchase<br />

their desired vehicles. This partnership,<br />

the duo said, streamlines the loan<br />

origination process, with all paperwork<br />

and documentation run through an<br />

automatic underwriting algorithm for<br />

loan processing.<br />

“This automated process improves<br />

the efficiency of the loan process<br />

and ultimately enhances the overall<br />

experience for individuals and<br />

businesses. The goal is to continue<br />

to build on this to create the first<br />

Autoloan securitization product in sub-<br />

Saharan <strong>Africa</strong>,” they said.<br />

Senior Vice President, West <strong>Africa</strong> at<br />

Autochek, Mayokun Fadeyibi, said:<br />

“We are really excited to unveil this<br />

game-changing product, which is the<br />

result of a long series of conversations<br />

between the Autochek and VFD teams.<br />

We wanted to create a product that<br />

would make the most of our combined<br />

expertise to deliver real change in how<br />

people across Nigeria access financing<br />

for their vehicles. By combining VFDs<br />

exciting range of financing products<br />

with our process, we are confident<br />

that we will be able to connect more<br />

customers to the financing they need<br />

to access the vehicles they desire,<br />

which should in turn catalyse more<br />

growth across the automotive sector.<br />

Bentley Motors announces global agency overhaul<br />

Bentley Motors has announced<br />

plans to transform its agency<br />

partners across the marketing<br />

mix, which will help the<br />

brand evolve and transform its entire<br />

marketing communications strategy<br />

as it prepares for full electrification<br />

across its product range by 2030 and<br />

diversifies its offering to be one of<br />

the world’s most well-known luxury<br />

lifestyle brands.<br />

Bentley Motors announced its<br />

Beyond100 strategy in 2020 – a<br />

reinvention of every aspect of its<br />

business, to become an end-to-end<br />

carbon neutral organisation and one<br />

of the world’s leading luxury lifestyle<br />

brands.<br />

While Performance Communications<br />

continues to be Bentley’s retained<br />

Middle East, <strong>Africa</strong> and India PR<br />

agency, the appointment of a new lead<br />

global agency partner for creative and<br />

strategic marketing communications<br />

is the latest stage of this innovative<br />

programme and includes the evolution<br />

of its digital-first strategy, paving the<br />

way for Web 3.0.<br />

Steven de Ploey, Director of Strategy,<br />

Product and Marketing said: “This<br />

announcement marks an exciting<br />

new phase in our Beyond100 strategy,<br />

which will transform every aspect of<br />

the Bentley Motors business as we<br />

enter our second century as a global<br />

luxury brand.<br />

“Our approach to marketing is central<br />

to our transformation; and we are<br />

delighted to have new partners on<br />

board to galvanise our progress. Our<br />

plans go far beyond our products,<br />

to innovative brand extensions and<br />

exciting partnerships. It will also<br />

see us put people front and centre<br />

in our communications to engage<br />

new audiences as we move towards<br />

becoming a sustainable, wholly ethical<br />

role model for modern luxury.”<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 9

Automitive apps<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

How to Avoid Privacy Risks from<br />

Third-party <strong>Automotive</strong> Apps<br />

By Zintle Nkohla<br />

Mobile applications for connected<br />

cars provide various features to<br />

make life easier for motorists,<br />

but they can also be a source of<br />

risk. Kaspersky experts have analysed 69<br />

popular third-party mobile applications<br />

designed to control connected cars and<br />

defined the main threats drivers may face<br />

while using them. They found out that<br />

more than half (58%) of these applications<br />

use the vehicle owners’ credentials without<br />

asking for their consent. On top of this, one<br />

in five of the applications have no contact<br />

information, which makes it impossible to<br />

report a problem. These and other findings<br />

are published in the new Kaspersky<br />

Connected Apps report.<br />

Connected automotive applications<br />

provide a wide range of functions to make<br />

drivers’ lives easier. For example, they allow<br />

users to remotely control their vehicles by<br />

locking or unlocking the doors, adjusting<br />

climate control, starting and stopping the<br />

engine, etc.<br />

Even though most car manufacturers have<br />

their own legitimate applications for the<br />

cars they make, third-party apps designed<br />

by mobile developers are also very popular<br />

among users as they may offer unique<br />

features that have not yet been introduced<br />

by the vehicle manufacturer. The thirdparty<br />

applications analysed by Kaspersky<br />

cover almost all major vehicle brands,<br />

with Tesla, Nissan, Renault, Ford and<br />

Volkswagen in the top-5 cars most often<br />

controlled by such apps. However, these<br />

10 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Privacy Risks<br />

applications are not entirely safe to use,<br />

claim Kaspersky researchers.<br />

Some developers advise using the<br />

authorisation token instead of a username<br />

and password to look more credible.<br />

The tricky part here is that, if a token is<br />

compromised, malefactors can get access<br />

to the cars the same way they would by<br />

using victims’ credentials. This means that<br />

the risk of losing control over the vehicles<br />

is still high. Users should be aware that<br />

everything is at their own risk and using<br />

authorisation tokens does not ensure total<br />

safety. Despite this, only 19% of developers<br />

mention this and warn the user without<br />

hiding it in several layers of fine print.<br />

Moreover, every seventh (14%) application<br />

does not have information on how to<br />

contact the developer or give feedback,<br />

making it impossible to report a problem<br />

or request more information on the app’s<br />

privacy policy. The absence of official<br />

contact information and social network<br />

pages makes it clear that most of these<br />

apps are developed by enthusiasts, which<br />

is not necessarily a bad thing, however,<br />

such developers don’t have to care about<br />

your vehicle’s safety and data security like<br />

regulated vehicle manufacturers do.<br />

It is also worth noting that 46 of the 69<br />

applications are either free of charge or<br />

offer a demo mode. This has contributed to<br />

such applications being downloaded from<br />

the Google Play Store more than 239,000<br />

times, which makes you wonder how many<br />

people are giving strangers free access to<br />

their cars.<br />

“The benefits of a connected world<br />

are countless. However, it is important<br />

to note that this is still a developing<br />

industry, which carries certain risks. When<br />

downloading a third-party application to<br />

control your car remotely, users should be<br />

aware of possible threats. We entrust a lot<br />

of private information and personal data to<br />

connected technology,” Sergey Zorin, Head<br />

of Kaspersky Transportation Security at<br />

Kaspersky says.<br />

“We urge application developers to<br />

make user protection a priority and<br />

take precautionary measures to avoid<br />

compromising their customers and<br />

themselves,” Zorin advises.<br />

For application developers, Kaspersky<br />

experts recommend the following<br />

advice:<br />

Adopt solutions that secure the<br />

software development process through<br />

application control at runtime, scanning<br />

for vulnerabilities before deployment,<br />

routinely conducting security vetting<br />

of containers, and anti-malware<br />

testing of production artifacts. With<br />

supply chain attacks through public<br />

repositories becoming more frequent as of<br />

late, the development process is in need<br />

of enhanced protection against outside<br />

interference.<br />

Kaspersky Hybrid Cloud Security meets<br />

developers’ needs. It secures Docker<br />

and Windows containers and provides<br />

a ‘security as code’ approach, with<br />

containerisation host memory protection,<br />

tasks for containers, image scanning, and<br />

scriptable interfaces. So, you can integrate<br />

security tasks into CI/CD pipelines without<br />

impacting the development process.<br />

Implement protection mechanisms into the<br />

application. Kaspersky Mobile SDK provides<br />

data protection for customers as well as<br />

malware detection, secure connectivity, and<br />

more.<br />

Kaspersky experts recommend that<br />

users:<br />

Only download apps from official stores<br />

like the Apple App Store, Google Play or<br />

Amazon Appstore. Apps from these markets<br />

are not 100% failsafe but they at least get<br />

checked by shop representatives and there<br />

is some filtration system in place, meaning<br />

that not every app can get into these<br />

stores.<br />

Check the permissions of the apps you<br />

use and think carefully before permitting<br />

a process, especially when it comes to<br />

high-risk permissions such as access to<br />

Accessibility Services. The only permission<br />

that a flashlight app, for example, needs is<br />

access to the flashlight functionality.<br />

Adopt a reliable security solution to help<br />

detect malicious apps and adware before<br />

they can start behaving badly on your<br />

device.<br />

Don’t forget to update your operating<br />

system and all software regularly. Many<br />

safety <strong>issue</strong>s can be resolved by installing<br />

updated versions of software.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 11

New Model<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Mahindra<br />

XUV700<br />

and<br />

Scorpio-N<br />

launched<br />

in South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong><br />

With the launch of the<br />

Mahindra Scorpio-N in<br />

the country, the Indian<br />

carmaker also revealed<br />

the Scorpio-N and the XUV700 in<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong>. To be manufactured in<br />

India and exported to several global<br />

markets, both the SUVs will soon be<br />

launched internationally.<br />

Mahindra XUV700<br />

The Mahindra XUV700 made its<br />

debut in India last year in <strong>August</strong>.<br />

Available at a starting price of Rs<br />

12 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

New Model<br />

13.18 lakh (ex-showroom), XUV700<br />

can be broadly had in MX and<br />

AX trims. It is offered in 2.0-litre<br />

petrol and 2.2-litre diesel engines<br />

with both manual and automatic<br />

transmissions. However, the fourwheel-drive<br />

setup is limited to the<br />

diesel automatic version. Presently,<br />

the XUV700 commands a waiting<br />

period of over one year, owing to the<br />

high demand and supply shortage of<br />

semiconductors. Here’s our detailed<br />

review of the Mahindra XUV700.<br />

Mahindra Scorpio-N<br />

Coming to the newly launched<br />

Scorpio-N, the new generation model<br />

looks entirely new, gets a thoroughly<br />

revamped cabin, more tech, and<br />

added safety features with petrol and<br />

all-wheel-drive options. Available<br />

at a starting price of Rs 11.99 lakh<br />

(ex-showroom) across five variants,<br />

here are the variant-wise features and<br />

prices of all manual variants.<br />

The ex-showroom prices of the<br />

automatic and 4×4 variants will<br />

be revealed on 21 <strong>July</strong> while the<br />

bookings for the SUV will open on 30<br />

<strong>July</strong>. Here’s our first-drive review of<br />

the new Mahindra Scorpio-N.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 13

New model<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />



KENYA<br />

Caetano Kenya, the official distributor of various<br />

automotive brands in Kenya including Hyundai<br />

& Renault, has today launched the all-new KIA<br />

range in Kenya. The new KIA SUVs – Kia Sportage<br />

and Sorento – are powerful, progressive and versatile. They<br />

combine cutting-edge tech features with family-friendly<br />

practicality. The range of vehicles has been specifically<br />

chosen for Kenya to meet the local customer requirements.<br />

Each KIA SUV comes with its own unique features and<br />

strengths.<br />

Kia’s flagship SUV, the Sportage is as practical as it is<br />

compelling, offering ample space, and a modern suite of<br />

hi-tech features that cater to the interests and demands of<br />

seasoned drivers and passengers. The <strong>2022</strong> Kia Sportage<br />

is ringing in a new era for one of the brand’s most soughtafter<br />

models, with a comprehensive redesign that moves its<br />

identity to the next level while paying homage to its rich<br />

heritage. The fifth generation Sportage looks to the future<br />

with a sleek yet muscular and modern exterior design,<br />

cutting-edge interior blends ergonomic layout and the<br />

latest tech innovations to create an inspiring space.<br />

The KIA Sorento is the first vehicle to be based on Kia’s<br />

new-generation midsize SUV platform. The Sorento is<br />

equipped with a larger body that comfortably seats 7<br />

people; enabling drivers to maximize cargo and luggage<br />

space. Sitting at the heart of Kia’s refreshed SUV line-up, its<br />

redefined exterior and attractive cabin, set it apart as much<br />

more than a work of engineering efficiency. The new model<br />

promises practicality, comfort, and entertainment for the<br />

whole family, appealing to adventurous drivers who are as<br />

passionate about exploring the world as they are about fine<br />

finishes, and allure of luxurious statement vehicles. With<br />

its impressive suite of features, the Sorento is Kia’s most<br />

high-tech car ever and this is the first time it will be sold in<br />

Kenya.<br />

The Kia Seltos brings sophistication, cutting-edge<br />

technology and safety features to the global compact SUV<br />

segment. It is characterized by design details that lend it an<br />

air of understated sportiness. Smaller than the mid-sized<br />

Sportage, the Seltos packs a lot into its compact footprint,<br />

with more space for passengers and luggage than any rival<br />

B-segment SUV. It features the largest cabin and trunk of<br />

any B-segment SUV currently on sale, aided by the car’s<br />

subtly larger exterior dimensions and long wheelbase. The<br />

new model also offers a highly-efficient 1.6-liter petrol<br />

engine.<br />

The KIA Sonet is designed to be bold and unforgettable.<br />

It spots key features that place it in a league of its own<br />

14 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

New model<br />

within the compact SUV segment. It comes<br />

encapsulated in a modern exterior, a confident<br />

and compact body, which includes a fresh<br />

interpretation of Kia’s signature ‘tiger-nose’<br />

grille and a stylish front skid plate beneath. It is<br />

built for young, ingenious customers who crave<br />

simplicity and seamlessness in their lives.<br />

“The models launched today are engineered<br />

and adopted for the Kenyan market. They are<br />

built through synthesizing customer insights,<br />

pioneering segment-leading features, and<br />

designed to naturally fit into the lives of the<br />

customers.” said Mr. Yaser Shabsogh, KIA COO<br />

Middle East & <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Government has been working closely with<br />

the private sector organizations to drive<br />

policy implementation and create an enabling<br />

environment for investors in the automotive<br />

sector and beyond. During the launch of the<br />

KIA Brand, Mr. George Makateto, Director, State<br />

Department for Industrialization said, “This year<br />

after a long time, the Cabinet Secretary approved<br />

what is known as the National <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

Policy and submitted it to parliament. The<br />

policy will assist in facilitating investment in<br />

the automotive industry in the country and<br />

this launch falls squarely within the policy.<br />

Another area the Government is looking at is<br />

sustainability in this sector, we are hoping the<br />

country will increase usage of electric vehicles;<br />

I am aware that Salvador Caetano has some<br />

electric vehicles under their brands, and we hope<br />

in the future they will consider locally assembled<br />

ones.”<br />

Speaking about the launch, Caetano Managing<br />

Director, Mr Pedro Campos said: “Caetano Kenya<br />

is very excited to add KIA to its family of brands.<br />

In <strong>Africa</strong> and Middle East, KIA is now the fourth<br />

biggest brand and is fast moving up. This year<br />

alone, KIA is expected to sell more that 50,000<br />

new units in <strong>Africa</strong>. In today’s launch, we have<br />

introduced four models, but we aim to go further<br />

by providing a more diversified range of products<br />

that can fit everyone’s mobility needs.”<br />

“Salvador Caetano Group arrived in Kenya in<br />

2014 with the aim of becoming one of the major<br />

players in automotive industry. Caetano Kenya is<br />

reinforcing its presence in the aftersales market<br />

by growing its current network of workshops<br />

– Caetano Express – which is already in 23<br />

locations of 8 Kenyan cities. Caetano will provide<br />

the after-sales services across the country for the<br />

KIA brand through its Caetano Express network.<br />

All the KIA cars will come with a 5-year warranty<br />

or a 100,000km mileage.” Mr. Campos concluded.<br />

KIA SPortage|image KIA<br />

KIA SPortage interior|image KIA<br />

KIA Sonet|image KIA<br />

The launch event also marked the opening of<br />

the new KIA Showroom in Nairobi at the Crater<br />

Automobile Premises on Mombasa Road.<br />

KIA Sonet interior|image KIA<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 15

Manufacturing<br />

Steel industry revival<br />

will boost <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

Manufacturing<br />

The Executive Vice Chairman/<br />

Chief Executive, National Agency<br />

for Science and Engineering<br />

Infrastructure (NASENI) Prof.<br />

Mohammed Haruna said the revival of the<br />

nation’s steel industry is a must for the<br />

development of automotive manufacturing<br />

in the country.<br />

He said without fixing the steel industry,<br />

the nation’s automotive aspiration would<br />

not be realised. He said the Federal<br />

Government should adopt Public-Private<br />

Partnership (PPP) model to fund steel<br />

complexes.<br />

He said Nigeria should not own more than<br />

40 per cent equity in such partnership.<br />

Haruna, who made the submission in a<br />

presentation to the steel council in Abuja,<br />

said NASENI will invest in any venture,<br />

targeted at producing iron and steel<br />

products from Nigeria raw material, with<br />

the private sector and the steel council.<br />

He said the government should support<br />

local production by levying a development<br />

for tax on steel imported into Nigeria<br />

He said the government should raise<br />

fund or generate a fund for privatized<br />

Ajaokuta Steel with incentives to<br />

guarantee its completion. He added:<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

“In the past planning of 1958 and the<br />

postindependence, it was only government<br />

that has financial muscles to fund<br />

steel projects. “Now private sector can<br />

conveniently undertake such investment<br />

to fund steel complexes but in PPP model.<br />

Federal Government of Nigeria should not<br />

own more than 40 per cent equity in such<br />

partnership.<br />

“Government should raise fund or generate<br />

a fund for privatised Ajaokuta Steel with<br />

incentives to guarantee its completion.<br />

“Government should thereafter support<br />

local production by levying a development<br />

for tax on steel imported into Nigeria<br />

during the resuscitation period to fund the<br />

establishment of steel development fund<br />

which is accessible to investors.”<br />

“The new National Steel Council has to<br />

resist the temptation of using foreign<br />

consultants and the so-called development<br />

partners who are here to corrupt the<br />

officials and offers foreign travels as<br />

free meals to ensure that the country<br />

geopolitical interference and sectional<br />

partisan politics.”<br />

He assured the council that NASENI will<br />

seek its board’s approval to invest in any<br />

venture, targeted at producing iron and<br />

steel products from Nigeria Raw Material,<br />

with the private sector and the council<br />


Contact us:<br />

info@africaautomotivenews.com<br />

Follow us on:<br />

+254774288100<br />

www.africaautomotivenews.com<br />

@ Autonews_<strong>Africa</strong><br />

@ <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News<br />

16 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Why Car<br />

Manufacturers Should<br />

Rely on Hydrogen<br />

After all<br />

Manufacturing<br />

the other hand as a stand-alone drive.<br />

However, the turnaround at Bayern<br />

does not come by itself. Apparently,<br />

the narrow e-car range of the Munichbased<br />

company is not sufficient to<br />

comply with fleet consumption within<br />

the framework of future EU limits.<br />

BMW is not alone in its considerations.<br />

Toyota and Hyundai are two<br />

manufacturers that have taken the<br />

lead worldwide in terms of fuel<br />

cells. The sudden interest of some<br />

manufacturers in hydrogen also stems<br />

from the fear of possibly missing out<br />

on a future technology. Nor would it be<br />

the first time that this would happen<br />

to the German auto industry.<br />

Hydrogen will not be the<br />

drive technology of the<br />

future. This is considered<br />

a foregone conclusion in<br />

the automotive industry. Nevertheless,<br />

some manufacturers are rethinking.<br />

The automotive industry has decided<br />

that the future belongs to e-mobility.<br />

Or maybe not? The designated VW<br />

boss Oliver Blume is a strong advocate<br />

of so-called e-fuels, i.e. synthetic fuels.<br />

There are also some people on<br />

the board of the Bavarian car<br />

manufacturer BMW who do not yet<br />

want to write off the combustion<br />

engine. For them, however, the air<br />

gradually becomes thin. Because the<br />

arguments against e-fuels are diverse<br />

and serious.<br />

To name just three of them: Synthetic<br />

fuel is expensive. It is also difficult<br />

to produce in an environmentally<br />

friendly way. In addition, e-fuels are<br />

very inefficient. Their energy balance is<br />

still far below the already poor carbon<br />

footprint of fossil fuels such as oil or<br />

natural gas.<br />

This should not obscure the fact<br />

that synthetic fuels will still have a<br />

correction of existence in the future.<br />

For aircraft or trucks, for example,<br />

there are only a few alternatives so far.<br />

E-fuels could close an important gap<br />

in the long term.<br />

Most car manufacturers are now also<br />

aware that e-fuels are an interesting<br />

but hopeless technology for mass<br />

mobility. However, there is still the<br />

basis on which e-fuels are produced:<br />

hydrogen.<br />

Rethinking at BMW<br />

Actually, the German car industry<br />

had already rejected the fuel cell<br />

drive some time ago. The fired VW<br />

boss Herbert Diess calculated that<br />

a hydrogen-powered vehicle would<br />

require three times more electricity<br />

than an electric car.<br />

Instead of simply charging the<br />

electricity directly from the source into<br />

the car, the hydrogen must first be<br />

produced at great expense, which of<br />

course consumes additional electricity.<br />

To make matters worse, the efficiency<br />

of a fuel cell is only slightly higher<br />

than that of a combustion engine.<br />

Nevertheless, there is a rethinking in<br />

the industry. BMW is now considering<br />

possibly relying on hydrogen in the<br />

future. On the one hand via a hybrid<br />

drive with a large storage battery,<br />

which can also be charged by cable, on<br />

Wide range of applications<br />

In principle, fuel cells are also<br />

interesting for other areas of<br />

application in addition to their use<br />

in trucks. These include zeppelins,<br />

but also aircraft. Fuel cells are also<br />

used in residential buildings. The<br />

Berlin-based startup Home Power<br />

Solutions specializes in making homes<br />

self-sufficient from the power grid<br />

by means of solar systems that are<br />

coupled to a fuel cell.<br />

Fuel cells will also be needed in<br />

industry in the future. The EU is<br />

planning a “green corridor” for Europe.<br />

This means that hydrogen is to be<br />

produced in Algeria and Morocco and<br />

transported via gas pipelines to the<br />

continent to Norway.<br />

Above all, industry should be able to<br />

cover its energy needs with hydrogen.<br />

This, in turn, requires powerful fuel<br />

cells.<br />

What does this mean for the industry<br />

and politics? Hydrogen should be at<br />

the top of the Federal Government’s<br />

agenda. At the same time,<br />

manufacturers should not completely<br />

write off the technology. Even though<br />

there will be no mass mobility with<br />

hydrogen in the near future, the<br />

further development of the technology<br />

is immensely important.<br />

For companies to do without this<br />

would mean becoming dependent<br />

on other countries again, as the solar<br />

industry once did. That must not<br />

happen.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 17

Opinion<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Why passenger cars remain the most<br />

prominent vehicle in the EV battery market<br />

Image courtesy<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> is one of the top countries undergoing<br />

a major transition in the vehicle segment.<br />

The major shift from traditional cars to<br />

electric battery-powered vehicles has been an<br />

impressive and a major one. This dramatic inclination is<br />

a result of increased awareness of environmental <strong>issue</strong>s<br />

and the need to fulfil greener ambitions set by <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

economies. Future Market Insights projects the electric<br />

vehicle battery market to surpass nearly $13 billion in<br />

2027, likely to grow at a CAGR of 8.5%.<br />

Electric vehicles are highly dependent on the strengthto-weight<br />

ratio to perform efficiently on the road. Along<br />

with this, the increasing dependency on passenger cars<br />

for daily travel and commute along with the penetration<br />

of plug-in hybrid electric cars is playing a crucial role in<br />

the rapid adoption of the same. In this article, we will<br />

look at why passenger cars remain the most prominent<br />

vehicle type in the electric vehicle battery market.<br />

Environment-friendly initiatives by the <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

government to add immense growth<br />

The adoption of electric passenger vehicles in <strong>Africa</strong> has<br />

grown gradually over the years owing to the initiatives<br />

launched by <strong>Africa</strong>n governments. They are increasingly<br />

investing in research and development activities<br />

to cater to environmental <strong>issue</strong>s, taking charge of<br />

spreading awareness of vehicle electrification. They<br />

are doing this by pointing out the positive impacts on<br />

climate change driven by a global tide in the use of<br />

electric vehicles (EVs).<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n economies like Ghana and Kenya are aiming<br />

toward high development and growth by the end of<br />

2030. Even if the target is met halfway, the overall<br />

automotive market in the regions is anticipated<br />

to grow at a tremendous pace. The Automobile<br />

Association of Zimbabwe, along with the other<br />

members of the <strong>Africa</strong>n Council of Touring and<br />

Automobile Clubs, revealed that the unregulated<br />

importing of cars in many <strong>Africa</strong>n countries has a<br />

negative impact on the continent’s environment,<br />

health, society and economy.<br />

Additionally, there are a varied number of reasons why<br />

people and organisations from <strong>Africa</strong> are choosing<br />

to invest in electric vehicle-powered passenger cars<br />

rather than traditional passenger cars. In 2021, the<br />

UN Environment Programme (UNEP), along with the<br />

global electric facility, announced its plans to help<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong> to shift to zero-emission electric mobility.<br />

Through this partnership, the programme will focus<br />

on building electric charging stations, cutting down<br />

18 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

on production and manufacturing costs and offering<br />

affordable plug-in hybrid electric cars. This, in turn, is<br />

expected to drive the sales of electric battery-powered<br />

passenger cars.<br />

Furthermore, the uYilo eMobility programme<br />

was awarded funding within the Smart<br />

Energy Solutions for <strong>Africa</strong> project. The<br />

project started in October 2021 and will<br />

run till September 2025. Through this<br />

programme, <strong>Africa</strong>’s electric mobility<br />

solutions along with repurposing<br />

batteries utilised in electric vehicles will<br />

be extended. This, in turn, will drive the<br />

growth of passenger vehicles in the<br />

region.<br />

Looking at the current scenario,<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> is dealing with the major<br />

<strong>issue</strong> of combating pollution.<br />

Thus, to penetrate the market,<br />

manufacturers of electric<br />

passenger vehicles are<br />

launching and introducing<br />

initiatives, driving the growth<br />

the same.<br />

Increasing the prices<br />

of fossil fuels to make a<br />

difference in the market<br />

According to sources, Sub-<br />

Saharan <strong>Africa</strong>n (SSA) countries<br />

are looking for alternative<br />

energy sources for reducing<br />

the growing burden of fuel<br />

dependency by leveraging their<br />

abundant renewable energy<br />

resources. Electric Vehicles<br />

(EVs), powered by batteries,<br />

offer a potential solution to<br />

such problems. Furthermore,<br />

there are many reasons why<br />

the increasing prices of fossil fuels are making difference<br />

in the whole market scenario.<br />

EV passenger cars<br />

Author: Aditi Basu, the Marketing Head at Future Market Insights (FMI), an ESOMAR-certified<br />

market research and consulting Market Research Company<br />

Opinion<br />

Most of the top automakers based out of <strong>Africa</strong> are<br />

concerned about educating consumers and<br />

changing their perception of the benefits of<br />

vehicle electrification. They are doing this by<br />

offering them the chance to experience the<br />

enhanced performance of electric vehicles.<br />

For instance, in October 2021, Electric<br />

vehicle company Tesla deployed its first<br />

two Supercharger stations in Morocco,<br />

marking its first entry into the <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

market. Supercharger stations are<br />

generally the first step toward Tesla<br />

entering a new market, reports<br />

Electrek. The electric vehicle<br />

company has opened new<br />

stations at the Onomo Hotel<br />

in Casablanca and the Al<br />

Houara Resort and Spa in<br />

Tangier.<br />

Conclusion<br />

In February <strong>2022</strong>, Agilitee<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>, one of the<br />

leading South <strong>Africa</strong>based<br />

Electric Vehicles<br />

manufacturers, launched<br />

its first self-charging fourwheeler<br />

electric vehicle<br />

named the Agility-Go. The<br />

car has a travel range that<br />

can cover 300km if fully<br />

charged and also selfcharges,<br />

1100p HD Reverse<br />

Camera with a large central<br />

screen, sensitive and quick<br />

response combined hydraulic<br />

brakes, Front & Rear impact<br />

guard with side protection for all<br />

occupants, Bluetooth hands-free<br />

calls, child lock Hill-Start assist<br />

control (HAC) and Automatic<br />

Gear.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>’s transport facilities are mostly fuel-based which has<br />

led to the creation of a financial burden on citizens and<br />

a fiscal burden on economies. Secondly, the demand for<br />

electricity in the region is projected to increase fourfold by<br />

the end of 2040. To cater to the demand, <strong>Africa</strong>n countries<br />

are optimally utilising their available resources and putting<br />

them to use in the passenger vehicle segment.<br />

As the <strong>Africa</strong>n region shifts its focus toward more cuttingedge<br />

technologies and forms strategic collaborations with<br />

automotive OEMs, the electric vehicle battery market will<br />

have brighter prospects. Mounting environmental concerns<br />

such as global warming and rising pollution levels have<br />

prompted manufacturers to propose alternative energy<br />

sources to power vehicles.<br />

Top players venturing into the <strong>Africa</strong>n market of<br />

Across the globe, the electric vehicle battery market is<br />

expanding at a breakneck pace. As a result of the increased<br />

demand for EVs, major vehicle manufacturers are entering<br />

the <strong>Africa</strong>n market, which is ultimately expected to<br />

stimulate demand for EV batteries in the long run. Future<br />

market insights project the demand for stored electricitybased<br />

EV batteries to gain significant traction, attributed to<br />

the fact that electric vehicles for travelling larger distances<br />

are acquiring popularity.<br />

Over the years, a massive amount of transformation is<br />

happening in the <strong>Africa</strong>n automotive industry. The players<br />

in the region are optimising as per the need and looking<br />

forward to making smart decisions necessary to achieve<br />

e-mobility. Looking at the way momentum is building,<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> is projected to adapt to newer technologies and<br />

change with time.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 19

Technology<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

SAF TRAKr regenerative<br />

braking axle goes into<br />

production<br />

The SAF TRAKr electric trailer<br />

axle from SAF-HOLLAND<br />

is introduced on the<br />

market in stages: After the<br />

successful test phase over several<br />

years, pre-production has been in<br />

full swing in Bessenbach since June<br />

<strong>2022</strong>. Standard production of the<br />

recuperation axle will start in <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

The use of electrified trailer axles<br />

is becoming increasingly important<br />

for low emis-sion transports, such as<br />

for refrigerated<br />

semitrailers<br />

and<br />

inner-city<br />

applications.<br />

Another<br />

innovation<br />

driver for<br />

the electric<br />

technology are the<br />

legal regulations:<br />

More than 50 zero<br />

emission zones are<br />

planned in Europe<br />

for the near future,<br />

including in Berlin,<br />

Paris and London.<br />

Stricter noise pollution<br />

standards also encourage<br />

man-ufacturers to produce vehicles<br />

that are significantly more quiet. To<br />

limit global warming as planned,<br />

CO2 emissions have to be lowered by<br />

up to 95 per cent by 2050. “We see<br />

great opportunities for electrified<br />

trailer axles here: They reduce CO2<br />

and noise emissions and meet<br />

legal requirements, for example for<br />

night-time refrigerated transports on<br />

inner city routes. The electric axles<br />

The SAF TRAKr regenerative braking<br />

axle from SAF-HOLLAND is scheduled<br />

to go into regular production in <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Image credit: SAF-HOLLAND<br />

also cater to the in-dustry trend towards<br />

‘greener transport’,” says Olaf Drewes,<br />

Director Group Inno-vation EMEA at SAF-<br />

HOLLAND.<br />

SAF TRAKr lowers emissions and fuel<br />

consumption<br />

The SAF<br />

TRAKr<br />

trailer<br />

axle<br />

uses<br />

regenerative braking to lower the<br />

emissions and fuel con-sumption<br />

of the overall vehicle. To do this,<br />

the centrally positioned high<br />

voltage generator unit converts<br />

the kinetic energy of the trailer<br />

into elec-trical energy. The<br />

generated energy is stored in a<br />

Li-ion battery and then used to run the<br />

electrical units in the trailer, such as the<br />

refrigeration units, on electricity alone.<br />

The main areas of application are<br />

refrigerated semi-trailers, tank trucks<br />

and silo trailers. For the drivers, the<br />

purely electrical operation of the<br />

refrigeration unit pro-vides appreciable<br />

added comfort on the road, as they are<br />

exposed to significantly lower noise<br />

emissions. The regenerative braking axle<br />

is manufactured at the SAF-HOLLAND<br />

factory in Bessenbach in northern<br />

Bavaria. It is initially launched on the<br />

20 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

European market, before the SAF<br />

TRAKr will then also be introduced in<br />

other re-gions worldwide next year.<br />

Easy maintenance and reliable spare<br />

parts supply<br />

For maximum flexibility and ease of<br />

maintenance, the operating strategy<br />

and the individual components<br />

of the SAF TRAKr are perfectly<br />

coordinated. Numerous components<br />

are permanently integrated into the<br />

electric axle. This allows vehicle<br />

manufacturers to install or retrofit the<br />

SAF TRAKr with only little effort while<br />

using standard interfaces. Maintenance<br />

is also easy and cost efficient: Neither<br />

the centrally installed gearbox with<br />

the flanged-on generator nor other<br />

HV components have to be removed<br />

to uninstall wheel ends and wheels.<br />

Wear parts such as brake pads or brake<br />

rotors are identical to the components<br />

for the non-electrified SAF-HOLLAND<br />

axles. This makes the spare parts<br />

supply easier and more reliable.<br />

SAF TRAKr: modular design offers<br />

flexibility<br />

The SAF TRAKr uses a high-voltage<br />

generator module for electric<br />

regenerative braking, with a maximum<br />

power of 20 kW by design. The axle is<br />

designed for axle loads from nine to<br />

ten tons. It is available with different<br />

disc brakes for 19.5” and 22.5” tyres<br />

and for the SAF INTRA and SAF<br />

MODUL suspension systems. SAF-HOL-<br />

LAND is cooperating with external<br />

partners for the regenerative braking<br />

systems.<br />

The generator runs independently<br />

of the tractor unit and only while<br />

the vehicle is in motion, but not<br />

Technology<br />

during interventions by the ABS<br />

braking system or driving dynamics.<br />

For reasons of type approval,<br />

regenerative braking is currently not<br />

yet permit-ted for adaptive braking.<br />

The generator is deactivated at<br />

vehicle speeds below 15 km/h so the<br />

required start-up torque and therefore<br />

the fuel consumption of the tractor<br />

unit are not increased during these<br />

phases. Charging options are energy<br />

generation by the axle while driving<br />

(generator operation) and charging<br />

from the external power supply during<br />

standstill, for example when the<br />

vehicle is loaded or unloaded.<br />

Following successful tests together with partners, the SAF TRAKr electric axle from SAF-HOLLAND has now reached<br />

market maturity. Image credit: SAF-HOLLAND<br />

Tested successfully together with part-ners,<br />

the SAF TRAKr electric axle from SAF-HOLLAND<br />

will go into standard pro-duction in <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

Image credit: SAF-HOLLAND<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 21

22 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong><br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Coatings & Overlays<br />

How to Apply<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Protective<br />

Coatings and Overlays<br />

The best way to protect your car’s paint from abrasion<br />

and other harmful elements is to use an automotive paint<br />

protection film. There are two types of urethane films.<br />

These are made of plastic and are often used on cars.<br />

If you have a new car or just want to protect the paint<br />

on your old one, you should consider applying a<br />

protective coating to it. Overlays and coatings bond<br />

with the surface of the vehicle’s paint to provide<br />

protection from chemicals, scratches, and dings. They are<br />

virtually permanent and will not require any maintenance.<br />

You can apply these on your car or truck yourself or hire a<br />

professional to do it for you.<br />

Overlays are protected from many environmental and<br />

manufacturing conditions. They are exposed to ultraviolet<br />

rays from the sun, chemicals, grease, and usage. Overlays<br />

will start to wear out over time and will need to be<br />

replaced. Fortunately, these types of protective covers are<br />

easy to remove and have a 3-6 year life span. Here’s how<br />

to apply them yourself. You should begin by applying a<br />

protective film over the surface of your car.<br />

Overlays are not the only thing that protect your car.<br />

The exterior of your vehicle is exposed to many different<br />

conditions. From the weather to ultraviolet rays, from the<br />

sun to chemicals and grease, to the usage of the car, the<br />

outer coating of an automobile is vulnerable to damage.<br />

Luckily, there are a variety of products that can protect your<br />

car. The most effective type of protection is the one that<br />

keeps it looking new longer.<br />

Overlays are a great option for protecting your car from<br />

the harsh elements that can damage them. The most<br />

effective protective coating will keep the car looking great<br />

for much longer. The best way to protect your car’s paint<br />

from abrasion and other harmful elements is to use an<br />

automotive paint protection film. There are two types of<br />

urethane films. These are made of plastic and are often<br />

used on cars.<br />

While the material of an automotive overlay is durable, it<br />

is vulnerable to many environmental and manufacturing<br />

conditions that can damage it. Exposure to ultraviolet<br />

rays from the sun, chemicals, grease, and other substances<br />

can cause the cover to become damaged. Overlays can<br />

be protected with a protective coating to minimize these<br />

types of damages. Once applied, it can last up to six years<br />

and is maintenance-free. You can even remove them<br />

without damaging the surface.<br />

There are several different types of automotive protective<br />

coatings. The best ones are those that are UV resistant to<br />

chemicals. These films are a great choice for cars that are<br />

exposed to harsh environments. They also help to keep<br />

the paint on the car looking great longer. Most of them are<br />

OEM approved, meaning they will not cause any harm to<br />

the car. They can be removed easily and can last for up to<br />

six years.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 23

Cover Story<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Passanger Tyres<br />

What to look for in Passenger Tyres<br />

You may be unsure of<br />

what to look for in your<br />

Passenger Tyres. The<br />

sidewall of the<br />

passenger tyre shows the<br />

maximum load the tyre can<br />

carry. A P265/70R17 116<br />

tire, for example, has a<br />

maximum load capacity<br />

of 2,756 pounds. These<br />

types of tyres are identified<br />

as light load (LL), standard<br />

load (SL), and extra load or<br />

high load. The load index of<br />

these tyres is the same in both<br />

P-metric and Euro-metric sizes,<br />

but the maximum load capacity may<br />

differ.<br />

The tread pattern of passenger tyres<br />

can be either wide or narrow. SUV tyres<br />

are designed for off-road driving. While<br />

passenger tyres are designed for road<br />

use, they may differ from SUV tires. Aside<br />

from the tread pattern, the sidewall of<br />

passenger tyres is a crucial part of a<br />

vehicle’s handling. As the technology<br />

in cars and trucks continues to evolve,<br />

24 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Passanger tyres<br />

Tread<br />

A tyre’s tread is made up of various materials. While<br />

the tread is made up of rubber, other components are<br />

responsible for other important functions. These include<br />

rim designs, spoke orientation, and suspension. Passenger<br />

tyres are created from specific materials with specific<br />

properties and work together to meet these needs. If they<br />

are not properly maintained, the tires could be detrimental<br />

to the safety of passengers. Fortunately, modern vehicle<br />

manufacturers are beginning to take note of these factors.<br />

tyre manufacturers must adapt to these changes. The<br />

key challenge for transportation companies is to reduce<br />

rolling resistance, which accounts for up to 50% of the<br />

fuel consumed by passenger vehicles. While it is possible<br />

to reduce rolling resistance by reducing the viscoelastic<br />

properties of the rubber compound, this comes at the cost<br />

of wet traction and grip. To achieve low rolling resistance,<br />

you need high tangent and high hysteresis.<br />

Layers<br />

The body of a passenger tyre is made up of several layers<br />

of textile material called plies. These plies add strength,<br />

resistance to wear, and directional<br />

stability. A majority of passenger tyre<br />

casings are multi-ply. Most ply materials<br />

are polyester, nylon, or rayon, each<br />

with its own distinct advantages. In<br />

addition to these, inner tubes are used<br />

in passenger tyres as an air seal. These<br />

tubes lie under the body plies and are<br />

filled with air when the tyre is inflated.<br />

The sidewall of a passenger tyre contains a significant<br />

amount of information. This information can be used to<br />

determine the purpose of the tyre, its dimensions, load<br />

capacity, and speed. The designation “OE” indicates that the<br />

tyre is factory fitted to a particular model. However, some<br />

manufacturers do not offer a tyre with OE characteristics.<br />

For this reason, it is vital to understand the specifications<br />

of passenger tyres to make a purchase decision. Whether<br />

it is a truck or passenger tyre, a tyre rack is an excellent<br />

way to store them. Many of these racks are stacked and<br />

interlaced to allow you to store as many as possible. The<br />

Barrel Stack & Lacing Tyre Rack is designed to store up to<br />

100 interlaced passenger tyres. The barrel tyre rack has a<br />

fork guide for easy loading and unloading.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 25

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Grip the road<br />

with high<br />

precision<br />


For compact-class and middle-class<br />

vehicles and SUVs.<br />

The ULTRA ❊ SPEED 2 masters rapidly changing<br />

summer weather, offering the best possible grip and<br />

precise handling even at high speeds on wet roads.<br />

Gislaved. 26 <strong>Africa</strong> A brand <strong>Automotive</strong> of Continental.<br />

News l <strong>2022</strong><br />


<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Brake Pads<br />

How to Determine<br />

If Your Passenger<br />

Brake Pads Need<br />

Replacement<br />

You should regularly check<br />

the condition of your<br />

Passenger Brake Pads. They<br />

can become worn out at a<br />

different rate on each side, causing<br />

your car to pull to one side or the<br />

other. Unchecked brake problems can<br />

put unnecessary stress on your<br />

steering rack, ball<br />

joints, steering<br />

knuckles, and<br />

wheel bearings.<br />

Here are<br />

some tips to<br />

help you<br />

determine<br />

whether<br />

your brake<br />

pads need<br />

replacement.<br />

If you need to<br />

replace the brake pads on your car,<br />

consult your owner’s manual for<br />

recommended replacement methods.<br />

You can also schedule brake pad<br />

service online. To learn more about<br />

Passenger Brake Pads, please visit the<br />

manufacturer’s website. Just click on<br />

the ‘Service’ tab to find the information<br />

you need. The manufacturer of your car<br />

at times may provide you with a free<br />

estimate. Semi-metallic brake pads are<br />

made from synthetic materials. They<br />

are gentle on rotors, but tend to wear<br />

off quickly. Semi-metallic brake pads<br />

contain flaked metal and synthetic<br />

materials. They are more durable than<br />

non-metallic brake pads, but they also<br />

wear out faster and create more dust.<br />

They are more expensive than<br />

semimetallic<br />

brake pads, but they are also less noisy.<br />

So, which one is best for your vehicle?<br />

If you have a newer vehicle, it may be<br />

time to replace your Passenger Brake<br />

Pads. This will save you money over<br />

time and may even save your life in<br />

an accident. Passenger vehicles are<br />

equipped with two types of brakes:<br />

drum and disc brakes. The latter uses<br />

friction to slow the vehicle. For this<br />

reason, it is vital to regularly check<br />

and replace your brake pads. When<br />

you notice that your pads are worn<br />

out, you can purchase replacements<br />

immediately.<br />

If you hear brake noises, they could<br />

mean your Passenger Brake Pads<br />

are worn. In most cases, the noise<br />

is from metal scraping against<br />

the brake rotor. When the pad is<br />

worn thin, it closes an electric<br />

circuit that will activate a<br />

dashboard warning light.<br />

These wear indicators can<br />

also alert you to imminent<br />

brake failure by squealing.<br />

These are some tips to check<br />

your Passenger Brake Pads.<br />

When choosing a brake pad, make sure<br />

to check the materials used. Organic<br />

brake pads are environmentally<br />

friendly. Non-asbestos pads are made<br />

of organic materials, which means they<br />

don’t pollute the air. Other types of<br />

brake pads are designed to be quieter.<br />

You should choose the type of brake<br />

pad that fits your driving style. If your<br />

vehicle is heavy, you might want to<br />

buy a lighter version of a brake pad.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 27



BEST<br />


in the<br />

inside<br />

NEW<br />

DESIGN<br />

from the<br />

outside<br />


EV market<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Morocco’s green mobility revolution<br />

By Michaël Tanchum<br />

Rabat’s recent announcement that it would soon<br />

sign an agreement for the construction of a<br />

“gigafactory” to make electric vehicle (EV) batteries<br />

has placed Morocco in pole position to become a<br />

green mobility leader in the Middle East and North <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

A development of enormous significance for the kingdom,<br />

Morocco’s rise as a global-scale, EV manufacturing hub<br />

is as critical to Western supply chain resilience as it is<br />

to promoting carbon-free mobility to combat climate<br />

change. The focus on shortening supply chains to ensure<br />

the stability of European consumer markets has already<br />

fueled the rapid advance of Morocco’s automotive<br />

manufacturing sector and its development of more<br />

advanced manufacturing processes. Now, Morocco’s reserves<br />

of critical battery minerals are accelerating its entrance<br />

into EV manufacturing. With ample solar and wind energy<br />

resources along with utility-scale infrastructure already in<br />

place to utilize them, Morocco has the potential to drive a<br />

green mobility revolution by powering the production of<br />

EVs using renewable energy.<br />

The geo-economic<br />

factors driving its rise<br />

as an electric vehicle<br />

manufacturing hub<br />

Nearshoring: The driving momentum behind Moroccan EV<br />

manufacturing<br />

On <strong>July</strong> 21, <strong>2022</strong>, Moroccan Minister of Industry Ryad<br />

Mezzour informed the press that the kingdom was close to<br />

signing a deal with EV battery manufacturers to establish<br />

a massive local production facility. Without identifying any<br />

30 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

EV market<br />

per year by 2025, with many of those being EVs. Already<br />

in November 2021, Morocco’s public finance bill for <strong>2022</strong><br />

proposed a reduction of the import duty on lithium-ion<br />

cells from 40% to 17.5% to promote the local assembly of<br />

Li-ion batteries using cells imported from East Asia. The key<br />

to Morocco’s rise as a green mobility manufacturing giant<br />

will be expanding its automotive ecosystem to include<br />

local manufacture of Li-ion batteries, which represent 30%<br />

to 40% of the cost of the average EV. The new gigafactory<br />

could thus accommodate producing the targeted additional<br />

300,000 vehicles as EVs.<br />

Nearshoring, combined with Rabat’s smart industrial<br />

planning and careful cultivation of foreign partnerships, is<br />

the engine of the self-reinforcing momentum propelling<br />

the advancement of Morocco’s automotive manufacturing<br />

sector. During the years immediately prior to the outbreak<br />

of the COVID-19 pandemic, global supply chains were<br />

already starting to shorten as companies and countries<br />

placed greater emphasis on resiliency than on the<br />

immediate cost efficiency of just-in-time inventories<br />

delivered from distant points across the globe. For<br />

Europe, this structural transformation meant bringing<br />

sourcing and manufacturing closer to European endmarkets.<br />

In order to maintain a competitive advantage in<br />

operating expenditures, international firms began to locate<br />

manufacturing facilities in Morocco.<br />

company, Mezzour said the plant would be a gigafactory<br />

and that Rabat hopes to sign a $2 billion deal for the<br />

plant before the end of this year. A term popularized by the<br />

pioneering American EV manufacturer Tesla, a gigafactory<br />

is an extremely large-scale battery manufacturing plant in<br />

which each production line has an annual output of around<br />

3 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery<br />

cells, sufficient to make batteries for 30,000-45,000 EVs,<br />

depending on the size and the model. While Mezzour has<br />

been vague about the number of lines and total capacity of<br />

the proposed Moroccan facility, Tesla’s successful $2 billion<br />

gigafactory in Shanghai, China, was originally intended to<br />

produce 500,000 EV batteries per year. It is possible that<br />

the output of Morocco’s gigafactory will be of a comparable<br />

order of magnitude.<br />

The production of EV batteries on such a scale would<br />

be appropriate for Morocco’s impressive automotive<br />

manufacturing ecosystem, which already has the capacity<br />

to produce over 700,000 vehicles per year. Now Rabat is<br />

aiming to increase Morocco’s output to 1 million vehicles<br />

Rabat fueled the momentum for nearshoring in Morocco<br />

through its 2014-2020 Industrial Acceleration Plan and<br />

its concurrent development of high-speed, high-volume<br />

capacity transportation that saw the construction of Tanger<br />

Med Port, the Mediterranean’s largest, as well as the<br />

al-Boraq rail line (Casablanca–Tangier), <strong>Africa</strong>’s first highspeed<br />

rail system. Morocco’s linked state-of-the-art port<br />

and rail prompted Groupe Renault to establish a second<br />

Moroccan manufacturing plant and Groupe PSA (now<br />

part of the Stellantis conglomerate) to open a Peugeot<br />

manufacturing plant in Kénitra, north of Rabat. The Renault<br />

and Peugeot plants are supported by approximately 250<br />

international suppliers from the U.S., Europe, Japan, and<br />

elsewhere that operate their own local manufacturing<br />

plants. For example, the Chinese firm CITIC Dicastal, the<br />

global leader in aluminum cast parts, built a $400 million<br />

plant in Kénitra that can produce 6 million pieces annually<br />

to supply Peugeot.<br />

As a result of the nearshoring momentum, Europe’s two<br />

best-selling car models — the Peugeot 208 and Renault’s<br />

Dacia Sandero — are made in Morocco. Now, Rabat has its<br />

sights on manufacturing their EV versions. Starting in 2020,<br />

Renault shifted its entire production of the Dacia Sandero<br />

from Romania to the company’s plants in Casablanca and<br />

Tangier, where labor costs can be up to 50% lower. In 2021,<br />

Renault launched its Dacia Spring EV model in Europe,<br />

marketing it as the continent’s cheapest electric car. The<br />

car is manufactured by Renault in China, home to CATL —<br />

the world’s leading producer of EV Li-ion batteries, whose<br />

global market share reached 35% in the first quarter of<br />

<strong>2022</strong>. The production of EV batteries in Morocco, with at<br />

least some of the major battery metals sourced locally,<br />

could represent a sufficient cost advantage to convince<br />

Renault to build the Dacia Spring or successor EV models<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 31

EV Market<br />

at the company’s Moroccan plants. Prioritizing supply<br />

chain security for its European end-markets over justin-time<br />

inventories supplied by East Asia, Renault would<br />

likely start EV production in Morocco once Li-ion battery<br />

manufacturing gets under way.<br />

Stellantis, the parent company of Peugeot, is ahead of<br />

Renault. Peugeot’s Kénitra plant, established in 2019,<br />

manufactures the gas-powered version of the Peugeot<br />

208. Since the all-electric Peugeot e-208 uses the same<br />

chassis, Moroccan EV battery production could incentivize<br />

Stellantis to shift production of the e-208 from Slovakia<br />

to its facility in Kénitra, likewise benefiting from labor cost<br />

reductions. Indeed, Stellantis’ German auto manufacturing<br />

subsidiary Opel has already initiated production of its<br />

Rocks-e EV model in Kénitra, at the plant of its sister<br />

company Peugeot. Morocco geared up for the move by<br />

developing semiconductor production capacity for EV<br />

microchips. Franco-Italian STMicroelectronics, Europe’s<br />

leading integrated device manufacturer, operates a sizeable<br />

automotive chip production facility in Bouskoura, on the<br />

outskirts of Casablanca and connected by rail link to the<br />

rest of the country’s auto manufacturing chain. In 2021, the<br />

company inaugurated a new production line in Morocco to<br />

manufacture electronic chips for Tesla.<br />

Close is beautiful: Morocco’s cobalt reserves contribute to EV<br />

battery breakthrough<br />

Li-ion batteries, the basis of modern EVs, require expensive<br />

and difficult-to-obtain metals, primarily lithium and<br />

cobalt, to discharge their electric current. A lithium-based<br />

compound acts as the anode, which donates the electrons<br />

that flow through the system, while the cobalt-based<br />

compound acts as the cathode to receive the electrons. The<br />

most common EV batteries are the energy-dense batteries<br />

that use a nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) cathode or<br />

sometimes a nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA) cathode. Energy<br />

dense Li-ion batteries with cobalt generally enable EVs to<br />

have longer driving ranges between charging.<br />

Cobalt availability is a limiting factor for the widespread<br />

diffusion of passenger EVs. While a cellular phone battery<br />

requires 0.2-0.4 ounces (5-10 grams) of cobalt, an electric<br />

car battery requires 10-20 pounds (22-44 kilograms).<br />

Currently, there are about 12 million electric passenger<br />

cars on the road worldwide, but the number is expected to<br />

jump to 54 million as early as 2025, increasing the demand<br />

for cobalt. Over 50% of the world’s reserves of this crucial<br />

metal are located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo<br />

(DRC), which currently produces 70% of the world’s mined<br />

cobalt. China, the largest EV battery maker, is also the<br />

leading producer of refined cobalt, accounting for about<br />

65% of the global output. Beijing seeks to dominate the<br />

DRC’s mining of the highly strategic metal, and, accordingly,<br />

Chinese production of mined cobalt in the DRC is expected<br />

grow 60% by 2024, compared to 2020.<br />

Cobalt extraction in the DRC is so-called artisanal and<br />

small-scale mining (ASM), conducted under harsh and<br />

toxic conditions by around 255,000 Congolese citizens<br />

using their own rudimentary tools and hands; among<br />

these workers are 40,000 children as young as 6 years old.<br />

Professor Michaël Tanchum<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Professor Michaël Tanchum<br />

is a non-resident fellow with<br />

the Middle East Institute’s<br />

Economics and Energy Program.<br />

He teaches at Universidad de<br />

Navarra and is a senior fellow<br />

at the Austrian Institute for<br />

European and Security Policy<br />

(AIES). The author would like to<br />

thank Rocco Schwerfel for his<br />

research assistance.<br />

Western technology companies and EV manufacturers are<br />

under increasing pressure to ensure that the cobalt they<br />

use is produced from safe and sustainable mining practices.<br />

Geopolitical competition with China over supply chains,<br />

coupled with environmental, social, and governance<br />

concerns, are leading Western-headquartered EV<br />

manufacturers in particular to look for closer and less<br />

ethically problematic suppliers of cobalt. The need is<br />

intensified by the fact that Europe is likely to be one of the<br />

centers of immediate EV market growth, spurred by the<br />

European Commission’s <strong>July</strong> 2021 directive to phase out<br />

all fossil fuel-powered vehicles in the European Union by<br />

2035. Similarly, Morocco cannot afford to lose its European<br />

market. As Industry Minister Mezzour explained, “Morocco<br />

has no choice, because 90% of our automotive exports go<br />

to Europe and Europe has decided to switch to all-electric<br />

by 2035.”<br />

The proximity of Morocco’s cobalt reserves to European EV<br />

manufacturing centers, which face high demand pressure<br />

for this critical metal and the ability to ensure that it is<br />

extracted through more palatable mining practices, has<br />

thus turned their attention to North <strong>Africa</strong>. This is despite<br />

the fact that Moroccan cobalt reserves are relatively small:<br />

only the world’s 11th largest. In 2020, the kingdom’s<br />

cobalt exports totaled $84 million, ranking Morocco the<br />

13th-biggest exporter. Nonetheless, in <strong>July</strong> 2020, German<br />

automaker BMW signed a $113 million contract with<br />

Moroccan mining company Managem to supply 20% of the<br />

cobalt required to manufacture BMW’s next-generation<br />

electric drive trains. Renault, on June 1, <strong>2022</strong>, signed a<br />

contract with Managem to supply 5,000 tons of cobalt<br />

sulfate annually for seven years. As the purchasing director<br />

for Renault explained, the deal with Morocco ensures “a<br />

supply closer to our ecosystem of manufacturing electric<br />

batteries in Europe.” Considering that Managem is supposed<br />

to start supplying cobalt to Renault in 2025, the company<br />

may also be eyeing local battery production in Morocco.<br />

A further incentive for Renault is that the cobalt supplied<br />

by the North <strong>Africa</strong>n state is expected to have a low carbon<br />

footprint, with up to 80% of the energy for production<br />

coming from renewable sources. The company has set<br />

carbon reduction goals for its EV batteries of 20% by<br />

2025 and 35% by 2030, compared to 2020. The reduction<br />

in the carbon footprint of Morocco’s cobalt supply will<br />

also be achieved through the recycling of end-of-life<br />

batteries. Global mining and metal trading giant Glencore<br />

entered into a partnership with Managem in January<br />

<strong>2022</strong> to produce recycled cobalt from disused lithium-<br />

32 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

ion batteries at Managem’s hydrometallurgical refining<br />

facilities operated by its subsidiary Compagnie de Tifnout<br />

Tighanimine (CCT), about 23 miles (37 kilometers) from<br />

Marrakech. Glencore will provide CCT with so-called black<br />

mass, processed from dismantled and shredded Li-ion<br />

batteries. In addition to cobalt, the partnership is also<br />

seeking to extract lithium carbonate and nickel hydroxide<br />

from the black mass supplied by Glencore. If extracted in<br />

sufficient quantities, Morocco could locally source all of the<br />

major metals used in NMC Li-ion batteries.<br />

The kingdom possesses small nickel and manganese<br />

reserves that could supply domestic NMC cathode<br />

manufacturing. And Morocco may have its own domestic<br />

supply of lithium as well. Moroccan media reported in May<br />

<strong>2022</strong> the discovery of significant deposits of this alkali<br />

metal in the country’s disputed Sahara region near the<br />

Mauritanian border.<br />

Morocco’s phosphate reserves turbocharge EV battery<br />

manufacturing<br />

Morocco’s massive phosphate reserves are a critical<br />

factor in its transformation into a global-scale, EV battery<br />

production hub. A growing trend in electric passenger<br />

cars is to replace NMC Li-ion batteries with lithium iron<br />

phosphate (LFP) batteries, substituting expensive cobalt<br />

and nickel as well as manganese for relatively cheaper<br />

phosphate and iron. While not providing the same longer<br />

driving ranges as NMC batteries, phosphate-based LFP<br />

batteries are less expensive, safer, and last longer than their<br />

cobalt-based counterparts. The increasing utilization of LFP<br />

batteries favors Morocco for EV battery production as the<br />

country sits on over 70% of global phosphate rock reserves<br />

and is the world’s second-largest phosphate producer, after<br />

China.<br />

Morocco’s phosphate mining sector was established in<br />

1921 to provide a source of phosphorus primarily for<br />

the manufacture of synthetic fertilizers. The kingdom’s<br />

massive phosphate mining and fertilizer manufacturing<br />

sector, run by the state-owned OCP Group (formerly Office<br />

Chérifien des Phosphates), has transformed Morocco into a<br />

gatekeeper of the world’s food supply. During the 1980s and<br />

1990s, OCP began manufacturing phosphoric acid (H3PO4),<br />

the chemical input to phosphorus-based fertilizer, and the<br />

fertilizer itself. Phosphoric acid is also the input to make<br />

iron (II) phosphate Fe3(PO4)2, an iron salt of phosphoric<br />

acid. The iron (II) phosphate can then be used to make<br />

lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), now the increasingly<br />

preferred material for Li-ion cathodes in EV batteries.<br />

By using phosphate and iron — Morocco is also a net<br />

exporter of iron ore — to make LFP batteries, instead of<br />

nickel, manganese, and cobalt for its NMC counterpart,<br />

Morocco could enjoy a cost advantage of upward of 70%<br />

per kilogram. Moreover, iron phosphate is nowhere near as<br />

toxic as cobalt oxide or manganese oxide. The LFP batteries<br />

have a longer cycle life, with a slower rate of capacity loss<br />

compared to NMC batteries. And LFP batteries are much<br />

safer as well: With higher thermal stability, LFP batteries<br />

emit significantly less heat than NMC batteries and are<br />

not as susceptible to exploding or igniting when an EV is<br />

misused or suffers physical damage.<br />

EV Market<br />

Due to these advantages, Tesla announced in its Q3 2021<br />

report, “For standard range vehicles, we are shifting to<br />

Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) battery chemistry globally.” In<br />

speaking to the Moroccan press, Industry Minister Mezzour<br />

indicated that Morocco was looking at producing stationary<br />

batteries for the storage of renewable energy as well as<br />

for EV batteries. These stationary Li-ion batteries bear a<br />

clear resemblance to Tesla’s “megapack” line of utility-scale<br />

energy storage units that the company launched in 2019,<br />

suggesting that Tesla may be one of the international firms<br />

in negotiations with Morocco for the gigafactory.<br />

Conclusions<br />

In 2020, OCP mining operations produced 40.7 million<br />

tons of phosphate and exported 10.3 million tons of the<br />

raw material. From its phosphate supplies, OCP Group<br />

manufactured 7.1 million tons of phosphoric acid, exporting<br />

1.9 million tons of the key input. Morocco will need to<br />

expand its phosphate and phosphoric acid production to<br />

make LFP EV batteries. In response to the global shortage<br />

of fertilizer due the Russo-Ukrainian war, OCP announced<br />

on May 17 that it would increase its <strong>2022</strong> fertilizer<br />

production by 10%, putting an additional 1.2 million tons<br />

on the global market. The figure reflects OCP’s ability to<br />

create a 1-million-ton-capacity fertilizer production line<br />

in six months, which entails commensurate increases in<br />

phosphate and phosphoric acid production.<br />

For Morocco, the diversification of uses and markets for<br />

its phosphate output is highly desirable. At the same time,<br />

Rabat bears a responsibility to ensure that OCP does not<br />

develop insufficient phosphate production capacity, which<br />

would result in demand pressure competition between<br />

LFP batteries and phosphorus fertilizers, thus driving up<br />

fertilizer prices and consequently increasing the level<br />

of global food insecurity. Morocco’s Western partners,<br />

especially those whose companies are involved in the<br />

kingdom’s LFP battery production, should encourage and<br />

support Morocco to develop spare capacity in its phosphate<br />

sector. Analogous to the role Saudi Arabia’s Aramco plays<br />

in stabilizing oil markets, Morocco’s OCP should have the<br />

ability to bring spare phosphate production capacity online<br />

and take it offline as needed.<br />

Morocco possesses considerable solar and wind resources.<br />

Phosphate production as well as other parts of Morocco’s<br />

EV manufacturing chain should become increasingly<br />

powered by renewable energy to ensure that its green<br />

mobility vehicles are produced in a sustainable and climate<br />

smart manner. OCP covers 89% of the energy needs for its<br />

phosphate and phosphorus fertilizer production through cogeneration<br />

(re-using exhaust energy to create cleaner and<br />

cheaper power from fossil fuels) and renewable sources. It<br />

plans to eventually cover 100% of its energy needs in this<br />

manner. Reliant on gas and coal imports, Morocco’s Western<br />

partners should work with Rabat to move the country’s EV<br />

manufacturing to be powered by locally available solar and<br />

wind resources to promote greater supply chain resilience<br />

as well as ensuring that its manufacture of green mobility<br />

vehicles is also green.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 33

34 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> tips<br />

How to Sell Your Car Privately<br />

photo by Christian Lantry<br />

By Jane Ulitskaya<br />

Whether you’re looking<br />

to replace your car or<br />

offload an extra one<br />

to take advantage<br />

of elevated used-car values, selling<br />

a vehicle privately can get you more<br />

money than trading it in to a dealer.<br />

The financial gain comes with some<br />

tradeoffs, however. You’ll need to<br />

dedicate more time and effort to the<br />

selling process, and there are more<br />

risks involved from screening potential<br />

buyers, going on test drives and taking<br />

payment. Learn how to navigate each<br />

step of the process to ensure the extra<br />

effort pays off.<br />

1. Determine Your Car’s Value<br />

Many factors influence a car’s<br />

value. The vehicle’s age, mileage<br />

and condition are important, but<br />

external variables including market<br />

conditions, fuel prices and brand<br />

appeal also play a role. For example,<br />

the inventory shortage has caused a<br />

spike in used-car values, especially for<br />

older vehicles: Among car dealers, the<br />

median price for a 10-year-old (modelyear<br />

2012) used car was $16,331 as of<br />

<strong>July</strong> <strong>2022</strong>. In comparison, the median<br />

price of a 10-year-old (model-year<br />

2010) vehicle was just $8,995 in <strong>July</strong><br />

2020. To determine the vehicle’s value,<br />

look at comparable used-car listings or<br />

get the vehicle appraised by a dealer<br />

or used-car chain.<br />

2. Create an Ad to Connect With<br />

Shoppers<br />

Next, you’ll need to advertise your<br />

vehicle to potential<br />

buyers. First, photograph<br />

the car and create an<br />

ad using online tools,<br />

sell-it-yourself option.<br />

Once you’ve highlighted<br />

your car’s strong suits<br />

in the ad, you’ll need<br />

to communicate with<br />

potential buyers via email<br />

and phone calls. Use this<br />

opportunity to screen<br />

shoppers, and beware of<br />

any red flags like a buyer<br />

that only wants to communicate<br />

through email or text and refuses to<br />

speak by phone. You’ll want to pitch<br />

your vehicle’s best attributes while<br />

being honest about its condition —<br />

shoppers don’t expect a used car to be<br />

in perfect shape, but they do expect its<br />

condition to match the description.<br />

3. Get the Paperwork Ready<br />

Selling privately takes more<br />

forethought when it comes to<br />

paperwork than trading in to a<br />

dealer who will usually handle this<br />

step. You’ll need to have all the key<br />

documents including the vehicle’s<br />

title and bill of sale, which serves as a<br />

receipt for the transaction; the bill of<br />

sale is recommended for a private car<br />

sale though requirements may differ<br />

from different countries. If you still<br />

owe money on the vehicle and the<br />

title is in the lienholder’s possession,<br />

you’ll need to contact your lender to<br />

get the payoff amount and instructions<br />

for completing the transaction.<br />

While not mandatory, collecting extra<br />

documents like a vehicle history<br />

report, maintenance records and<br />

extended warranty details may make<br />

the vehicle more desirable, helping<br />

you get the most money for it or sell<br />

it faster.<br />

4. Sell It Safely: Test Drives and Payment<br />

Selling a car privately also involves<br />

more uncertainty than trading in or<br />

selling to a dealer. From meeting<br />

strangers for test drives to transferring<br />

ownership and taking payment for the<br />

vehicle, you’ll want to prioritize your<br />

own safety and security as well as the<br />

vehicle’s.<br />

When setting up a test drive, speak<br />

with the potential buyer over the<br />

phone, arrange a meeting spot in a<br />

public place and bring a friend along,<br />

if possible. If the shopper insists on<br />

taking the test drive alone, be sure to<br />

get a photo of their driver’s license<br />

information before handing over the<br />

keys.<br />

Once you have an acceptable offer<br />

on the table, you’ll need to transfer<br />

ownership and take payment securely.<br />

Communicate your preferred method<br />

of payment to the buyer — a cashier’s<br />

check or cash is best since personal<br />

checks carry more risk. Never accept<br />

a check that is more than the asking<br />

price for the vehicle. A common scam<br />

involves the buyer sending a check<br />

for more than the purchase price<br />

and asking the seller to return the<br />

difference back to them (these checks<br />

are typically counterfeit). Do not<br />

transfer the vehicle’s title until you’ve<br />

received the full cash payment or the<br />

buyer’s check has cleared.<br />

5. Tie Up Loose Ends<br />

Some private selling scenarios require<br />

a few additional steps to complete the<br />

transaction. In the case of an out-oftown<br />

buyer, you’ll need to arrange<br />

the vehicle pickup or consider using<br />

a vehicle delivery service to transport<br />

it. Prices vary based on the length of<br />

transport and the vehicle’s weight,<br />

but you can expect it to cost between<br />

$1,000-$2,000, on average.<br />

In most states, the vehicle’s license<br />

plates are required to stay with the<br />

seller, so you’ll want to remove them<br />

before handing over the vehicle to its<br />

new owner.<br />

Some countries also require that<br />

the seller notifies the Department<br />

of Motor Vehicles within a specified<br />

number of days after the vehicle<br />

is sold privately. Check with your<br />

country’s DMV for any paperwork<br />

requirements for a private vehicle sale.<br />

Lastly, notify your insurance company<br />

and ask for the sold vehicle to be<br />

removed from your policy.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 35

Garage<br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

How to Change Your Air<br />

Filter and Check Your<br />

Hoses and Belts<br />

Image courtesy<br />


What’s one thing you and your car have<br />

in common? You both need to breathe.<br />

While engines don’t have lungs, they do<br />

require a steady supply of air to power the<br />

combustion that keeps them running. Modern cars “breathe”<br />

through an intake system that features an air filter, which<br />

catches dirt and dust before it enters the motor, where it<br />

can cause damage. As you might imagine, over time, the<br />

filter gets dirty. Changing the filter will promote better<br />

airflow into your engine and keep it clean–and it’s one<br />

of the simplest automotive maintenance jobs you can do.<br />

When you change yours, it’s a prime opportunity to check<br />

your vehicle’s hoses and belts for wear.<br />

Assess Its Condition and Replace<br />

Once you’ve removed the cover, you should be able to see<br />

the air filter itself. Remove it and hold it up to a bright light<br />

to assess its condition. If it’s covered in a heavy layer of dirt<br />

and light doesn’t pass through easily, it’s time to replace it<br />

with a new one.<br />

Locate Your Air Filter and Remove the Cover<br />

change air filter<br />

First, grab your car’s owner’s manual and pop the hood<br />

of your vehicle. Consult the manual to find the air filter<br />

assembly in the engine bay. The location will vary between<br />

vehicles, but it’s likely a large plastic box with a largediameter<br />

hose extending from it and into the engine.<br />

Undo the plastic clips or loosen the screws that secure the<br />

cover. You might also need to unlatch the hose or unplug<br />

some wiring to remove the cover and access the filter. (Pro<br />

tip: before removing any components or hardware, take<br />

a picture of the air filter area so you can later put it back<br />

together to match the pic.)<br />

Image courtesy<br />

36 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong>

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong><br />

Air filter & Hose change<br />

You can opt for a paper filter (the cheaper option) or a<br />

reusable one that you clean at set intervals (pricier but<br />

creates less waste). Whichever you choose, make sure you<br />

purchase one that will fit your specific car–auto part shops,<br />

and most online marketplaces will provide a way to search<br />

for the exact part you need. Put the new filter into the air<br />

filter housing, making sure<br />

you place the correct side<br />

facing down. Then replace<br />

the cover, use the screws<br />

or clips to secure it, and<br />

reattach any hoses or wiring<br />

you unplugged. Your new air<br />

filter is now installed, and<br />

your engine can breathe<br />

easier once more.<br />

Check Hoses and Belts<br />

Don’t close the hood yet—<br />

you should check your main<br />

hoses and belts, too. In<br />

addition to connecting your<br />

air filter to the engine, hoses<br />

also run to and from your<br />

vehicle’s radiator and heater.<br />

Visually inspect these hoses<br />

collapsed radiator-hose|Image courtesy<br />

for cracks, bulges, or fraying, and give them a squeeze. They<br />

should be firm with some give; if they feel brittle, spongy,<br />

or mushy, that’s a sign of wear. Mark damaged hoses with a<br />

marker or colored tape.<br />

Also, with the engine off, inspect any belts, which are<br />

usually located on the front or side of your engine and<br />

connect a series of pulleys. Look for cracks, exposed<br />

threads, or separation between belt layers. Another sign of<br />

a bad belt: squealing or chirping noises when this e engine<br />

is running. (Also, see whether these belts have noticeable<br />

slack; if so, they may need a simple tightening. This is a<br />

relatively simple job, too, but will require other tools and<br />

specifics noted in a repair manual or a mechanic.)<br />

Make a note of anything that looks amiss with your belts–<br />

don’t put tape on them to mark wear. When you bring your<br />

car in for service, you can show your mechanic any worn<br />

hoses or belts to see if they need to be replaced.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong> 37

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40 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> News l <strong>2022</strong><br />

<strong>July</strong>-<strong>August</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2022</strong>

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