CPT International 03/2016

The leading technical journal for the global foundry industry – Das führende Fachmagazin für die weltweite Gießerei-Industrie

The leading technical journal for the
global foundry industry – Das führende Fachmagazin für die
weltweite Gießerei-Industrie


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www.giesserei-verlag.de<br />

September<br />

<strong>2016</strong><br />




3<br />

Melt treatment improves<br />

quality, productivity and<br />

melting capacity


Made in Germany –<br />

a success story!<br />

Germany has a worldwide reputation for its great cars, its beer brewing artistry<br />

and its successful world-class football. German engineers and technology<br />

have also been considered pioneering since the industrial revolution in the<br />

19 th century – with the invention of the car, jet propulsion engines and nuclear<br />

fission, for example. While these inventions marked far-reaching technological<br />

upheavals, German engineers have also made their mark on developments<br />

in many other sectors. Such as in foundry technology where, for<br />

example, Dr. Adey first produced cast iron with spheroidal graphite in 1939,<br />

revolutionizing the foundry world. The German foundry industry is now considered<br />

the most productive worldwide, which is not least due to its state-ofthe-art<br />

plant technology and its innovative capability in areas such as sand<br />

preparation, core production, smelting operations and, last but not least, quality<br />

assurance and simulation technology.<br />

CASTING, PLANT & TECHNOLOGY takes these technologies out into the<br />

world: in this issue we focus on, among other things, core production technologies.<br />

We examine the production of cores at the Halberg Guss foundry from<br />

two different perspectives: first we consider the maintenance-free Fibromat<br />

rotary table for transporting parts (from P. 12) then we take a look at the fully<br />

automatic assembly of core packages by 25 Kuka robots (from P. 16)!<br />

Articles on quality assurance form another large section in this issue – from a<br />

sophisticated coating preparation plant (P. 20), through turbo-grinders for wind<br />

turbine castings (P. 24), to cryogenic deburring of non-ferrous parts (P. 28).<br />

German foundries produce top quality in all sizes, as can be seen from the<br />

Siempelkamp foundry in Krefeld: they recently produced the world’s longest<br />

casting made of cast iron with spheroidal graphite for a Czech company (from<br />

P. 30). Another article is dedicated to the production of castings for the energy<br />

transition (from P. 34).<br />

This issue is rounded out by a user report on the TimeLine-Guss ERP/PPS system<br />

in Dutch foundry BUVO Castings in Helmond (from P. 38), and the works<br />

report “Shaping the future with die-casting technology” about KSM Castings<br />

in Hildesheim – a successful example of Chinese-German industrial cooperation<br />

(from P. 40).<br />

Have a good read!<br />

Robert Piterek<br />

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3/<strong>2016</strong> 3



Bosse, Manuel<br />

“Replacing equipment and simulation improves quality automatically” 6<br />


Görke, Hanna Maria; Zille, Jörg Ulrich; Demary, Marc<br />

The impact of grain distribution on molding material parameters 8<br />


Schauder, Thorsten<br />

Rotary table transfer increases reliability in the core production of foundries 12<br />

Schwarzbach, Laura<br />

In perfect harmony 16<br />

Cover-Photo:<br />

Foseco Foundry Division<br />

Vesuvius GmbH<br />

Gelsenkirchener Str. 10<br />

46325 Borken<br />

Tel: + 49 2861 83-0<br />

Fax: + 49 2861 83-338<br />

fosecogermany@vesuvius.com<br />

www.foseco.com<br />

Casting at Foseco's technology center in Borken, Germany.<br />

Note: Please read our Foseco-article on page 20!<br />


Genzler, Christoph; Gruber, Mathias<br />

Customized CPP – Fulfilling demanding customer requirements 20<br />

Wenke, Heiko<br />

Light turbo-grinders for heavy wind-turbine castings 24<br />

Sinner, Ralf<br />

Cryogenic deburring of non ferrous die castings 28<br />

16<br />

30<br />

25 Kuka robots assemble crankcase core packages at Neue<br />

Halberg-Guss. The machines perform all assembly steps<br />

fully automatically and with utmost precision (Photo: Kuka)<br />

XXL foundry production: 23.5 m was the length of the crossbeam<br />

for a 2-column machining center for a Czech company – the longest<br />

casting made of ductile cast iron ever! (Photo: Siempelkamp)


3 | <strong>2016</strong><br />




Weil, Mathias<br />

Longest casting made of ductile cast iron 30<br />

Rieck, Helmut<br />

Energy conversion with Siempelkamp cast components 34<br />


Holzapfel, Matthias<br />

Additional performance through enhanced efficiency 38<br />


Piterek, Robert<br />

Shaping the future with die casting 40<br />


Editorial3<br />

News in brief 48<br />

Brochures56<br />

Fairs and congresses 58<br />

Preview of the next issue/Imprint 59<br />

<br />

40<br />

KSM Castings Group – with plants in Europe, the USA and China – has strengthened its competitive position as an automotive<br />

supplier with a major investment of 13 million euros at its Hildesheim site to increase the added value of its magnesium components<br />

(Photo: Andreas Bednareck)


“Replacing equipment and simulation<br />

improves quality automatically”<br />

Manuel Bosse is environmental and energy management expert of the BDG-Service GmbH in<br />

Düsseldorf, Germany. He played an instrumental role in EffSAFound 2 , a joint German-South<br />

African project dedicated to improve energy and resource efficiency in South African foundries<br />

Photo: BDG/Soschinski<br />

South African foundries have to cope<br />

with high scrap rates and their energy<br />

use is often very inefficient. What<br />

was your impression of the situation<br />

during your visits to South Africa and<br />

what has EffSAFound achieved in this<br />

respect?<br />

Until 2008, the foundries in South Africa<br />

had benefited very much from low<br />

energy prices. Between 2008 and 2011,<br />

the utility company Eskom raised the<br />

electricity price every year by 20 %. At<br />

the same time, the foundries were required<br />

to reduce electricity consumption<br />

by 10 %. The melting furnaces and<br />

molding equipment in the foundries<br />

are quite old. Power consumption had<br />

never been an issue. Furnaces used to<br />

be operated without closing the covers<br />

and the practice of ladle preheating was<br />

the exception and, if practiced at all, it<br />

was done by means of molten metal. 95<br />

% of the furnaces in South Africa are<br />

powered by electricity. All of a sudden,<br />

foundry operators were faced with the<br />

situation that they had to save energy.<br />

Since 2010, there has been a rise in investments<br />

in modern equipment. This<br />

perfectly coincided with our joint project,<br />

which was kicked off in May 2013.<br />

Energy and material efficiency were exactly<br />

our areas of focus. When foundries<br />

replace their obsolete equipment or<br />

start to simulate their processes, quality<br />

will improve automatically. Since<br />

2013/2014, also the issue of material<br />

efficiency has been moving in the focus<br />

of attention. It had been common<br />

practice to simply dump used foundry<br />

sands, but the foundries were faced<br />

with constantly increasing dumping<br />

costs. We made the foundry operators<br />

aware of the possibility of recycling the<br />

sands 30 or even 40 times. We did this<br />

by presenting suitable products and explaining<br />

that the efficient use of material<br />

and energy also provides economic<br />

advantages. The local foundries are<br />

very much under pressure: Since 2005,<br />

the number of foundries has shrunk<br />

from 270 to 170, due to cheap castings<br />

from China sold on the South African<br />

market.<br />

The skills of personnel in South African<br />

foundries leave much to be desired.<br />

Has EffSAFound been able to<br />

render support in this respect?<br />

According to a survey 70 % of the people<br />

working in South African foundries<br />

have never gone to school or only<br />

have basic education. This makes<br />

training and further education very<br />

difficult. One has to resort to illustrations<br />

and videos to train the people.<br />

Only 25% have a school-leaving certificate.<br />

Those are usually the supervisors.<br />

They do their best to train the<br />

workers, but it’s a hard job. And, finally,<br />

there is a 5% with a university graduation.<br />

Those hold the managing positions<br />

in the foundries. Since 2010, all<br />

institutions in South Africa related to<br />

the foundry industry have been joining<br />

forces to promote education in the<br />

foundries. For example, the University<br />

of Johannesburg has set up a programme<br />

dedicated to bringing more<br />

coloured and black people into management<br />

positions. For example, all<br />

engineers graduating from the University<br />

of Johannesburg have spent a<br />

semester at a foreign university, for instance<br />

in Freiberg, Germany, and more<br />

and more of them occupy leading positions<br />

in South African foundries. In<br />

order to train those 25 % of the workers<br />

with a school-leaving certificate,<br />

the German Society for <strong>International</strong><br />

6 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>


October 11 – 13, <strong>2016</strong><br />

Cologne – Germany<br />

The Filtration Event<br />

www.Filtech.de<br />

Targeted<br />

Solutions<br />

Core-setting line: The workers at Guestro Foundry, Benoni, South Africa, insert<br />

freshly produced cores into the 35-year-old molding plant (Photo: Palesa Riba)<br />

Cooperation (GIZ) has opened a training<br />

foundry near Johannesburg, where<br />

most of the foundries of the country<br />

are located. Every year between 20 and<br />

40 young people are trained there to be<br />

head melters, mouldmakers and machining<br />

specialists. By this approach,<br />

the Society has introduced the classical<br />

German model of dual apprenticeship<br />

in the country. We have supported this<br />

programme by providing teaching material<br />

and know-how. To reach those<br />

workers who have no school education<br />

at all, we have introduced a software<br />

programme which Heger Pro uses in<br />

quality management. We have translated<br />

to software to English and added<br />

the topic of energy management.<br />

In the staffrooms of the foundries, the<br />

software runs on a display. Thus the<br />

workers learn from pictures, for example,<br />

showing a furnace with an open<br />

cover versus one with a closed cover.<br />

The project ran from May 2013 until<br />

October 2015. GUT Giesserei Umwelt<br />

Technik GmbH, Freudenberg, Germany,<br />

specialists in chemically bonded<br />

sand systems and sand reclamation<br />

systems, will continue to provide<br />

training courses in Durban, Johannesburg<br />

and Cape Town, the three largest<br />

cities in South Africa, in order to<br />

spread the knowledge to those foundries<br />

which had not had the opportunity<br />

to participate in the project. In<br />

November, I will present the final report<br />

of the project updated with new<br />

information at a colloquium staged<br />

by the Metal Casting Technology Station<br />

at the University of Johannesburg.<br />

Last but not least, Ametex, the<br />

South African sales partner of Magma,<br />

will play an active role in ensuring that<br />

the knowhow transferred to the local<br />

foundries during our project will not<br />

get lost.<br />

for<br />

the<br />

Pre-Register<br />

for fast track entry<br />

www.filtech.de/ticket.jsp<br />

Casting<br />

Industry<br />

How is the cooperation between the<br />

German and South African foundry<br />

industries going to be continued, now<br />

as the project has ended?<br />

www.ask-chemicals.com<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 7<br />

Your Contact: Suzanne Abetz<br />

E-mail: info@filtech.de<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2132 93 57 60


Aerial view of Quarzwerke GmbH in Haltern with screening plant (on the right) (Photos and Graphics: Quarzwerke)<br />

Authors: Dr. Hanna Maria Görke, Dr. Jörg Ulrich Zilles, Marc Demary, Quarzwerke GmbH, Frechen<br />

The impact of grain distribution on<br />

molding material parameters<br />

<br />

duction. Optimized distribution curves offer advantages, since they impact the molding materi<br />

al’s gas permeability<br />

The significance of quartz sand from<br />

Haltern in Germany is indisputable<br />

in the foundry industry, yet this basic<br />

molding material’s potential for special<br />

applications is still underrated.<br />

In the ceramics and concrete industry,<br />

the modelling of packing density<br />

through the selection of grain size distribution<br />

is an important element in<br />

the development of high-performance<br />

materials. For foundry applications,<br />

however, the demands are very complex.<br />

These might require for example<br />

an improvement in strength values<br />

or a reduction in the use of binding<br />

agents, necessitate high uniformity in<br />

the distribution curve for automation,<br />

or entail particularly high demands in<br />

terms of surface quality or gas permeability.<br />

In any case, it must be taken into account<br />

that the change of one parameter<br />

impacts a number of other parameters,<br />

with implications for the molding<br />

material’s system.<br />

This is why several factors need to<br />

be taken into consideration when op-<br />

8 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

timising the sands, because the resulting<br />

properties can no longer be directly<br />

assessed. The statistical design<br />

of experiments (DoE) was used for an<br />

in-depth examination of the impact of<br />

different grain sizes on the outcome<br />

of molding material-relevant tests<br />

relating to strength, gas permeability,<br />

coarseness, bulk density and flow<br />

properties.<br />

In this multi-parameter system, it is<br />

vital to identify and model the right<br />

balance of application properties for<br />

a given application. Quartz sand from<br />

Haltern offers a solid material basis<br />

given its rounded grain shape and<br />

high purity. The results of these experiments<br />

in combination with the possibility<br />

of customising individual sieve<br />

fractions can be used for a targeted depiction<br />

of optimum distribution curve<br />

designs for special applications on an<br />

industrial scale.<br />

Figure 1: Impact of bulk density on gas permeability of quartz sand from Haltern<br />

Experimental background<br />

Depending on their grain size, the<br />

quartz sands were split into six grain<br />

fractions in the Haltern screening<br />

plant. These fractions were then combined<br />

according to specific mixing ratios<br />

and examined in view of the parameters<br />

relevant to casting. Design<br />

Expert, a DoE software, was used to<br />

define a relevant sand mixture that<br />

would cover the entire system of parameters.<br />

In addition, the software is also used<br />

to evaluate the results. The following<br />

grain fractions were selected as parameters:<br />

> 0.710 mm, 0.170 mm, 0.355 mm,<br />

0.250 mm, 0.180 mm and < 180 mm.<br />

A cold-box binding agent was used with<br />

a ratio ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 %. The<br />

resin and curing agent amount was kept<br />

at a constant mixing ratio of 1:1. The<br />

parameters grain distribution, packing<br />

density, degree of uniformity and flowing<br />

property were determined based on<br />

the loose sand. To examine gas permeability,<br />

test specimens were produced<br />

using the automatic core shooter Lut-c<br />

and the permeability measurement device<br />

LPOR-3e of Multiserw in combination<br />

with common cold-box binding<br />

agents.<br />

Results<br />

The acquired data were examined with<br />

regard to the major influencing factors<br />

on bending strength [1]. The evaluation<br />

indicates that strength values and<br />

the impact of the binding agent content<br />

increase in proportion to the fineness<br />

of the sand’s grain size. For the extreme<br />

case of a particularly coarse grain<br />

(AFS grain fineness number 20), no increase<br />

in strength concomitant with<br />

binding agent content can be observed<br />

within the examined range. For coarse<br />

sands, it can therefore be assumed that<br />

a binding agent concentration of 0.5 %<br />

already leads to the saturation of the<br />

particle surfaces. The picture is different<br />

when taking a look at the positional<br />

stability of the cores. Here, a correlation<br />

with the binder content, yet not<br />

the grain size, was observed. When relating<br />

gas permeability to the immediate<br />

strength level, the tendency of lower<br />

strength values at high gas permeability<br />

can be observed. This relation, however,<br />

is not linear. With a smart selection<br />

of the grain distribution, it is thus possible<br />

to positively impact both gas permeability<br />

and strength. [1]<br />

This article analyzes the data in relation<br />

to the major influencing factors<br />

for gas permeability. Bulk density<br />

of the particles is crucial for gas permeability.<br />

In a real batch, bulk density<br />

depends on grain size, grain form<br />

and grain distribution. Bulk density in<br />

turn has an impact on strength, surface<br />

quality, flowability, thermal conductivity<br />

and sand requirements – in<br />

addition to gas permeability.<br />

The test results can be used to exemplify<br />

these theoretical correlations<br />

with concrete data for quartz sand<br />

from Haltern. If bulk density is considered<br />

as a function of gas permeability<br />

of the different grain size distributions<br />

under scrutiny as indicated in<br />

Figure 1a, it becomes evident that different<br />

gas permeability values can be<br />

achieved for average bulk densities.<br />

The gas permeability extremes with<br />

values > 3000 m 2 /108 Pa occur in mixtures<br />

that consist almost entirely of the<br />

fraction > 0.710 mm, which is not used<br />

in this form in common foundry applications.<br />

For a clearer illustration of the grain<br />

distributions in the depicted mixtures,<br />

different properties were highlighted<br />

in different colours in the figures 1b<br />

to 1d.<br />

In figure 1b, the grain size is highlighted<br />

and shows that a low bulk density<br />

is achieved with fine sand (light<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 9


Figure 2:<br />

colour). In case of an average bulk density,<br />

gas permeability largely depends<br />

on the grain size. Extremely high gas<br />

permeability values are achieved with<br />

very coarse sand.<br />

Bulk densities and gas permeability<br />

values vary considerably in case of<br />

average grain size distributions. They<br />

depend on the composition of the distribution<br />

curve. In addition to the AFS<br />

grain fineness number, the degree of<br />

uniformity is relevant as well. Figure 1c<br />

illustrates the degree of uniformity of<br />

the mixtures with different colour gradients.<br />

It shows that higher bulk densities<br />

are achieved with a lower degree<br />

of uniformity. Mixtures with a high degree<br />

of uniformity achieve low to average<br />

bulk densities. Here, the grain size<br />

plays the decisive role. In figure 1d, the<br />

measured values for the sand mixtures<br />

are highlighted, 90 to 100 % of which<br />

consist of just one fraction. These mixtures<br />

come closest to the mono-grain<br />

distribution of real applications.<br />

The results show that for these mixtures<br />

with a very narrow grain distribution,<br />

both bulk density and gas permeability<br />

increase with the grain size.<br />

This deviation from the ideal theoretical<br />

packing density can be traced back<br />

to the fact that in a real bulk, the number<br />

of voids in a package increases with<br />

particle quantity [2]. This is why we observe<br />

an increase in bulk density with<br />

increasingly coarse grain.<br />

The increase in gas permeability<br />

with coarser grain can be explained<br />

with the so-called Bernoulli principle,<br />

an important equation in theoretical<br />

fluid dynamics. It indicates<br />

that a less linear flow in packages<br />

with smaller particles leads to a higher<br />

pressure loss and lower gas permeability,<br />

despite the lower packaging<br />

density.<br />

It is known that the packaging density<br />

of a sand filling impacts its flowability.<br />

Figure 2 is therefore an illustration<br />

of bulk density as a function of<br />

flowability. In figure 2a, the degree of<br />

uniformity is highlighted. This illustration<br />

shows clearly that flowability<br />

decreases as a function of bulk density<br />

and with a falling degree of uniformity.<br />

The colour gradient in figure 2b<br />

indicates the grain sizes for the recorded<br />

measured values. High flowability is<br />

achieved with a coarse grain and an extremely<br />

narrow grain distribution.<br />

Summary<br />

The demands made on the sand can<br />

differ largely. An improvement of one<br />

or several parameters through a change<br />

in the sand’s grain distribution always<br />

impacts other sand parameters. This is<br />

why it is important to be aware of and<br />

consider all the properties when optimizing<br />

the grain distribution. Based<br />

on the results of these comprehensive<br />

tests and given the high quality<br />

of sands from Haltern, it is possible to<br />

design optimized processes through a<br />

balanced interaction of all properties.<br />

The increase in gas permeability with<br />

coarse grain can be explained with Bernoulli’s<br />

principle, which states that the<br />

speed of a fluid increases exponentially<br />

with the flow diameter and that a higher<br />

fluid speed leads to lower dynamic<br />

pressure.<br />

www.quarzwerke.com<br />

References:<br />

www.cpt-international.com<br />

10 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

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Author: Thorsten Schauder, Business Development, Business Unit Rotary Tables , Fibro GmbH, Weinsberg<br />

Rotary table transfer increases<br />

reliability in the core production of<br />

foundries<br />

While conveyor solutions in core shops are widespread, the Neue Halberg-Guss GmbH is going<br />

in a different direction: On a fully automatic core machine system for engine blocks, it is completely<br />

forgoing linear conveyor technology and instead using maintenance-free Fibromat rotary<br />

tables for the transport of the parts. Downtimes due to handling have since fallen to virtually<br />

zero since then. And other plants will soon follow<br />

Halberg Guss utilizes a total of eight Fibromat rotary tables in the fully automatic core machine system (Photos: Fibro)<br />

Since the fully automatic core machine<br />

system at the Saarbrücken site<br />

has gone into operation, it has literally<br />

been an “all round” success at Halberg<br />

Guss. With a previously unimagined<br />

and unique process stability, 3,000<br />

core packages for engine blocks leave<br />

the plant each day. Eight modularly designed<br />

Fibromat heavy-load positioning<br />

tables handle the transport of the<br />

cores and core packages on two lines arranged<br />

in parallel ( Figure above). No<br />

conventional belt conveyor technology<br />

is needed. “By using rotary tables for<br />

transferring the parts, we have been able<br />

to achieve a significantly higher process<br />

stability of the entire system when<br />

compared to the previous solutions”,<br />

explains the Head of the Core Shop,<br />

Christian Ast. “The Fibro rotary tables<br />

run so stably that our servicing team has<br />

not had to intervene once even after 18<br />

months of continuous operation”, adds<br />

Sebastien Becker, Segment Manager of<br />

12 Casting Plant & Technology 3/<strong>2016</strong>

Halberg Guss<br />

The Neue Halberg-Guss GmbH is one<br />

of the leading foundries in Europe for<br />

the development and production of<br />

engine blocks, cast iron cylinder heads<br />

and cast crankshafts. Its products<br />

range from sophisticated three-cylinder<br />

blocks for automobiles to large<br />

volume V8 aggregates for commercial<br />

vehicles. In addition to this are also<br />

spheroidal graphite iron bearing tunnels<br />

as well as aluminium bedplates.<br />

Due to the high level of competency<br />

and the close cooperation during<br />

the development of efficient, inexpensive,<br />

powerful drive units and other<br />

cast components, the company is a<br />

sought-after partner in the European<br />

automotive industry. The Saarbrücken<br />

site has a workforce of approx. 1,200.<br />

Figure 1: On the core-shooting system (left), the grains of sand are initially<br />

deburred and then transferred to the second station (right)<br />

the Core Shop and responsible for the<br />

running operation of the system.<br />

High precision and reliability<br />

even in dirty environments<br />

Before the investment, the team tested<br />

the positioning tables and the associated<br />

transfer principle in two smaller<br />

applications. The weaknesses of the<br />

conventional belt conveyor technology<br />

were clearly apparent: positioning<br />

inaccuracy, problems with transport<br />

or susceptibility to wear of the individual<br />

components, which the new solution<br />

had none of. “The rotary tables<br />

behaved absolutely reliably in the test<br />

system – and despite the very dusty environment,<br />

underscores Christian Ast.<br />

“They facilitate a significantly higher<br />

precision and process reliability than<br />

other transfer solutions, without increasing<br />

the procurement costs for the<br />

entire system.” And with the running<br />

costs as well, the rotary table transfer is<br />

the clear winner thanks to the extremely<br />

low susceptibility. As a result, the decision<br />

was an easy one to make.<br />

Immediately after the core shooter,<br />

a robot now positions the cores for deburring<br />

on the first Fibromat rotary table<br />

(Figure 1). On a second and larger<br />

Fibromat, the cores are then stacked,<br />

transferred as subpackage to the third<br />

Figure 2: A total of 26 robots are active in the system. During the mounting<br />

of the core packages, the Fibromat rotary tables ensure a high process reliability<br />

and precision<br />

rotary table station and packetized there<br />

to approx. 80 kg complete packages.<br />

The fourth station subsequently serves<br />

to feed the screwed together complete<br />

packages to the sizing process and to finally<br />

eject them from the system.<br />

Modular design facilitates efficient<br />

solutions<br />

The decision by Halberg Guss to use<br />

the heavy-load positioning tables from<br />

Fibro (Figure 2) for all stations was a<br />

perfectly consistent one. Since its pre-<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3/<strong>2016</strong> 13


Figure 3: The flat Fibromat rotary tables facilitate an optimal accessibility of<br />

the individual stations and are extremely easy to maintain<br />

Fibro GmbH<br />

Fibro is a pioneer among rotary table<br />

manufacturers and offers the<br />

world’s most extensive rotary table<br />

programme from a single source with<br />

more than 150 types of rotary tables.<br />

The rotary tables are used as swivelling<br />

or positioning axes and as workpiece<br />

carriers in highly productive machine<br />

tools, assembly and production<br />

systems. The greatest possible standardisation<br />

of the individual series<br />

also makes the company an interesting<br />

partner with regard to cost aspects.<br />

Numerous projects in various industries<br />

around the globe prove how strongly<br />

customers profit from the high solution<br />

competence and worldwide service<br />

network of the rotary table specialists<br />

from Weinsberg, Germany.<br />

mier roughly four years ago, the modular,<br />

and thus price-performance-optimized<br />

rotary table has been writing<br />

its exemplary success story ever since.<br />

Regardless of the type and number of<br />

motors, size of the centre borehole,<br />

roller bearing or stiffness-optimized<br />

cross roller bearings, media distributor,<br />

collector ring transfers, or absolute<br />

measuring systems needed, the<br />

maintenance-free quick-change artist<br />

offers such a high freedom of design<br />

that extensive and thus expensive and<br />

lengthy special solutions have become<br />

the exception rather than the rule (Figure<br />

3).<br />

Depending on the size, the repeat<br />

accuracy lies at around 10 arc seconds;<br />

with absolute measuring systems,<br />

this accuracy can be increased<br />

to 5 arc seconds. Since the gearbox<br />

is not self-locking, this prevents any<br />

damage to the mechanical system of<br />

the rotary table in the event of a sudden<br />

power failure or emergency stop.<br />

In addition, the table does not swing<br />

open during positioning, even with<br />

superstructures on the table top. The<br />

precision required by Halberg Guss in<br />

the decimal range are easily ensured.<br />

And absolutely no comparison to the<br />

fluctuation margins of conventional<br />

transfer systems in foundries. All seals<br />

are already covered as standard and<br />

thus ideally suited for use in challenging<br />

environments such as in foundries<br />

or welding in automobile body<br />

construction.<br />

A clear advantage is Fibromat’s flexible<br />

range of application. With pneumatic<br />

indexing, for example, up to 38<br />

divisions are possible. If a master-slave<br />

drive is alternatively utilized, any arbitrary<br />

position can be freely taught and<br />

tensioned using the motor brake without<br />

play by software with a master-slave<br />

drive. Even though Halberg Guss hardly<br />

exhausts this potential with the current<br />

pivoting movements of 90°, 180°<br />

and 270°, it still offers leeway for mod-<br />

Figure 4: The modularly designed Fibromat<br />

heavy-load positioning table<br />

is available in four sizes with tabletop<br />

diameters of 800 mm, 1,000 mm,<br />

1,250 mm and 1,600 mm<br />

14 Casting Plant & Technology 3/<strong>2016</strong>

ifying the process over time or for integrating<br />

new versions and products<br />

into the system. The heavy-load positioning<br />

tables (Figure 4) are available<br />

in four sizes, with tabletop diameters<br />

of 800 mm, 1,000 mm, 1,250 mm,<br />

and 1,600 mm. The smallest size allows<br />

setups up to 4,500 mm in diameter<br />

and transport loads up to 10,000 kg<br />

while the largest setup permits up to<br />

9,500 mm and 25,000 kg respectively.<br />

The central borehole measures between<br />

320 mm and 1,200 mm. Special connecting<br />

dimensions and customer-specific<br />

drilling templates can be implemented<br />

quickly and easily.<br />

Rotary table transfer will soon<br />

be the new standard<br />

From Sebastien Becker’s perspective,<br />

the system concept has proven itself<br />

outstandingly. “With only two employees<br />

per line and per shift, we are able<br />

Figure 5: Christian Ast (left) and Sebastien Becker (right) speaking with<br />

Thorsten Schauder (centre), responsible at Fibro Business Development.<br />

to completely finish the immediately<br />

ready-for-decantation core packages.”<br />

In comparison to a different system<br />

with conventional conveyor technology<br />

and five robots, the significantly<br />

larger rotary table system with 26 robots<br />

performs exceptionally well. This<br />

applies to both the pure system availability<br />

as well as for broken cores and<br />

bearing changes. It makes perfect sense<br />

that Christian Ast and Sebastien Becker<br />

are planning to apply the rotary table<br />

transfer concept to other systems. “We<br />

are assuming that this principle will establish<br />

itself as the new standard”, emphasize<br />

both specialists (Figure 5).<br />

<br />

Foundry sands<br />

<br />

<br />

99.5% SiO 2<br />

content<br />

excellent temperature resistance<br />

standard grain sizes and customized blends<br />


BAUMS<br />

GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Letter Bruch 13 | 48653 Coesfeld | Fon 02546.93401-27 | Fax 02546.1733<br />

info@qwb-lette.de | www.quarzwerk-baums.de

The different types of robots harmonize like an orchestra (Photos: Kuka Roboter GmbH)<br />

Author: Laura Schwarzbach, Kuka Roboter GmbH, Augsburg<br />

In perfect harmony<br />

25 Kuka robots assemble crankcase core packages fully automatically at Neue Halberg-Guss<br />

With 2250 employees at sites in<br />

the German cities Saar brücken and<br />

Leipzig, Neue Halberg-Guss GmbH<br />

produces and develops cylinder crankcases,<br />

cylinder heads for industrial<br />

motors made of cast iron and cast<br />

crank shafts. The company is a European<br />

market leader and technological<br />

pioneer. The product range extends<br />

from delicate three-cylinder blocks<br />

for cars to large-volume V8 units for<br />

commercial vehicles. Other pro ducts<br />

include bearing tunnels made of ductile<br />

cast iron and bedplates made of<br />

aluminum. Customers include renowned<br />

automotive and commercial<br />

vehicle manufacturers such as Volkswagen,<br />

Daimler, BMW, Audi, MAN,<br />

Scania and Iveco.<br />

The company’s Saarbrücken plant<br />

was in search of an automated solution<br />

for the complete assembly of crankcase<br />

core packages. Neue Halberg-Guss decided<br />

to use a large number of Kuka robot<br />

in one system: 25 machines from<br />

the Augsburg-based robot and system<br />

builder perform all assembly steps fully<br />

automatically with utmost precision.<br />

The core packages are prepared in parallel<br />

by two systems – in other words,<br />

by a total of 50 robots.<br />

The Kuka robot orchestra<br />

“As a development partner with experience<br />

and expertise, we accompany<br />

our customers from product idea to<br />

series production readiness. Designing<br />

core packages in such a way that<br />

they can be assembled fully automatically<br />

poses a particular challenge,” explains<br />

Peter Koch, project manager at<br />

Neue Halberg-Guss. Here, robot-based<br />

automation offers the best solution in<br />

terms of flexibility, productivity and<br />

quality. For the assembly of crankcase<br />

core packages, a maximum of three<br />

different robot sizes were to be used.<br />

These had to be ideally suited to the<br />

special conditions in a foundry environment<br />

and also to allow a particularly<br />

space-saving and compact cell<br />

concept. Thanks to the company’s<br />

comprehensive robot portfolio, Kuka<br />

was able to offer the optimal solution<br />

for both the wide variety of work steps<br />

and the interaction of the individual<br />

robots. “The Kuka models we chose<br />

16 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>


were the KR 300 R2500 ultra F from<br />

the KR Quantec series as well as the KR<br />

Agilus small robot series and the KR 5<br />

arc,” explains Mr. Koch. At Neue Halberg-Guss,<br />

the 25 robots now work together<br />

like an orchestra in perfect harmony.<br />

A total of twelve KR 300 R2500<br />

ultra F, eleven KR 5 arc and two KR 6<br />

R900 sixx robots have been assembling<br />

crankcase core packages fully automatically<br />

since 2013 (Figure 1).<br />

Ideal interplay in the concert of<br />

assembly<br />

The first robots in the assembly process<br />

are the KR Quantec Foundry robots.<br />

They first remove the complete<br />

set of cores – consisting of water jacket,<br />

balance shafts, channel cores, water<br />

pump core, thermostat core, wheel<br />

core, crankcase cores and a sole core –<br />

from the core shooting machine and<br />

set these on turntables no. 1 and no. 2.<br />

These tables then rotate 180 degrees<br />

to the smaller KR 5 arc robots. During<br />

the subsequent part assembly and deburring<br />

“concert”, the flexible KR 5 arc<br />

and KR Agilus robots come into action<br />

– positioned overhead, side-mounted<br />

on a pedestal and upright. They<br />

deburr and assemble the thermostat<br />

core and drill holes in the water pump<br />

with the utmost precision – and then<br />

in the wheel and crankcase, in the water<br />

jacket core and in the crank and<br />

sole core. Once both turntables have<br />

turned back to the original position,<br />

three further Kuka robots from the KR<br />

Quantec series pick up the individual<br />

cores and set them down on turntable<br />

no. 3 for partial assembly. After another<br />

180-degree turn, two further KR 300<br />

robots set down the completely assembled<br />

package (Figure 2). The next robot<br />

removes the package and moves it<br />

below the stationary screw-fastening<br />

station. Following screw fastening, the<br />

six-axis robot sets it down on turntable<br />

no. 4, which then rotates the assembled<br />

package towards the washing<br />

cell. Once there, a KR 300 picks up the<br />

package and immerses it in the wash.<br />

By pivoting and rotating the package,<br />

it ensures that the wash is applied<br />

evenly and then leaves the package to<br />

drip. Since the washing process takes<br />

90 s, and is thus longer than the entire<br />

Figure 1: 25 Kuka robots guarantee a fully automated and highly accurated<br />

assembly process at Neue Halberg-Guss.<br />

Figure 2: The robots work close together during the assembly process<br />

assembly of the core packages (60 s),<br />

two washing robots are used simultaneously<br />

so as to guarantee ideal cycle<br />

times (Figure 3). The washed package<br />

is then set back down on the turntable<br />

and once again rotated 90 degrees<br />

towards a manual inspection station.<br />

Following approval by the worker, the<br />

last robot in the ensemble picks up the<br />

core packages and sets them down on a<br />

rack with eight slots. Once all of these<br />

are filled with wet, washed core packages,<br />

the racks are transferred into the<br />

drying oven before finding their place<br />

among the finished products in the<br />

high-bay warehouse.<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 17

K XXX<br />

Figure 3: Two Kuka<br />

KR 300 robots<br />

guarantee perfect<br />

cycle times in the<br />

refractory dressing<br />

Figure 4: Deburring, mounting,<br />

drilling, handling: The spectrum of<br />

tasks done by the robots is huge.<br />

Harmonious combination of<br />

robot types<br />

With the KR300 R2500 ultra F robots,<br />

Neue Halberg-Guss has opted for veritable<br />

foundry experts. The robots of<br />

the Quantec ultra product family are<br />

characterized by high payload capacity<br />

combined with maximum performance<br />

and the most streamlined design<br />

on the market. Their ideal area<br />

of use is the handling of heavy workpieces<br />

and high-accuracy machining.<br />

In the foundry design, the robots have<br />

an impact-resistant, corrosion-protected<br />

foundry wrist, which is resistant to<br />

both acids and alkalis. It is also protected<br />

against dust and dirt and able<br />

to withstand temperatures of up to<br />

180 °C for short periods. The KR 5 arc<br />

robot and the KR Agilus stand out in<br />

the assembly process thanks to their<br />

outstanding precision, flexibility and<br />

speed. At the same time, the robot variants<br />

from the small robot segment and<br />

the low payload range allow particularly<br />

space-saving installation in the compact<br />

cell concept.<br />

A further ensemble of eleven<br />

robots already in the planning<br />

stage<br />

“The robot-based system has led to<br />

a 50 % increase in both productivity<br />

and quality,” concludes Mr. Koch. Today,<br />

each system of this robot orchestra<br />

assembles around 400 core packages<br />

per shift. In addition, production<br />

costs have been significantly reduced.<br />

The robot-based automation solution<br />

also guarantees the Saarbrücken-based<br />

company a consistently high quality<br />

for the assembled crankcase core packages.<br />

The systems can assemble two<br />

different types of core packages without<br />

the need for a gripper change. All<br />

that is required is a special change of<br />

program.<br />

Neue Halberg-Guss GmbH and its employees<br />

are very pleased with the solution:<br />

“Thanks to the positive experience,<br />

we are planning a further system<br />

with a somewhat smaller ensemble of<br />

eleven Kuka robots,” states Mr. Koch,<br />

providing a glimpse into the future. The<br />

robots are to be used for unloading, deburring,<br />

assembling and washing here<br />

as well (Figure 4).<br />


www.sinto.com<br />

Automatic SEIATSU-ACE Moulding Machines and Plants<br />

Flaskless Moulding Machines and Plants<br />

Vacuum Moulding Machines and Plants<br />

Pouring Units, automatic and semi-automatic<br />

Modernization of existing plants<br />

Software for Foundries<br />

Service<br />

HEINRICH WAGNER SINTO Maschinenfabrik GmbH<br />


Bahnhofstrasse 101 · 57334 Bad Laasphe, Germany<br />

Phone +49 2752 907-0 · Fax +49 2752 907-280<br />



Authors: Christoph Genzler and Mathias Gruber, Foseco Foundry Division, Vesuvius GmbH, Borken<br />

Customized CPP – Fulfilling<br />

demanding customer requirements<br />

With the continued focus of foundries on producing more complex components and improving<br />

as-cast quality to minimize the requirement for re-work and eliminate scrap, the need for process<br />

control is becoming more and more important. As a significant contributor to the as-cast<br />

quality of castings, the use of coatings is in many applications essential, however without process<br />

control and consistency of application the significant benefits of applying the correct coating<br />

can easily be lost [1, 2]<br />

The Coating Preparation Plant contributes to increase the process safety in foundries (Photos and Graphics: Foseco)<br />

Previous technical articles [1, 3, 4]<br />

have described preferred methodologies<br />

for the control of coatings to deliver<br />

consistent layer thickness application.<br />

These articles prescribe the use<br />

of coating density as the key parameter<br />

relating to applied layer thickness on<br />

the basis that other variables such as<br />

temperature and the rheological properties<br />

of the coating can be kept constant.<br />

The relationship between density<br />

and applied layer thickness as a<br />

coating is diluted is shown in Figure 1.<br />

Further process control can be implemented<br />

through the use of automatic<br />

measurement of the coating on<br />

a continuous basis [3, 4] using a Coating<br />

Preparation Plant, with the density<br />

of the product kept constant through<br />

automated additions of either undiluted<br />

coating or dilutant (water or alcohol).<br />

This provides significant benefits<br />

over the traditional manual control<br />

methods where a product is sampled at<br />

spe cific time intervals and adjustments<br />

made if required and removes operator<br />

variance from the process.<br />

20 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

The need for process automation<br />

is even greater in foundries where robots<br />

apply the coating, such as Georg<br />

Fischer Foundry, Mettmann in Germany<br />

(+GF+) and Atlantis Foundries<br />

(pty) Ltd in Atlantis, South Africa [4],<br />

as there is less opportunity for modifying<br />

the application to accommodate<br />

variability of the product consistency.<br />

Implementation of automated<br />

coating control<br />

+GF+ Mettmann is a world class supplier<br />

of cast components to the automotive<br />

and commercial vehicle sector and<br />

prides itself on the quality and consistency<br />

of its products. One of the core<br />

competencies of +GF+ is “Added Value”<br />

through “the high level of automation<br />

in production and great flexibility<br />

with simultaneously high process<br />

reliability to guarantee efficiency in<br />

manufacturing and the quality of our<br />

solutions”. With these goals in mind<br />

+GF+ and Foseco undertook a project<br />

to modernize and improve the coating<br />

control and application process in<br />

their Mettmann foundry.<br />

The installation at +GF+ (Figure 2) incorporates<br />

a Coating Preparation Plant<br />

(CPP) being fed from an existing bulk<br />

storage tank that contains the undiluted<br />

coating delivered by bulk tanker.<br />

Figure 1: Relation between wet and dry coating layer and coating dilution<br />

The CPP unit measures the density<br />

of the prepared coating on a continuous<br />

basis and automatically makes addition<br />

of coating or dilutant to maintain<br />

the density at the defined level<br />

and homogenizes the coating so that<br />

it is ready for use. The preparation tank<br />

is then connected to a pipework “loop”<br />

system that allows the prepared coating<br />

to be pumped around the coreshop<br />

before being returned to the<br />

preparation tank for rehomogenization<br />

(Figure 2).<br />

The core-shop has eleven dip-tanks,<br />

each of which can draw coating from<br />

the supply loop when required. Overflow<br />

from the dip-tanks is also pumped<br />

back into the supply loop, where it<br />

passes through a set of filters to remove<br />

any sand or core debris, before<br />

being rehomogenized in the preparation<br />

tank, maintained at the correct<br />

density and subsequently recirculated<br />

within the supply loop.<br />

From a quality assurance perspective<br />

the CPP continually records the density<br />

of the supplied coating and the additions<br />

of both coating and water that<br />

have been made.<br />

Process approval<br />

As +GF+ supplies the automotive industry<br />

with highly demanding, safety<br />

Figure 2: Schematic of CPP with dip<br />

tank connected to bulk silo<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 21


critical components which are highly<br />

specified, it was important to demonstrate<br />

the capability of the system and<br />

gain approval for the process change<br />

from +GF+’s customers. To demonstrate<br />

the consistency of the process<br />

control a set of tests were conducted<br />

over a four week period:<br />

»»<br />

The weight pick-up of coating was<br />

measured both before and after drying<br />

The wet and dry weight pick-up of the<br />

coating is respectively proportional to<br />

the wet and dry applied layer thickness<br />

of coating, and knowing the area<br />

Figure 3: Automated dipping of test<br />

pieces<br />

Figure 4: Quality assurance checks of wet layer coating thickness<br />

»»<br />

Transverse test bars were produced<br />

using a PUCB binder following a<br />

standardized procedure<br />

»»<br />

The uncoated weight of each test<br />

piece was recorded<br />

»»<br />

Sample coating was removed from<br />

the Coating Preparation Plant at<br />

regu lar intervals<br />

»»<br />

The density of the sampled coating<br />

was measured accurately using a calibrated<br />

pyknometer and recorded, as<br />

was the solids content of the sample.<br />

»»<br />

Coating was applied to the test pieces<br />

using an automated dipping device<br />

(Figure 3) which controlled<br />

both speed and dwell-time of the<br />

dipping operation<br />

of coverage and density of the coating<br />

allows the average layer thickness<br />

to be calculated. The result of this intense<br />

study over the four week period<br />

showed that:<br />

»»<br />

At a target density of 1.15 g/cm 3 the<br />

average CPP density was 1147g/cm 3<br />

»»<br />

The standard deviation for the dataset<br />

was only +/- 0.001g/cm 3<br />

»»<br />

The measured dry coating weight<br />

per core was on average 11.2 g with<br />

a standard deviation of only +/-<br />

0.25 g<br />

Overall this was assessed as extremely<br />

accurate and reproducible, with the<br />

variance in weight pick-up onto the<br />

cores indicating that the layer thickness<br />

was very consistent over the four<br />

week trial period as the CPP maintained<br />

the coating density within very<br />

tight control limits.<br />

The test method was designed to<br />

replicate the foundry process where<br />

the coating supplied at specific density<br />

is applied to the cores using automated<br />

robots that control both speed<br />

of dipping and dwell time within the<br />

coating. Subsequent quality checks<br />

within the foundry continue to validate<br />

the process, with the CPP maintaining<br />

a very consistent density of<br />

supplied coating and regular wet layer<br />

thickness checks (Figure 4) confirming<br />

consistent coating layer application.<br />

Process assurance<br />

For the control of water-based coating<br />

products it is essential to implement<br />

good housekeeping procedures<br />

22 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

to prevent contamination of the product<br />

resulting in bacterial attack and a<br />

degradation of the product rheology<br />

leading to a change in application<br />

properties.<br />

In order to avoid this risk, +GF+<br />

has chosen the optional water disinfection<br />

system to be installed on the<br />

CPP. This system ensures that all incoming<br />

water used for dilution is disinfected<br />

and hence avoids<br />

any coating product deterioration<br />

due to bacterial infection<br />

over time.<br />

The advantage of the<br />

system installed is that it<br />

achieves this disinfection<br />

without the use of harsh<br />

chemical additives that may<br />

cause dermatological reactions<br />

if in contact with operators<br />

or adversely affect the<br />

rheological performance of<br />

the coating.<br />

continuous improvement and can be<br />

tailored to every customer requirement.<br />

Acknowledgement<br />

Thanks to +GF+ Mettmann Automotive,<br />

in particular Mr M.Busch for his<br />

invaluable and trustworthy cooperation.<br />

Our value<br />

adding solutions<br />

for your process<br />

www.foseco.com<br />

References<br />

www.cpt-international.com<br />

Customized CPP at<br />

Georg Fischer,<br />

Mettmann, Germany<br />

http://bit.ly/1LqhBw8<br />

Summary<br />

The benefits of the implementation<br />

of the CPP into<br />

the full casting process at<br />

+GF+ Mettmann can be concluded<br />

as:<br />

1. Continuously controlled<br />

coating application<br />

2. Repeatability of applied<br />

layer thickness<br />

3. Quality assurance and<br />

historical data availability<br />

4. Operator independent<br />

5. Cost savings through reduced<br />

scrap and re-work<br />

6. Maintaining core shop<br />

and foundry-processes at<br />

an optimized balance<br />

7. Improved working environment<br />

Considering the continuously<br />

growing demand for<br />

foundry process consistency,<br />

an acknowledgement of the<br />

need for a consistent coating<br />

due to its influence on<br />

casting quality is required.<br />

The CPP concept is now accepted<br />

as the way forward to<br />

achieving this goal. As with<br />

all technical equipment, the<br />

CPP design is subjected to<br />

Our services provide you with real added value.<br />

ASK Chemicals experts look forward to hearing from you:<br />

Phone: +49 211 711<strong>03</strong>-0<br />

E-Mail: addedvalue@ask-chemicals.com<br />



Up to 20 t of liquid iron pass from the pouring basin to the mold via the discharge system in just 120 s – to become<br />

rotor hubs, machine frames, stator end-bells or main shafts (Photo: Enercon)<br />

Author: Heiko Wenke, Atlas Copco Tools Central Europe GmbH, Essen<br />

Light turbo-grinders for heavy<br />

wind-turbine castings<br />

Production at Enercon, a leading manufacturer of wind turbines, has moved into top gear. The<br />

company processes castings weighing up to 16 t with a new type of turbine grinder at its GZO<br />

foundry in the East Frisian region of Germany’s Lower Saxony. The grinders are considerably<br />

lighter and much more robust than the devices previously used, and offer by far lower energy<br />

consumption than conventional equipment<br />

“Our wind turbines already save energy<br />

before they have generated their<br />

first kilowatt hour of electricity,” says<br />

Thomas Bliesner, Manager of Casting<br />

Finishing at the Enercon Group’s GZO<br />

foundry in East Frisia. “Because we use<br />

tools supplied by Atlas Copco – with<br />

much lower nominal air consumption<br />

than classic pneumatic tools – for<br />

machining the surfaces of large workpieces.”<br />

Although the casting specialists<br />

really do not need to worry about<br />

24 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

Enercon GmbH<br />

With the founding of the company in 1984, engineer<br />

Aloys Wobben initiated the economic /<br />

ecological success story of Enercon with a small<br />

team of engineers. The first wind turbines with<br />

a nominal output of 55 kW were the result. Initially<br />

equipped with gears, from 1992 there was<br />

a steady switchover to gearless plant technology.<br />

The use of fewer rotating components enabled an<br />

almost frictionless flow of energy with considerably<br />

lower mechanical stress, lower maintenance<br />

requirements, lower operating costs and longer<br />

service lives.<br />

The further development of all components offers<br />

customers technologically sophisticated products<br />

with an electrical output of up to about 8 MW.<br />

This is exemplified by, say, the new rotor blade<br />

geometry introduced in 2004 – which significantly<br />

increased profitability, reduced noise emission<br />

and reduced the loads affecting the wind turbine.<br />

In addition, all Enercon wind energy plants have<br />

a grid feed system that meets the latest grid connection<br />

requirements and can be integrated in all<br />

supply and distribution structures.<br />

Enercon, with its headquarters in Aurich in Lower<br />

Saxony, has been a worldwide leader in wind energy<br />

for well over 30 years. Enercon is the market<br />

leader in Germany and employs more than 13,000<br />

personnel. With about 27,000 installed wind energy<br />

plants in more than 30 countries, Enercon is<br />

also the third-largest producer in the world. Research<br />

& Development, Production and Sales are<br />

continuously being expanded.<br />

Deburring of a rotor hub with the GTG 25. The maneuverability of<br />

the turbo-grinder is increased by a MultiFlex swivel coupling. This ergonomic<br />

detail is a compressed air connection that turns through<br />

360° in two planes and follows the movements of the tool, reliev ing<br />

the operator of bending stresses in the air hose (Photos: Atlas Copco)<br />

www.enercon.de<br />

Thomas Bliesner is Manager of the Casting<br />

Finishing Department of Enercon’s GZO foundry<br />

in East Frisia and has subjected twenty angle<br />

grinders to an endurance test in his department<br />

the energy consumption of their works<br />

near Aurich because its entire electricity<br />

requirement is covered practically<br />

climate-neutrally from renewable<br />

sources of energy. But sustainability determines<br />

many of the processes at the<br />

works in the municipality of Südbrookmerland<br />

on principle, proven by certification<br />

of its energy management system<br />

with DIN EN ISO 50001 since 2014.<br />

“We have been casting all the large and<br />

important components for our Enercon<br />

generators since 2010, keeping the transport<br />

paths for production short. This<br />

provides ecological benefits, and our<br />

competence for these important components<br />

remains in-house,” Bliesner explains<br />

the company philosophy and goes<br />

on to describe the production portfolio:<br />

“Machine frames, stator end-bells, rotor<br />

hubs or main shafts with unit weights<br />

of up to 16 t are typical products.” The<br />

GZO, which has developed into one<br />

of Europe’s largest and most modern<br />

foundry operations, produces up to 70<br />

of these very large heavyweights every<br />

week in serial production. “With rising<br />

rotor blade diameters and increasingly<br />

powerful wind turbines, the already<br />

very large dimensions are growing even<br />

further,” Thomas Bliesner is certain, and<br />

even considers a doubling of dimensions<br />

and casting weights a realistic prospect.<br />

Processing meter-high unmachined<br />

parts<br />

The departmental manager is well<br />

aware that the processing of the me-<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 25


ter-high unmachined parts after shaking<br />

out from the sand mold is extremely<br />

stressful for the tools used. “The<br />

grinding machines, in particular, are<br />

seriously challenged here,” acknowledges<br />

Bliesner: “Our special spheroidal<br />

graphite cast iron is a particularly<br />

tough material that demands everything<br />

of the tools when removing<br />

the burrs and roughing the surfaces!”<br />

During three-shift operation on five<br />

days a week the angle grinders undergo<br />

net operating times of 15 - 18 h a<br />

day.<br />

Tido Moritz, the Deputy Manager<br />

of Casting Finishing, also emphasizes<br />

that the entire sector is undergoing<br />

a change from more hand-crafted traditional<br />

production to the use of industrial<br />

processes, and reports that<br />

during the five years since production<br />

started at the GZO the work’s capacity<br />

utilization has increased massively.<br />

“We have introduced additional<br />

shifts in order to meet the demand.<br />

The 90 personnel in our department<br />

work on a piecework basis and treat<br />

the tools very ‘robustly’.” The industrial<br />

angle grinders from Atlas Copco,<br />

Essen, Germany, for the large 230 mm<br />

diameter abrasives have already been<br />

in use for a long time and can take the<br />

rough treatment, but standard devices<br />

for the smaller roughing and cutting<br />

disk dimensions did not survive such<br />

heavy-duty use for long.<br />

“We had to adapt our tooling to<br />

the changed conditions. The many<br />

defects and failures among both the<br />

electric and pneumatic grinders disrupted<br />

production work,” Moritz<br />

describes. The pneumatic grinders<br />

with vane motors and the electrical<br />

high-frequency grinders ultimately<br />

only had service lives of at most eight<br />

to twelve weeks. After this period, at<br />

the latest, the extreme stresses meant<br />

that expensive repairs were needed<br />

– and often even scrapping. “All the<br />

machines were economic write-offs<br />

after just a few weeks and had only<br />

scrap value. We couldn’t accept this<br />

state of affairs anymore because, with<br />

a total of 250 tools in use, this represented<br />

a considerable time and cost<br />

factor.” We therefore tested various<br />

alternatives.<br />

The new generation of turbo-grinders exceeded the expectations of the Enercon<br />

foundry in East Frisia. Weighing just 2.1 kg, the GTG 25 provides 2.5 kW<br />

power output and is very popular among the employees because of its low<br />

level of vibrations during operation.<br />

GZO Department Manager Thomas Bliesner (left) and his Deputy Tido Moritz<br />

(center) are convinced by the results of the surface treatment. With them is<br />

Atlas Copco application consultant Christian Hofmann (right).<br />

The fettling shop as an extended<br />

workbench<br />

“At first, we couldn’t find any satisfactory<br />

solution,” say Bliesner and Moritz.<br />

“But the proposal from Atlas Copco<br />

Tools to give us the prototype of a new<br />

turbine grinding machine to test – and<br />

to accompany us during these trials –<br />

seemed very promising.” The developers<br />

at Atlas Copco were looking for a suitable<br />

testing site for the latest generation<br />

of their Geared Turbine Grinder (GTG)<br />

with gear reduction. They worked together<br />

as partners because the extraordinarily<br />

high demands of the foundry<br />

in East Frisia ideally matched the device,<br />

which weighs only 2.1 kg, and both the<br />

user and the supplier could profit from<br />

the trial. The easy-to-handle machine<br />

is suitable for abrasives with diameters<br />

26 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

When the going gets tough…: 4.5 kW GTG 40 turbine grinders have asserted<br />

themselves for heavy roughing and deburring work at the GZO. They are<br />

used with 230 and 180 mm abrasives.<br />

of 125 and 180 mm and exerts an output<br />

power of 2.5 kW on the disk. Its low<br />

overall height of just 59 mm above the<br />

spindle straightaway made the device<br />

eligible for use at Enercon for grinding<br />

work where space was limited, as well as<br />

in difficult-to-reach component corners<br />

and on edges.<br />

Employees no longer suffer<br />

from lame arms<br />

A total of twenty GTG-25 turbo-grinders<br />

were initially used at the GZO and<br />

were deliberately not treated gently.<br />

The Enercon users quickly reported<br />

their first positive feedback to the<br />

Essen-based suppliers. There was, of<br />

course, an acclimatization period with<br />

initial teething problems, but these<br />

only involved minor aspects and were<br />

quickly disposed of. “By and large, the<br />

little turbos worked remarkably well<br />

right from the start. Their performance<br />

was good and our test personnel didn’t<br />

want to give the versatile angle grinders<br />

back again,” Moritz describes the<br />

trial. “The machines are really fun to<br />

use. Even when working overhead I no<br />

longer get a lame arm,” says one worker.<br />

No wonder, because a GTG 25 only<br />

weighs half as much as a conventional<br />

grinder in this performance class.<br />

That comment about fun was meant<br />

very seriously, and was of major importance<br />

for those responsible at the<br />

GZO, stresses Bliesner: “The significance<br />

of ergonomy in our processes<br />

is as important as productivity!” That<br />

the GTG 25 can do both is due to the<br />

combination of its extremely strong<br />

drive and its effective vibration damping<br />

system. The lower vibration values<br />

are achieved by an automatic imbalance<br />

compensator (auto-balancer)<br />

that suppresses vibrations to a very low<br />

level of less than 3.8 m/s², measured in<br />

three axes. The noise emission value of<br />

76 dB (A) is also comparatively low. In<br />

addition to the excellent ergonomic<br />

properties, there is also the low nominal<br />

air consumption, considerably decreasing<br />

energy costs: in full-load operation<br />

just 12.8 l/s per kW – a level that<br />

is practically impossible for conventional<br />

pneumatic tools.<br />

Economical, powerful and userfriendly<br />

“Because downsizing is not entirely unproblematic,<br />

we were as curious as the<br />

producer about how such economical<br />

and compact high-performance tools<br />

would perform in the long term,” Bliesner<br />

and Moritz agree. Their endurance test<br />

showed that about 60 % more material<br />

was removed with the GTG 25 than<br />

with conventional grinders. This is why<br />

the two reckoned with a correspondingly<br />

high level of tool wear, as they were unfortunately<br />

accustomed to from the small<br />

grinders hitherto used. “Luckily, Atlas<br />

Copco disillusioned us in this regard! Although<br />

after 1,000 operating hours the<br />

turbos looked pretty ravaged externally,<br />

when they were completely taken to pieces<br />

and all the components thoroughly examined<br />

there was still no sign of internal<br />

wear and tear.” Bliesner and Moritz admit<br />

to having expected a much worse outcome.<br />

So they are all the more pleased to<br />

be able to carry out roughing and grinding<br />

work with the new GTG 25 tools considerably<br />

quicker, better and more cost-effectively<br />

than before.<br />

www.atlascopco.de<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 27


Author: Ralf Sinner, Head of Sales, Mewo GmbH & Co KG, Olpe<br />

Cryogenic deburring of<br />

non ferrous die castings<br />

There are various established deburring processes for pressure die cast parts. They all have one<br />

thing in common: To a certain extend, they all lead to a change in the appearance of the as-cast<br />

surface, a shift of tight-tolerance dimensional accuracies, changes in the outside geometry as<br />

well as in the microstructure – and with that, in the most extreme case, this may even change<br />

the material properties of the treated part<br />

Example of application: zinc die casting<br />

with finished surface (Photos: Mewo)<br />

Thanks to technical innovations and<br />

highly complex, movable tooling arrangements,<br />

it is possible today to produce<br />

pressure die cast parts made of non<br />

ferrous (NF) metals for most different industries<br />

and applications. Such applications<br />

and constantly growing or even<br />

completely new requirements on dimensional<br />

accuracy, tolerances, surface<br />

conditions and reduced roughness call<br />

for finishing processes that safeguard a<br />

part’s quality, which often required a<br />

great technological effort to be achieved.<br />

Moreover, in series production 100 % reproducibility<br />

has become a standard requirement<br />

(Figures 1, 3 and 4).<br />

Mewo Maschinenfabrik, Olpe, Germany,<br />

which since 1948 has specialized<br />

in equipment for deburring processes,<br />

a few years ago accepted the<br />

challenge to develop a deburring solution<br />

specifically for the current requirements<br />

placed on NF-metals die<br />

castings on the basis of the company’s<br />

cryogenic blasting process, an established<br />

process for the treatment of<br />

elastomers and molded plastic parts.<br />

This application of the cryogenic blasting<br />

process is able to fulfill the requirements<br />

placed by customers on the full<br />

range of deburring processes – from<br />

prototype making through to fully automatic<br />

large series production.<br />

Cryogenic deburring is a process<br />

which involves freezing of the cast<br />

parts to a predefined range of below-zero<br />

temperatures by means of liquid nitrogen.<br />

The temperature is set according<br />

to the specific requirements of the<br />

parts on hand. The process extracts<br />

sensible heat from the castings, leading<br />

to embrittlement of the excess material<br />

flown out during the casting process.<br />

The cast part proper freezes only<br />

superficially, i.e. down to the root of<br />

the burr. The core of the casting is less<br />

affected by the low temperature and<br />

therefore retains its elasticity. When<br />

the cast parts are in this state of embrittlement<br />

induced by freezing, they<br />

are subjected to the blasting treatment.<br />

The treatment can be targeted on specific<br />

spots of the part or the entire part<br />

can be treated. Polycarbonatic material<br />

is used as blasting medium. Depending<br />

on the specific application<br />

and the requirements, different geometries<br />

and grain sizes from 0.15 to<br />

2.0 mm are used. During blasting, also<br />

the medium is constantly subjected to<br />

the low temperature, giving it the necessary<br />

abrasive resistance and impact<br />

strength for the process. Deburring is<br />

thus effected by knocking off the excess<br />

material and not by abrasion.<br />

In the PLC controlled deburring machines,<br />

the entire process takes place automatically<br />

(Figure 2). The process consists<br />

of various individual operations.<br />

First, the parts are cooled to the specifically<br />

defined target freezing temperature.<br />

Then, the actual blasting process<br />

takes place. Finally, media re sidues are<br />

removed from the cast parts and separated<br />

from broken burr material. Depending<br />

on the geometry, size and max-

Figure 2: Mewo Rotor TS 7.12 for batch<br />

deburring and inserts for holding devices<br />

Figure 1: Example of application: aluminium casting with article-specific<br />

holding device<br />

Figure 3: Example of application:<br />

batch deburring of zinc parts<br />

imum usable kinetic energy, the entire<br />

process takes 3 - 6 min on average.<br />

Just for parts with very delicate surfaces<br />

it is recommended that they should<br />

be dried after deburring in order to accelerate<br />

defreezing. This reduces the<br />

temperature gradient between the ambient<br />

air and the surface temperature<br />

avoiding fogging of the cast parts and<br />

subsequent staining caused by thaw or<br />

rust formation. Also for this case and for<br />

parts that have to meet extremely exacting<br />

cleanness requirements, Mewo<br />

offers an optional system specifically<br />

designed to clean and post-treat such<br />

parts, avoiding any unnecessary handling<br />

and shifting of filigree parts for<br />

downstream processes. An outstanding<br />

feature of this sophisticated variant of<br />

the Mewo technology is the fact that it<br />

is suitable for any parts in any conditions,<br />

i.e. as cast, after punching or after<br />

machining, and for any geometries,<br />

including thin-walled and crack-sensitive<br />

contours. The process provides extremely<br />

precise deburring and is 100 %<br />

Figure 4: Zinc castings – left: as cast,<br />

right: deburred<br />

reproducible. It is even suitable for surface-finished<br />

parts. Another advantage<br />

of the Mewo process over conventional<br />

processes is the fact that it does not affect<br />

in any way the surface, microstructure<br />

or appearance and feel of the part,<br />

nor the material properties or dimensions.<br />

Moreover, any risk of fire during<br />

equipment operation can be generally<br />

ruled out. Instead, all pre-existing tolerance<br />

values and dimensions, sharpedged<br />

contours or polished surfaces<br />

will be 100 % retained. Plus, due to the<br />

excellent deburring result achieved by<br />

the process, there will be no additional<br />

post-treatment.<br />

Depending on the geometry and<br />

material of the parts, the Mewo process<br />

achieves fine and ultra-fine deburring<br />

of up to 0.2 mm thickness and burr<br />

tolerances of up to 0.02 mm, with the<br />

minimum material thickness of the<br />

part being 0.5 mm. Renowned foundries<br />

use this process predominantly<br />

for parts made for the automotive and<br />

electronics industries, because the potential<br />

risk of “burrs getting loose”,<br />

which has been moving increasingly<br />

into focus, can be generally ruled out<br />

when using the Mewo process. Mewo<br />

Maschinenfabrik has an own service,<br />

development and training centre.<br />

There, interested customers may test<br />

the deburring process on their own<br />

products.<br />

www.mewo-machines.com<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 29


Author: Mathias Weil, Siempelkamp Giesserei, Krefeld<br />

Longest casting made of ductile<br />

cast iron<br />

23.5 m – not a typo but a particular requirement which the customer TOS KUŘIM placed on<br />

Siempelkamp Giesserei. 23.5 m was to be the length of the crossbeam for a 2-column machining<br />

center which the Czech company intended to award as a contract. After an in-depth consultation<br />

on feasibility, Siempelkamp Giesserei applied for this project, which it was awarded over<br />

three competitors from Germany and abroad, winning the contract for the ”longest casting<br />

made of ductile cast iron ever“!<br />

The longest cast part of ductile iron that has ever been cast has been realized by the Siempelkamp Foundry in Krefeld.<br />

With this casting the company wrote history. (Photos: Siempelkamp)<br />

In June 2014 TOS KUŘIM, a member of<br />

the Czech ALTA Group, Pilsen, Czech<br />

Republic, submitted the inquiry for the<br />

king-size project. The particular challenge<br />

in such a contract: ”There are<br />

no manufacturing-specific tolerances<br />

for casting and patternmaking in<br />

this size category; technical standards<br />

no longer apply. Only the skills of the<br />

engineers and technicians, as well as<br />

TOS KUŘIM: Profile<br />

»»<br />

Founded in 1942 with the product spectrum<br />

of boring, polishing, turning, console<br />

milling and special purpose machines.<br />

»»<br />

A joint-stock company since 1992.<br />

Member of the ALTA Group since 2005.<br />

»»<br />

Location: Brno, second-largest city in<br />

the Czech Republic.<br />

»»<br />

Business segment: production of precise<br />

machine tools and machining centers,<br />

especially with mobile columns<br />

and portal machining centers for complex<br />

component parts.<br />

»»<br />

Fields of application: heavy machine<br />

engineering, po wer en gineering, aircraft<br />

industry, shipbuilding, railway engineering<br />

30 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

the patternmakers, molders and fettlers<br />

can make this project a success<br />

( Figures 1-4). The experience of our<br />

employees is the be-all and end-all in<br />

such a project,“ explains Mathias Weil,<br />

a Sales Representative at Siempelkamp<br />

Giesserei.<br />

23.5 m in length, with a unit<br />

weight in the raw casting of almost<br />

120,000 kg – only a few foundries in<br />

Europe are able to produce such a large<br />

component.<br />

Siempelkamp‘s reputation in this<br />

field is well-known in the Czech Republic.<br />

Therefore, one of the locations<br />

where the inquiry from the machine<br />

tool manufacturer was placed was<br />

Krefeld.<br />

One important criterion in the decisionmaking<br />

process for the order:<br />

Siempelkamp operates three machines<br />

which are considered to be the best<br />

reference for such a contract. For example,<br />

the Vertimaster VME 10 vertical<br />

turning, boring and milling machine<br />

at the Krefeld location is able to<br />

Figure 1: With a depth of 3.2 m and a length of 25 m the longest casting pit that<br />

was ever required for a project emerged in the Siempelkamp molding shop<br />

process components of up to 17 m in<br />

length. This large carousel machine<br />

made by Schiess, Aschersleben, Germany,<br />

with a 10 m faceplate and a<br />

16 m processing star has been a positive<br />

addition to the Siempelkamp<br />

machine park since 2012. Secondly,<br />

Siempelkamp in Krefeld operates two<br />

gantry-type CNC portal milling machines<br />

(Schiess VMG 6), which belong<br />

to the largest portal milling machines<br />

in the world.<br />

The large castings for these machines<br />

were cast at Siempelkamp Foundry –<br />

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Figure 2: Grinding and deburring of a casting in the fettl ing shop<br />

Figure 3: A cast with 140 t melt was required to realize this unique casting. Here it<br />

is raised in a hall with a crane, to lift it onto a waiting semi-trailer truck<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

a good argument in favor of the machines.<br />

Component length + component<br />

weight = trust in Siempel kamp<br />

expertise<br />

The company‘s experience with corresponding<br />

large dimensions was the deciding<br />

factor in issuing Siempelkamp<br />

with the contract for the record casting.<br />

”In this order of magnitude there<br />

is a lot that is uncharted territory. At<br />

first it was important to present the<br />

customer with what we considered to<br />

be the important specifications and<br />

recom mendations. This was followed<br />

by a lively dialog, ultimately the finalization<br />

process and therefore the okay<br />

from our customer to follow our recommendations,“<br />

reports Mathias Weil.<br />

Receipt of the order was followed by<br />

numerous working steps before it was<br />

time for the core tasks – molding and<br />

casting. The pattern was planned accurately<br />

down to the last detail – in this<br />

case a combination pattern, as TOS<br />

KUIM also intends to be able to mold<br />

an 18 m version. Here, the customer<br />

and foundry remained in close contact<br />

in accordance with the foundry‘s philosophy<br />

of ”Modern engineering technology<br />

meets experience with solid<br />

craftsmanship“. What are the specific<br />

requirements of the customer? How is<br />

the casting installed on the machine?<br />

What stresses does it have to be able to<br />

withstand in which areas? These were<br />

questions which were tabled in the dialog<br />

with the customer in order to implement<br />

the casting techniques and model<br />

concept in the best possible manner.<br />

At the same time as the model planning,<br />

the foundry team assessed the initial<br />

solidification simulation results so<br />

32 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

that it could then optimize the model<br />

concept on this basis. With a component<br />

whose engineering technology is<br />

so complex, the residual stress is also<br />

analyzed and evaluated. The results<br />

of this calculation highlight any weak<br />

points and the caster can still carry out<br />

design optimizations in cooperation<br />

with the customer and patternmaker.<br />

An important requirement: The deformation<br />

of the cast part during the<br />

cooling process alone amounts to<br />

35 mm. This has to be taken into consideration<br />

during the patternmaking<br />

and mold making processes.<br />

Figure 4: 23.5 m long, 120 t weight –<br />

only a few foundries in Europe are able<br />

to produce such a large component.<br />

Largest component – largest pit<br />

If a casting is as large as this, the boundary<br />

conditions during production also<br />

have to be right. In the Siempelkamp<br />

molding shop this required the creation<br />

of a pit which was 3.2 m deep<br />

and 25 m long – the longest pit that<br />

was ever dug for a project! The sand bed<br />

alone on which the model is molded<br />

is 400 mm thick and extremely compacted<br />

in order to extensively avoid deformations<br />

during the cooling process.<br />

Such a molding process takes three<br />

weeks. Over 30 different core shapes<br />

have to be positioned with millimeter<br />

accuracy; only then is 140,000 kg<br />

of molten iron cast at 1350 °C. Within<br />

70 s the iron has to spread out from<br />

below in the long mold and rise uniformly<br />

so that the mold does not collapse<br />

before it is completely filled due<br />

to the heat produced. For two weeks<br />

the crossbeam then cooled down in<br />

the pit to 300 °C – only then was it<br />

possible to determine whether the<br />

casting process had been successful.<br />

The three-week long fettling and inspection<br />

process of the longest but<br />

also very delicate component was the<br />

next challenge. ”The tests showed that<br />

the quality required by our customer<br />

had been reached, so that the component<br />

could be primed before being<br />

sent on its way to the Czech Republic,“<br />

says Mathias Weil. Thanks to the outstanding<br />

cooperation of all of the departments<br />

involved and the customer<br />

this was a successful project!<br />

www.siempelkamp.com<br />


29.09 01.10. <strong>2016</strong><br />

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ConviTec GmbH - Mühlheimer Straße 231 - D-63075 Offenbach - Germany - +49 (0) 69 / 84 84 897-0<br />

www.convitec.net<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 33


Ready for acceptance testing: the top and bottom section (right) of a compressor housing set (Photos: Siempelkamp)<br />

Author: Helmut Rieck, Siempelkamp Giesserei, Krefeld<br />

Energy conversion with<br />

Siempelkamp cast components<br />

What started 45 years ago with the production of compressor housings from gray cast iron has<br />

developed into a special range of products and services at Siempelkamp Giesserei GmbH: turbines<br />

and compressors with cast iron components made by Siempelkamp are a familiar brand in<br />

the energy industry, thanks to large casting competence, super-high precision and specialization.<br />

A new feature, however, is that for the first time the foundry is now supplying a product mix<br />

covering the entire spectrum of required components<br />

Housings for large continuous-flow<br />

machines by Siempelkamp, Krefeld,<br />

Germany, are currently in great demand.<br />

Even after the rapid development<br />

of the energy transition, it can be<br />

seen that fossil fuel-fired power plants<br />

will retain their central significance for<br />

global energy supplies. Industrial turbines<br />

are required here for steam and<br />

gas power plants, as well as for combined<br />

cycle power plants.<br />

Large-scale compressors for manufacturing<br />

synthetic fuels are playing an<br />

ever greater role in the energy industry.<br />

In rapidly growing national economies<br />

with rising energy requirements,<br />

the focus is on gaining independence<br />

from oil imports, e.g. with the aid of<br />

air separation and coal liquefaction. In<br />

Chinese “coal-to-liquid” (CTL) plants,<br />

synthetic fuels and other hydrocarbons<br />

are created from the extensive<br />

coal deposits present in many regions.<br />

The Siempelkamp Giesserei has also<br />

consistently accompanied the development<br />

of the largest steam turbines.<br />

Housing sets have been built with upper<br />

and lower sections weighing an<br />

enormous 120,000 kg per housing;<br />

those dimensions were achieved over<br />

five years ago in Krefeld, Germany, and<br />

have yet to be beaten.<br />

Modern combined cycle power<br />

plants likewise require relatively<br />

large components for gas turbines.<br />

For around a year now, the foundry<br />

has been supplying this rapidly developing<br />

market with new components,<br />

which are currently assuming starting<br />

34 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

positions for series production. As a result<br />

of the design, the maximum unit<br />

weight is 25,000 kg.<br />

In the field of large-scale compressors<br />

for synthetic fuel extraction, a<br />

new demand arose two years ago for<br />

correspondingly large-scale systems.<br />

The foundry was able to meet this demand,<br />

manufacturing and delivering<br />

four housing sets (upper and lower sections),<br />

each weighing 70,000 kg.<br />

“Follow-up orders are in sight, and<br />

we are already working on plans to<br />

significantly exceed the current maximum<br />

weights for steam turbines, just<br />

in case demand becomes acute,” says<br />

Helmut Rieck, looking to the future. He<br />

is the one responsible at Siempelkamp<br />

Giesserei for component sales.<br />

Whether for electricity generation,<br />

locomotive manufacturing, shipbuilding,<br />

or aerospace, all the developments<br />

of industrialization went<br />

along with clever designs for steam or<br />

gas turbines (see box). Since the 1970s,<br />

Siempelkamp has been manufacturing<br />

large-scale components for the applications<br />

of today, and its ability to combine<br />

king-size casting capabilities with<br />

super-high precision has earned it pole<br />

position in the market.<br />

The very first models were the compressor<br />

housings for gas and steam turbines<br />

in gray cast iron, which Siempelkamp<br />

always supplied as individual<br />

components. Today, large-scale components<br />

for steam turbines occupy an<br />

important position in the portfolio of<br />

the foundry.<br />

Steam turbine components:<br />

high-performance and solid<br />

Modern steam turbines deliver an output<br />

of up to 1,600 MW, dividing the<br />

steam flow between separate subsidiary<br />

turbines that share a single shaft.<br />

The blade lengths in the low-pressure<br />

sections of such machines exceed<br />

2,000 mm, and during operation the<br />

blade tips can reach speeds of up to<br />

500 m/s. This is one and a half times<br />

the speed of sound!<br />

Figure 1: Cast components for continuous-flow<br />

machines today make up<br />

an important percentage of the<br />

Siempelkamp<br />

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Figure 3: Ready for transport: Large casting on a truck<br />

Figure 2: Fettling of a housing for an<br />

underwater turbine<br />

In order to cope with these high internal<br />

pressures, the steam turbines<br />

require solid housing sections. As the<br />

expert, this is where the Siempelkamp<br />

Giesserei comes into play. “We have recently<br />

realized housing set weights of<br />

120 metric tons, and thus support our<br />

customers with components that are<br />

ideally suited to their requirements for<br />

solidity,” explains Helmut Rieck.<br />

A magic word among the requirements<br />

is “efficiency”: particularly in<br />

steam and gas turbine power plants<br />

with outputs of over 100 MW, the operators<br />

aim to achieve efficiency levels<br />

of over 60 %. The higher this level, the<br />

lower the energy consumption and environmental<br />

pollution.<br />

The design of the inner and outer<br />

housings of the turbines makes a decisive<br />

contribution to optimizing the efficiency.<br />

This is where Siempelkamp‘s<br />

competence in designing super-heavy<br />

and large-scale cast components in<br />

nodular cast iron pays off. This is how<br />

the foundry has positioned itself at<br />

the front of the market. “Compared<br />

to welded designs, nodular cast iron<br />

is characterized by improved damping<br />

and exceptional mechanical properties<br />

during continuous operation. Nodular<br />

cast iron castings also display superior<br />

damping properties when compared to<br />

cast steel,” says Helmut Rieck.<br />

Compressor components: heavyweights<br />

for pressure generation<br />

Compressor components for centrifugal<br />

and screw compressors are<br />

also manufactured by Siempelkamp<br />

Giesserei. These are among the largest<br />

cast components, which can weigh<br />

from 10,000 to 25,000 kg.<br />

These components are required e.g.<br />

for axial compressors, continuous-flow<br />

machines in which the air flows in an<br />

axial direction (Figure 1), through an alternating<br />

series of rotating and stationary<br />

blades. The air is first accelerated and<br />

then compressed. The blade channels<br />

form diffusor-like extended channels.<br />

Here the kinetic energy generated by the<br />

rotational motion of the air is decelerated<br />

and converted into pressure energy.<br />

These axial compressors are continuously<br />

increasing in size for use in coal<br />

liquefaction. Systems with a throughput<br />

of 1.4 million m 3 /h of air have been<br />

built. Siempelkamp is keeping up with<br />

this development process. “In 2013<br />

alone, we were able to fulfill the requirements<br />

of our customers by manufacturing<br />

four housing sets with a total<br />

weight of 70,000 kg each. Further<br />

increases in performance are planned,”<br />

says Helmut Rieck.<br />

Gas turbine components: high<br />

performance, lower weight<br />

Siempelkamp is also staying on the ball<br />

when it comes to components for gas<br />

turbines. These turbines demand high<br />

machine performance, low weight and<br />

dimensions, and quick-starting capabilities.<br />

It is not least for these reasons<br />

that they are used in modern combined<br />

cycle power plants.<br />

Owing to the steadily increasing<br />

power plant sizes, corresponding stationary<br />

gas turbines have been developed.<br />

Siempelkamp has been active in<br />

this market for the last year with components<br />

of up to 25,000 kg. It is not<br />

currently anticipated that there will<br />

be demand for yet larger components<br />

in the near future. The most powerful<br />

stationary machine currently delivers<br />

an output of 375 MW.<br />

Three product facets – three<br />

examples of Siempelkamp commitment<br />

to continuous-flow<br />

machines<br />

Whether for gas and steam turbines or<br />

for compressors, when it comes to the<br />

requirements for and sustainability of<br />

its products, over the years the Siempelkamp<br />

Giesserei has remained up-todate<br />

at all times. The ompany has also<br />

kept in step with the changing focus<br />

of demand resulting from the special<br />

market situation (Figure 2).<br />

“In the 1980s the gas turbines were<br />

on top, and in the 1990s it was the<br />

36 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

steam turbines. From 2007 to 2010,<br />

under conditions of booming demand,<br />

we seriesmanufactured large steam turbine<br />

housings for the first time,” describes<br />

Helmut Rieck. This demand<br />

has eased off substantially. In 2014, inquiries<br />

received by Siempelkamp have<br />

predominantly been for individual job<br />

manufacturing of compressor housings<br />

and compressor spirals, and for series<br />

manufacturing of components for<br />

screw compressors. Individual manufacturing<br />

jobs for steam turbines and<br />

series manufacturing for large-scale<br />

compressors are also taking on an important<br />

role among the incoming orders<br />

for the first half of the year.<br />

With all this changing demand, to<br />

this day there has always been one<br />

constant: the good reputation of the<br />

Siempelkamp Giesserei and its team<br />

when it comes to serving the complex<br />

requirement spectrum of the market<br />

Gas and steam turbines: Premieres<br />

1791: First patent registration for a gas turbine<br />

1883: Gustav de Laval invents the impulse steam turbine<br />

1884: Patent for the steam turbine of British inventor Charles Parsons. Parsons‘ turbine<br />

was more complex in design than that of Laval, but achieved better efficiency,<br />

and was more easily adapted to increasing steam pressure and output.<br />

It was used for electricity generation and in marine drive systems.<br />

1911: The first turbine with a noteworthy degree of efficiency is built<br />

1938: First stationary gas turbine<br />

1939: The first jet aircraft takes to the air<br />

2011: Irsching 4 combined cycle power plant: coupling of gas and steam turbines<br />

with an efficiency of 60.75%<br />

(Figure 3), e.g. high precision and tolerance<br />

requirements, in some cases<br />

with extreme surface requirements.<br />

The work of the molders, fettlers and<br />

inspection personnel is also subject to<br />

strict quality criteria.<br />

In general, demand is tending to<br />

move towards individual job manufacturing,<br />

while series production requirements<br />

are concentrated on centrifugal<br />

and screw compressors. “High<br />

requirements, less series production,”<br />

will be the motto with which Siempelkamp<br />

positions itself in this special<br />

market in future.<br />

www.siempelkamp.com<br />

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Efficiency In Thermal Processing<br />

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Please visit us on Aluminium <strong>2016</strong>, hall 10, booth C10<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 37


Author: Matthias Holzapfel, Villingen-Schwenningen<br />

Additional performance through<br />

enhanced efficiency<br />

Implementation of the industry solution TimeLine at BUVO Castings BV<br />

The foundry manufactures products in large quantities on a production area<br />

of around 11,000 m 2 (Photos: BUVO Castings BV)<br />

The Aluminum high-pressure foundry<br />

BUVO Castings BV, Helmond, The<br />

Netherlands, has set itself the goal to<br />

permanent be one of the top foundries<br />

in Europe. For this, a fundamental<br />

prerequisite is the ongoing modernization<br />

and optimization of the manufacturing<br />

process. Within this framework,<br />

in order to improve the data processing<br />

system, the aged own-developed isolated-solution<br />

EDV has been replaced with<br />

the ERP/PPS-system TimeLine, “perfectly<br />

streamlined to the needs of a foundry.<br />

This way we managed not only to integrate<br />

business management, logistics<br />

and casting specific business processes<br />

inter-divisional into one system but<br />

also reduce the workflow and increase<br />

existing capacity through more transparency<br />

and efficiency“, so Twan van<br />

den Elzen, Financial Manager at BUVO<br />

Castings.<br />

BUVO Castings BV was founded 1980<br />

and is an aluminum high-pressure<br />

foundry specialized on casting and mechanical<br />

processing of products to be<br />

used in various domains. Furthermore,<br />

the company comes with its own tool<br />

manufacture.<br />

The foundry includes a 11,000 m 2<br />

production area, 250 employees and<br />

16 high-class casting machines (clamping<br />

forces of 250 to 1,000 t) in order to<br />

mass-produce lot sizes from 5,000 up<br />

to more than 5,000,000 products per<br />

year (unit weights between 10 g and<br />

15 kg). The international clientele includes<br />

renowned companies in the<br />

areas automotive, gas, office equipment,<br />

telecommunications and medicine.<br />

Redundancy through standalone-solutions<br />

for the own<br />

developed software system<br />

Since its founding, BUVO Castings BV<br />

has attached great importance to continuous<br />

investment in state-of-the-art technology<br />

and manufacturing processes.<br />

Managing Director Jos Smeets: “A<br />

high degree of automation is of major<br />

significance as to ensure a market-driven<br />

development and manufacturing of<br />

technically high-grade aluminum die<br />

cast parts. Thereby, commercial, manufacturing<br />

and logistics tasks, from<br />

the conception – including the tools<br />

– to the processed respectively assembled<br />

end product, represent an immense<br />

challenge“. Therefore, in order<br />

to support business processes, an<br />

own DOS-software system has been<br />

developed and maintained by a BUVO<br />

employee and „it has proven to work<br />

satisfactorily for years but then increasingly<br />

revealed weak points“, Financial<br />

Manager Twan van den Elzen added.<br />

First, the initially homogeneous EDV<br />

changed more and more to a heterogeneous<br />

system made of isolated solutions<br />

with detrimental consequences<br />

as interface problems or redundancies;<br />

on the other hand, due to the missing<br />

integration, important information<br />

were not available to all departments.<br />

Moreover, as a result of the respective<br />

employee having left the company,<br />

maintenance or further development<br />

were threatened by a complete standstill;<br />

over time, the more demanding<br />

requirements of customers such as EDI<br />

or delivery call-off sealed the final end<br />

of this solution.<br />

“TimeLine speaks our language!“<br />

In the spring of 2013 a shortlist of various<br />

ERP/PPS-Solutions providers has<br />

been processed – thereby some systems<br />

impressed with regard to their business<br />

functionality, others with regard<br />

to the mapping of process-related requirements.<br />

Twan van den Elzen: “With<br />

TimeLine we have certainly found a soft-<br />

38 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

ware that convinced us both in terms of<br />

commercial department and manufacturing<br />

technology and particularly in<br />

terms of explicit oriented functionality<br />

on foundry specific requirements“.<br />

About ten years ago, out of a founder<br />

circle of seven foundries and the<br />

Gebauer GmbH in Solingen, Germany,<br />

emerged TimeLine, an industry solution<br />

for sand-, mold- and casting foundries,<br />

that also covers in addition to the business<br />

management respectively production<br />

related functions of an ERP/PPS<br />

system all casting specific requirements<br />

such as cast calculation (with metal<br />

prices calculation, melting costs and<br />

variant costing), graphical planning,<br />

co-product orders (for the proper management<br />

of mixed pattern plates), tool<br />

and pattern management, management<br />

of metal and energy price increase surcharge<br />

(MTZ/ETZ), external production,<br />

melting process management or quality<br />

assurance – “TimeLine consultants comprehend<br />

what pressure die-casting is<br />

about and simply speak our language”,<br />

continued the Financial Manager.<br />

The acquisition and in parallel running<br />

adjustments of the old master<br />

data including production-, customers-,<br />

suppliers-, items- or purchase<br />

items data, as well as the training of<br />

the key-users were followed by the going<br />

live of TimeLine on a total of 50<br />

TimeLine working stations according<br />

to plan and schedule in March 2014.<br />

Overview with responsibility<br />

“We used the great industry functionality<br />

of TimeLine already in the introduction<br />

phase as an occasion to analyze and<br />

study, eventually even modify numerous<br />

organizational procedures in our company<br />

“, explained Twan van den Elzen.<br />

The workflow at BUVO Castings is being<br />

dominated nowadays by a project plan,<br />

defined by diverse milestones that can<br />

be complemented with free text. These<br />

milestones are linked with all sorts of<br />

data, among others with toolmaking respectively<br />

with external suppliers.<br />

The degree of automation is an important factor in modern production<br />

Additional performance throu-<br />

<br />

TimeLine<br />

The implementation of TimeLine at<br />

BUVO Castings lead after a short runtime<br />

to noticeable improvements: processes<br />

can be integrated inter-divisional<br />

and hereby handled much more<br />

quickly with increased process and<br />

data security; the implementation of<br />

foundry specific requirements in Time-<br />

Line enables a more efficient work in<br />

the production area, liberating capacities.<br />

“Standstill means a step backwards.<br />

Therefore, our old EDV isolated-solution-software<br />

could nowadays<br />

no longer respond efficiently and effectively<br />

to the stringently demands<br />

of a fast, complex and global market.<br />

With TimeLine we do have found a stable<br />

solution, which permits demands<br />

to be fulfilled easily, transparent and effectively“,<br />

so Jos Smeets. Twan van den<br />

Elzen drawing positive conclusions:<br />

“Whether production planning, order<br />

tracking, costing depth or comprehensive<br />

results: today, TimeLine represents<br />

the administrative core of the entire<br />

company – consistently, transparent<br />

and integrated in one system. This way<br />

we can easily react promptly and flexibly<br />

to constantly changing customer<br />

requirements and price developments<br />

for raw materials and energy”<br />

www.timeline.info<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 39

After die casting, the magnesium components are rough- and precision-machined, undergo high-pressure deburring,<br />

are washed, checked for tightness and finally laser-marked (Photos: Andreas Bednareck)<br />

Author: Robert Piterek, German Foundry Association, Düsseldorf<br />

Shaping the future with die casting<br />

KSM Castings Group – with plants in Europe, the USA and China – has strengthened its competitive<br />

position as an automotive supplier with a major investment of 13 million euros at its<br />

Hildesheim site to increase the added value of its magnesium components. In recent years, the<br />

foundry group has repositioned itself with innovative material development, flexible recruiting<br />

methods, and consistent investments in modern light construction with a global reach<br />

The new machine park for machining<br />

magnesium components stretches out,<br />

bright and clean, across the 1,400 m²<br />

plant hall, whose walls are lined with<br />

long pipes. A model industrial scenario<br />

with the typical background noise<br />

of mechanical processing: screeching<br />

milling sounds, whirring robot joints,<br />

the humming of motors and the occasional<br />

wail of sirens. Busy KUKA robots<br />

get on with their work behind safety<br />

fences: the metal colleagues place<br />

transmission housings in twin-spindle<br />

turning machines that process two<br />

housings simultaneously, before the<br />

robots load them onto conveyor belts<br />

that take them to the blasting plant or<br />

the washing line.<br />

Large-scale production for<br />

Daimler<br />

The automotive foundry KSM Castings<br />

in Hildesheim, Germany, has expanded<br />

its machine park with three inspection<br />

plants and six robotic machining<br />

centers. The investments in the hall<br />

and equipment were spurred by KSM<br />

customer Daimler, which will in future<br />

be supplied annually with 340,000 finished<br />

9-gear automatic transmission<br />

housings made of magnesium. Does<br />

this major project represent a trend<br />

towards greater use of this light metal<br />

among automotive producers? “No,”<br />

states Dr. Klaus Greven, Manager of<br />

Technological Development at KSM<br />

Castings Group. “Only Daimler gets<br />

its transmission housings made from<br />

magnesium, our other large automotive<br />

customers such as ZF will continue<br />

to use aluminum. Dr. Greven<br />

adds: “The use of magnesium is ex-<br />

40 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

tremely demanding. Firstly there is<br />

the very high level of contact corrosion<br />

when the material touches other<br />

metals, such as iron. Then there is<br />

the lower rigidity compared to aluminum,<br />

and the substantially lower creep<br />

resistance at high temperatures. In addition,<br />

there are increased risks at the<br />

foundry regarding safety at work and<br />

fire prevention.” And he continues:<br />

“This is all reflected in the costs!” The<br />

physicist is therefore convinced that<br />

magnesium components will remain a<br />

niche product. The magnesium transmission<br />

housings for Daimler are made<br />

from the alloy AS-31 with 3 % aluminum<br />

and 1 % silicon. “This enables us<br />

to improve the magnesium’s low level<br />

of creep resistance,” according to the<br />

head of development.<br />

An industrial robot places a finished magnesium housing on a conveyor belt<br />

to the washing line<br />

Unbroken trend towards light<br />

construction<br />

Despite all the disadvantages regarding<br />

the material and the process, in view<br />

of a weight advantage of 33 % compared<br />

to aluminum and an unbroken<br />

trend towards light construction,<br />

the material’s potential is attractive<br />

and KSM Castings has the appropriate<br />

process and material expertise: the<br />

Hildesheim team gained their first experience<br />

when they started low-pres-<br />

your Partner<br />

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Finished transmission housings: KSM Castings achieves maximum value creation with comprehensive post-processing<br />

sure sand casting with magnesium.<br />

About ten years ago, the then ThyssenKrupp<br />

Fahrzeugguss GmbH began<br />

die casting magnesium on a small machine.<br />

“These were magnesium steering<br />

parts for ThyssenKrupp Presta, and<br />

we were able to build up a lot of internal<br />

expertise and gain qualified personnel<br />

who were familiar with, among<br />

other things, the topics of magnesium<br />

melts and protective gas,” Dr. Greven<br />

remembers. The production process<br />

was further optimized in subsequent<br />

years. During this time, KSM Castings<br />

was first taken over by private equity<br />

company Cognetas and finally, in<br />

2011, by Chinese investor CITIC Dicastal<br />

Wheel Manufacturing Co. Ltd.,<br />

Qinhuangdao, China. With eight<br />

sites in Germany, the Czech Republic,<br />

China and the USA and 3,291 employees,<br />

the KSM Castings Group is<br />

now globally positioned and achieved<br />

sales of 520 million euros in 2015.<br />

Hildesheim, with 1,<strong>03</strong>0 employees<br />

and sales of 182 million euros, is the<br />

heavyweight of the Group. Its main<br />

customers are VW, Daimler, Audi, ZF<br />

Friedrichshafen, Magna, Great Wall<br />

and FAW.<br />

A financially strong investor<br />

CITIC Diecastal, the new owner of<br />

the Group, is the world’s largest aluminum<br />

wheel rim producer. Together<br />

with KSM Castings it is one of the<br />

world’s 100 largest automotive suppliers.<br />

30 to 40 million aluminum wheel<br />

rims leave CITIC Diecastal’s conveyor<br />

belts every year – more than at any other<br />

serial caster. To compare: the camshaft<br />

carrier line is one of the largest<br />

series at Hildesheim, with 1.3 million<br />

components a year. The involvement<br />

of this strategic investor has brought<br />

a variety of advantages: “This partnership<br />

offers great financial stability<br />

without the new owner interfering too<br />

much in our daily business,” explains<br />

Dr. Greven. “CITIC is not interested in<br />

the basics of the casting process, they<br />

already master these themselves. It is<br />

more about our production system and<br />

our way of producing components, in<br />

other words about quality,” Then he<br />

goes into more detail, continuing:<br />

“This is a win-win situation in my<br />

opinion. CITIC is interested in our expertise<br />

and we have the advantage of<br />

being able to offer our customers global<br />

solutions. It is thus possible to offer<br />

VW wheel carriers from China that are<br />

produced using the same processes and<br />

with the same alloys and properties as<br />

those produced in Germany. Not many<br />

foundries can offer that!”<br />

Dr. Greven, who has worked at KSM<br />

since 2005, believes that the greatest<br />

growth potential is anyway in China,<br />

though KSM Castings also built a new<br />

plant in Shelby in the US state of North<br />

Carolina in 2014 in order to profit from<br />

the light-construction potential on the<br />

American market. “This strategy also<br />

safeguards jobs here in Germany,” he<br />

stresses.<br />

A complicated process<br />

Change of scene to a magnesium melt<br />

operation: dressed in a matt silver protective<br />

suit, magnesium melter André<br />

Höltermann (who trained as a foundry<br />

mechanic at KSM Castings) opens a<br />

hatch on the melting furnace. He is illuminated<br />

by a cone of searing white<br />

light and, with practiced movements,<br />

he starts deslagging the 2.3 metric ton<br />

furnace. In order to prevent contamination<br />

of the melt through contact<br />

with air, a trough filled with argon protective<br />

gas runs from the melting plant<br />

42 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

KSM has increased its manufacturing capacity among<br />

other things by six machining centers with robots<br />

chining<br />


Metalworker Raphael Sanchez works on bearing frames<br />

for Volkswagen’s 1.6 and 2.0 liter diesel engines<br />

Melter André Höltermann deslags the magnesium melting<br />

furnace. Cleanliness and organization are top priorities when<br />

working with magnesium<br />

to a 440 kg dosing furnace on the 2,700<br />

metric ton cold-chamber die-casting<br />

machine. Long distances are avoided<br />

because of the risk of fire when the<br />

hot metal exits the melting plant – so<br />

the melting furnace and the die-casting<br />

plant are located near one another.<br />

Aluminum die-casting – with which<br />

KSM Castings in Hildesheim generates<br />

the lion’s share of its sales – involves<br />

considerably less trouble: a fork-lift<br />

truck is used to transport the melt from<br />

the melting furnace to the holding furnace<br />

at the die-casting plant, where the<br />

mold is shot. Contact with air and special<br />

safety measures play no major role<br />

with this comparatively straightforward<br />

material.<br />

“The casting processes for aluminum<br />

and magnesium are identical<br />

– simply die casting. On the technical<br />

side, however, one needs to know<br />

that the solidification morphology of<br />

magnesium is different to that of aluminum<br />

and this has to be taken into<br />

account during process development,”<br />

Dr. Greven describes process differences.<br />

Over the years, KSM Castings has<br />

worked out a production process for<br />

magnesium die casting that uses protective<br />

gas but no vacuum. “The devil,<br />

of course, is in the detail. Venting<br />

ducts are particularly important when<br />

die-casting without a vacuum. This<br />

is the only way to ensure that the air<br />

present in the mold can escape quickly<br />

enough,” reveals the graduate from<br />

RWTH Aachen. The aim of the degassing<br />

is magnesium die casting that is as<br />

free of pores as possible.<br />

Design freedom is trumps<br />

The proportion of magnesium components<br />

is comparatively low compared<br />

to the total capacity of the plant<br />

(30,000 metric tons in Hildesheim,<br />

70,000 m.t. throughout the entire<br />

Group), as can be seen from the number<br />

of magnesium die-casting machines:<br />

only two of the 28 machines<br />

from producers Idra, Italpresse and<br />

Bühler are designed for casting magnesium.<br />

One more has just gone into operation<br />

in exchange for an aluminum<br />

die-casting machine: an investment of<br />

6.5 million euros.<br />

Head of technolgy development,<br />

Dr. Greven, is convinced of the growth<br />

prospects of light construction, particularly<br />

with aluminum. He is also confident<br />

when it comes to casting as the<br />

production process: he expects growth<br />

regarding both body and chassis components.<br />

He therefore believes that<br />

casting is also a production process<br />

with a future, because of the increasing<br />

use of design software to optimize<br />

topologies: “The programs remove material<br />

from wherever it is not needed,<br />

resulting in so-called bionic structures<br />

that can often only be made by casting”<br />

– competitive advantage from design<br />

freedom!<br />

The components produced by aluminum<br />

die casting at KSM Castings<br />

can be assigned to four product families:<br />

»»<br />

Engine, i.e. components of the engine<br />

periphery such as cylinder head<br />

covers or camshaft carriers.<br />

»»<br />

Powertrain, including transmission<br />

housings as well as parts inside the<br />

gearbox.<br />

»»<br />

Chassis, bodywork – produced in<br />

both the gravity die casting process<br />

as well as using the die-casting process,<br />

and<br />

»»<br />

Steering, parts for the steering and<br />

pedal systems that include, for example,<br />

pedal bracket systems. Audi<br />

is the largest customer here. The Ingolstadt-based<br />

company has not,<br />

like many others, jumped on the<br />

train for hybrid or plastic parts but<br />

continues to use proven aluminum<br />

components.<br />

Aluminum castings also undergo<br />

wide-ranging machining in order to<br />

44 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

The holding furnace of an aluminum die-casting cell is refilled: when different<br />

casting cells need the same alloy, several cells can be refilled with just one<br />

fork-lift truck journey<br />

The 20-year-old trainee tool mechanic<br />

Marcel Bodenburg milling a component<br />

in the training workshop<br />

We look forward<br />

to seeing you!<br />

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Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 45<br />

Anzeige_<strong>CPT</strong>_85x128mm_2C_L1.indd 1 26.07.<strong>2016</strong> 09:28:04


maximize value creation, for example<br />

on the camshaft carrier line through<br />

which 1.3 million aluminum parts pass<br />

every year. One special aspect there is<br />

a portal robot that – like the overhead<br />

railways in Wuppertal or at Düsseldorf<br />

Airport – travels backwards and<br />

forwards on both sides of a suspended<br />

track and fills the machines with components,<br />

like something straight out of<br />

a science fiction film!<br />

Versatile foundry processes –<br />

innovative alloys<br />

The variety of the global player’s casting<br />

processes – exploiting the potentials<br />

of the materials – is particularly attractive<br />

for automotive customers: heat<br />

treated and weldable castings are produced<br />

using its patented CVC die-casting<br />

vacuum process. During development<br />

work on a chassis frame for BMW,<br />

the casting process has developed in recent<br />

years in such a way that it is suitable<br />

for serial production and, simultaneously,<br />

delivers very high-quality<br />

castings. During vacuum die casting<br />

the air is almost entirely sucked out of<br />

the mold so that no more pores can be<br />

generated in the solidifying casting.<br />

The Counter Pressure Casting (CPC)<br />

process is used for highly stressed<br />

components, such as chassis parts.<br />

“This production process is similar to<br />

low-pressure casting. It is like a bottle<br />

of fizzy mineral water. When it is under<br />

pressure it does not lose any carbon<br />

dioxide, but it bubbles up when<br />

one opens the bottle. The air in the<br />

mold behaves similarly,” compares<br />

Dr. Greven. While this process offers<br />

very good mechanical properties with<br />

higher yield strengths of 260 megapascals<br />

and an elongation at fracture of<br />

more than 8 %, the developers at KSM<br />

in Dr. Klaus Greven’s team were not satisfied:<br />

at stake was, and is, competition<br />

with iron casting and aluminum forgings.<br />

“We wanted to get away from the<br />

all-singing, all-dancing, all-rounder<br />

AlSi7Mg and develop an alloy specially<br />

for this process”.<br />

They succeeded with the new alloy<br />

Tensal. Compared to AlSi7Mg it has<br />

slightly less silicon (3 %), a bit more<br />

magnesium and an additional bit<br />

of chromium for hardening. A yield<br />

A tree of hands with 952 hand imprints from KSM employees. Next to it,<br />

a robot sculpture made of aluminum castings produced at the works<br />

strength of 300 - 320 megapascals, tensile<br />

strength of 360 - 370 megapascals<br />

and an elongation at fracture of 6 %<br />

speaks for itself – and has not gone unnoticed<br />

by the big OEMs: “We were<br />

able to establish a new level and acquire<br />

new serial orders from Audi and<br />

another OEM,” the head of development<br />

says, not without pride.<br />

Whereby KSM Castings anyway cannot<br />

complain of insufficient capacity<br />

utilization: There were more than 40<br />

new starts at the site during the last<br />

36 months. Regular investments have<br />

been made for this purpose: 4 million<br />

euros for the new Tensal product for<br />

Audi and 4 million for a new secondary<br />

treatment line in the CPC foundry<br />

are the next ones on the agenda.<br />

Specialists sought!<br />

The numerous casting processes and<br />

different materials not only require a<br />

lot of expertise, but also qualified specialist<br />

personnel. “Despite an expected<br />

increase in productivity we may<br />

not be able to implement all our expansion<br />

plans. The limiting factor is a<br />

lack of specialists,” announced Franz<br />

Friedrich Butz, CEO of the KSM Castings<br />

Group, in a press release in late<br />

September 2015. “The shortage of specialists<br />

in the company involves metallurgists<br />

with foundry expertise, in<br />

particular, and extends throughout<br />

all the plants and up to Shelby in the<br />

USA,” emphasizes Lothar Mutzen, HR<br />

Manager at the Hildesheim site, who<br />

has been at KSM Castings for 14 years.<br />

Whereby, given demographic developments,<br />

long-term planning is particularly<br />

important. “Old hands must be replaced<br />

in good time,” he stresses. For<br />

this reason, Hildesheim collaborates<br />

particularly closely with the universities<br />

in Magdeburg, Hanover, Clausthal<br />

and Aachen. Newcomers can exploit<br />

the entire repertoire of career starts in<br />

cooperation with the universities: dual<br />

study programs, grants, as well as Bachelor<br />

and Master theses in companies.<br />

“We recently took over one employee,<br />

who studied in Magdeburg with a KSM<br />

grant,” Mutzen quotes an example.<br />

The company also places great value<br />

on developing management trainees:<br />

“We have employees who have started<br />

here as apprentices and ultimately become<br />

Managing Directors.” KSM Castings<br />

has come up with various ideas for<br />

training specialists: they thus offer further<br />

education to master craftsmen and<br />

-women and to technicians, as well as<br />

offering work for extra-occupational<br />

courses. The good company pension<br />

and the ‘support fund’ (which offers<br />

employees and their dependents financial<br />

assistance for medical expenses<br />

such as spectacles and dental prostheses<br />

for a low income-dependent<br />

monthly contribution) are particularly<br />

attractive. “One must, however, see<br />

46 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

this on an individual level: money is<br />

important for one person while another<br />

appreciates flexible working hours,”<br />

reports the economist from his practical<br />

career experience. At present, the<br />

company is looking for about 20 trainees<br />

from all areas: foundry and industrial<br />

mechanics, industrial electricians,<br />

mechatronic engineers, tool mechanics,<br />

industrial clerks and IT specialists.<br />

Then there are the specialists who are<br />

prepared to undertake an overseas stay<br />

in the plants in the USA or China. Mutzen<br />

has already had an idea for China:<br />

KSM will train six to ten Chinese graduates<br />

with German university degrees<br />

and send them to China – in keeping<br />

with the Chinese-German partnership<br />

that now characterizes the company.<br />

Future-oriented products and<br />

processes for a globalized world<br />

Training Managers Jörg Gustke and<br />

Bernhard Twickler are in charge of the<br />

plants’ training workshop: the technical<br />

patternmakers Marya Schmidt<br />

and Melissa Wolpers are woodworking<br />

a model while, next to them, the<br />

20-year-old trainee tool mechanic<br />

Marcel Bodenburg machines a component<br />

with a universal milling machine<br />

and a group of trainees gets to<br />

work. The almost 70-year-old plant has<br />

a long training tradition of which the<br />

robot sculptures on the plants grounds<br />

– made of castings welded together<br />

(the final works of former trainees) –<br />

act as a reminder.<br />

The two full-time trainers currently<br />

have 50 trainees under their wings<br />

– every year another 12 - 14 new ones<br />

are added – as well as four foundry mechanics<br />

and two technical patternmakers.<br />

Twickler confirms that the<br />

number of applicants has fallen in recent<br />

years. “But we do a lot, with advertisements<br />

for specialists at GIFA and at<br />

the Ideas Expo in Hanover, as well as<br />

with invitations for school classes to<br />

visit the plants, and our participation<br />

in Applicants’ Night.” Bern hard Twickler<br />

has already worked at KSM Castings<br />

for 36 years, ten of them as a trainer.<br />

The trainees are satisfied with their<br />

work because they enjoy it and because<br />

of the company’s good reputation in<br />

and around Hildesheim, as well as because<br />

they have the feeling that they<br />

are needed here. A poster on one of<br />

the hall walls at the plant shows a cable<br />

railway supported by a KSM structural<br />

component, which also supports<br />

a man hanging above a precipice: advertising<br />

for the high quality of KSM<br />

products. The company’s trainees have<br />

no reason to fear the precipice: they are<br />

placing their futures in the hands of a<br />

company that exploits future-oriented<br />

products and processes for a globalized<br />

world – and appreciates the value<br />

of well-trained personnel!<br />

www.ksmcastings.com<br />



5151 RP Drunen (The Netherlands)<br />

Foundry Machines<br />



VIP PT 250 CR Dual-Trak (2009), cap. 12,5 t and 2x “Junker”,<br />

cap. 25 t; casting ladles, cap. 1-10 ton; VIBRATORY SHAKE-<br />

OUT PLANT “Axmann”, cap 20 ton/h; 6 SAND MIXERS incl.<br />

“IMF” T36/20-S; sand regeneration plant “Stordy”; filter units;<br />

450 CASTING FORMS, size 800 x 800 mm up to 3600 x<br />

3600 mm; coquille forms, stackable bins, lifting chains, hoist<br />

beams, casting form inverters, counter weights, heater, sand<br />

dump silos; chip cleaning system “Mayfran”; metal working<br />

incl. milling machine, lathes, saws; laboratory/test equipment<br />

incl. spectrometer “Ametek” Spectromaxx, sanding machines,<br />

2 test melting ovens “Smit-A.C.E.C.”, “Westeneng”; tractor,<br />

heavy material transport trailers, skid steer loader “Bobcat”, etc.;<br />

CLOSING: Tuesday 20 SEPTEMBER<br />

Viewing: Friday 16 September from 10.00 till 16.00 hrs<br />


www.TroostwijkAuctions.com<br />


LOST WAX<br />


FOR<br />


O.M.LER 2000 s.r.l.<br />

Strada Montà della Radice, 15/A 12042 Bra (CN) ITALY<br />

www.omler2000.com<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 47

K NEWS<br />

YXLON<br />

Defect evaluation for<br />

die castings<br />

As a new option, Yxlon, Hamburg,<br />

Germany, now also provides the ASTM<br />

E2973 digital reference images for aluminum<br />

and magnesium die castings<br />

in its imaging software Image2500<br />

and Image3500 of X-ray inspection<br />

systems including Y.MU2000-D and<br />

MU60 AE. The reference images, which<br />

so far have only been available as an<br />

image catalog for radiographic inspections<br />

with film, can now be deployed<br />

in digital radioscopy for defect evaluation<br />

of aluminum and magnesium alloys<br />

in die castings via a second review<br />

monitor.<br />

Digital reference images ASTM<br />

E2422 (aluminum), ASTM E2660<br />

(steel), ASTM E2699 (titanium) and<br />

ASTM E2869 (magnesium) have already<br />

been available with Yxlon X-ray<br />

system since 2012, an important enhancement<br />

has now been realized with<br />

ASTM E2973 for aluminum and magnesium<br />

die castings in order to support<br />

flaw classifications for these parts and<br />

document inspection decisions according<br />

to industry specifications.<br />

Y.MU2000-D by Yxlon can now be used for defect evaluation of aluminum and<br />

magnesium alloys in die castings via a second review monitor (Photo: Yxlon)<br />

Although digital X-ray inspection is<br />

faster, more reliable, less expensive and<br />

more environmentally acceptable due<br />

to the elimination of chemicals compared<br />

with film, some industries still<br />

hesitate to embrace it. The digital<br />

ASTM reference images are an effective<br />

basis for film replacement, and users<br />

quickly appreciate the benefits of the<br />

easy and safe image storage as well as<br />

the simple digital data exchange.<br />

www.yxlon.com<br />


Latin American cooperation<br />

with OEM specialist for automotive<br />

cast parts<br />

After the joint venture in China and<br />

the establishment of subsidiaries in India,<br />

voxeljet, Friedberg, Germany, has<br />

now set its sights on the Mexican market.<br />

To this end, the leading provider<br />

of large-format 3-D printers and on-demand<br />

services has entered into a cooperation<br />

with ART in Mexico.<br />

Mexico, the world’s seventh-largest<br />

car manufacturer, is an important and<br />

growing OEM market for cast parts in<br />

the automotive industry. But in addition<br />

to automotive, global player<br />

voxel jet has also turned its focus on the<br />

Mexican machine building, transportation<br />

industry and energy industry. It<br />

is expected that these sectors will experience<br />

enormous growth in the Latin<br />

American market in the next few years.<br />

To secure market share in the automotive<br />

sector, 3-D print specialist<br />

voxel jet acquired a strong partner in<br />

Mexico, the automation company Art<br />

Abastecedora Industrial S. de R.L. de<br />

C.V. (ART). During the last few decades,<br />

ART successfully placed brands such as<br />

Automatic Feed Co. and Mayfran <strong>International</strong><br />

on the Mexican automation<br />

market. The company provides hightech<br />

solutions for automation companies,<br />

and counts the “Big Three” in the<br />

automotive industry (Ford, General<br />

Motors and Chrysler) as well the VW<br />

Group & Nissan, among its suppliers.<br />

“With its extensive experience in the<br />

automotive sector and its collaboration<br />

with global leaders, ART is the<br />

ideal business partner for the Latin<br />

American market. As an automation<br />

expert, the company contributes comprehensive<br />

competence for marketing<br />

our products in Mexico in the future,”<br />

is how Christian Träger, Sales Director<br />

at voxeljet, explains the idea behind<br />

the cooperation. “Our industrial 3-D<br />

printing systems are front and center<br />

in our collaboration with ART. By using<br />

3-D printers from voxeljet, large<br />

foundries can optimize their production<br />

processes for molds and models.”<br />

Foundries that produce for the automotive<br />

industry use these molds and<br />

models in the rapid prototyping process<br />

for prototype building and rapid<br />

manufacturing, hence in small series<br />

production. The advantage offered by<br />

3-D printing technology is obvious:<br />

Production processes become faster,<br />

more cost-effective and more precise.<br />

The Mexican foundries profit from<br />

voxeljet’s large-format industrial 3-D<br />

printers, since complex cast parts can<br />

now be acquired directly through ART.<br />

48 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

With a continuous build volume of 4 x 2 x 1 m, the VX4000 from voxeljet is<br />

the world’s largest industrial printer. The huge build space provides sufficient<br />

room for the rapid production of very large individual molds, but can also be<br />

used for the efficient production of small series – also a promising feature for<br />

the Mexican market (Photo: voxeljet)<br />

Foundries and car makers around the<br />

world value the German quality standards<br />

of the voxeljet 3-D printers,<br />

which increase flexibility and efficiency,<br />

and accelerate production processes<br />

– a prerequisite for keeping up in a<br />

hotly contested global market.<br />

Through its cooperation with voxeljet,<br />

ART will add industrial 3-D printing<br />

to its product portfolio in the automotive<br />

segment. ART was founded in<br />

Mexico City in 1988, and initially<br />

made a name for itself by providing<br />

die-cutting and installation services<br />

for the automotive industry. Now the<br />

company offers an extensive product<br />

portfolio of machines, accessories and<br />


Europe’s newest iron foundry<br />

to be opened in 2017<br />

On the 26th of July <strong>2016</strong>, Cranfield<br />

Foundry held the Ground-breaking<br />

ceremony in Probishtip, Macedonia,<br />

to mark the start of the construction<br />

of a modern foundry. It is forecasted<br />

that the production will begin in 2017.<br />

In the presence of Macedonia’s<br />

Prime-Minister, Deputy Prime-Minister,<br />

Minister of Foreign Investment,<br />

the Mayor of the city of Probishtip<br />

and other distinguished guests, the<br />

automation systems for the automotive<br />

sector. The company covers Mexico,<br />

through the main four industrial<br />

regions with headquarters at México<br />

City. Effective immediately, the Mexican<br />

expert for automation solutions<br />

will also be in charge of marketing the<br />

voxeljet 3-D printing systems and associated<br />

services.<br />

“We are pleased to develop the market<br />

for industrial 3-D printing in Mexico<br />

together with voxeljet, while at the<br />

same time addressing the considerable<br />

market demand”, adds Rafael Martínez<br />

Velásquez, President of ART.<br />

www.voxeljet.de<br />

shareholders and the CEO of Cranfield<br />

Foundry have laid the first corner-stone<br />

of the 8,000 m 2 foundry.<br />

This project was initiated in 2014. The<br />

first steps were to build a team and find<br />

quality partners to ensure successful<br />

execution of this greenfield investment.<br />

Designed by Gemco Engineers B.V.,<br />

Eindhofen, The Netherlands, the turnkey<br />

solution provider for Cranfield<br />

Foundry with over 30 years of experience<br />

in the foundry industry, this factory will<br />

be able to produce grey iron castings of<br />

EN-GJL 150-350 and other related grades;<br />

as well as ductile iron castings of EN-GJS<br />

350-800 and other related grades.<br />

Pneumatic conveying<br />

technology<br />

For dry, free-flowing,<br />

abrasive and abrasion<br />

-sensitive material<br />

Core sand preparation<br />

technology<br />

For organic and inorganic<br />

processes, turn-key systems<br />

including sand, binder<br />

and additive dosing<br />

and core sand distribution<br />

Reclamation<br />

technology<br />

Reclamation systems for<br />

no-bake sand and core sand,<br />

CLUSTREG for inorganically<br />

bonded core sands<br />

KLEIN Anlagenbau AG<br />

Konrad-Adenauer-Straße 200<br />

57572 Niederfischbach<br />

Fon +49 2734 501 301<br />

Fax +49 2734 501 327<br />

info@klein-ag.de<br />

www.klein-ag.de<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 49

K NEWS<br />

The foundry equipment will come from<br />

some of the most well-known brands in<br />

the industry: DISA Industries A/S, Taastrup,<br />

Denmark, and ABP Inductions Systems<br />

GmbH, Dortmund, Germany, will<br />

provide the key components of the foundry<br />

which will be used to produce a wide<br />

range of products such as fittings, valves,<br />

decorative and other custom-made quality<br />

castings to serve customers in diverse<br />

industries such as automotive, agriculture,<br />

railway, construction, oil and refinery.<br />

Dariusz Dziuba, the CEO of Cranfield<br />

Foundry, in his speech during the<br />

ground-breaking ceremony said: “Today<br />

is a significant milestone towards<br />

achieving Cranfield Foundry’s aim and<br />

that is to service customers from<br />

high-volume businesses in the Middle<br />

East and Europe by delivering on time,<br />

competitively priced, quality castings.”<br />

www.cfoundry.com/eng<br />

Emil Dimitriev, Prime-Minister of<br />

Macedonia, at the ground-breaking<br />

ceremony (Photo: Cranfield Foundry)<br />


New heavy-duty blast wheel<br />

cuts costs and blasts better<br />

Surface preparation expert Wheelabrator,<br />

who belongs to the Norican<br />

Group, Taastrup, Denmark, has officially<br />

launched its new blast wheel for<br />

heavy-duty applications: Comet HD.<br />

The new wheel achieves a clearly defined,<br />

even blast pattern and higher<br />

peak blast intensities at reduced abrasive<br />

flow rates, thereby reducing abrasive<br />

consumption while improving cycle<br />

times and first-time pass rates.<br />

With Comet HD, Wheelabrator has<br />

optimized the journey of the abrasive<br />

from the ground up, using advanced<br />

testing and imaging technology to<br />

identify and eliminate all instances of<br />

waste in the blast process.<br />

The R&D team deliberately chose a<br />

broad definition of “waste”, to include<br />

things like loss of energy of each abrasive<br />

particle, unnecessary wear, overconsumption<br />

of power or blast media,<br />

uneven hotspot or uncontrolled blast<br />

pattern, as well as time spent on overly<br />

complicated maintenance or time lost<br />

due to incorrect machine set-ups.<br />

The result is a blast wheel that<br />

achieves more with less, is easy to assemble,<br />

service and upgrade, is impossible<br />

to configure incorrectly on re-assembly,<br />

wears less, and blasts fast and<br />

with precision. All this adds up to measurable<br />

and considerable cost savings.<br />

Examples of savings:<br />

»»<br />

Comet HD achieves over 5 % higher<br />

peak blast intensities at 7 % less abrasive<br />

flow, when compared to a proven,<br />

current HD blast wheel design,<br />

resulting in at least a 7 % saving in<br />

abrasive (a typical foundry may use<br />

around 100t of abrasive per year);<br />

»»<br />

In the same set-up, the abrasive breakdown<br />

rate is reduced by up to 24 %;<br />

»»<br />

Tested against an existing wheel design<br />

on a foundry application,<br />

Comet HD<br />

achieved a similar blast<br />

result within a blast cycle<br />

time that was almost<br />

a fifth (17 %) shorter,<br />

and at an abrasive flow<br />

reduced by 8 %.<br />

»»<br />

Taken together, the<br />

above equates to a potential<br />

total abrasive<br />

saving of up to 29 %.<br />

» Comet HD’s semi-curved<br />

blades with special wear<br />

tip last around a third longer<br />

than previous blade<br />

types, reducing maintenance<br />

and part costs and<br />

increasing machine uptime;<br />

»»<br />

Thanks to its clever design,<br />

Comet HD is uniquely accessible<br />

for maintenance, reducing maintenance<br />

time by around 30 %, freeing up<br />

headroom for additional production.<br />

»»<br />

First shown as a prototype at GIFA<br />

2015, Comet HD is available globally,<br />

both in metric and imperial. It can<br />

be retrofitted on existing Wheelabrator<br />

or non-Wheelabrator equipment.<br />

Characteristics of Comet blast wheel:<br />

»»<br />

single-directional design for optimized<br />

performance<br />

»»<br />

asymmetrical housing for better<br />

blast pattern position<br />

»»<br />

smaller footprint to suit almost any<br />

existing wheelblast machine<br />

»»<br />

front-face access to wheel assembly<br />

and ‘hot parts’ via 4-point quick release<br />

»»<br />

precision bolted housing construction,<br />

for improved fit and alignment<br />

»»<br />

simplified, easy-to-change five-part<br />

Wheelabrator’s new heavy-duty blast wheel Comet<br />

HD (Photo: Wheelabrator)<br />

liner system – end liners ‘snap fit’<br />

without fasteners<br />

»»<br />

optimized control cage with machined<br />

areas, acceleration ramp and<br />

special wear tip<br />

»»<br />

self-securing double taper fit blade<br />

lock-up system<br />

»»<br />

blades optimized for best abrasive<br />

pick-up point, strategically strengthened<br />

to reduce wear<br />

»»<br />

“Precision Lok” and centring plate for<br />

repeatably correct blast wheel set-up<br />

Clifford Parr, President & COO at<br />

Wheelabrator Plus, said: “With Comet<br />

50 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

HD, we are a redefining what constitutes<br />

a great blast wheel. It’s one that tackles<br />

all the concerns around blast machines<br />

that our customers have told us about:<br />

operational costs (how much abrasive is<br />

used and how often do I have to change<br />

wear parts?), machine and part durability<br />

(how often does a machine need<br />

maintenance or repairs, how long will<br />

it last?) and performance (how long<br />

does it take the machine to process a<br />

part, will it achieve the desired result in<br />

one go?). We’ve taken an R&D approach<br />

that results not just in a million precise<br />

impacts on a part surface, but in one big<br />

impact on our customers’ bottom line.”<br />

www.wheelabratorgroup.com<br />


Four furnace chargers and a<br />

fully automatic charging plant<br />

In the summer of 2015, ConviTec<br />

GmbH, Offenbach, Germany, delivered,<br />

installed and commissioned<br />

four furnace chargers, each equipped<br />

with weighing device, and a fully automatic<br />

charging plant, also including<br />

weighing device, for a Turkish customer.<br />

The four furnace chargers, having a<br />

capacity of 16 t each, are based on a<br />

drive frame each with 4 load cells.<br />

Their evaluation is carried out by Siemens<br />

control, incl. SIWAREX, which is<br />

integrated in the charging vehicle. Siemens<br />

IWLAN ensures signal exchange<br />

with the main control cabinet of the<br />

charging plant.<br />

The scope of delivery of the charging<br />

plant comprizes a group of 6 bunkers<br />

with ultrasound filling level sensors,<br />

having a magnetic feeder and discharge<br />

flap each. Underneath there<br />

are two mobile weighing devices with<br />

containers for the charging batch. Two<br />

precision laser distance sensors with<br />

The four furnace chargers, having a capacity of 16 t each, are based on a<br />

drive frame each with 4 load cells (Photo: Convitec)<br />

SSI interface ensure precise positioning<br />

under the bunkers.<br />

The scope of delivery also includes<br />

two charging cranes, which fill two<br />

charging troughs each and the 6 bunkers<br />

automatically. The drives of the<br />

cranes, not only for the stroke but also<br />

for longitudinal travel, are operated by<br />

means of a frequency converter. Two<br />

precision laser distance sensors with<br />

SSI interface ensure precise longitudinal<br />

positioning. An absolute encoder<br />

with SSI interface integrated in the<br />

crane control ensures the exact stroke.<br />

Three PCs for recipe preselection, incl.<br />

log printer, provide control, monitoring<br />

and documentation of the respective<br />

batch.<br />

The Turkish customer manufactured<br />

the steel construction incl. 6 bunkers<br />

for the charging plant according to<br />

ConviTec production drawings on his<br />

own account.<br />

The plant works fully automatically<br />

after preselection and start-up of the<br />

recipe.<br />

www.convitec.net<br />

Your partner for best cast-results.<br />

• Gießfilter<br />

• Casting filters<br />

• Filtres de coulée<br />

• Filtro Modelo<br />

Fon.+49-7261-9727-0<br />

Fax.+49-7261-9727-29<br />

info@asti-filter.de<br />

www.asti-filter.de<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 51

NEWS<br />


Order for a single chamber<br />

melting and casting furnace<br />

Austria Metall AG (AMAG) has placed<br />

an order with Hertwich Engineering,<br />

both Braunau, Austria, to supply<br />

a melting/casting furnace with a capacity<br />

of 55,000 t of aluminum per<br />

year including a charging machine.<br />

Commissioning of the new furnace is<br />

scheduled for mid 2017.<br />

The aluminum industry assumes<br />

that worldwide consumption of rolled<br />

aluminum products will grow by 70 %<br />

over the next ten years. With this dynamic<br />

growth in demand, AMAG started<br />

an ambitious enlargement program<br />

in 2012 with an initial volume of 220<br />

million euros. In <strong>2016</strong>, the company is<br />

additionally starting a new rolling<br />

plant project (strategy project “AMAG<br />

2020”), with which the capacity should<br />

be boosted to more than 300,000 t per<br />

year by 2017. The furnace ordered is<br />

part of this enlargement program.<br />

With the increase of rolling production,<br />

the quantity of production scrap<br />

also rises, which needs to be remelted.<br />

The furnace is designed for this task.<br />

The tiltable melting and casting furnace<br />

is a joint development by AMAG<br />

and Hertwich. The first unit of this<br />

type has been taken into operation by<br />

AMAG in 2013. With a holding capacity<br />

of 70 t this furnace was already of<br />

impressive size. The current furnace<br />

unit now ordered, with a liquid metal<br />

volume of 110+ t, once again greatly<br />

exceeds the size of the existing unit.<br />

The single-chamber furnace used for<br />

melting is able to also take over the<br />

function of a casting furnace, if necessary.<br />

For heating, two pairs of regenerative<br />

burners are installed above the<br />

melting bath level. With a specific maximum<br />

gas consumption of 500 kWh for<br />

each ton of aluminum the plant satisfies<br />

the strictest requirements, both in<br />

economic terms and also in terms of<br />

environmental impact. To ensure clean<br />

Aluminum melting and casting furnace (70 t) at AMAG, Ranshofen<br />

(Photo: AMAG)<br />

combustion an oxygen regulation system<br />

and separate regulating systems for<br />

natural gas and combustion air are provided.<br />

An electromagnetic pump ensures<br />

thorough metal circulation, constantly<br />

high melting performance and<br />

homogeneous temperature distribution<br />

in the furnace.<br />

The scope of supply also includes a<br />

rail-guided, pusher-type charging machine<br />

(capacity: 25 t), with which the<br />

furnace can be charged efficiently in<br />

only a few charging cycles.<br />

www.amag.at<br />


SA-Foundry counts on<br />

German foundry technology<br />

Any foundry that has origins dating<br />

back to the 1940´s and is still operating<br />

under the same company name<br />

is a rare occurrence in South African<br />

(SA) foundry industry. Guestro Casting<br />

and Machining is one of a few.<br />

Guestro belongs to Naledi Inhlanganiso<br />

(Pty) Ltd and is a manufacturing<br />

group established in 2013 focusing its<br />

operations on iron and steel manufacturing<br />

for the rail, mining, energy and<br />

automotive market sectors. The main<br />

operations are located in Ekurhuleni,<br />

Gauteng Province, South Africa.<br />

Guestro Casting and Machining is a<br />

foundry casting 150 to 200 t of ferrous<br />

and non-ferrous metals daily.<br />

Continuous improvement and process<br />

optimization is also indispensable<br />

for Guestro in order to continue its<br />

successful company history. This is<br />

why they ordered two IFM 7<br />

multi-function furnaces with<br />

Twin-Power systems by ABP Induction<br />

Systems GmbH, headquartered in<br />

Dortmund, Germany, in 2014. This<br />

order also included two charging machines<br />

type FC 12 T by Cyrus GmbH<br />

Schwingtechnik, Recklinghausen,<br />

Germany, which serve to feed the furnace<br />

semi-automatically.<br />

The mobile chargers are fed by means<br />

of the existing charging bay crane with<br />

a charge make-up of black scrap or casting<br />

returns. The black scrap has a bulk<br />

density of 1.1 t/m³. The charging machine<br />

comes with a capacity of 11 m³,<br />

which corresponds to a load-carrying<br />

capacity of 12 t. The machinery supplied<br />

by Cyrus also stands out with its<br />

high user friendliness. The central control<br />

aisle allows both systems to be controlled<br />

by just one operator. This ensures<br />

maximum utilization.<br />

Guestro not only attaches importance<br />

to user friendliness but also to functional<br />

reliability. Here Cyrus has further optimized<br />

important safety-critical details<br />

with its latest generation of machines.<br />

52 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

The operator-friendly machine array as well as system functions were simulated and<br />

tested during factory commissioning at Cyrus in Recklinghausen (Photo: Cyrus)<br />

Due to an even higher quality choice<br />

of material, the sandwich bottom floor<br />

of the charging bunker is substantially<br />

lower-noise when in operation than<br />

comparable machine generations before.<br />

Furthermore, a footswitch is employed.<br />

By activating this switch the<br />

machine travel is interrupted immediately<br />

in order to avoid any obstructions<br />

caused by foreign objects and to protect<br />

persons in the area of the charging<br />

floor. Moreover, a retainer flap prevents<br />

unintentional material leakage.<br />

This and other measures increase<br />

both ease of use and operating safety<br />

substantially. Commenting in this Holger<br />

Ververs, Head of Planning and Applications<br />

Technology at Cyrus GmbH<br />

Schwingtechnik, says: “The installation<br />

of two more of Cyrus’ charging machines<br />

in South Africa makes us proud<br />

and underscores that the added value<br />

our machines bring, our expert knowhow<br />

in this field and our quality are all<br />

appreciated.”<br />

www.cyrus-germany.com/en<br />

Technical Features:<br />

Charge material: Scrap / Grey Iron<br />

Charge volume: 11m³<br />

Charging output: 12 tons<br />

Max. piece weight: 100 kg<br />

Ambient temperature: -20 to +40°C<br />

Drive power: 2 x 2.7 kW (vibrating<br />

trough), 1 x 1.5 kW (travel drive)<br />

Temperature Control.<br />

Smart. Reliable.<br />


<br />

less<br />

Many European countries are realizing<br />

the economic benefits of making<br />

more efficient use of material resources<br />

like metals, fossil fuels and<br />

minerals. But more action is needed<br />

to underpin this trend in resource efficiency<br />

with stronger policies on energy,<br />

material resources, waste management<br />

and on circular economy. These<br />

are the findings from a new European<br />

Environment Agency (EEA) assessment.<br />

The EEA report “More from less – material<br />

resource efficiency in Europe”,<br />

takes an in-depth look at national approaches<br />

and policies on resource efficiency<br />

and explores similarities and differences<br />

in related policies, strategies and<br />

targets. The report builds on a survey, in<br />

which 32 of the 39 EEA member and cooperating<br />

countries took part. Countries<br />

provided detailed information on their<br />

resource efficiency polices and examples<br />

of good practice initiatives.<br />

The main objective of the report is to<br />

encourage countries to share information<br />

Individual solution &<br />

optimised performance<br />

Get more out of your production<br />

facilities right from the start - with<br />

temperature control units from<br />

REGLOPLAS. They are matched<br />

to your requirements and compatible<br />

with your components and processes.<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 53<br />


K NEWS<br />

Production of aluminum die-castings in the new Audi die-casting foundry in<br />

Münchsmünster, Germany. The new foundry for structural components is one<br />

of the world’s most advanced. Energy and resource efficiency played a major<br />

role in the planning stage of the foundry (Photo: Klaus Bolz)<br />

and their experiences in the development<br />

of resource efficiency policies. The work<br />

contributes to broadening know-how on<br />

resource efficiency and the circular economy<br />

and increases understanding of policy<br />

approaches in these areas.<br />

Between 2000 and 2014, resource use<br />

in the European Union as a whole fell<br />

both in absolute terms (down by 12 %)<br />

and per person (from 15.5 to 13.1 t per<br />

person), according to the survey. The<br />

economic benefit of improving resource<br />

efficiency is the most important<br />

driver in many countries, indicating<br />

that the logic of doing more with less<br />

has been widely embraced. The most<br />

recurrent drivers to improve efficiency<br />

were the desire to increase competitiveness,<br />

to secure the supply of raw<br />

materials and energy and reduce dependence<br />

on imports, and to lower<br />

pressures on the environment.<br />

The report stresses that the key challenge<br />

will be to ensure that the recent<br />

gains in efficiency are sustained, and<br />

that the situation does not revert to the<br />

long-term pattern of economic growth<br />

accompanied by increasing resource<br />

use. The survey also concludes that<br />

there is room for improvement in policy<br />

design and implementation, as well<br />

as significant potential benefit in the<br />

exchange of good practice, since big differences<br />

between countries still exist.<br />

The report and the accompanying 32<br />

individual country profiles were produced<br />

together with the Agency’s network<br />

of member and cooperating countries,<br />

known as Eionet and the European<br />

Topic Centre on Waste and Materials in<br />

a Green Economy (ETC/WMGE).<br />

Key Findings:<br />

»»<br />

Only three countries, Austria, Finland<br />

and Germany, adopted dedicated<br />

national strategies for material<br />

resource efficiency. Two further countries<br />

have dedicated strategies at a regional<br />

level, in Flanders (Belgium),<br />

and Scotland (United Kingdom).<br />

»»<br />

Most of the improvements in resource<br />

productivity occurred between<br />

2007 and 2014, although not<br />

necessarily as a result of a comprehensive<br />

policy intervention. The<br />

gains were mostly due to the sharp<br />

decline in construction activity as<br />

a result of the economic crisis that<br />

started in 2007-2008, which led to<br />

huge falls in material use, but had<br />

rather limited impact on gross domestic<br />

product.<br />

»»<br />

A majority of countries (26) identified<br />

certain waste streams and secondary<br />

materials as the most common<br />

group of priority materials. Key<br />

waste streams are plastic and packaging<br />

(17 countries), construction and<br />

demolition waste (16 countries), and<br />

food waste (15 countries). Energy<br />

sources, like fossil fuels and including<br />

renewables, were mentioned by<br />

18 countries as priority resources.<br />

»»<br />

Manufacturing was singled out most<br />

frequently as the key economic sector<br />

for improving material resource<br />

efficiency, followed by agriculture<br />

and forestry, construction, and waste<br />

management.<br />

»»<br />

The service sector – currently accounting<br />

for some 70-75 % of GDP in most<br />

European countries – is potentially<br />

significant with respect to material<br />

use and the resource efficiency of the<br />

economy. However, very few countries<br />

mentioned service-oriented sectors<br />

among their priorities for improving<br />

material resource efficiency.<br />

»»<br />

Nine countries have adopted targets<br />

for national material resource efficiency:<br />

Austria, Estonia, France, Germany,<br />

Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Portugal<br />

and Slovenia. In most cases, these targets<br />

are based on gross domestic product<br />

relative to domestic material consumption<br />

(GDP/DMC) – the EU’s lead<br />

resource productivity indicator.<br />

»»<br />

Germany, the Netherlands, and the<br />

region of Flanders (Belgium) reported<br />

having a dedicated circular economy<br />

strategy, which aims to create a production<br />

and consumption system that<br />

generates little waste and keeps materials<br />

in use for as long as possible. Several<br />

countries acknowledge the need<br />

to move away from the current linear<br />

economic model and stated that the<br />

circular economy and closing material<br />

loops are already policy priorities. The<br />

majority of reported policy initiatives<br />

related to the circular economy focus<br />

on waste management, with only a<br />

few examples going beyond increasing<br />

recycling rates and a higher use of<br />

secondary raw materials.<br />

www.eea.europa.eu<br />

54 Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong>

AGTOS<br />

Up to date blasting technique<br />

on Ankiros show<br />

AGTOS, Emsdetten, Germany, provides<br />

the foundry industry with surface<br />

technology. Besides manufacturing<br />

turbine wheel shot blasting plants<br />

for cleaning, derusting, descaling<br />

and shot peening the company also<br />

pro jects complete machining centers<br />

including the conveyer technology.<br />

At the exposition Ankiros from<br />

29 September to 1 October <strong>2016</strong><br />

AGTOS will be presented on<br />

the booth of its Turkish<br />

agent Teknometalurji. The<br />

visitor will see examples of<br />

projects that were carried<br />

out in Turkey and other<br />

countries. Inno vative turbine<br />

and filter technology as<br />

well as elaborated ways in<br />

maintenance ensure the<br />

economic treatment of surfaces<br />

of casted parts.<br />

The company provides shot<br />

blast ing solutions for roughen<br />

ing, derusting, de-scaling,<br />

and hardening of surfaces.<br />

With a wide range of<br />

applications, ranging from<br />

small chain components, to<br />

large steel constructions,<br />

the surface technology specialist<br />

has virtually no limits<br />

on providing blast cleaning<br />

solutions to meet the needs<br />

of many different industries.<br />

The company has the capability<br />

to offer refurbished<br />

shot blast machines, repairs,<br />

updating and modernization<br />

of machines from other shot<br />

blasting manufacturers.<br />

Special emphasis is put on<br />

an extensive service regarding<br />

the blasting technology.<br />

Therefore the company provides<br />

the suitable spear parts<br />

and carries out the repairs for<br />

machines out of the own and<br />

other productions.<br />

www.agtos.com<br />

Castings on a hanger on their way to the blasting machine (Photo: AGTOS)<br />

We are a medium-sized company that is expanding all over Europe, operating in the foundry<br />

and steel construction industry at two locations in Germany.<br />

We wish to strengthen our team, and we are looking for a sales agency for our location in<br />

Poland, i.e., a<br />

Self-employed Sales Agent (m/f) in<br />

Field Service / Sales and<br />

Customer Acquisition<br />

What you can expect:<br />

Your job will be professional telephone acquisition as well as local consulting and support<br />

for customers. You will work with various customer target groups in careful and systematic<br />

ways and perform exciting special activities, always using the right approach.<br />

What we expect from you:<br />

• Completed commercial training as well as knowledge of the foundry trade<br />

• A high capacity for team work and excellent communication skills<br />

• Convincing negotiation strengths and a talent for sales<br />

• Confident and reputable manners and an affinity for dealing with customers<br />

• An extensive knowledge of MS Office and an excellent use of „new media“<br />

• An excellent knowledge of German and Polish (spoken and written)<br />

We will offer you:<br />

• A responsible job with good prospects for the future<br />

• A diversified and challenging job<br />

• An attractive, performance-based compensation that you will essentially<br />

determine through your successful sales<br />

If you are interested in this job, we are looking forward to your complete application<br />

documents.<br />

Please send us your application (cover letter, resume, certificates in one PDF file)<br />

by mail to our “HR department” – info@foundry-service.de<br />

STA Foundry Service_128_174.indd 1 12.07.16 13:38<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3 /<strong>2016</strong> 55


Insulation technology<br />

4 pages, English, German<br />

A product brochure describing the key features of the Thermo-Protector insulation<br />

system offered by Lippmann. The product provides excellent insulation efficiency<br />

over a temperature range from -50 °C to +250 °C. It is self-adhesive, water-repellent,<br />

self-extinguishing and self-vulcanizing and ideally suited for convoluted or flexible<br />

piping systems.<br />

www.lippmann-gmbh.com<br />

Automatic water dosing for shake-out and cooling drums<br />

4 pages, English<br />

In this brochure, Sensor Control explains how water dosing in shake-out and cooling<br />

drums can be automated by using efficient instrumentation sensors. Sensors are<br />

applied to measure fresh air into the drum, the mold box temperature, the exhaust<br />

air leaving the drum, used sand temperature, moisture and height on the belt behind<br />

the drum, etc.<br />

Information: www.sensor-control.de<br />

Molding sand management system<br />

20 pages, English<br />

A brochure featuring FoMaSys, a modular sand management system, offered by<br />

Michenfelder Elektrotechnik. The system is composed of four interacting sand testing<br />

and moisture control modules. The brochure describes in great detail the functions,<br />

features and visualization options of the system.<br />

Information: www.michenfelder.com<br />

Magnesium and aluminium foundry and machining facility<br />

4 pages, English<br />

In this brochure, Explat presents its activities as experts in magnesium and aluminium<br />

alloy casting and as specialists in parts machining. The foundry has a capacity<br />

of 100 t. The weights of the aluminium and magnesium castings produced range<br />

between 200 g and 330 kg.<br />

Information: www.explat.cz<br />

56 Casting Plant & Technology 3/<strong>2016</strong>

Vibrating feeder<br />

4 pages, English<br />

This product brochure features vibrating feeders supplied by JML. It includes technical<br />

data and photos of two feeder models, one for large quantities of bulk materials<br />

and one for small to medium material flows. They are both designed for castings<br />

weighing up to 450 kg.<br />

Information: www.jml-industrie.com<br />

Foundry equipment<br />

5 pages, English, German<br />

In this brochure, Webac Gesellschaft für Maschinenbau summarizes their product<br />

and service range for the foundry industry. Specially featured are molding and core<br />

sand preparation plants, sand regeneration plants, sand coating plants as well as<br />

cold resin pattern plants.<br />

Information: www.webac-gmbh.de<br />

Melting and heating technology<br />

16 pages, English<br />

A comprehensive brochure setting out the expertise of Marx in melting, ladle and<br />

extrusion technology. Detailed descriptions are provided of channel and crucible<br />

furnace plants; induction furnace plants; insulation technology; casting, transport<br />

and treatment ladles; gearbox series, etc.<br />

Information: www.marx-gmbh.eu<br />

Chemical metallurgical products<br />

24 pages, English<br />

This brochure provides information about fluxes offered by Hüttenes-Albertus for<br />

ferrous and non-ferrous casting applications. Each flux series is described in great<br />

detail, including a listing of available products, the forms in which they come, a<br />

summary of their specific purposes, temperature ranges, etc.<br />

Information: www.huettenes-albertus.com<br />

Casting Plant & Technology 3/<strong>2016</strong> 57


Fairs and Congresses<br />

Fond-Ex<br />

September, 12-16, <strong>2016</strong>, Brno/Czech Republic<br />

www.bvv.cz/en/fond-ex<br />

56. <strong>International</strong> Foundry Conference<br />

September, 14-16, <strong>2016</strong>, Portorož/Slovenia<br />

http://www.drustvo-livarjev.si/index.php?lang=english<br />

Metal – 21. <strong>International</strong> Fair of Technologies<br />

for Foundry<br />

September, 20-22, <strong>2016</strong>, Kielce/Poland<br />

www.targikielce.pl/en<br />

Euromold <strong>2016</strong><br />

September, 20-23, <strong>2016</strong>, Düsseldorf/Germany<br />

http://euromold.com/en<br />

IFF – <strong>International</strong> Foundry Forum<br />

September, 23-24, <strong>2016</strong>, Dresden/Germany<br />

www.international-foundry-forum.org<br />

4. China Int’l Aluminum Industry Exhibition <strong>2016</strong><br />

September, 26-28, <strong>2016</strong>, Guangzhou/China<br />

www.chinaaluminum.net/en<br />

Ankiros Annofer Turkcast <strong>2016</strong><br />

September/October, 29-01, <strong>2016</strong>, Istanbul/Turkey<br />

www.ankiros.com/index.php?en<br />

<strong>2016</strong> China <strong>International</strong> Die Casting Congress &<br />

The First CEO Forum<br />

October, 18-21, <strong>2016</strong>, Jiaxing/China<br />

www.cfadcc.com/en-index.aspx<br />

Indometal <strong>2016</strong><br />

October, 25-27, <strong>2016</strong>, Jakarta/Indonesia<br />

www.indometal.net<br />

6. <strong>International</strong> Foundry Congress & Exhibition<br />

November, 23-24, <strong>2016</strong>, Lahore/Pakistan<br />

www.pfa.org.pk/info/6th-IFCE/21/0<br />

CastTec <strong>2016</strong><br />

November, 24-25, <strong>2016</strong>, Darmstadt/Germany<br />

www.casttec<strong>2016</strong>.de/en/home<br />

<strong>2016</strong> Japan Die Casting Congress & Exposition<br />

November, 24-26, <strong>2016</strong>, Yokohama/Japan<br />

www.diecasting.or.jp<br />

Aluminium<br />

November/December, 29-01, <strong>2016</strong>, Düsseldorf/Germany<br />

www.aluminium-messe.com<br />

Alucast <strong>2016</strong><br />

December, 1-3, <strong>2016</strong>, Bangalore/India<br />

www.alucast<strong>2016</strong>.com<br />

Fundiexpo <strong>2016</strong><br />

October, 5-7, <strong>2016</strong>, Queretaro City/Mexico<br />

www.fundiexpo.com<br />

Advertisers‘ Index<br />

AGTOS Ges. für technische<br />

Oberflächensysteme mbH 60<br />

ASK Chemicals GmbH 23<br />

ASTI Gießereigeräte GmbH 51<br />

Quarzwerke Baums GmbH & Co. KG 15<br />

voestalpine Böhler Welding GmbH 11<br />

Büro für angewandte Mineralogie 27<br />

ConviTec GmbH 33<br />

Gustav Eirich GmbH & Co. KG 2<br />

ExOne GmbH 35<br />

FAT Förder- und Anlagentechnik GmbH 41<br />

Filtech Exhibitions Germany 7<br />

Foundry-Service GmbH 55<br />

GTP Schäfer GmbH 43<br />

H20 GmbH 45<br />

Jasper Ges. für Energiewirtschaft &<br />

Kybernetik mbH 37<br />

JÖST GmbH & Co. KG 43<br />

Klein Anlagenbau AG 49<br />

O.M.LER 2000 S.R.L. 47<br />

Reed Exhibitions (Deutschland) GmbH 31<br />

Regloplas AG 53<br />

RÖSLER Oberflächentechnik GmbH 45<br />

RUMP Strahlanlagen GmbH & Co. KG 15<br />

Troostwijk Veilingen b.v. 47<br />

Heinrich Wagner Sinto<br />

Maschinenfabrik GmbH 19<br />

WOKO Magnet- und Anlagenbau GmbH 32<br />

58 Casting Plant & Technology 3 / <strong>2016</strong>



Preview of the next issue<br />

Publication date: December <strong>2016</strong><br />

Vehicle of the Mercedes-Series BR 222 (S-Class) showing the position of the rear strut tower – an aluminium structural casting (Photo: Daimler)<br />

Selection of topics:<br />

K. Vollrath: Aluminium structural die cast components: More capacity for Europe’s premium vehicles<br />

With the delivery of large-scale structural castings for the hybrid body of the new C-Class Mercedes Swiss DGS Druckguss Systeme AG,<br />

St. Gallen, has proven its expertise as a development partner for the global large-scale production of such castings. The next step is now the<br />

development of production and logistics structures that are capable to satisfy the needs of the European premium manufacturers.<br />

P. Hofer et al: Tungsten-based composites as a die material in high-pressure die-casting<br />

Local microstructure improvement in high-pressure die-castings by influencing thermal and mechanical process parameters were examined.<br />

Within the examination of the cooling of hpdc-tools the process related properties of the tungsten-based composite Densimet 185 (D185)<br />

were tested. The material D185 is compared with iron-based die materials.<br />

H. Wang et al: Optimization of a brake caliper<br />

Due to safety reasons, brake calipers are produced to the highest quality requirements. The Shanghai Sandmann Foundry (SSF) developed,<br />

and is successfully producing a car caliper made of ductile iron which was acquired to be optimized in a DISAMATIC casting process.<br />

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Casting Plant & Technology 3 / <strong>2016</strong> 59

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