Africa Automotive News September-October digital issue 2019

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Africa Automotive prides itself to be the ONLY Africa’s leading and MOST authoritative magazine for the automotive industry in Africa with printed copies for the automotive industry decision makers in both government, NGO’s and private sector. The Bi-monthly magazine offers cost effective advertising services that get results and improves growth in the auto B2C and B2B sector, keeping an eye on latest technologies in Africa and across the world, the magazine predominately covers the developments in the Africa auto industry.


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<strong>September</strong> - <strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> <strong>2019</strong> Volume 3 <strong>issue</strong> no. 5<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

The new<br />

manufacturing hub<br />

In this <strong>issue</strong>......<br />

Caught up in a sinking car?<br />

What to do....pg 42<br />

Opinion: Telematics Redefining<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Industry....pg 15<br />

What Causes Car Batteries<br />

to Fail?....pg 24<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 1

2 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

Contents<br />

Managing Editor<br />

Francis David<br />

Editor-in-Chief<br />

Augustine Rang’ondi<br />

Editor<br />

Dorcas Kang’ereha<br />

Writer<br />

Violet Ambale<br />

Harriet Mkhaye<br />

Irene Joseph<br />

Innocent Momanyi<br />

Sales Executives<br />

East <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Jimmy Mudasia<br />

Lydia Kamonya<br />

Caiser Momanyi<br />

Vincent Murono<br />

Sheila Ing’ayitsa<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Paul Nyakeri<br />

Sean Masangwanyi<br />

Lisa Brown<br />

Thembisa Ndlovu<br />

Nigeria<br />

Emelda Njomboro<br />

Uche Maxwel<br />

Published by:<br />

Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing<br />

P.O. Box 10109, 00100<br />

Nairobi, Kenya.<br />

NEWS pg 2-7<br />

Renault trucks opens Assembly Plant<br />

in Thika<br />

NIC Bank, Toyotsu Auto Mart Kenya<br />

ink a financial deal for used vehicles<br />

EAC locks out duty-free car imports<br />

from South <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Isuzu Motors to set up assembly plant<br />

in Ethiopia<br />

Hyundai enters Somaliland car market<br />

Egyptian transport start-up Swvl<br />

targets expansion in <strong>Africa</strong>, Asia<br />

Autoshow pg 18-19<br />

Graphene <strong>Automotive</strong> 2020 Exhibition<br />

and Conference<br />


pg<br />

Total launches new lubricant for<br />

automotive air conditioning<br />

compressors<br />

DENSO to mass-produce automotive<br />

alternators<br />

A-MAP launches new range of ASIMCO<br />

PLUS batteries<br />

Opinion pg<br />

Creating composite car parts<br />

FEATURES pg<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>: The new hub for automotive<br />

manufacturing<br />

What Causes Car Batteries to Fail?<br />

REVIEW<br />

pg<br />

Kia may launch electric Picanto<br />

Nissan gives dealers a look at<br />

compact crossover EV<br />

Volvo’s Polestar EV brand designed<br />

to do things differently<br />

SAFETY TIPS pg<br />

Caught up in a sinking car?<br />

What to do<br />

technology<br />

pg<br />

Despite technology advancements,<br />

where do we stand with car safety?<br />

Auto garage pg<br />

How often do I need to change<br />

my Brake Fluid<br />

motorbike pg<br />

Kawasaki will launch a 4-wheel<br />

motorcycle<br />

Taiwan exports electric off-road<br />

motorbike to Europe<br />

Telematics Redefining <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

Industry<br />

Ducati are working on the ‘perfect<br />

electric bike’<br />

The Editor accepts letter and manuscripts for publication from readers all over the world. Include your name and address as a sign of good<br />

faith although you may request your name to be withheld from publication. We can reserve the right to edit any material submitted. Send<br />

your letters to: info@africaautomotivenews.com<br />

Disclaimer:<br />

Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publishing makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of the contents of its publications, but no warranty is made to such<br />

accuracy and no responsibility will be borne by the publisher for the consequences of actions based on information so published. Further,<br />

opinions expressed on interviews are not necessarily shared by Nailex <strong>Africa</strong> Publisher.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 3

<strong>News</strong><br />

Renault trucks opens Assembly Plant in Thika<br />

The automotive industry in the country is characterised by dominance of second hand imported<br />

vehicles, automotive assembling oriented towards passenger and commercial vehicles<br />

Truck manufacturing firm, Renault<br />

trucks has opened a local assembly<br />

plant in Thika as it eyes the East<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n market. The plant set to create<br />

over 200 jobs was commissioned by<br />

Industrialization Principal Secretary<br />

(PS) Francis Owino in the presence of<br />

Renault Trucks President Bruno Blin, CMC<br />

Managing Director Collin Cordry and<br />

Thika MP Patrick Wainaina.<br />

Cordry said CMCs in collaboration with<br />

Renault would position the country in<br />

the automotive industry and promote the<br />

Government’s manufacturing agenda.<br />

This comes even as truck drivers and<br />

transporters expressed fears that the<br />

industry would become obsolete<br />

following an order to have port goods<br />

transported through the Standard Gauge<br />

Railway, which was later revoked by<br />

Infrastructure Cabinet Secretary James<br />

Macharia.<br />

However, the CMC Managing Director<br />

dismissed the fears saying the two<br />

would complement each other. He said<br />

advancement in modern transportation<br />

would benefit the Kenyan citizen, and<br />

that such claims were unfounded.<br />

“Truck operators will never lose business<br />

as a result of the rail transport. The<br />

railway line runs from Mombasa to<br />

Nairobi leaving several areas in need of<br />

truck services,” he affirms.<br />

Owino said such investments would<br />

help the Government in implementing<br />

the ‘Big 4’ Development Agenda on<br />

manufacturing ratio to GDP from the<br />

current 7.7% to 15% by 2022.<br />

The PS said the Government is in the<br />

process of coming up with a National<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Policy to give direction<br />

and impetus for the development of a<br />

vibrant automotive industry, and make<br />

the country an automotive manufacturing<br />

hub in the region.<br />

“The Policy would address among other<br />

<strong>issue</strong>s strong partnerships between<br />

the Government and investors in the<br />

industry, technology transfer, market<br />

creation through leasing, local content<br />

development plan, market expansion<br />

through harmonization of motor<br />

vehicle standards within the East <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Community (EAC) and capping of the age<br />

at 5 years from the current 8 years for<br />

used vehicles imported into the country,”<br />

he said.<br />

The automotive industry in the country<br />

is characterised by dominance of second<br />

hand imported vehicles, automotive<br />

assembling oriented towards passenger<br />

and commercial vehicles, lack of local<br />

full manufacture, and reliance on KD<br />

(Knocked Down) kits due to minimal<br />

local parts production,” he added.<br />

Owino called on vehicle assembly<br />

companies to collaborate with local<br />

manufacturing entities such as the<br />

Numerical Machining Complex (NMC)<br />

and SMEs for assembling materials.<br />

On his part, Wainaina said locals should<br />

get 40 per cent of the business generated<br />

from spare parts from Kenya Vehicle<br />

Manufacture (KVM).<br />

The MP said the company should target<br />

manufacturing and not assembling to<br />

create more jobs to locals. Renault Trucks<br />

has a presence in over 100 countries.<br />

4 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

NIC Bank, Toyotsu Auto Mart Kenya<br />

ink a financial deal for used vehicles<br />

<strong>News</strong><br />

The partnership will guarantee Toyotsu customers up to 90% financing, 60 months repayment period and two months<br />

warranty for vehicles that meet the warranty criteria with an option to extend to one year at a small fee<br />

From left, Godfrey Kioi Managing Director Heritage Insurance, Alan Dodd, NIC Bank Executive<br />

Director, Yoichi Hashimoto Managing Director Toyotsu Automart Kenya Limited singing the<br />

financial partnership at the Toyotsu Automart Kenya Ltd Headquaters, Nairobi, Kenya<br />

NIC bank have signed a partnership<br />

with Toyotsu Auto Kenya Limited<br />

– one of the largest used Japanese<br />

cars dealer in Kenya – to finance and<br />

enable Kenyans to purchase second-hand<br />

vehicles from Japan.<br />

The partnership will guarantee Toyotsu<br />

customers up to 90% financing, 60<br />

months repayment period and two<br />

months warranty for vehicles that meet<br />

the warranty criteria with an option to<br />

extend to one year at a small fee.<br />

Speaking at the signing ceremony of<br />

the financial deal, NIC Bank<br />

Executive Director Alan<br />

Dodd stated that majority of<br />

Kenyans depends on import<br />

of second-hand vehicles and<br />

therefore the partnership was<br />

timely and signed to help<br />

customers purchase quality<br />

second-hand vehicles at<br />

affordable prices through a<br />

secure and transparent agent.<br />

“Many people in this market<br />

depend on the second-hand<br />

vehicle market to own a car.<br />

With this Partnership, we<br />

seek to actualize the dreams<br />

of many Kenyans wishing<br />

to own a vehicle either for<br />

personal use or business<br />

activities at an affordable arrangement.<br />

In addition, this presents yet another<br />

opportunity for us to cement our position<br />

as the leading bank in asset finance in the<br />

country.” he stated.<br />

Dodd further added that the financing<br />

deal is open to both NIC Bank customers<br />

and noncustomers<br />

wishing to import vehicles and<br />

looking to be financed by the bank.<br />

On his part, Toyotsu Auto Mart Kenya<br />

Limited Managing Director, Mr. Yoichi<br />

Hashimoto<br />

From left, Godfrey Kioi Managing Director Heritage Insurance, Alan Dodd, NIC Bank Executive<br />

Director, Yoichi Hashimoto Managing Director Toyotsu Automart Kenya Limited during the<br />

financial partnership signing<br />

said that he was excited to be partnering<br />

with NIC bank and that the partnership<br />

will go a long way in easing the financial<br />

load on their customers.<br />

“Our partnership with NIC Bank is<br />

indeed another seal of approval for<br />

Toyotsu Auto Mart strength within<br />

this trade to meet the local market’s<br />

needs on used vehicles. Through this<br />

partnership, we can assure all our<br />

customers of efficiency and reliability<br />

in handling all the complex stages<br />

of purchasing a pre-owned vehicle<br />

through a transparent process and<br />

assured aftersales support” he stated.<br />

The Toyotsu partnership comes hot<br />

on the heels of NIC Group (Bank and<br />

Insurance) and Heritage Insurance<br />

agreement to offer their customers a<br />

first of its kind telematics motor policy<br />

that rewards good drivers. The strategic<br />

partnership between NIC bank through<br />

their subsidiary NIC Insurance Agents<br />

is poised to avail customers a raft<br />

of benefits including; Discounts on<br />

insurance premium, rewards for safe<br />

driving, simplified claims processing<br />

premium cashback for safe drivers<br />

hence reduced insurance cost based<br />

on feedback on the customers driving<br />

behavior through a Mobile App, Loyalty<br />

program with discounts at various outlets<br />

among others.<br />

On NIC, Toyotsu<br />

partnership, the vehicle<br />

purchase will be handled<br />

wholly by Toyotsu<br />

Auto Mart Kenya who<br />

have approximately<br />

400 vehicles in stock<br />

at any given time and<br />

upon request facilitates<br />

importation on behalf<br />

of clients with special<br />

specifications.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 5

<strong>News</strong><br />

EAC locks out duty-free car imports from South <strong>Africa</strong><br />

at the Comesa Secretariat.<br />

Currently, finished goods imported<br />

into the EAC attract a duty of 25%,<br />

intermediate goods (10%) and raw<br />

materials (0%) under the EAC’s existing<br />

three-band tariff structure which came<br />

into effect on January 1, 2005.<br />

Moreover, there is a list of sensitive<br />

products such as milk, sugar, wheat, rice<br />

and garments which attract higher duty<br />

of above 25% to protect such industries<br />

from competition.<br />

Players in the automobile sectors from<br />

the East <strong>Africa</strong>n Community and the<br />

Southern <strong>Africa</strong>n Customs Union are<br />

developing a joint policy to encourage<br />

motor vehicle manufacturing that is<br />

beneficial to both blocs.<br />

This development comes at a time when<br />

the tripartite free trade area (TFTA) tariff<br />

negotiations launched more than four<br />

years ago are near conclusion. The two<br />

economic blocs have had a prolonged<br />

battle over whether to abolish the<br />

contentious 25% import duty under the<br />

tripartite free trade area (TFTA).<br />

The two blocs have agreed that import<br />

duty on some motor vehicle parts will be<br />

abolished within the first five years of the<br />

TFTA, and others will enter duty free as<br />

provided under the EAC CET.<br />

The move ostensibly curbs a massive<br />

influx of motor vehicles from South <strong>Africa</strong><br />

into the EAC region once the more than<br />

700 million-people TFTA comes into<br />

force. It is estimated that the number of<br />

vehicles imported into East <strong>Africa</strong> each<br />

year has grown to over 250,000 and is<br />

expected to reach 500,000 by 2030.<br />

Car Industry<br />

As a result, member states — Rwanda,<br />

Burundi, Uganda,<br />

Kenya, Tanzania,<br />

and South Sudan<br />

— are pushing<br />

for the growth of<br />

the automotive<br />

assembling industry<br />

in the region.<br />

“Automobile<br />

industry players<br />

in the two regions<br />

are involved in<br />

development of<br />

the strategy,” said<br />

Benedict Musengele,<br />

acting director<br />

general in-charge of<br />

customs and trade<br />

Last year, the EAC heads of state directed<br />

the Council of Ministers to explore the<br />

possibility of developing the automotive<br />

industry by reducing importation of<br />

used vehicles from outside the region<br />

and thereby make the region more<br />

competitive.<br />

These countries are also tightening rules<br />

on the importation of second-hand<br />

cars into the region as part of efforts to<br />

encourage local assembly.<br />

For instance, in 2017 the EAC Council of<br />

Ministers recommended to the 18th EAC<br />

Heads of State Summit that the age limit<br />

for used imported vehicles be lowered to<br />

five years by 2021.<br />

Kenya currently allows the imports of<br />

used cars with of up to eight years,<br />

15 years in Uganda, and 10 years in<br />

Tanzania. Burundi, Rwanda and South<br />

Sudan have no age limits for used cars.<br />

Value chain<br />

Kenya has three assemblers — Kenya<br />

Vehicles Manufacturer, Isuzu and<br />

Associated Vehicle Assemblers. They<br />

assemble their cars from “completely<br />

knocked down units” that attract zero<br />

duty as per the CET. However, if they<br />

import “completely build units” they pay<br />

applicable duty as per the CET.<br />

Continue Reading Online. Scan Below.....<br />

6 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

<strong>News</strong><br />

Isuzu Motors to set up assembly plant<br />

in Ethiopia<br />

Isuzu targets to introduce additional models including medium and<br />

long buses for public transportations<br />

whilst one more dealer is expected<br />

to join the business, Kessate-<br />

Berhan said.<br />

Isuzu Motors is set to establish<br />

an assembly plant in Ethiopia via<br />

Japanese based Itochu Corporation.<br />

The assembly plant is expected to be in<br />

operation within the next 2 years but<br />

the prototype plant of the plant will<br />

be finalized by the end of 2018, with<br />

some knocked down units already being<br />

ordered for shipments.<br />

Kessate-Berhan Mengiste, the automobile<br />

section manager with Itochu Corporation<br />

told the Ethiopian dailies that the<br />

trending changes and growth of Ethiopia<br />

is attracting the likes of Isuzu. He argues<br />

that the momentum in Ethiopia ignited<br />

the increase of Isuzu-Itochu presence.<br />

National Motors Corporation (NMC) and<br />

Kaki PLC have joined in the dealership<br />

Isuzu targets to introduce<br />

additional models including<br />

medium and long buses for<br />

public transportations. NPR and<br />

FSR Isuzu truck series are widely<br />

used in Ethiopia. However, FVR<br />

23 and FVR 33 trucks which are<br />

believed to be handy for bottling<br />

companies are to be made more<br />

available in Ethiopia.<br />

Annual sales of Isuzu trucks have<br />

reached 800 units an increase<br />

of 96 percent from the previous<br />

years.<br />

Other indirect imports that are<br />

mostly sourced from Dubai to<br />

reach up to 3,000 units.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 7

<strong>News</strong><br />

Hyundai enters<br />

Somaliland car market<br />

South Korea car<br />

manufacturer Hyundai<br />

has entered into the<br />

Somaliland market. Hyundai<br />

is the latest multinational<br />

company to venture into<br />

the Horn of <strong>Africa</strong> via<br />

Somaliland. Hyundai has<br />

launched a series of models<br />

in Somaliland capital Hargeisa<br />

after partnering with Dahabshiil<br />

Motors to introduce the brand<br />

new vehicles in the Horn of<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> country.<br />

By venturing into Somaliland,<br />

Hyundai joins Coca-Cola in<br />

the country that is seeking<br />

international recognition but<br />

boasts of a huge potential for<br />

international investments.<br />


The South Korean car<br />

manufacturer has partnered<br />

Dahabshiil group of companies<br />

to introduce Hyundai model<br />

of cars to the horn of <strong>Africa</strong><br />

region.<br />

“Hyundai automotive business<br />

is not going to be limited<br />

to Somaliland, but aims at<br />

Horn region as a whole,”<br />

said Dahabshiil Motors Chief<br />

Executive Officer Engineer<br />

Awil Sharif.<br />

“In view of the ongoing<br />

developmental projects<br />

in Somaliland such as the<br />

expansion of Berbera port and<br />

the plan to create a free trade<br />

zone plus the construction<br />

of Berbera corridor highway,<br />

we are optimistic that the<br />

entry of Hyundai will have<br />

great impact in the motoring<br />

industry. Our strategic plan<br />

includes expanding business to<br />

other Somali regions and East<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>,” he affirms.<br />

He said they have introduced eight Hyundai models in<br />

the country. The models include Grand Santa Fe, Santa Fe,<br />

Tuscon, Creta, Elantra, Grand i10, a 14 seater commercial<br />

bus, and light track.<br />

“Most countries in <strong>Africa</strong> import four or five models. We<br />

started with eight models and will bring more models in<br />

future depending on customers’ demand,” Mr Sharif added.<br />


The entry of Hyundai in Somaliland comes just six months<br />

after the company opened a 10,000-a-year vehicle capacity<br />

assembly plant in the Ethiopian<br />

capital Addis Ababa.<br />

The Hyundai company operates<br />

the largest integrated automobile<br />

manufacturing facility in Ulsan,<br />

South Korea with an annual<br />

production capacity of 1.6<br />

million units.<br />

The company employs about<br />

75,000 people worldwide.<br />

Hyundai vehicles are sold<br />

in 193 countries through<br />

some 5,000 dealerships and<br />

showrooms.<br />

Dahabshiil Motors, who are the<br />

sole distributors of Hyundai<br />

vehicles in Somaliland and<br />

Somali regions are offering direct<br />

purchase and bank financing.<br />

“Dahabshiil Motors’ Hyundai<br />

can be purchased through<br />

Murabaha (the Islamic financing<br />

bank system). We are part of<br />

the Dahabshiil Group, so, our<br />

customers can buy our cars on<br />

finance,” stated the CEO<br />

SAFETY<br />

In terms of the automotive<br />

business, the company<br />

measured safety-related matters,<br />

environmental pollution<br />

problems and user comfortability<br />

before importing brand new<br />

Left Hand Drive quality vehicles<br />

to replace Right Hand Drive<br />

vehicles,” stated Mr Sharif.<br />

The entry of Hyundai in the<br />

Somaliland comes at a time<br />

when the country’s Ministry of<br />

Transportation announced it will<br />

ban imported Right-Hand Drive<br />

vehicles by 2020. Somaliland<br />

is also taking drastic steps to<br />

ensure safety on the country’s<br />

roads and reduce the effects of<br />

vehicle emissions created by<br />

unroadworthy cars.<br />

8 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

<strong>News</strong><br />

Egyptian transport start-up Swvl<br />

targets expansion in <strong>Africa</strong>, Asia<br />

Lahore in July.<br />

“We aim to reach one million trips a day<br />

in Egypt over the next five years,” said<br />

Kandil.<br />

He and two other young Egyptian cofounders,<br />

Mahmoud Nouh and Ahmed<br />

Sabbah, own more than 30% of the<br />

company, he said.<br />

Egyptian transport technology start-up<br />

Swvl will expand into two cities in<br />

Pakistan in the next two weeks and<br />

begin operations in Nigeria’s commercial<br />

capital Lagos before the end of the year,<br />

its chief executive told Reuters.<br />

The firm, which operates buses along<br />

fixed routes and allows customers to<br />

reserve and pay for them using an app,<br />

will also expand into Manila in the first<br />

half of next year, its co-founder and CEO<br />

Mostafa Kandil told Reuters.<br />

“We will enter Lagos before the end of<br />

the year, and our eyes are on Dar es<br />

Salaam and Abidjan,” he said. The firm is<br />

also planning to launch in other South<br />

East Asian markets, he added.<br />

Kandil said the company is seeking<br />

to raise more than $100 million in<br />

a financing round in the first half of<br />

next year, and is targeting a $1 billion<br />

valuation in the next five years. Since its<br />

launch in April 2017 Swvl has secured<br />

the biggest round of funding for a tech<br />

start-up in Egypt.<br />

“We were a company worth about $2<br />

million two years ago and our paid-up<br />

capital is now $80 million,” he said.<br />

Kandil, 25, said the company has been<br />

losing money, but expects to turn a profit<br />

in two to three years.<br />

“This year we have entered about seven<br />

new cities and next year we are targeting<br />

another 10 to 20 new big cities,” Kandil<br />

said.<br />

The Cairo-based firm, which is due<br />

to move its headquarters to Dubai in<br />

November, launched in Nairobi about<br />

six months ago and began operations in<br />

The rest is held by 17 investment funds,<br />

including U.S.-based Autotech Ventures,<br />

Sweden’s Vostok New Ventures, Oman’s<br />

sovereign wealth fund, the UAE’s BECO<br />

Capital and China’s MSA Capital.<br />

The Swvl app, which has fixed bus<br />

routes, uses the passenger’s location and<br />

destination to determine the shortest<br />

possible trip time based on the nearest<br />

bus stop.<br />

Uber and regional competitor Careem<br />

began operating their own bus services<br />

in Egypt in late 2018, competing directly<br />

with Swvl.<br />

Kandil said he hoped Swvl would<br />

eventually go public, but did not say on<br />

which stock exchange. He said he would<br />

in the longer term also consider a buyout<br />

offer from the likes of ride-hailing giant<br />

Uber.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

Mostafa Kandil, Chief Executive Officer of Swvl<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 9

Product<br />

Total launches new lubricant for<br />

automotive air conditioning compressors<br />

Whatever the gas used, Planetelf PAG K 40 offers good miscibility, provides<br />

superior protection and reduces wear on compressors<br />

Total launches Planetelf PAG K<br />

40, high performance lubricant<br />

for <strong>Automotive</strong> air conditioning<br />

compressors. Planetelf PAG K 40 has<br />

been designed to meet the requirements<br />

of both R134a and HFO-1234yf<br />

refrigerant gases present in the<br />

automotive air-conditioning industry.<br />

Whatever the gas used, Planetelf PAG<br />

K 40 offers good miscibility, provides<br />

superior protection and reduces wear on<br />

compressors.<br />

In addition, it has remarkable<br />

properties:<br />

Maintaining an excellent lubricity despite<br />

the drop in viscosity caused by the<br />

mixing of the refrigerant in the oil<br />

Protection of compressor parts and seals<br />

against wear.<br />

Optimized performances whatever the<br />

temperature<br />

Thermal and chemical stability established<br />

Excellent anti-foaming properties<br />

Planetelf PAG K 40 has already been<br />

referenced in original equipment by<br />

several manufacturers and OEM!<br />

About Total Lubrifiants<br />

Total Lubrifiants is a leading global<br />

manufacturer and marketer of engine<br />

oils and lubricants. It has 41 production<br />

plants worldwide and more than 5,800<br />

employees in 150 countries. Total<br />

Lubrifiants offers innovative, efficient and<br />

environmentally responsible products<br />

and services developed by more than<br />

130 researchers at its R&D center. Total<br />

Lubrifiants is a partner of choice for<br />

the automotive, industrial and marine<br />

markets.<br />

About Total<br />

Total is a global integrated energy<br />

producer and provider, a leading<br />

international oil and gas company, a<br />

major player in low-carbon energies.<br />

Their 98,000 employees are committed<br />

to better energy that is safer, cleaner,<br />

more efficient, more innovative and<br />

accessible to as many people as possible.<br />

As a responsible corporate citizen, we<br />

focus on ensuring that our operations<br />

in more than 130 countries worldwide<br />

consistently deliver economic, social and<br />

environmental benefits.<br />

10 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 11

Product<br />

DENSO to mass-produce automotive<br />

alternators equipped with newly<br />

developed high-efficiency diodes<br />

The new jointly developed diode significantly reduces the power conversion loss by increasing<br />

the efficiency of the function<br />

DENSO, the world’s second largest<br />

mobility supplier announced that<br />

it has developed a high-efficiency<br />

diode for alternators for gasoline<br />

and diesel engine vehicles with the<br />

semi-conductor supplier, Hitachi<br />

Power Semiconductor Device, Ltd.<br />

Production of alternators equipped<br />

with newly developed diodes will<br />

start for vehicles to be sold in Europe<br />

in FY<strong>2019</strong>, and will be rolled out to<br />

manufacturing group companies around<br />

the world.<br />

Overview:<br />

• Revolutionary spec improvement<br />

drastically reduces CO2 emissions<br />

• Overall alternator efficiency and fueleconomy<br />

is improved.<br />

The diode is a component of alternators.<br />

Diodes flow current in a certain direction<br />

and rectify generated alternating current<br />

to direct current. The new jointly<br />

developed diode significantly reduces the<br />

power conversion loss by increasing the<br />

efficiency of the function. The new diode<br />

improves the power generation efficiency<br />

by about 6% compared to conventional<br />

products and helps to improve fuel<br />

consumption. DENSO manufactures 25<br />

million alternators in annual total in more<br />

than 10 countries. If all the diodes were<br />

replaced with the new high-efficiency<br />

diodes, carbon dioxide emissions would<br />

be reduced by 30 tons annually.<br />

The new diode is developed as a<br />

component that fits the conventional<br />

alternator. DENSO and Hitachi remained<br />

the conventional shape of the diode<br />

and increased the efficiency of rectifying<br />

function by simplifying IC control<br />

function and applying 3D design located<br />

IC tip sterically.<br />

Although vehicles are being increasingly<br />

electrified, the internal combustion engine<br />

(ICE) with an alternator still accounts<br />

for 80% globally. DENSO markets and<br />

distributes products for swiftly improving<br />

the environmental performance of ICE<br />

vehicles to help create a sustainable<br />

society.<br />

About alternators<br />

An alternator is an important component<br />

that generates electricity using the power<br />

of the engine and supplies electricity<br />

to all the electrical components in a<br />

vehicle. The electricity remaining after<br />

consumption by electrical components is<br />

sent to a battery for storage.<br />

An alternator is connected to the<br />

crankshaft of the engine via a pulley<br />

and belt, and generates electricity using<br />

engine torque. Improving the power<br />

generation efficiency of the alternator<br />

reduces the engine torque load and<br />

increases the fuel efficiency of the vehicle.<br />

About DENSO’s Electrification<br />

Development<br />

DENSO has been developing<br />

electrification technologies as a priority<br />

to create the future of mobility. The<br />

company has also been developing key<br />

components for electrified vehicles such<br />

as motor generators (MGs) and elements<br />

of Silicon Carbide (SiC) for inverters.<br />

About DENSO<br />

DENSO is a $48.3 billion global<br />

mobility supplier that develops advanced<br />

technology and components for nearly<br />

every vehicle make and model on the<br />

road today. With manufacturing at its<br />

core, DENSO invests in its 221 facilities<br />

in 35 countries to produce thermal,<br />

powertrain, mobility, electrification, &<br />

electronic systems, to create jobs that<br />

directly change how the world moves.<br />

The company’s 170,000+ employees are<br />

paving the way to a mobility future that<br />

improves lives, eliminates traffic accidents,<br />

and preserves the environment. Globally<br />

headquartered in Kariya, Japan, DENSO<br />

spent 9.3% of its global consolidated<br />

sales on research and development in the<br />

fiscal year ending March 31, <strong>2019</strong>.<br />

12 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

A-MAP launches new range of<br />

ASIMCO PLUS batteries<br />

Product<br />

Dubai-based Al Muqarram Auto<br />

Spare Parts Trading (A-MAP)<br />

has launched ASIMCO<br />

PLUS batteries – its latest range of<br />

European automotive batteries that<br />

use CA 100 Technology to boost<br />

performance by using of calcium alloys.<br />

A-MAP unveiled the ASIMCO<br />

PLUS range on the first day of<br />

Automechanika Dubai, one of the<br />

leading automotive aftermarket<br />

exhibition.<br />

ASIMCO PLUS batteries have full frame<br />

optimised grid design that enhances the<br />

longevity of the battery life and the active<br />

material has been developed to endure<br />

the aggressive usage conditions in high<br />

heat environment of the Middle East<br />

region.<br />

a hassle-free functioning.<br />

Today, most vehicles<br />

are ISS (Idle Start Stop)<br />

enabled. They run on AGM<br />

batteries that offer a notable<br />

performance improvement<br />

over conventional batteries.<br />

A-MAP aims to cater to this<br />

segment with their new brand,<br />

as ASIMCO PLUS batteries<br />

come equipped with AGM<br />

Technology which is ready<br />

for the modern vehicle with<br />

regenerative breaking and high<br />

energy demands,” said the<br />

company.<br />

Asimco Plus batteries are uniquely<br />

designed with a dedicated battery cover<br />

and include the latest Labyrinth System,<br />

Safety Caps, Flame Arrestors and central<br />

degassing which makes these batteries<br />

stronger, safer and more resistant to<br />

leaks and spills in demanding rough<br />

conditions.<br />

Available in a wide range to perfectly<br />

suit all kinds of motor vehicles, ASIMCO<br />

PLUS batteries are delivered filled and<br />

charged for a total maintenance free<br />

performance.<br />

Asimco is one of the main players in<br />

the automotive aftermarket and is highly<br />

recognized worldwide for its superior<br />

quality products since its establishment<br />

in 2001. Products under its portfolio<br />

include brake pads, brake shoes, fuel<br />

pumps, disc rotors and shock absorbers.<br />

Over the years, ASIMCO’s quality has<br />

supported strong growth in market share<br />

and is now sold in over 65 countries.<br />

A-MAP has expanded its comprehensive<br />

product range by obtaining the<br />

distribution rights of Asimco Batteries in<br />

the United Arab Emirates.<br />

ASIMCO PLUS batteries are manufactured<br />

in line with the highest quality standards<br />

and pass vigorous quality tests to ensure<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 13

Report<br />

Nigeria’s Booming Auto Market<br />

With a population of close to 180<br />

million and a GDP of US$493<br />

billion in 2015, Nigeria is the<br />

most populous country with the largest<br />

economy in <strong>Africa</strong>. Despite the current<br />

economic challenges facing the country<br />

due to low oil prices and a weakened<br />

currency, Nigeria still reveals robust<br />

economic growth of 2-4% in the medium<br />

term.<br />

Owing to the lack of domestic vehicle<br />

production, Nigeria is highly dependent<br />

on imports to meet its domestic demand.<br />

In 2014, passenger vehicles constituted<br />

the second-largest import category after<br />

petroleum oils or bituminous minerals.<br />

Overall automotive related imports stood<br />

at US$6.9 billion (passenger vehicle<br />

imports: US$2.9 billion) accounting for<br />

approximately 11.5% of Nigeria’s total<br />

imports. While auto imports recorded<br />

rapid growth between 2004 and 2014,<br />

the current slowdown in the economy<br />

and the recent introduction of high<br />

import duties on vehicles linked to<br />

the new automotive policy has led to<br />

approximately a two-third contraction<br />

in vehicle imports according to industry<br />

players.<br />

Second-hand vehicles dominate the<br />

import market. It is estimated that<br />

approximately 10% of vehicles imported<br />

to Nigeria are brand new. A large share of<br />

second-hand vehicles are imported from<br />

the US, given that vehicle specifications<br />

in this market are more in line with the<br />

demand and taste of Nigerian consumers,<br />

which is not always met by entry-level<br />

models from Europe. Importers of used<br />

cars in <strong>Africa</strong> are making a good profit<br />

importing used cars for resale from all<br />

across the world.<br />

Before the hike of import duties on<br />

second-hand vehicles, Nigeria imported<br />

more than 100,000 cars per year from<br />

the the US. In 2015, imports from the<br />

US had plummeted to less than 40,000<br />

units. In addition to direct shipments<br />

to Nigeria, the Port of Cotonou in<br />

neighbouring Benin is a key transit point<br />

for second-hand vehicles destined for the<br />

Nigerian market. It is estimated that 85%<br />

of Benin’s used vehicle imports end up<br />

in Nigeria. In 2013, the European Union<br />

(EU) and the US exported approximately<br />

300,000 cars to Benin. Based on the<br />

import figures for Benin, an additional<br />

255,000 used cars from the EU and the<br />

US entered Nigeria via Benin.<br />

There is no culture of maintenance in<br />

Nigeria – people drive their cars until<br />

they break down and then fix them.<br />

Vehicle Numbers<br />

Depending on the source of data, the<br />

current vehicle fleet in the country ranges<br />

from 1.3 million vehicles to 10 million<br />

vehicles. According to the Federal Road<br />

Safety Corps the total fleet size was<br />

1.65 million units in 2015, of which<br />

approximately one third are concentrated<br />

in Lagos State. Even applying the least<br />

conservative estimate of vehicles in use,<br />

namely 10 million vehicles, Nigeria’s<br />

motorisation rate is approximately onethird<br />

that of the global motorisation rate<br />

with less than 60 vehicles per 1 000<br />

people.<br />

Due to the New <strong>Automotive</strong> Industry<br />

Development Plan (NAIDP) launched<br />

in 2014 that increased the prices for<br />

imported vehicles, and the economic<br />

slowdown triggered by low oil prices,<br />

Nigeria’s growth in fleet size slowed<br />

down remarkably in 2015. However, it<br />

14 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

is expected that in the short term fleet<br />

growth will stabilise in a range between<br />

4.5% and 5.5% per annum.<br />

Vehicle Sales<br />

Despite being the most populous<br />

country in <strong>Africa</strong>, Nigeria’s<br />

new vehicle sales lag behind<br />

less populated countries such<br />

as Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong>. According to industry<br />

players, the overall new and secondhand<br />

market combined ranges between<br />

500,000 and 1 million units per year.<br />

Smuggling, grey imports of second-hand<br />

vehicles and the lack of reliable data<br />

however, make the exact size of Nigeria’s<br />

vehicle market and fleet size difficult<br />

to quantify. Challenges concerning the<br />

licencing and identification of vehicles<br />

further contribute to this difficulty.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> auto marketImported second-hand<br />

vehicles, so-called tokunbos, dominate<br />

the Nigerian vehicle market as only<br />

a small segment of society is able to<br />

afford new vehicles. A representative of<br />

a leading automotive firm estimates that<br />

a mere 2% of the population is able to<br />

afford new vehicles given the current<br />

economic and financing environment.<br />

While commercial banks offer vehicle<br />

finance, accessing these credit facilities<br />

has become increasingly unattractive to<br />

individual consumers as credit facilities<br />

are provided at interest rates above 20%<br />

per annum and require at least a 10%<br />

down-payment.<br />

Commercial banks usually require<br />

repayment of vehicle loans within four<br />

years, due to the rapid depreciation of<br />

the value of vehicles given poor road<br />

conditions. According to one of the most<br />

established vehicle finance providers, the<br />

monthly repayment amount should not<br />

exceed 35% of the monthly income of<br />

the borrower. The short repayment-period<br />

as well as the high interest rates present<br />

a key challenge for low- and middleincome<br />

households when it comes to<br />

accessing vehicle finance.<br />

Due to the limited accessibility to and<br />

expensive financing of vehicles, new<br />

vehicles remain out of reach for most<br />

Nigerians and the largest share of current<br />

vehicle demand comes from the business<br />

community. Corporate buyers account for<br />

approximately 70% of overall new vehicle<br />

purchases, indicating the suppressed<br />

demand from private buyers, arguably the<br />

market segment with the largest growth<br />

potential.<br />

Through recently introduced promotional<br />

offers by banks in partnership with<br />

selected vehicle dealers, customers are<br />

able to access finance at a discounted<br />

rate for a limited number of vehicles<br />

and models. Indeed, the provision of<br />

alternative financing products, especially<br />

in-house financing by the automotive<br />

companies, is seen by industry players as<br />

a key requirement for the growth of the<br />

local market.<br />

However, in the absence of affordable<br />

finance solutions, secondhand vehicles<br />

remain the more attractive option for<br />

private vehicle buyers. According to a<br />

representative of a leading automotive<br />

company, second-hand passenger<br />

vehicles accounted for 80% of sales<br />

in 2014. The share of tokunbos in<br />

the commercial vehicle market is even<br />

larger, reaching up to 90% of the market<br />

according to a leading commercial vehicle<br />

manufacturer.<br />

New vehicle sales are dominated by<br />

Toyota which accounts for almost one<br />

third of new sales. Hyundai and Kia have<br />

established themselves as increasingly<br />

serious competitors to Toyota due to<br />

their competitive pricing and improved<br />

image in terms of quality. In 2015, the<br />

three Asian brands accounted for half of<br />

new vehicle sales in the country.<br />

The economic slowdown, the<br />

depreciation of the naira and the increase<br />

in vehicle prices due to the import duty<br />

hike had a substantial impact on new<br />

vehicles sales in 2015. Although vehicle<br />

sales saw positive growth post the global<br />

financial crisis, total new vehicle sales<br />

dropped by more than half in 2015,<br />

compared to 2014. The sharp decline of<br />

sales highlights the absence of sizeable<br />

and competitive domestic assembly that<br />

could provide an affordable alternative to<br />

imports and the dependency on vehicle<br />

imports to meet domestic demand.<br />

Production And Assembly<br />

Nigeria is no stranger to automotive<br />

assembly and manufacturing. Already in<br />

the 1970s Nigeria started assembling<br />

motor vehicles. In the 1970s and<br />

1980s, the federal government of<br />

Nigeria partnered with six international<br />

automotive and commercial vehicle<br />

manufacturers to produce passenger<br />

and commercial vehicles locally from<br />

CKD kits. According to the National<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Council (NAC) these<br />

six companies had an initial installed<br />

capacity of 149,000 units per annum<br />

during the 1970s and 1980s.<br />

“Sometimes, cars are imported to be<br />

stripped for parts as availability of<br />

genuine parts is limited.”<br />

In addition to these plants, the Federal<br />

Government entered into five more<br />

agreements with international automotive<br />

companies to establish assembly plants in<br />

1982, according to the National.<br />

Continue Reading Online. Scan Below.....<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 15

Opinion<br />

Creating composite<br />

car parts<br />

Jari Sopanen, Head of Sales Region at<br />

Exel Composites Plc<br />

“One type of car that can massively<br />

benefit from composite components<br />

are electric vehicles (EVs).”<br />

Thermoset composites are formed<br />

using glass, carbon, or aramid<br />

fibers, which are then combined<br />

with resins such as polyesters, vinyl<br />

esters, epoxies, or phenolic resins. These<br />

composites are used in various industries,<br />

but are particularly prominent in the<br />

manufacturing of aircraft and spacecraft<br />

parts.<br />

Thanks to research and development<br />

in the aerospace sector, composites are<br />

also being used across other forms of<br />

transportation due to the high demand<br />

for lightweight vehicles and components.<br />

This trend, called light-weighting, seeks<br />

to use innovative materials to reduce the<br />

weight of products. As a result, composite<br />

materials are being increasingly used in<br />

production, especially for automotive<br />

parts and components.<br />

According to the American Composites<br />

Manufacturers Associations, fiberglass is<br />

one of the key reinforcing materials used<br />

in the US thermoset composites industry.<br />

Thanks to its durable properties, it is a<br />

good replacement for steel in vehicle<br />

structural components, including drive<br />

shafts, bumpers and roof beams<br />

Reducing component weight is crucial<br />

for raising the efficiency of automotive<br />

systems. For example, carbon fiber has<br />

comparable properties to steel, but is<br />

only one-fifth the weight. Regardless of<br />

the mode of transport, it is easy to see<br />

the benefits that shaving this amount of<br />

weight from a vehicle will achieve.<br />

Additionally, when directly compared<br />

to steel, composite materials can meet<br />

or surpass the automotive industry’s<br />

material property demands, including<br />

low coefficients of thermal expansion for<br />

heat conduction, dimensional stability for<br />

shape retention, corrosion resistance in<br />

wet conditions, and high-impact strength<br />

to withstand repeated use.<br />

The low weight of composite components<br />

also helps provide good sound baffling<br />

and an overall quieter performance.<br />

One type of car that can massively<br />

benefit from composite components are<br />

electric vehicles (EVs). Batteries are heavy<br />

and, although technology is advancing<br />

at a blistering pace, it is highly likely that<br />

the bulk battery weight will not decrease<br />

as any miniaturisation will be used to<br />

install more batteries to increase range<br />

and power.<br />

Minimising component weight is,<br />

therefore, critical and fiber glass and<br />

carbon fiber alternatives are incredibly<br />

suitable for this light weighting, especially<br />

for EVs. For example, EV batteries must<br />

be held in special boxes to protect them<br />

but also to prevent any discharge from<br />

shocking passengers.<br />

Metals are conductive, which makes them<br />

unsuitable whereas most composites<br />

aren’t, meaning that when made from<br />

composites, which possess a higher<br />

strength to weight ratio, they are perfect<br />

for this application. Due to EVs current<br />

limited distance range, shaving off weight<br />

can produce strong marginal gains.<br />

Composites are gearing up to feature in<br />

more than just structural components for<br />

cars. In fact, many Asian countries are<br />

increasing their composite production,<br />

because composite materials are<br />

becoming increasingly popular in<br />

their electronics sector, especially with<br />

companies supplying to the automotive<br />

sector.<br />

While North America and Europe<br />

account for a key share of the global<br />

thermoset composites market, which is<br />

expanding due to the local automotive<br />

and aerospace industries in these regions,<br />

an increase in demand for electric and<br />

lightweight vehicles is also anticipated to<br />

propel the composites market in the Asia<br />

Pacific region and beyond.<br />

With governments across the globe<br />

looking to implement more rigid energy<br />

efficiency standards, shedding vehicle<br />

weight is an achievable objective that<br />

can help car manufacturers to meet<br />

regulations. Composites material<br />

developments means that now they<br />

are much better suited to automotive<br />

applications in comparison to steel and<br />

it is time for car manufacturers to start<br />

considering the material as a viable<br />

solution.<br />

16 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

Opinion<br />

Telematics Redefining<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Industry<br />

Ashish Gulati, Country Manager, India at<br />

Telit Wireless Solutions<br />

Telematics diligence is one of the<br />

highest emerging sectors in the<br />

world and progresses in mobile<br />

communication industry have made it<br />

possible to detect and determine any<br />

variable in real-time. The industry has<br />

undergone a paradigm shift especially<br />

when we see the rising number of<br />

accidents and thefts in automobile<br />

segment. Indian telematics market<br />

is gaining momentum and proposes<br />

elevated expansion opportunities to the<br />

merchants and market vendor.<br />

Automobile industry is implanting more<br />

and more telematics in the vehicles to<br />

monitor the performance and to detect<br />

any flaws in the vehicles, simultaneously<br />

meeting the demands of users for<br />

wireless connectivity. According to<br />

iSuppli, BRIC region has the fastest<br />

growing auto industry when compared<br />

to the western countries and the<br />

percentages of vehicles embedded with<br />

telematics technology are expected to<br />

reach 46% globally by the end of 2018,<br />

yet the telematics development is still at<br />

a nascent stage in the BRIC economies.<br />

India has a huge growth potential in the<br />

auto industry considering the rising sale<br />

of vehicles, GLONASS deal between<br />

Indian and Russia in 2010 also projects<br />

the future expansion and deployment of<br />

OEM embedded telematics.<br />

Transportation is the backbone for<br />

fast moving lifestyle of the present<br />

generation; people are heavily<br />

dependent on better transit facilities<br />

and always strive for new innovations in<br />

the auto sector. Telematics is improving<br />

the quality of lifestyle by adding<br />

functionality and value to automotive,<br />

tracking and transport solutions.<br />

India being a vast nation, the adoption<br />

of M2M technology in the telematics<br />

segment has a massive potential and<br />

Machine-to-Machine (M2M) resolution<br />

is the elucidation to make these things<br />

possible and affordable. M2M devices<br />

are designed in such a way that they can<br />

be incorporated into all transportation<br />

segments like cars, trucks, aircraft,<br />

trains, trailers, ships and containers.<br />

GNSS, Short Range, 2G, 3G and even<br />

4G communication modules etc are<br />

the technologies that facilitate M2M<br />

communication; this would lead to<br />

enhanced quality of life in the developing<br />

world.<br />

There are several telematics devices that<br />

are the part of the transportation segment<br />

like navigation, stolen vehicle recovery,<br />

infotainment systems, electronic toll<br />

systems and vehicle diagnostics. M2M<br />

technologies can help in getting real time<br />

update, vehicle information, toll, parking<br />

and other relevant information.<br />

M2M is also gaining impetus in various<br />

subsidiary industries like automobile<br />

leasing business, fleet management and<br />

related sectors. The rising demand of<br />

telematics embedded vehicles is expected<br />

to drive down the prices of these devices<br />

and make it affordable for companies to<br />

incorporate these devices. However, lack<br />

of awareness and cost sensitivity could<br />

pose a challenge to this sector.<br />

Globally, automobile industry is broadly<br />

working on the consumption of M2M<br />

technologies. Deployment of M2M<br />

telematics applications in automotive<br />

industry can help to decrease the number<br />

of road accidents and damages. The focus<br />

of telematics industry in deploying similar<br />

products would push the automotive<br />

sector in increasing the digitization in<br />

vehicles.<br />

This initiative of telematics industry will<br />

bring a revolution in the automotive<br />

sector and would initiate the system<br />

of intelligent traffic in the developing<br />

countries like India which would<br />

also help in live traffic updates, real<br />

time positioning, tracking, parking<br />

management and also reduce the<br />

road accidents. The economically and<br />

technologically superior nations like<br />

USA, Japan and Germany have already<br />

implemented this technology and the<br />

Indian automotive sector is on the verge<br />

on deploying this expertise at home.<br />

Modern cars with integrated computer<br />

system and other electronic gadgets<br />

which help in the essential controls,<br />

M2M modules today provide vehicles<br />

with fully loaded sensor technology<br />

which gives all the information about<br />

the performance on engine, temperature,<br />

fuel, breaks, etc.<br />

M2M data modules are extremely<br />

sophisticated and come with an array of<br />

features and capabilities such as onboard<br />

Global Navigation Satellite System<br />

(GNSS) technology, flexible land grid<br />

array surface mounting, embedded M2M<br />

optimized smart cards (like phone SIMs)<br />

known as MIMs or M2M identification<br />

modules, and embedded Java, a<br />

significant facilitating technology to step<br />

up the Internet of Things (IOT).<br />

Despite certain challenges like awareness<br />

and adoption of m2m technology,<br />

Asia and in particular India has made<br />

a substantial break-through in the<br />

Telematics space. India as a country faces<br />

<strong>issue</strong>s regarding consumer awareness.<br />

Most of the high-end consumers are not<br />

aware how telematics can make their life<br />

simpler and how full utilization would<br />

reap benefits for them. This is one of the<br />

greatest challenges, which India has to<br />

conquer to attain absolute utilization of<br />

immense market opportunities.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 17

Opinion<br />

How technology is impacting the<br />

automotive industry<br />

Manufacturers are seeking to make cars more efficient in two<br />

ways, driven largely by the requirement to reduce average fleet<br />

emissions to 95 grams of CO2 per kilometre for all new cars<br />

The automotive industry is one of<br />

the UK’s fastest-changing sectors,<br />

something that is all too evident<br />

when those who only trade in their<br />

cars or vans on an irregular basis finally<br />

decide to upgrade. Much of this is as a<br />

result of technology, whether that’s simply<br />

reflecting wider consumer trends or more<br />

fundamental changes that could affect the<br />

design and role of vehicles and even how<br />

we move around in the future.<br />

Legislation is a key driver, particularly<br />

the need to reduce carbon. “This means<br />

that the technological features revolve<br />

around new regulations and customer<br />

demand,” says Felipe Munoz, global<br />

automotive analyst at automotive<br />

business intelligence provider JATO<br />

Dynamics. “The turbochargers developed<br />

by some premium brands are a good<br />

example: they used to be the primary way<br />

to boost speed and acceleration. Now<br />

their focus is to improve driver experience<br />

and efficiency.”<br />

The efficiency quotient<br />

Manufacturers are seeking to make<br />

cars more efficient in two ways, driven<br />

largely by the requirement to reduce<br />

average fleet emissions to 95 grams of<br />

CO2 per kilometre for all new cars. One<br />

is to reduce fuel used; something that<br />

has been a focus for the Institute for<br />

Advanced Manufacturing and Engineering<br />

(IAME), a partnership between the<br />

University of Coventry and Unipart<br />

Manufacturing Group.<br />

“One project is with Ford, where we have<br />

helped them develop the technology<br />

for increased pressure in gasoline direct<br />

injections to reduce fuel consumption,”<br />

says Dr Carl Perrin, director of IAME.<br />

The second trend is around reducing the<br />

overall weight of the vehicle. Some of this<br />

is achieved through the use of different<br />

materials – the American Chemistry<br />

Council estimates the proportion of steel<br />

has fallen from 43% to 35% of total<br />

weight since 1998, while aluminium<br />

has risen from 6% to 10% – but also<br />

from reducing the weight of particular<br />

components and parts.<br />

IAME has been involved in a number<br />

of projects, says Perrin, including on the<br />

Aston Martin Vanquish. “We looked at<br />

where all the mass is in the exhaust and<br />

challenged everything from the thickness<br />

of the tubing to the heat shields and the<br />

joining methodology,” he says. “We were<br />

funded through an Innovate UK project<br />

18 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

to target a 50% reduction in the weight<br />

of the exhaust. It’s about 13kg, from a<br />

total mass of 26kg. We did that through<br />

using different materials, downgrading<br />

other materials and then developing all<br />

the joining and forming technologies<br />

needed to go with that.” The system is<br />

currently at the prototype stage but Perrin<br />

hopes it will move into production later<br />

in the year.<br />

Another project has been with Jaguar<br />

Land Rover, where the focus has been<br />

to reduce the weight of the muffler<br />

box on exhaust systems by using<br />

acoustic technology rather than physical<br />

components to eliminate noise. “It means<br />

we can deactivate some of the cylinders<br />

so we’re burning less fuel, but we can still<br />

make it sound like a V6 or V8,” he says.<br />

Connecting the dots<br />

Another big area for the sector has been<br />

the development of internet-enabled or<br />

“connected” vehicles. Research by JATO<br />

Dynamics suggests 18% of vehicles<br />

registered in the UK in 2015 had some<br />

form of internet connection, and this<br />

figure will undoubtedly rise in the future.<br />

In the car, this is giving rise to a number<br />

of new developments designed to give<br />

owners or users more control. “Apps for<br />

connected cars, along with the telematic<br />

box – an in-car SIM – will enable users<br />

to manage their car remotely, so to check<br />

gas levels, lock the door, check driving<br />

performance, receive theft notifications,<br />

and control other elements such as<br />

starting up the engine or putting the<br />

alarm on,” says Munoz. “The ultimate aim<br />

is to do all of this via a smartwatch.”<br />

The technology also opens up<br />

possibilities around vehicles<br />

communicating with each other or with<br />

broader infrastructure. Examples here<br />

include intelligent transport systems<br />

which could alert drivers to traffic<br />

conditions, tolls and optimum routes,<br />

as well as driver assistance systems<br />

to control speed, stability and even<br />

emergency braking if required.<br />

Proportion of steel has fallen from 43%<br />

to 35% of total weight since 1998<br />

Nick Reed is academy director at The<br />

Transport Research Laboratory, which has<br />

recently been working on a European<br />

project called COBRA, looking at the<br />

benefits and concerns around such<br />

systems. He foresees a future where car<br />

journeys become more personalised –<br />

with apps advising drivers to park some<br />

distance away from their destination to<br />

reach a step target for the day – as well<br />

as vehicles providing information and<br />

assistance around parking and warning<br />

drivers when services or repairs are<br />

needed.<br />

But he also has concerns. “Drivers and<br />

passengers will be able to experience<br />

smoother, faster and more coherent<br />

access to smartphone functionality<br />

such as calls, email, social media and<br />

multimedia applications, but it is critical<br />

to recognise the potential for driver<br />

distraction,” he says. “With more devices<br />

to catch their attention, drivers may miss<br />

critical information as they are engaged<br />

in other activities or browsing through<br />

menus.”<br />

There are also fears around security,<br />

warns Simon Viney, director of<br />

cyber resilience with Stroz Friedberg. “This<br />

offers the opportunity for cyber- attackers<br />

to steal valuable data, goods or vehicles,<br />

or disrupt the operation of ‘connected’<br />

cars,” he says. He gives the example of<br />

the Jeep case, which forced Fiat Chrysler<br />

to recall several million vehicles in 2015<br />

after hackers managed to gain control of<br />

a vehicle.<br />

“In addition, some 6,000 cars were<br />

reportedly stolen in London in 2014,<br />

after hackers identified a way to readily<br />

bypass a keyless entry system used by<br />

several manufacturers,” he adds. “Attacks<br />

such as these only become more<br />

sophisticated and easier to conduct once<br />

an attack is successful.”<br />

It’s a concern shared by Mark Taylor,<br />

technical manager, technical innovation<br />

at ICAEW’s IT Faculty. “You tend to find<br />

on engineering projects that people get<br />

very excited and think about great things,<br />

and then they think about security after,”<br />

he says. “It’s important to think about<br />

security when you’re starting to build the<br />

system; it will only get worse unless car<br />

manufacturers think more about this in<br />

the process.” Privacy of customer data is<br />

also a concern if vehicles communicate<br />

with call centres, he adds.<br />

Electric avenue<br />

Opinion<br />

Electric vehicle technology is – finally<br />

– starting to make a real impact, as<br />

concerns over driving range and charging<br />

infrastructure start to subside. According<br />

to The Society of Motor Manufacturers<br />

& Traders, some 2,400 electric vehicles<br />

a month were registered in 2015,<br />

compared to just 500 the year before.<br />

Today, there are more than 75,000<br />

electric vehicles in the UK.<br />

“I believe that this growth will continue<br />

and result in 85% of all new car sales<br />

being electric by 2035,” says Erik<br />

Fairbairn, founder of POD Point. “What’s<br />

really driving the growth is a recognition<br />

of their superiority over vehicles with<br />

internal combustion engines. Put simply,<br />

electric cars are easier to drive, quieter on<br />

the road, require less maintenance, cost<br />

less to run and are altogether more fun<br />

than their petrol counterparts.”<br />

Nick Reed forsees a future where car<br />

journeys become more personalised, with<br />

apps advising drivers, as well as vehicles<br />

warning when repairs are needed<br />

Part of this is also due to the emergence<br />

of manufacturer Tesla, which is pushing<br />

a combination of new models and<br />

investments in battery technology, and is<br />

currently seeking to acquire SolarCity as<br />

it attempts to tie in renewable technology<br />

with electric charging capabilities in the<br />

home. The new Models S and X have a<br />

range of over 300 miles, helping to make<br />

electric vehicles a more viable option for<br />

those looking to do more than local trips<br />

or city driving.<br />

But electric vehicles or hybrids are not<br />

necessarily the only option in moving<br />

away from petrol or diesel. “In the<br />

future there will be a range of fuel<br />

types dependent on actual transport<br />

needs, from pure electric vehicles to<br />

gaseous-powered vehicles, including<br />

hydrogen,” says Chris Chandler, principal<br />

consultant at Lex Autolease. production<br />

and distribution of hydrogen that many<br />

people do not fully appreciate.<br />

Continue Reading Online. Scan Below.....<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 19

Auto Show<br />

Graphene <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

2020 Exhibition and Conference<br />

Welcome to the Graphene<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> 2020 Exhibition<br />

and Conference where graphene<br />

researchers and automotive manufacturers<br />

will meet in Detroit to explore new<br />

graphene-based solutions for use in<br />

automotive applications.<br />

Graphene, an ultra-light weight and<br />

immensely strong material has captured<br />

worldwide interest. Graphene is 200<br />

times tougher than steel, incredibly thin<br />

and flexible, a superb conductor, and can<br />

offer a solid barrier. As production and<br />

processing of graphene has advanced,<br />

the automotive industries are eager to<br />

establish supplies, integrate graphene into<br />

existing processes, and explore new uses<br />

of graphene in a multitude of automotive<br />

applications including electronics, thermal<br />

management and structural uses.<br />

While graphene is emerging as the most<br />

promising nanomaterial because of its<br />

unique combination of superb properties,<br />

industries are faced with a number of key<br />

challenges before wide-scale commercial<br />

use can be established. The solution for<br />

commercialization of graphene lies in the<br />

standardisation of high-quality materials<br />

in a scalable manner, developments<br />

in material integration and processes,<br />

and the production of graphene at the<br />

lowest possible cost in order to achieve<br />

profitable applications. By overcoming<br />

the challenges, industries can confidently<br />

invest in industrialization to deliver<br />

graphene-based devices and solutions in<br />

the near future.<br />

This year’s Graphene <strong>Automotive</strong><br />

2020 conference is set to become the<br />

world’s leading exhibition and conference<br />

exclusively for graphene researchers<br />

and automotive manufacturers to meet<br />

and explore new uses of graphene<br />

in automotives, and to address the<br />

specific challenges associated with the<br />

commercialisation of graphene for use in<br />

a multitude of new applications.<br />

Key topics on this year’s agenda include:<br />

Graphene availability, market supply, and<br />

demand forecasts<br />

New markets and<br />

the commercialization of graphene<br />

automotive applications<br />

Quality and standardization of graphene<br />

materials to meet commercial needs<br />

New developments in manufacturing<br />

processes and material<br />

integration techniques<br />

Latest methods, results, and new<br />

developments in graphene-based<br />

composites<br />

End-user automotive manufacturer case<br />

studies and successful applications<br />

This exhibition and conference will<br />

provide a forum for all stakeholders, from<br />

researchers and suppliers in the graphene<br />

industry, to end user manufacturers,<br />

to network and build cross-market<br />

relationships and to discuss the latest<br />

developments in graphene use in new<br />

automotive applications.<br />

20 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 21

Cover Story<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>: The new hub for<br />

automotive manufacturing<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> auto sector is struggling under currency policies and associated import<br />

controls set up to conserve hard currency and encourage local manufacturing<br />

The automotive manufacturing<br />

industry in <strong>Africa</strong> is growing fast.<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> production in <strong>Africa</strong><br />

is growing industry as more and more<br />

manufacturers move closer to their<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n customers and discover the<br />

advantages of low-labour costs and<br />

tax holidays. Demand for automobile<br />

spare parts in <strong>Africa</strong> is also growing.<br />

The automotive production industry in<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong> is nearly 100 years old. In<br />

the 1980s and 1990s, Nigeria achieved<br />

significant production and production<br />

occurs in Egypt and more recently<br />

Morocco. Smaller production activities<br />

take place in Kenya and some decades<br />

ago in Zimbabwe. However, currently<br />

significant modern assembly is largely<br />

located in South <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Formed in 2015, the <strong>Africa</strong> Association<br />

of <strong>Automotive</strong> Manufacturers (AAAM)<br />

works specifically to promote and<br />

facilitate the growth of the <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

automotive industry. Formed by<br />

executives from the world’s biggest car<br />

manufacturers, the <strong>Africa</strong>n Association<br />

of <strong>Automotive</strong> Manufacturers (AAAM)<br />

embarked on a concerted push to revive<br />

and resurrect <strong>Africa</strong>’s auto industry.<br />

Since then, the newly-created <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

Association of <strong>Automotive</strong> Manufacturers<br />

(AAAM) has been working with key<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n governments to create the right<br />

policy environment for the sector to<br />

Flourish.<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>’s untapped demand combines with<br />

a steady increase in consumer spending<br />

which has been rising at an annual rate<br />

of 10% over the last few years. Moreover,<br />

analysts predict that by 2030, over half<br />

a billion <strong>Africa</strong>ns will have joined the<br />

middle class. “If the growth in vehicle<br />

sales keeps pace with growing consumer<br />

spending, annual sales of passenger<br />

cars in Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong> will surpass<br />

10 million units by 2030,” says South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n consultancy B&M Analysts.<br />

Not surprisingly, one of the organisation’s<br />

first ports of call was government leaders<br />

in Nigeria’s capital Abuja. Fast-growing<br />

Nigeria is the jewel in <strong>Africa</strong>’s auto<br />

crown with just 44 vehicles per 1,000<br />

inhabitants,far below the global average<br />

of 180 vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants,<br />

according to recent estimates by a<br />

Deloitte report.<br />

While new vehicle sales have jumped<br />

22 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

Cover Story<br />

in developing markets like China,<br />

India and Brazil over the last decade,<br />

growth in <strong>Africa</strong> has remained relatively<br />

slow. According to the International<br />

Organisation of Motor Vehicle<br />

Manufacturers (OICA), only 1.5 million<br />

new vehicles were sold across the <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

continent’s 54 countries with a combined<br />

population of 1 billion in 2016. South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n consumers buy most new cars,<br />

and together with Egypt, Algeria and<br />

Morocco account for almost 80 per<br />

cent of the continent’s total auto sales,<br />

with only muted demand from important<br />

economies like Nigeria and Kenya.<br />

But far from being a disincentive to<br />

investors, the figures act as a rallying call.<br />

“When Volkswagen and General Motors<br />

moved into China the motorisation rate<br />

was lower than in Ethiopia today. The<br />

limited market was not a deterrent for<br />

the early movers who recognised China’s<br />

long-term potential,” says Karthi Pillay,<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> automotive leader, risk advisory at<br />

Deloitte.<br />

Mix with this a renewed determination<br />

amongst <strong>Africa</strong>n leaders to diversify<br />

their economies through boosting<br />

manufacturing. New policies aimed at<br />

increasing domestic car production are<br />

starting to pay off. In 2016, China’s<br />

state-owned car manufacturer Beijing<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> International Corp unveiled<br />

plans to build a R11bn (US$759mn)<br />

auto plant in South <strong>Africa</strong> the biggest<br />

investment in a vehicle-production<br />

facility in the country in four decades will<br />

earmark over half of its output for export,<br />

initially to East, West and North <strong>Africa</strong>.<br />

Elsewhere, after a four-decade break in<br />

production, Volkswagen is starting up its<br />

Kenyan production line once again.<br />

The signs are good. But with challenges<br />

ranging from imported used cars flooding<br />

the market to <strong>Africa</strong>’s weak manufacturing<br />

base and a lack of finance for would-be<br />

car owners, <strong>Africa</strong> promises a challenging<br />

operating environment.<br />

Import of used cars in <strong>Africa</strong><br />

The biggest barrier to new vehicle sales<br />

in <strong>Africa</strong> is cheap, imported secondhand<br />

cars from the US, Europe and<br />

Japan. Consultancy Deloitte estimates<br />

that eight out of 10 imported cars in<br />

Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria are used<br />

cars. According to the Kenya National<br />

Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) the volume<br />

of imported vehicles between 2005 and<br />

2017 grew at over 300 per cent from<br />

33,000 to over 120,000 units.<br />

Governments are developing policies<br />

to limit the influx. In an effort to hike<br />

the price of second-hand cars to favour<br />

more new car purchases, Kenya has<br />

forbidden vehicles over eight years old<br />

from entering into the country, with plans<br />

to reduce this further. Similarly, Nigeria<br />

has increased its import duty on secondhand<br />

vehicles, most of which arrive in a<br />

bustling trade from the US into <strong>Africa</strong><br />

via Benin’s Cotonou port. As a result,<br />

Nigeria’s imports of cars from the US<br />

plummeted from more than 100,000 a<br />

year to less than 40,000 units in 2015.<br />

Nigeria car sales Other signs of change<br />

include the enduring stagnation of the<br />

Japanese economy. It has resulted in<br />

sluggish sales of new cars there, which<br />

in turn has created a shortage in the<br />

supply of quality used vehicles. There has<br />

been “a deterioration of the environment<br />

surrounding the export of the used<br />

motor vehicles industry”, says Hiroshi<br />

Sato, chairman of the Japan Used Motor<br />

Vehicle Exporters Association.<br />

As crucial as controlling used-car imports<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 23

Feature<br />

is to nurturing a domestic industry, so<br />

is establishing a manufacturing base.<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong> leads the continent’s auto<br />

manufacturing sector with original<br />

equipment manufacturers, longestablished<br />

in the country and backed<br />

by a vibrant community of 500 suppliers<br />

and diversified manufacturers. Yet, head<br />

up the continent and there is little auto<br />

manufacturing until North <strong>Africa</strong>, bar light<br />

manufacturing from imported kits.<br />

Kenya only has three assembly plants,<br />

and they all produce vehicles with wholly<br />

imported parts that require no domestic<br />

manufacturing input.<br />

The Kenyan government, which has<br />

identified the auto sector as a key driver<br />

of the country’s industrialisation policy,<br />

has promised incentives to encourage<br />

a local industry. These include building<br />

special economic zones which benefit<br />

from tax holidays and low utility rates.<br />

It has also introduced local input<br />

requirements and tariffs on imported auto<br />

components that could be manufactured<br />

locally. Encouragingly, the assembly of<br />

motor vehicles in Kenya grew by 31.4%<br />

from 2013 to 2014, with assembly<br />

figures forecast to almost double between<br />

2013 and <strong>2019</strong>. It’s improving the<br />

country’s chances of becoming a hub for<br />

assembly and production in the region.<br />

It’s a similar story in Nigeria, where the<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> Industry Development Plan<br />

(NAIDP) pledges to build auto industry<br />

infrastructure including supplier parks and<br />

clusters. Tax incentives include Nigeria<br />

allowing car groups to import two fullybuilt<br />

units at a discount duty of 35% for<br />

cars and 20% for commercial vehicles, for<br />

every one built locally. The government<br />

also aims to boost skills and investment<br />

and encourage a local component<br />

industry to supply manufacturers at<br />

competitive prices. It amounts to the<br />

kinds of incentives that encouraged Ford<br />

to begin assembling its Ford Ranger<br />

pickup in the Nigerian city of Ikeja in<br />

2015, partnering with Ford dealer group<br />

Coscharis Motors on the project.<br />

“Nigeria is a priority market for us in<br />

Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong> and this will allow<br />

us to better serve our customers, both<br />

from a retail point of view and in terms<br />

of vehicle and parts availability,” says<br />

Jeff Nemeth, president and CEO of<br />

Ford Motor Company of Sub-Saharan<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>. “We are committed to supporting<br />

Nigeria’s developing automotive industry<br />

and economy together with Coscharis,<br />

and are looking forward to being active<br />

in the community. New assembly<br />

operations, even on a smaller scale like<br />

this one, have very positive ripple effects<br />

in the local economy and workforce.”<br />

But nurturing indigenous manufacturing<br />

is still difficult. Nigeria-based groups<br />

Nissan and Peugeot also only assemble<br />

the bulk of their vehicles from imported<br />

semi-knocked down (SKD) kits because<br />

there is no local manufacturing industry.<br />

Even Nigeria’s own Innoson Vehicle<br />

Manufacturing Company (IVM) based<br />

in the south-eastern Anambra state,<br />

assembles trucks and buses with<br />

completely knocked-down (CKD) kits<br />

with all the vehicles’ engines, gear boxes<br />

and electrical parts imported from<br />

overseas. Auto-related imports into<br />

Nigeria accounted for around 11.5% of<br />

total imports, worth around US$6.9bn in<br />

2014, according to UNCTAD.<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> sector in <strong>Africa</strong><br />

Nigerian policy is currently making things<br />

even more difficult. Like all manufacturing,<br />

the auto sector is struggling under<br />

currency policies and associated import<br />

controls set up to conserve hard currency<br />

and encourage local manufacturing by<br />

prioritising strategic imports. It’s starving<br />

the auto sector of inputs and leading to a<br />

collapse in supplies of product lines from<br />

glass to rubber. OICA estimates that total<br />

new vehicle sales in Nigeria dropped by<br />

more than half in 2017, compared to<br />

2016. It’s this kind of foreign exchange<br />

controls that are also limiting the ability<br />

of companies to import SKD units<br />

and parts for assembly and repair in<br />

Ethiopia, where high taxes also make cars<br />

unaffordable for most.<br />

Exporting within <strong>Africa</strong> is also a challenge<br />

for the continent’s carmakers because of<br />

tariffs and barriers. Uganda and Tanzania<br />

slap tariffs on cars assembled in Kenya,<br />

the only country in the East <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

Community with assembly capability,<br />

because they don’t meet local input<br />

criteria. It gives imported second-hand<br />

cars the edge.<br />

In recent times, Toyota South <strong>Africa</strong> saw a<br />

fall in exports to the rest of the continent<br />

as a result of higher tariffs in Nigeria,<br />

Algeria and Angola. Meanwhile, South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> exports more vehicles to Europe,<br />

the US and even Asia than it does to its<br />

neighbouring <strong>Africa</strong>n market.<br />

“Vehicle exports to Europe and Asia<br />

continued to show growth. Vehicle<br />

exports to <strong>Africa</strong>n markets recorded<br />

substantial declines. This was due to a<br />

combination of factors including ad hoc<br />

24 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

duty increases in Nigeria and Zimbabwe,<br />

regulatory restrictions in Algeria and<br />

weaker economic conditions across most<br />

<strong>Africa</strong>n countries due to the decline in<br />

commodity prices,” says Nico Vermeulen,<br />

director of the National Association of<br />

Automobile Manufacturers of South<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> (NAAMSA).<br />

Car finance challenges<br />

Governments also need to create easier<br />

access to car finance. “The availability<br />

of financing for new motor vehicles is<br />

virtually non-existent in most <strong>Africa</strong>n<br />

countries,” says Vermeulen.<br />

South <strong>Africa</strong>n banks have been quickest<br />

off the mark. South <strong>Africa</strong>’s FirstRand<br />

Bank announced plans to set up a vehicle<br />

financing arm in Nigeria via its subsidiary<br />

WesBank, Sub-Saharan <strong>Africa</strong>’s largest<br />

provider of auto loans.<br />

Meanwhile, First Bank of Nigeria has<br />

spotted opportunity in the growth of car<br />

sharing in Nigeria in a development that<br />

the architects trying to build demand for<br />

new cars can hardly welcome. The bank’s<br />

vehicle financing arm plans to extend<br />

borrowing to highly-rated Uber drivers via<br />

low-interest, used vehicle loans. The carsharing<br />

platform has operated in Abuja<br />

and Lagos since it entered the Nigerian<br />

market in 2014. It currently has more<br />

than 2,000 drivers and was targeting<br />

4,000 by the end of 2016.<br />

“We are absolutely committed to making<br />

it as easy as possible for our driver<br />

partners to start and maintain their own<br />

successful and profitable businesses,” says<br />

Ebi Atawodi, general manager of Uber<br />

Nigeria. “And these used vehicle finance<br />

options make it possible for those with a<br />

demonstrable performance commitment<br />

to build sustainable businesses without<br />

incurring the high costs often associated<br />

with new vehicle purchases.”<br />

The growth in car sharing in Nigeria<br />

leads Deloitte’s Pillay to ponder future<br />

developments in the industry. “It shows<br />

mobility leapfrogging car ownership;<br />

<strong>Africa</strong> may not be a market focused on<br />

making and selling cars,” he suggests.<br />

Indian and Chinese manufacturers<br />

believe their low-cost models will have<br />

the advantage, while others are betting<br />

on the electric car. Uganda’s Kiira<br />

Motors grew out of a research project<br />

at Makerere University and is aiming to<br />

produce electric vehicles by <strong>2019</strong> before<br />

becoming original manufacturers by<br />

2039. Ford is expanding its multi-modal<br />

approach to urban mobility. One of the<br />

innovations on show at Go Further <strong>Africa</strong><br />

was its electric MoDe:Pro e-bike.<br />

Whatever the future holds, <strong>Africa</strong>’s<br />

consumers are the last untapped market<br />

for the auto giants.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 25

Feature<br />

What Causes Car Batteries to Fail?<br />

Low charge and acid stratification are the most<br />

common causes of the apparent failure<br />

A<br />

German manufacturer of<br />

luxury cars reveals that of 400<br />

car batteries returned under<br />

warranty, 200 are working well and<br />

have no problem. Low charge and acid<br />

stratification are the most common<br />

causes of the apparent failure. The car<br />

manufacturer says that the problem<br />

is more common on large luxury cars<br />

offering power-hungry auxiliary options<br />

than on the more basic models.<br />

In Japan, battery failure is the largest<br />

complaint among new car owners. The<br />

average car is only driven 13 km (8<br />

miles) per day and mostly in a congested<br />

city. As a result, the batteries will never<br />

get fully charged and sulfation occurs.<br />

The batteries in Japanese cars are small<br />

and only provide enough power to<br />

crank the engine and perform some<br />

rudimentary functions. North America<br />

may be shielded from these battery<br />

problems, in part because of long<br />

distance driving.<br />

Good battery performance is important<br />

because problems during the warranty<br />

period tarnish customer satisfaction. Any<br />

service requirement during that time is<br />

recorded and the number is published<br />

in trade magazines. This data is of great<br />

interest among prospective car buyers<br />

throughout the world.<br />

Battery malfunction is seldom caused by<br />

a factory defect; driving habits are the<br />

more common culprits. Heavy accessory<br />

power when driving short distance<br />

prevents a periodic fully saturated charge<br />

that is so important for the longevity of a<br />

lead acid battery. According to a leading<br />

European manufacturer of car batteries,<br />

factory defects amounts to less than 7<br />

percent.<br />

The battery remains a weak link and the<br />

breakdowns on 1.95 million vehicles six<br />

years or less are as follows:<br />

52% battery<br />

15% flat tire<br />

8% engine<br />

7% wheels<br />

7% fuel injection<br />

6% heating & cooling<br />

6% fuel system<br />

A breakdown due to the battery remains<br />

the number one cause.<br />

Acid stratification, a problem with<br />

luxury cars<br />

A common cause of battery failure is<br />

acid stratification. The electrolyte on a<br />

stratified battery concentrates on the<br />

bottom, causing the upper half of the<br />

26 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 27

Feature<br />

cell to be acid poor.<br />

This effect is similar<br />

to a cup of coffee in<br />

which the sugar collects<br />

on the bottom when<br />

the waitress forgets to<br />

bring the stirring spoon.<br />

Batteries tend to stratify<br />

if kept at low charge<br />

(below 80%) and never<br />

have the opportunity<br />

to receive a full<br />

charge. Short distance<br />

driving while running<br />

windshield wiper<br />

and electric heaters<br />

contributes to this. Acid<br />

stratification reduces<br />

the overall performance<br />

of the battery.<br />

A light acid limits plate<br />

activation, promotes<br />

corrosion and reduces<br />

performance. High<br />

acid concentration on the bottom, on<br />

the other hand, artificially raises the<br />

open circuit voltage. The battery appears<br />

fully charged but provides a low CCA.<br />

High acid concentration also promotes<br />

sulfation and decreases the already low<br />

conductivity further. If unchecked, such a<br />

condition will eventually lead to battery<br />

failure.<br />

Allowing the battery to rest for a few<br />

days, applying a shaking motion or<br />

tipping the unit over tends to correct the<br />

problem. A topping charge by which the<br />

12-volt battery is brought up to 16 volts<br />

for one to two hours also reverses the<br />

acid stratification. The topping charge<br />

also reduces sulfation caused by high<br />

acid concentration. Careful attention is<br />

needed to keep the battery from heating<br />

up and losing excessive electrolyte<br />

through hydrogen gassing. Always charge<br />

the battery in a well-ventilated room.<br />

Accumulation of hydrogen gas can lead<br />

to an explosion. Hydrogen is odorless<br />

and can only be detected with measuring<br />

devices.<br />

The challenge of battery testing<br />

During the last 20 years, battery testing<br />

lagged behind other technologies. The<br />

reason: the battery is a very difficult<br />

animal to test, short of applying a full<br />

charge, discharge and recharge. The<br />

battery behaves similar to us humans. We<br />

still don’t know why we perform better on<br />

certain days than others.<br />

Even by using highly accurate charge and<br />

discharge equipment, lead acid batteries<br />

produce disturbingly high capacity<br />

fluctuations on repetitive measurements.<br />

To demonstrate the variations, Cadex<br />

tested 91 car batteries with diverse<br />

performance levels (Figure 3). We first<br />

prepared the batteries by giving them a<br />

full charge and a 24-hour rest period. We<br />

then measured the capacity by applying a<br />

25A discharge to 10.50V or 1.75V/cell<br />

(black diamonds).<br />

This procedure was repeated for a second<br />

time and the resulting capacities were<br />

plotted (purple squared). This produced<br />

a whooping +/-15% variation in capacity<br />

readings across the full population. Some<br />

batteries had higher readings the second<br />

time; others were lower. Other chemistries<br />

appear to be more consistent in capacity<br />

readings than lead acid.<br />

From the beginning, load testers have<br />

been the standard test method for car<br />

batteries. The year 1992 brought us AC<br />

conductance, a method that simplified<br />

battery testing. Now we are experimenting<br />

with multi-model electrochemical<br />

impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in a<br />

portable version at an affordable price.<br />

Getting a fast and dependable assessment<br />

of a failing battery is difficult. Most<br />

battery testers in use only take cold<br />

cranking amps (CCA) and voltage<br />

readings. Capacity, the most important<br />

measurement of a battery, is unavailable.<br />

While taking the CCA reading alone is<br />

relatively simple, measuring the capacity<br />

is very complex and instruments offering<br />

this feature are expensive.<br />

The Spectro CA-12 by Cadex Electronics<br />

is the first in a series of high-end battery<br />

testers capable of measuring capacity,<br />

CCA and state-of-charge (SoC) in a<br />

single, non-invasive test. The technology<br />

is based on multi-model electrochemical<br />

impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The system<br />

injects 24 excitation frequencies ranging<br />

from 20 to 2000 Hertz. The sinusoidal<br />

signals are regulated at 10mV/cell to<br />

remain within the thermal battery voltage<br />

of lead acid. This achieves stable readings<br />

for small and large batteries.<br />

During the 30-second test, over 40<br />

million transactions are completed. A<br />

patented algorithm analyses the data and<br />

the final results are displayed in capacity,<br />

CCA and state-of-charge.<br />

EIS is very complex and until recently<br />

required dedicated computers and<br />

28 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

Feature<br />

expensive laboratory<br />

equipment, not to mention<br />

chemists and engineers to<br />

interpret the readings. The<br />

hardware of a full EIS system is<br />

commonly mounted on racks<br />

and the installation runs<br />

into tens of thousands of<br />

dollars.<br />

The tough choice<br />

No battery tester solves all<br />

problems. Entry-level testers are low cost,<br />

simple to use and capable of servicing a<br />

broad range of batteries. However, these<br />

units only provide a rough indication<br />

of the battery condition. A lab test<br />

at Cadex demonstrates that a battery<br />

tester based on EIS is four times more<br />

accurate in detecting weak batteries than<br />

AC conductance. Conventional testers<br />

often misjudge the battery on account of<br />

low state-of-charge. Many batteries are<br />

replaced when they should have been<br />

recharged, while others are given a clean<br />

bill of health when it should have been<br />

replaced.<br />

Acid stratification is difficult to measure,<br />

even with the EIS technology. Noninvasive<br />

testers simply take a snapshot,<br />

average the measurements and spit out<br />

the results. Stratified batteries tend to<br />

show higher state-of-charge readings<br />

because of elevated voltage. On<br />

preliminary tests, the Spectro CA-12 also<br />

shows slightly higher CCA and capacity<br />

readings than<br />

normal. After<br />

letting the battery<br />

rest, the capacity tends<br />

to normalize. This may be due to<br />

diffusion effects in the stratified as<br />

a result of resting. Little information<br />

is available on how long a stratified<br />

battery needs to rest to improve the<br />

condition, other than to note that<br />

higher temperatures will hasten the<br />

diffusion process.<br />

Ideally, a battery tester should<br />

indicate the level of acid<br />

stratification; sulfation, surface<br />

charge and other such condition<br />

and display how to correct the<br />

problem. This feature is not yet<br />

possible. Much research is being<br />

done in finding a solution that offers<br />

a more complete battery evaluation<br />

without the need for a full discharge.<br />

The knowledge gained on lead<br />

acid batteries can then be applied<br />

to other battery systems, such as<br />

traction, military, marine, aviation<br />

and stationary batteries.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 29

Technology<br />

Despite technology advancements,<br />

where do we stand with car safety?<br />

Safety features like forward collision warning and automatic<br />

emergency braking help drivers avoid them<br />

more than 300,000 lives have been<br />

saved because of them.<br />

Even today, seat-belt technology<br />

continues to evolve to make passengers<br />

safer. Two parts of a seat belt that work<br />

during a crash are the pretensioner and<br />

the limiter. The pretensioner pulls the belt<br />

tight so you don’t fly forward, and the<br />

load limiter lets out a little bit of slack<br />

so that you don’t get hurt by the belt.<br />

All this great technology isn’t standard<br />

on all cars and isn’t always available in<br />

backseats. It shouldn’t be a luxury option.<br />

Advances in technology are<br />

making cars safer than ever<br />

before, but not everyone has<br />

access to these lifesaving features. And<br />

did you know that 9 out of every 10<br />

serious crashes are linked to driver<br />

error?<br />

Safety features like forward collision<br />

warning and automatic emergency<br />

braking help drivers avoid them. But<br />

these safety features are standard only<br />

in 44 percent of <strong>2019</strong> model cars.<br />

Consumer Reports would like to see all<br />

cars have lifesaving technology.<br />

These systems are so important that<br />

Consumer Reports factors them into<br />

their ratings and would like more<br />

vehicles to have them as standard<br />

equipment. But the rollout has been<br />

slow. And CR says slow-to-market safety<br />

technology is all too common.<br />

Take a look at seat belts. Consumer<br />

Reports tested them in 1956, but it took<br />

more than 10 years for the government<br />

to require them on all cars. Since 1960,<br />

So what’s next for safety? Consumer<br />

Reports says we might be looking to<br />

the cloud to keep us safe on the roads.<br />

Vehicle to vehicle technology, or V2V,<br />

allows cars to communicate with each<br />

other and coordinate traffic signals to<br />

help avoid crashes. And automakers<br />

and tech companies say that self-driving<br />

cars could be the Holy Grail of highway<br />

safety, working to reduce or even<br />

eliminate crashes all together. But CR<br />

says fully self-driving cars are still years or<br />

even decades away.<br />

30 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 31

Auto Garage<br />

How often do I need to<br />

change my Brake Fluid<br />

This leaves it up to the owner to consult what the<br />

manufacturer says in their car’s maintenance schedule<br />

and rely on the advice of a trusted repair shop<br />

The recommended intervals for<br />

changing brake fluid are all over<br />

the board depending on the<br />

manufacturer, from as often as every<br />

two years to actually never. Wait, never?<br />

Really, never.<br />

For example, Chevrolet calls for a<br />

brake fluid change on most models<br />

every 45,000 miles, but Honda says<br />

to do it every three years regardless<br />

of the vehicle’s mileage. Three years<br />

is also the recommended interval for<br />

most Volkswagens, but Mercedes-Benz<br />

vehicles typically call for fresh fluid<br />

every two years or 20,000 miles. In<br />

contrast, on the Ford Escape, Hyundai<br />

Elantra, Toyota Camry and other models<br />

from those manufacturers, there are<br />

no recommendations for replacing the<br />

brake fluid, only instructions to inspect it<br />

periodically.<br />

This leaves it up to the owner to consult<br />

what the manufacturer says in their car’s<br />

maintenance schedule and rely on the<br />

advice of a trusted repair shop.<br />

Brake fluid lives in a sealed system and<br />

can survive for years, but moisture from<br />

the surrounding air can work its way in<br />

through hoses and other parts of the<br />

brake system. If your brake fluid has<br />

become dirty or contaminated, it can<br />

change how your brake system operates<br />

— brake pedal feel can be affected, as<br />

32 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

can heat dissipation in repeated stops.<br />

Water in the brake lines lowers the<br />

boiling point of the fluid, so stopping<br />

ability can diminish in hard stops as heat<br />

in the system increases. In addition,<br />

over time the moisture can<br />

cause internal corrosion<br />

in the brake lines,<br />

calipers, the master<br />

cylinder and other<br />

components.<br />

Flushing and<br />

replacing<br />

brake fluid<br />

might<br />

cost $100<br />

or less<br />

on many<br />

vehicles,<br />

but replacing<br />

rusted brake<br />

lines, brake<br />

calipers and other<br />

brake parts can run<br />

several hundreds of dollars,<br />

so clearly there’s value in<br />

keeping up with maintenance. As a<br />

rule of thumb, it’s wise to have the brake<br />

fluid inspected and tested for moisture<br />

content every few years, and no more<br />

than every five if you live in a highhumidity<br />

area. Drivers living in areas that<br />

get winter weather should also inspect<br />

their brake system frequently, as salt<br />

and other contaminants can get into the<br />

brake fluid.<br />

You might be able to tell it’s time for<br />

a change by looking to see if the fluid<br />

is still fresh in the brake fluid reservoir,<br />

usually sitting on top of the master<br />

cylinder under the hood of your vehicle.<br />

Brake fluid is often light brown in<br />

color, and in some vehicles it’s clear<br />

(at least when new) but will darken<br />

with age, becoming murky from water<br />

contamination. A better way is to have it<br />

tested by a professional for moisture and<br />

see what they recommend. Oftentimes<br />

you can have this service performed at<br />

the same place that performs a rapid oil<br />

change. Since the technician is already<br />

Auto Garage<br />

poking around under the hood, it’s easy<br />

for them to take a sample and inspect all<br />

of your vehicle’s fluids.<br />

Brake fluid is as vital to stopping a vehicle<br />

as engine oil is to keeping it going, but<br />

it doesn’t get as much attention as it<br />

deserves.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 33

Review<br />

Kia may launch electric Picanto<br />

Kia could launch an electric<br />

version of the Picanto minicar if<br />

the automaker can find ways to<br />

reduce costs to make the car affordable.<br />

A battery-powered Picanto will be “a<br />

big challenge,” said Emilio Herrera, Kia<br />

Motor Europe’s chief oprating officer. “But<br />

sooner or later, we will have to do it.”<br />

Automakers are rethinking small-car<br />

strategy in Europe in response to tougher<br />

European Union emissions limits that will<br />

force them to add costly new technology<br />

to cars that already bring in low profits.<br />

Ford will stop selling its Ka+ in the region<br />

while Opel is dropping its Karl and Adam<br />

models.<br />

Volkswagen Group is expected to replace<br />

its VW Up, Skoda Citigo and Seat Mii<br />

internal combustion cars with battery only<br />

models. Seat has been tasked developing<br />

small EVs for the group that will cost less<br />

than 20,000 euros.<br />

At the Frankfurt auto show this month,<br />

Renault said it is working to launch a<br />

10,000-euro electric vehicle in Europe<br />

within five years.<br />

Herrera said he is skeptical that Renault<br />

will achieve the goal. “I think that is a very<br />

bold statement because one of the most<br />

challenging things we have is to make all<br />

EVs profitable. And the smaller the car,<br />

the more complicated it is. So to have a<br />

10,000-euro EV in that time frame, I see<br />

it very challenging and not very realistic,”<br />

said Herrera.<br />

Despite this, Herrera said Kia is looking<br />

into the possibility of an electric Picanto.<br />

“There’s nothing confirmed yet, but we<br />

are really looking at it,” he said. He gave<br />

no time frame for a decision.<br />

The price of the current Picanto with a<br />

gasoline engine starts at 10,290 euros in<br />

Germany but drops to 10,000 euros with<br />

discounts, Herrera said. A fully equipped<br />

version can sell for more than 17,000<br />

euros. A Picanto EV would currently cost<br />

close to 20,000 euros, he said.<br />

Herrera said Kia needs to reduce<br />

production costs for a Picanto EV to<br />

34 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

Review<br />

16,000 to 17,000 euros. Kia could<br />

try to find synergies with sister brand<br />

Hyundai if it wanted to produce an<br />

electric version of its i10 minicar, Herrera<br />

said.<br />

Herrera said automakers should not<br />

count on government incentives that<br />

boost EV sales by reducing the price<br />

differences between internal-combustionengine<br />

and battery electric vehicles.<br />

In five years, those incentives may be<br />

gone because so many EVs will be on<br />

the road that it will be too costly for<br />

governments to offer subsidies, he said.<br />

Why would Kia take up such a difficult<br />

challenge? “Because mini and small cars<br />

are so important in Europe. In countries<br />

such as Italy they account for 50 percent<br />

of the market, so I think we will have to<br />

have a battery electric minicar,” Herrera<br />

said.<br />

According to JATO Dynamics data, the<br />

mini- and small-car segments together<br />

command 26% of the EU market.<br />

Kia’s goal is to have an electric car “in<br />

almost every main segment,” Herrera said.<br />

Kia currently sells electric versions of the<br />

Soul and the Niro small crossovers in<br />

Europe. Kia will sell about 20,000 of the<br />

two EVs in Europe this year and plans to<br />

double that figure in 2020, Herrera said.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 35

Review<br />

Nissan gives dealers a look<br />

at compact crossover EV<br />

The Japanese automaker has been lapped by rivals<br />

with EVs that boast longer range and more power<br />

Nissan introduced the first massmarket,<br />

battery-powered electric<br />

vehicle in the U.S. — the Leaf<br />

— nearly a decade ago. But despite that<br />

head start, the Japanese automaker has<br />

been lapped by rivals with EVs that boast<br />

longer range and more power.<br />

Hoping to catch up, Nissan is preparing<br />

to launch a second EV in the U.S.,<br />

a crossover with greater range and<br />

power than the Leaf, as well as updated<br />

technologies.<br />

The EV, expected to arrive in the U.S. in<br />

the second half of 2021, would be one<br />

of eight battery-powered models Nissan<br />

is planning globally in the next few years.<br />

At a dealer meeting last month, Nissan<br />

gave its U.S. retailers their first look at the<br />

EV, which is being developed on a new<br />

platform.<br />

According to dealers who saw the vehicle,<br />

the five-seater has a 300-mile range and<br />

can go from 0 to 60 mph in under 5<br />

seconds.<br />

The crossover is described as a compact,<br />

and has the exterior proportions of a<br />

compact Rogue but the interior space<br />

of a midsize Murano, according to the<br />

dealers. Nissan declined to share details<br />

of the planned model.<br />

Nissan’s second EV will launch into a<br />

market that is getting more crowded as<br />

several automakers, including Jaguar,<br />

Audi and Tesla, are moving aggressively<br />

into electric crossovers, while Ford and<br />

General Motors have vowed to step up<br />

their EV offerings.<br />

Analysts believe the electric crossover<br />

segment is likely to keep growing for the<br />

next few years.<br />

36 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

Sam Abuelsamid, an analyst at Navigant<br />

Research, said a crossover EV is the right<br />

move for Nissan.<br />

“The market is more likely to want an<br />

electric crossover in 2021 than it is in<br />

<strong>2019</strong>,” Abuelsamid said.<br />

Squandered lead<br />

With a 300-mile range, the planned<br />

vehicle would be competitive in the<br />

nonpremium EV market, said Ed Kim, an<br />

analyst with AutoPacific.<br />

“The importance of range among EV<br />

buyers cannot be overstated,” Kim said.<br />

“Range is one of the top reasons people<br />

reject electric vehicles.”<br />

With a 300-mile range at a “mainstream<br />

price point,” Nissan’s EV will be<br />

competitive with Ford’s upcoming<br />

Mustang-inspired crossover and Tesla’s<br />

Model Y, Kim said.<br />

Review<br />

Nissan was first to market a batterypowered<br />

vehicle with its Leaf hatchback<br />

in 2010. But critics say the automaker<br />

squandered its lead by failing to update<br />

the vehicle’s powertrain and design<br />

quickly and aggressively enough.<br />

The Leaf, while promoted as a feasible<br />

family car, was hobbled by a range of<br />

less than 100 miles in its early years. Not<br />

until this year did Nissan deliver a Leaf<br />

with a competitive 226-mile range.<br />

Inside, Nissan’s IMx concept focuses on<br />

flexibility<br />

Nissan also stuck with a single body<br />

style for most of a decade. The second<br />

generation launched in 2017 with a<br />

carryover platform wearing mostly new<br />

sheet metal and glass, but with its range<br />

bested by the Chevrolet Bolt EV that<br />

launched before it.<br />

Abuelsamid said that by 2015, the<br />

compact hatchback segment was<br />

shrinking. “They should have had some<br />

alternative body style — even based<br />

on the same platform — to offer to<br />

consumers.”<br />

The new crossover is loosely based on<br />

the IMx concept that Nissan unveiled at<br />

the 2017 Tokyo auto show. A closerto-production<br />

concept is expected to be<br />

shown next month at the Tokyo show.<br />

The specifics of its battery capacity were<br />

not disclosed at the dealer meeting.<br />

Based on the range, the crossover could<br />

have a 75 to 85 kilowatt-hour battery.<br />

Digital dashboard<br />

One dealer who saw the vehicle told<br />

<strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> that it has a roomy<br />

passenger cabin, with a “futuristic” look<br />

that is “like nothing on the market.”<br />

The cockpit features a <strong>digital</strong> dashboard<br />

that stays hidden until the vehicle is<br />

turned on.<br />

“When you get in the car, all you see is<br />

a pulsating start button,” a dealer said.<br />

Pushing the start button brings the highresolution<br />

display to life.<br />

The design reflects an industry trend to<br />

use touch-sensitive buttons in place of<br />

traditional dials and knobs. Like the new<br />

Porsche Taycan and Tesla Model 3, the<br />

Nissan crossover has a dashboard devoid<br />

of physical buttons.<br />

The production version of the crossover<br />

has a shorter hood than the IMx concept,<br />

dealers said.<br />

ProPilot 2.0<br />

The crossover should receive the next<br />

generation of Nissan’s ProPilot semiautonomous<br />

driving technology. The<br />

new iteration, available first in Japan,<br />

promises no-hands, auto-navigating<br />

highway driving from on-ramp to offramp,<br />

with the ability to automatically<br />

pass cars along the way. The 2.0<br />

version makes advances over the firstgeneration<br />

ProPilot, which doesn’t allow<br />

for hands-free driving or take orders<br />

from the navigation system to drive to a<br />

destination.<br />

But before the 2.0 system can be offered<br />

in the U.S., Nissan must obtain detailed<br />

<strong>digital</strong> mapping of the United States. The<br />

technology relies on 3D, high-definition<br />

highway maps for centimeter-level<br />

precision. Nissan’s U.S. tech center is<br />

testing ProPilot 2.0 for local needs.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 37

Review<br />

Volvo’s Polestar EV brand<br />

designed to do things differently<br />

Electric vehicles typically adopt a skateboard design, with<br />

their bulky battery packs lying flat under the floor<br />

Volvo- affiliated Polestar’s first<br />

battery-electric sedan will feature<br />

a design element that is the<br />

antithesis of an EV—a transmission<br />

tunnel. The tunnel has nothing to do with<br />

a transmission, of course. Instead, it’s a<br />

battery storage area, housing some of the<br />

324 rectangular pouch cells that power<br />

the Polestar 2.<br />

The design choice is functional and<br />

aesthetic. Electric vehicles typically adopt<br />

a skateboard design, with their bulky<br />

battery packs lying flat under the floor.<br />

But that adds to the height of the vehicle,<br />

which compromises aerodynamics<br />

and driving range, said Polestar Design<br />

Chief Maximilian Missoni at Volvo’s<br />

Hällered Proving Ground an hour from<br />

Gothenburg.<br />

By removing batteries from the rear-seat<br />

footwells, designers were able to lower<br />

the height of the Polestar 2 and create<br />

a “sleek fastback silhouette,” Missoni<br />

said this month on the sidelines of the<br />

facility’s handling track. The battery<br />

layout also allows passengers to sit more<br />

comfortably, while the tunnel design acts<br />

like a raised center console and gives the<br />

performance sedan a cockpitlike interior.<br />

The car will likely reach the U.S. in mid-<br />

2020. And its design reflects Polestar’s<br />

willingness to do things differently —<br />

from its minimalist, tech-focused interior<br />

design to its unconventional retail<br />

strategy.<br />

Polestar, owned by Zhejiang Geely<br />

Holding Group, is Volvo’s response to the<br />

BMW M and Mercedes AMG subbrands,<br />

and the challenger has a lot riding on the<br />

five-seat fastback.<br />

The Polestar 2 is crucial to achieving<br />

Polestar CEO Thomas Ingenlath’s goal<br />

of making the brand profitable in five to<br />

seven years and reaching annual global<br />

sales of more than 100,000. Polestar<br />

expects to build about 50,000 Polestar<br />

2s in its first full year.<br />

“Polestar 2 is the car that will define<br />

the brand,” Polestar COO Jonathan<br />

Goodman at the auto company’s boxy,<br />

three-story headquarters building here.<br />

The $63,000 sedan is part of an<br />

ambitious product portfolio for Polestar,<br />

bookended on the other side by the<br />

$155,000 limited-run plug-in hybrid<br />

Polestar 1 coupe. Other models will<br />

slot in between, including the Polestar<br />

3, a crossover coupe based on the next<br />

generation of Volvo’s Scalable Product<br />

Architecture platform. Production of that<br />

vehicle will begin at the end of 2021,<br />

with U.S. arrival in summer 2022.<br />

Sedan strategic<br />

“Polestar is the right brand at the right<br />

time,” Goodman said. “The battle for us<br />

over the next 12 to 18 months is to get<br />

the notoriety out there, to be impactful<br />

with the marketing and events that we do,<br />

38 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

and create the level of interest that we<br />

require to get to the volume objectives<br />

that we’ve got.”<br />

Review<br />

While launching a sedan in a crossovermad<br />

world might seems counterintuitive,<br />

Polestar executives point to the sales<br />

success of Tesla’s Model 3 as proof of<br />

demand for a high-performance, welldesigned<br />

electric sedan.<br />

Polestar’s choice to go with a sedan was<br />

also strategic. Established automakers<br />

such as Jaguar, Volkswagen and<br />

Mercedes-Benz are already focused<br />

on the electric crossover segment. The<br />

Swedish newcomer would prefer to avoid<br />

that knife fight for now.<br />

“I’m very pleased to be launching a<br />

fastback car which offers an alternative to<br />

the Tesla Model 3, where there will be no<br />

other alternative for the next 18 months,”<br />

Goodman said. “Sometimes, it’s quite nice<br />

to be not like everybody else.”<br />

Goodman is confident Polestar has nailed<br />

the timing, as EVs capture customer<br />

imagination and charging infrastructure is<br />

expanding. EVs are expected to account<br />

for 57 percent of global passenger car<br />

sales, or 56 million vehicles, by 2040,<br />

according to Bloomberg New Energy<br />

Finance.<br />

“We have no legacy to worry about,”<br />

Goodman said. “If I’m a big OEM, one of<br />

the things I would have to wrestle with is,<br />

‘How do I promote my electric vehicles<br />

while at the same time doing 80 percent<br />

of my volume with more traditional<br />

engines?’ We are all-in on electrics, so<br />

we can be very unequivocal in what we<br />

say about the cars and how we believe in<br />

them.”<br />

At the same time, Polestar is itself part of<br />

an old established automaker in Volvo,<br />

which offers Polestar deep pockets and<br />

resources — in addition to having entree<br />

into the Chinese market through Geely.<br />

“We can be in China, we can be in<br />

Europe, we can be in the U.S. at the same<br />

time,” Goodman said.<br />

U.S. rollout<br />

One thing Polestar doesn’t have is a<br />

solution to global trade tensions. Those<br />

could confound the upstart’s global<br />

ambitions — especially its U.S. rollout.<br />

The company plans to build its vehicles<br />

in China, which is in a tit-for-tat tariff war<br />

with the U.S. The Trump administration<br />

has threatened to levy tariffs of up to 25<br />

percent on an additional $300 billion<br />

worth of goods imported from China.<br />

Company executives said they’ve priced<br />

their vehicles to factor in current U.S.<br />

tariffs on China-made vehicles. But if<br />

tariffs change, “We’ll have to reevaluate<br />

everything,” Polestar USA chief Gregor<br />

Hembrough.<br />

Geographically diversifying production<br />

would offer some insulation from a U.S.-<br />

China trade war, but Goodman waved<br />

away that prospect. “As soon as you start<br />

doing that, you’re into double tooling,<br />

and the costs are very high,” he said.<br />

There have been about 2,000 preorders<br />

for the Polestar 2 globally since<br />

reservations opened in late February. The<br />

company declined to say how many of<br />

those reservations are from the U.S. but<br />

noted early interest is coming from EVfriendly<br />

California and the Northeast.<br />

The U.S. marketing offensive, which<br />

begins next month, will be more snipershot<br />

than spray-and-pray. Don’t expect<br />

a Polestar commercial during the Super<br />

Bowl, Hembrough said. “This is not going<br />

to be a brand for the masses,” he said.<br />

Starting in July, Polestar will launch<br />

“highly experiential type of activities,”<br />

such as a roadshow where the public will<br />

have an opportunity to interact with the<br />

vehicle. Test drives will not be offered<br />

initially.<br />

The Polestar 2 is benchmarked against<br />

the Tesla Model 3, but Hembrough<br />

doesn’t expect to lure Tesla customers in<br />

the near term. “Model 3 owners are only<br />

12 to 14 months into their ownership,”<br />

he said. “I don’t think they are going to<br />

be defecting at this early stage.”<br />

More likely poaches, Hembrough said,<br />

will be owners of the BMW 3 series, Audi<br />

A4 and Mercedes-Benz C class who are<br />

curious about an electric powertrain.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 39

Motorbike<br />

Kawasaki will launch a 4-wheel<br />

motorcycle<br />

The introduction of graphene in electric motorcycle batteries, will allow greater<br />

autonomy and also offer a remarkable quality standard<br />

The Kawasaki J Concept will come<br />

true, this time as a four-wheeled<br />

motorcycle model, after confirmed<br />

by the brand’s responsibles in Italy.<br />

Rarely do the leaders of the brands<br />

make statements as juicy as those made<br />

by Sergio Vicarelli and Giovanni Poli,<br />

Director of Sales and Marketing and<br />

Technical Director of Kawasaki Italia,<br />

respectively.<br />

The interview granted to fellow Italian<br />

Motorcyclists , runs through certain<br />

paths around the Kawasaki Z400,<br />

differences with previous models and<br />

other commercial matters. However, the<br />

most interesting comes in the last two<br />

questions. First, there is talk of Kawasaki’s<br />

advances in the electric mobility segment<br />

, in which the brand does not deny<br />

certain investigations, although especially<br />

with a view to the year 2030 or the<br />

introduction of graphene in electric<br />

motorcycle batteries, which will allow<br />

greater autonomy and also offer a<br />

remarkable quality standard.<br />

Finally, comes the pump as Vicarelli<br />

announced that “we have a project …<br />

four wheels” also “hit the market in the<br />

future relatively near “ . This leads us<br />

to recover the Kawasaki J Concept , a<br />

prototype that the brand already showed<br />

in 2013 and that last year showed us<br />

again in a video. As if that were not<br />

enough, we discovered that Akashi’s firm<br />

had registered a patent with a tiltable<br />

front axle that could be used for a threewheeled<br />

motorcycle … or four-wheeler.<br />

So, we look forward to more information<br />

about the Kawasaki J Concept street<br />

successor . Will it be a future rival of the<br />

Yamaha Niken or rather a more urban GT<br />

vehicle like the Qooder?<br />

40 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

Taiwan exports electric off-road<br />

motorbike to Europe<br />

Motorbike<br />

In addition to prominent brands<br />

Gogoro and Kymco, Taiwanese<br />

company Otto Bike Co., Ltd. exports<br />

electric off-road motorbikes to Europe.<br />

The company, based in Taipei City’s Xizhi<br />

District, launched its electric products in<br />

2014.<br />

show in Italy, but this summer Taiwanese<br />

enthusiasts would have the opportunity<br />

of trying out the machine in Pingtung<br />

County’s scenic Dapeng Bay area, the<br />

Liberty Times reported.<br />

Its latest model is the electric off-road<br />

bike known as the MCR II, which stands<br />

for Mini City Racer.<br />

The bike’s batteries allow it a maximum<br />

radius of 220 kilometers with a maximum<br />

speed of 105 kilometers per hour,<br />

according to the Liberty Times.<br />

In addition to sophisticated brakes,<br />

Google Maps and a keyless ignition, the<br />

bike also has cameras installed back and<br />

front, allowing live broadcasting of one’s<br />

ride, Otto Bike said.<br />

Over the past two years, the bike was<br />

presented to visitors of the Milan car<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 41

Motorbike<br />

Ducati are working on the ‘perfect<br />

electric bike’<br />

As with most manufacturers, electric<br />

bikes are clearly part of Ducati’s<br />

future, but for a business so<br />

focused on racing, it’s difficult to know<br />

what direction they will take.<br />

“We’re still developing our production<br />

bikes with the aim of being the best on<br />

the track,” Zampieri told MCN. “But with<br />

electric the difficulty is a compromise<br />

between weight and performance or<br />

range.<br />

“Today the whole package is not as<br />

good as we would like it to be, because<br />

the energy density that you can store is<br />

not high enough. The main challenge,<br />

technically, is reaching our performance<br />

and weight targets.”<br />

Does the ‘Zero’ give a clue to future<br />

Ducatis?<br />

He continued: “Being a company that is<br />

usually state of the art, we could arrive<br />

(with a product) that’s state of the art or<br />

even better than all of our competitors.<br />

The problem is: is now the right moment?<br />

It’s a small market and we’re still trying to<br />

understand when it’ll be ready for such<br />

innovation.”<br />

It’s a problem not dissimilar to the one<br />

Ducati faced a few years ago when their<br />

V-twin superbike had reached the end of<br />

its lifespan and increasing performance<br />

was nigh-on impossible.<br />

The solution was to move to a V4, but<br />

how would enthusiasts react after 50<br />

years of V-twins? “The V4 choice was<br />

similar,” says Zampieri. “We had a lot of<br />

discussions about whether our customers<br />

would appreciate it or not. Now we are<br />

having similar discussions.<br />

“You try to push the customer but need<br />

to know if they like it or not. Would our<br />

customers appreciate an electric bike? Is it<br />

the right moment for them?<br />

Electric student racer also had help<br />

from Ducati<br />

“Today they want a V4. The big question<br />

is: will they want it tomorrow, the day<br />

after tomorrow or later still? One day<br />

Ducati customers will ask for an electric<br />

Ducati, the difficult part is knowing when.<br />

We know how long it takes to develop a<br />

good bike. We are already drawing what<br />

the perfect electric bike is. The problem is:<br />

when do we want to bring it out?”<br />

Ducati’s other <strong>issue</strong>, of course, is<br />

maintaining the ‘Italian stallion’ dream;<br />

a bike that’s bad-tempered, clatters and<br />

boils your bits but is all worth it when<br />

42 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

you twist the throttle. Electric bikes have<br />

none of that.<br />

“It is a challenge, but I’m confident we<br />

can make an electric bike that’s pure<br />

Ducati with pure Ducati character,” he<br />

added. “And if we look outside, Harley-<br />

Davidson for example, they’re starting<br />

from a situation that’s probably worse. If<br />

they’re able to shape a product and give<br />

it character, I’m confident we can do the<br />

same or better.”<br />

“I grew up a petrolhead, kids are not like<br />

this” – Pierluigi Zampieri, Ducati Head of<br />

Innovation<br />

A challenge facing every bike<br />

manufacturer is how to energise young<br />

people. If today’s 15-year-olds don’t have<br />

a motorcycle poster on their bedroom<br />

wall, it’s game over for Ducati by the time<br />

they’re 30. Zampieri’s face echoes the<br />

grimace of a many CEOs.<br />

“This we discuss every day. It’s a big<br />

challenge. I grew up a petrolhead. Young<br />

people are not like this now. Trying<br />

to keep this interest alive in the next<br />

generations is so important.<br />

“In the last five-ten years more has<br />

changed than in the previous 50. There’s<br />

electrification, digitisation and the sharing<br />

economy. The internet has changed<br />

everything about customer behaviour.<br />

Each day it becomes more and more<br />

difficult to find the right path for the<br />

future of a company.<br />

“Today a Ducati is an object you like<br />

to own. The challenge is to make it so<br />

Motorbike<br />

interesting you want to do the same<br />

tomorrow. We need to keep people’s<br />

passion alive; we cannot take it for<br />

granted.”<br />

“I grew up a<br />

petrolhead, kids<br />

are not like this” –<br />

Pierluigi Zampieri,<br />

Ducati Head of<br />

Innovation<br />

“Today a Ducati is an object you like to own. The challenge is to make it so interesting<br />

you want to do the same tomorrow. We need to keep people’s passion alive; we<br />

cannot take it for granted.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 43

Safety Tips<br />

Caught up in a sinking car?<br />

What to do<br />

More common occurrences include being swept off the<br />

road in a flash flood as a result of a natural disaster<br />

The need to escape from a sinking<br />

vehicle is a rarity. According to<br />

available data less than one-half of<br />

1% of all auto crashes involve submersion.<br />

Yet, it does happen, and we need to<br />

ask the question whether we would be<br />

able to survive such an experience?<br />

With enough know-how, survival is definitely<br />

possible and we need to equip motorists<br />

with information that will enable<br />

them to survive. Motorists seldom have<br />

to confront a bridge collapsing underneath<br />

them and the risks are more often<br />

associated with cars driving off quay-sides<br />

or into rivers. Also included are problems<br />

that arise when the parking brake isn’t<br />

applied properly with cars simply rolling<br />

down embankments into lakes or rivers.<br />

More common occurrences include being<br />

swept off the road in a flash flood as a<br />

result of a natural disaster. It is important<br />

to acknowledge that not all experts agree<br />

on all the survival tips and the precise<br />

sequence of escape – but there are some<br />

common threads that need to be identified<br />

and learnt from. On balance, it seems<br />

that the best course of action is to try<br />

and get out as soon as possible.<br />

What to expect from a sinking<br />

vehicle?<br />

• The speed at which a car will sink<br />

depends on several factors, including<br />

the distance of the fall, speed<br />

and angle of entry and the physical<br />

characteristics of the vehicle.<br />

• Most entries of vehicles into the<br />

water are smooth entries with the<br />

water cushioning the blow. Most<br />

people survive the initial impact with<br />

minimal or no injury at all.<br />

• If you remain relatively calm there<br />

should be enough time for you to<br />

take action to save your life and the<br />

lives of your passengers.<br />

• Newer cars that are better at keeping<br />

sound out will likely also be better at<br />

keeping water out.<br />

• Most vehicles will float for a minute<br />

or two before beginning to sink. Cars<br />

usually sink at an angle, with the<br />

weight of the engine pulling down<br />

the front first. A rear-engine car sinks<br />

trunk-first.<br />

• It is possible that the vehicle might<br />

flip onto its roof in deeper water.<br />

• In a test in a controlled environment<br />

experts from the police tried to sink<br />

a car and were surprised to find that<br />

it took 5 minutes for the vehicle to<br />

sink.<br />

• In a car that sinks front first, there<br />

will be a bubble of air in the back,<br />

but you should stay in the front …<br />

the front windows are often bigger<br />

and easier to get out of — for all<br />

passengers.<br />

•<br />

Vehicle sinking characteristics<br />

An upright floating vehicle may take<br />

2–4 min to completely submerge below<br />

the water surface, however occupants<br />

have only one minute (The Flotation<br />

Phase) during which escape is possible.<br />

During this period, water is rising against<br />

the doors, preventing them from being<br />

opened, however windows can still be<br />

opened and occupants can exit through<br />

them. After the first minute or so, the water<br />

rises up against the windows exerting<br />

enough pressure to prevent them from<br />

being opened as well (Sinking Phase).<br />

From this point on, although there is still<br />

air in the passenger compartment, none<br />

of the doors or windows can be opened<br />

and the occupants are confined to death<br />

through drowning.<br />

Cars and pickup trucks are inherently<br />

stable in the upright position because of<br />

the mass and low position, of the motor.<br />

Therefore, if passenger vehicles land in<br />

the water upside down, and the windows<br />

are closed and remain intact, the vehicles<br />

will eventually right themselves by rolling<br />

in the x axis. Likewise, vehicles landing<br />

in water at a steep pitch (angled in the y<br />

axis) will also eventually settle in the upright<br />

position. Even at a steep pitch of up<br />

to 60° or more, from horizontal, a vehicle<br />

will penetrate the water and then bob<br />

back up in the upright position and enter<br />

the Flotation Phase. All of these factors<br />

need to be considered in the design of<br />

an AWOS.<br />

Field tests<br />

Prototype systems were installed on<br />

two used cars at a gravel pit lake near<br />

Winnipeg, Canada. All fluids were drained<br />

from the vehicles and a crane was used<br />

to place the vehicles in the lake either<br />

by lowering them straight down into the<br />

water (static tests) or by swinging the<br />

vehicle into the water to produce forward<br />

movement (dynamic tests).<br />

Upright immersions: In both static<br />

and dynamic tests, the windows opened<br />

immediately and effectively when the vehicles<br />

landed upright in the water. In each<br />

case the windows were open before water<br />

rose to the level of the windows and this<br />

would have provided time for occupants<br />

to exit before water flowed into the passenger<br />

compartment.<br />

Inverted immersions: One test vehicle<br />

was statically lowered into the water in an<br />

inverted position. The windows opened<br />

quickly and the vehicle sank quickly while<br />

remaining in the inverted position. In this<br />

scenario, escape would have been unlikely<br />

due to a combination of the short time<br />

available and being in a disorientating<br />

inverted position.<br />

Basic Survival Tips<br />

44 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

1. Staying calm<br />

• Experts agree that before you leap<br />

into action you should take a few<br />

deep breaths and calm yourself<br />

down.<br />

• Making educated decisions could<br />

mean the difference between life and<br />

death.<br />

• Once you have panicked you can’t<br />

think clearly, you can’t focus and you<br />

won’t be able to save yourself.<br />

• Staying calm and helping any<br />

passengers to stay calm is the single<br />

most important thing you can do to<br />

survive a car sinking in water.<br />

2. Seatbelt<br />

• Many people fear that if they are<br />

wearing a seatbelt they will not<br />

be able to unbuckle it and will be<br />

trapped in the vehicle.<br />

• This fear is however unfound – A<br />

seatbelt is designed for quick release,<br />

and without it there is nothing to<br />

hold you in place, nothing to keep<br />

your head from slamming into the<br />

steering wheel or dashboard. (Hitting<br />

water at speed is comparable to<br />

hitting a wall.)<br />

• If you were knocked unconscious<br />

you would be helpless. You wouldn’t<br />

have a chance to save yourself, let<br />

alone help anyone else. If you and<br />

any passengers are wearing seatbelts,<br />

chances of survival are much greater.<br />

• The first instinct may be to unbuckle<br />

your seat belt and try to escape, but<br />

experts warn that passengers should<br />

first check their surroundings.<br />

• You want to make sure the impact<br />

is over before you take off your seat<br />

belt. This might include the possibility<br />

of other cars or foreign objects<br />

heading toward the vehicle.<br />

• If a belt won’t release, find something<br />

with which to cut it.<br />

• Unbuckling your seat belt will allow<br />

greater freedom of movement.<br />

• Be aware that the seatbelts might not<br />

retract; take care not to get tangled.<br />

• If your head restraints are removable,<br />

pull them out when you release your<br />

seatbelt to enable easy passage for<br />

rear passengers.<br />

3. Opening windows / doors<br />

• Once a vehicle sinks it may turn<br />

sideways or upside down.<br />

• Occupants who are not buckled in<br />

with a seat belt will<br />

float within the vehicle<br />

and can easily<br />

become disoriented.<br />

It then becomes<br />

extremely difficult<br />

for them to find the<br />

windows or door<br />

handles.<br />

• If you remain in<br />

your seated position<br />

(as you will if your<br />

seatbelt remains<br />

fastened) you will<br />

retain your orientation regardless of<br />

what position the vehicle is in.<br />

• In some instances, the vehicle will<br />

sink quickly and you won’t have time<br />

to roll down the windows. Again,<br />

stay calm, unbuckle your seat belt<br />

and check on passengers.<br />

• If you are sinking rapidly, you need<br />

to wait for the water pressure inside<br />

the vehicle to become equal to the<br />

pressure outside.<br />

• Even though it might sound strange,<br />

it might be best to let the vehicle<br />

sink further and wait until things settle.<br />

Let the vehicle fill up with more<br />

water before attempting to open a<br />

window or door.<br />

• This is because water rushing against<br />

a vehicle weighs thousands of<br />

pounds.<br />

• Trying to open a door or window<br />

with that kind of pressure wastes<br />

valuable time and energy. And if you<br />

were successful, the onrush of water<br />

most likely would push you away,<br />

even pin you under the dash.<br />

• It’s only when internal pressure is<br />

equal to outside pressure that you<br />

can open the car door.<br />

• When you are ready to open a door,<br />

the recommendation is to always<br />

choose a door on the side away<br />

from the water flow. It’s much easier<br />

to open a door on the down river<br />

side of flowing water.<br />

• Once you have escaped via the door<br />

or an open window the next best<br />

thing might be the roof of the vehicle<br />

and to consider from there the safest<br />

way of moving to safety.<br />

Equip yourself with a few necessities<br />

• If the door does not open and the<br />

window does not turn down you<br />

might have to break the window<br />

• This might be t is easier said than<br />

Safety Tips<br />

done – automotive windows are<br />

made of tempered glass which is<br />

extremely strong.<br />

• It takes a concentrated force against<br />

a very small area of the glass to<br />

shatter it.<br />

• If you have a window shattering tool,<br />

use it to break either the side or rear<br />

window to escape.<br />

• Spring-loaded punch has a steel tip<br />

that can shatter a window. Hardware<br />

stores call this an “automatic center<br />

punch” because it’s used to mark<br />

wood or metal before drilling a hole.<br />

• Even though you might not have the<br />

best surviving tools for an “under<br />

water escape” there are everyday<br />

tools that might help you to shatter<br />

the window.<br />

• An old spark plug, kept in your glove<br />

compartment, is heavy and strong<br />

enough to break a window.<br />

Golden safety rules<br />

It may seem obvious – but don’t try to<br />

save anything except lives. Computers,<br />

phones, purses, jewellery, etc. can be<br />

replaced – you can’t!<br />

What about passengers in the vehicle?<br />

– Before you can save anyone else, you<br />

have to first save yourself!<br />

Once you reach the surface, take a few<br />

seconds to get your bearings, and if you<br />

have the swimming skills, take a deep<br />

breath and go back down. Hopefully, you<br />

can help someone else escape.<br />

Unless there is another person in the car<br />

that you are trying to save, you should<br />

never go back into a vehicle will sink<br />

quickly. There is nothing, short of saving<br />

another person that is worth the risk.<br />

You and your passengers need to focus<br />

on one goal only and that is “to exit the<br />

car as quickly as possible”.<br />

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 45

Advertiser’s Index<br />

1. Asuki Automobiles..................................................................................................................<br />

2. A-MAP............................................................................................................................................<br />

3. Champion Lubes........................................................................................................................<br />

4. Duxone...........................................................................................................................................<br />

5. Honda............................................................................................................................................<br />

6. Hi-REV............................................................................................................................................<br />

7. KV Battery...................................................................................................................................<br />

8. Lubrex Lubricants....................................................................................................................<br />

9. Rovel Lubricants.......................................................................................................................<br />

10. YOU BAT S.r............................................................................................................................<br />

11. Williams Auto Care Products............................................................................................<br />

IFC<br />

pg....11<br />

OBC<br />

IBC<br />

Pg....8<br />

Pg....31<br />

Pg....25<br />

Pg....22<br />

Pg....21<br />

Pg....19<br />

Pg....29<br />

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46 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

<strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong><br />

<strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> 47

48 <strong>Africa</strong> <strong>Automotive</strong> <strong>News</strong> l <strong>2019</strong> <strong>September</strong>-<strong>October</strong> <strong>issue</strong> l <strong>2019</strong>

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