Marine Diesel Engines Improvements on the Efficiency

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Marine Diesel Engines Improvements on the Efficiency

ong>Marineong> ong>Dieselong> ong>Enginesong>

ong>Improvementsong> on the

Efficiency

Agenda:

�CO 2 Challenges & Trends

�Mechanical Efficiency

�Thermal Efficiency

Søren H. Jensen

Director R&D

MAN ong>Dieselong> Low Speed

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU © MAN ong>Dieselong> 2009/05/28 2009/05/14 < 1 >


ong>Marineong> Engine Programme 2009

Two-stroke Propulsion For Tier ll Compliance

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU © MAN ong>Dieselong> 2009/05/28 2


Huge Expansion of Merchant

Fleet - Many New Innovations

6L60ME

7S65ME-C

7S60ME-C 2 x 6S70ME-C

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

12K98MC

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

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The Challenge: Emission

�Half of the world transport of goods is

transported by MD two-stroke engines

�MD has 15.000 engines in order or in

operation

ong>Enginesong> with total power more than 200 GW

– or equivalent to 20 times the Danish power

plant supply!

�The total fuel oil consumption is more than

350 mill. ton yearly– about 3-4% of the world

CO 2 emission!

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

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CO 2 Emission compared with Different

Means of Transportation

Big tank ship

Big container vessel

Rail

Coaster

Truck

Big van

Flight

0

1

3

6

11

49

100 200 300 400

Kilde: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Japan): The Survey on Transport Energy 2001/2002

MOL (Japan): Environmental and Social Report 2004

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU © MAN ong>Dieselong> 2009/05/28 < 5 >

226

398

Units Relative


Emission Reduction

Low Speed ong>Enginesong>

Ship Propulsion Trends (CO2)

• Super long stroke engines in container vessels.

• Reduced speed to decrease fuel costs and CO 2

emission

• Optimizations mechanically as well as thermally

• Waste Heat Recovery

• LNG or LPG as engine fuels

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

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2009/05/28

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Mechanical

output: 48.5%

History and Future for

SFOC and NO x

Standard Engine

Energy in fuel: 100%

Exh..gas 25.1%

Charge air cooling: 17.8%

Turbocharging:

Before T/C : MEP ~ 6-7 bar, Pscav ~ 1.05-1.1 bar with Roots blowers

Today : MEP ~ 20 bar , Pscav ~ 3.8-4 bar with turbochargers

�SFOC = �CO 2 : -25 %

Lub. oil cooling: 3.2%

Jacket water cooling: 4.8%

Radiation: 0.6%

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

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Thermal Efficiency

ong>Dieselong> Working Cycle

MAN B&W K98MC mk 7 PI = 20.2 bar 97 rpm Pmax = 151 bar

Ideal heat release

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

Ideal adiabatic process

800

bar

Fuel injection pressure

rate shaping

350

TDC 10 20

Ideal scavenging

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

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Propulsion Optimization

The Tools

Mechanical Efficiency

Advanced

Materials, Friction &

WP. 7

ADVANCED MATERIALS,

FRICTION AND WEAR

Electronics

and Control

WP. 8

ELECTRONICS

AND CONTROL

Wear

WP. 1

EXTREME PARAMETER

ENGINES

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

Overall

Ship Powertrain Optimization

WP. 6

OVERALL

SHIP POWERTRAIN OPTIMIZATION

Extreme Parameter

ong>Enginesong>

Combustion

WP. 2

COMBUSTION

Exhaust Emission

Reduction

WP. 5

EXHAUST EMISSION

REDUCTION

WP. 3

TURBOCHARGING

Turbocharging

Thermal Efficiency

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

< 9 >


Mechanical Efficiency

Powertrain Optimization

8000 teu container vessel: ME selection for reduced ship speeds/SMCR

Derated 9S90ME-C8 versus 10K98ME7 and 12K98ME-C7

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

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Mechanical Efficiency

Powertrain Optimization

8000 teu container vessel: ME selection for reduced ship speeds/SMCR

Derated 9S90ME-C8 versus 10K98ME7 and 12K98ME-C7

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

11


Mechanical Efficiency

Powertrain Optimization - Friction

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

Piston

Cross head

Connecting rod

Crankshaft

Friction Studies for 2-stroke Applications

Dominating Friction Losses:

�Piston Ring Package

�Guide Shoe Bearing

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Mechanical Efficiency

Low Friction Guide Shoe Bearings

� Crosshead guide height/width: 5 3.2

� Number of oil quills on guide

plan reduced to one

� Frictional loss reduced by

approx. 20%

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

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2009/05/28

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Thermal Efficiency

Electronics & Control - Auto Tuning

Auto Tuning Overall Benefits

� Fuel oil consumption

Reduction potential: 3 g/kWh

Reduction average: 1 g/kWh

� Emission

Potential: 2% CO 2 reduction

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU © MAN ong>Dieselong> 2009/05/28 < 14 >


Thermal Efficiency

Part Load T/C Cut-out

Exhaust gas receiver

Cooler Cooler Cooler

Scavenging air receiver

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

T/C Cut-out:

1 of T/C 1 T/C, → 15% VTA power, Technology only emergency

1 2 T/C of 2 T/C, → 50% VTA power, Technology only emergency

1 of 3 T/C, 66% power

1 of 4 T/C, 75% power

Potential �SFOC ≤ -5 g/kWh (3%)

at part load

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

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Thermal Efficiency

Part Load - Variable Turbine Area

ong>Enginesong> with dynamic load optimization with

the VTA concept

• Scavenging air delivery to be optimized to demand for

scavenging air precisely, steplessly and continuously at

all engine loads and speeds

• VTA minimizes fuel consumption and exhaust

emissions

• Potential �SFOC ≤ -5 g/kWh (3%)

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

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Mechanical

output: 48.5%

Thermal Efficiency

The WHR Principle

Standard Engine

Exh. gas 25.1%

Charge air cooling: 17.8%

Lub. oil cooling: 3.2%

Jacket water cooling: 4.8%

Radiation: 0.6%

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

Mechanical

output: 47.9%

Engine with WHR system

WHR

elec.

output

4.9%

Condenser: 8.6%

Exh. gas 14.7%

Charge air cooling: 15.4%

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

Jacket water cooling: 4.7%

Lub. oil cooling: 3.2%

Radiation: 0.6%

Energy in fuel: 100%

Energy in Power-Turbine fuel: 100% (PT) in parallel with main engine turbochargers

and / or

Steam Turbine (ST) utilizing heat in the exhaust gas after the turbochargers

Up to approx. 10% MCR power can be obtained with full WHR system (PT+ST)

η standard ≈ 50% → η WHR ≈ 55% → η WHR+SAM ≈ 59%

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Thermal Efficiency

The WHR Principle

Reproduced with permission from OSS

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU © MAN ong>Dieselong> 2009/05/28 18


Thermal Efficiency

The WHR Principle

Dual pressure WHR system based on MAN 6S80ME-C9 main engine

(27.06 MW)

P PT = 1390 kW (100%)

n PT = 26900 1/min

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

P ST = 1852 kW (100%)

n ST = 11000 1/min

Power Turbine

Steam Turbine

(MAN ong>Dieselong>) (MAN Turbo)

Gear Box 2

Gear Box 1

(Renk AG)

(Renk AG)

MARC_HRS Turbine Package

Kondensator

Generator

P el = 3 100 kW

n G = 1 800 1/min

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Thermal Efficiency

The WHR Principle

� Size and cost are considerable

� Installation complicated

� Control aspect

� Maintenance Reproduced with permission from OSS

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU © MAN ong>Dieselong> 2009/05/28 20


Thermal Efficiency

Liquid Natural Gas as a Fuel

CO 2 Generation: Heavy Fuel Oil versus Liquid Natural Gas

Heavy Fuel Oil (average from MD database)

� Heat of combustion (lower) 40000 kJ/kg

� C, H 86 wt%, 10-14 wt%,

� S,N,O 0-4 wt%

� Thus, CO 2 generation: 0.080 g CO 2/kJ

Liquid Natural Gas (100% CH 4)

� Heat of combustion (lower) 50000 kJ/kg (Perry’s, 1984)

� C, H 75 wt%, 25 wt%

� Thus, CO 2 generation: 0.055 g CO 2/kJ

� Normal mix: 85% metan, 15% ethan, propan, butan

Thus 30% lower CO2 emission with CH4 LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

compared to HFO

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

2009/05/28

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Thermal Efficiency

Liquid Natural Gas as a Fuel

Specification of ME-GI Engine

- Engine Type : 7S70ME-GI (for LNG ship)

- Engine Power : 22890 kW x 91 rpm

- Fuel Type : Dual Fuel (Natural Gas + Pilot Oil)

- Operation Modes : 1) Fuel Oil Only Mode

2) Minimum Fuel Mode

3) Specified Gas Mode

- SFOC (g/kWh) : Normal mix: 85% metan, 15% ethan, propan, butan

Type

Engine Load

100% 90% 75% 50%

Natural Gas 132.8 130.9 129.1 131.2

Pilot Oil 13.5 13.3 13.1 13.4

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU © MAN ong>Dieselong> 2009/05/28 22


Thermal Efficiency

LNG as a Fuel for non-LNGC

Potential Issues with LNG:

• LNG Tank Location

• LNG Tank Size & Type

• Class & Safety

• Handling of BOG

• LNG Loading Facilities

•Logistics of LNG

LNG Drum

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU

Gas Treatment System

HP Pump

M

Cool down & mini flow line

PC

NG Damper

LNG Vaporizer

PC

© MAN ong>Dieselong>

ME-GI

Engine

2009/05/28

8

< 23 >


ong>Marineong> ong>Dieselong> ong>Enginesong>

ong>Improvementsong> on the

Efficiency

Questions?

Søren H. Jensen

Director R&D

MAN ong>Dieselong> Low Speed

LD/MZP CCCS workshop DTU © MAN ong>Dieselong> 2009/05/28 2009/05/14 < 24 >

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