FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1/2018


Volume 32 _D42804 F

Journal for meat production,

processing and research




Top level of internationality


Dynamic growth



Scope and



The influence of

binder on the quality


Smoking and Ripening

Poultry Processing

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Behind the horizon it continues


Resource efficiency and food safety will be in the focus at Anuga FoodTec and ICoMST

The upcoming Anuga FoodTec in Cologne will

be adriving force for all areas of the international

food and beverage industry again. It is the

only trade fair in the world that covers all aspects

of food production. Industry supplying

companies will present new technologies,

trends and future-oriented solutions from all

fields of food processing. Meat processors and

all meat processing sectors like food service,

catering or fast food producers will find interesting

new aspects and solutions even from other

fields than their ancestral business. This horizon-opening

view will open the way to technical

or technological insights and services, which

may help to solve daily business’ tasks more

effective. It is the easiest way to get new input.

Taking place from 20 to 23 March 2018,resource

efficiency will be the primary focus. Amore

protective and at the same time more efficient

use of natural resources will be the key of future

societies. Exhibitors will be presenting avariety of

solutions for strengthening competitiveness and

reducing the use of energy,water and food in

production. Numerous accompanying event and

congress programmes will also illuminate the

topic from various angles. This will round the

attendees‘ insights of this theme.

The fair is ameeting point for decision-makers,

aplace for visionaries and alocation for specialists.

Visitors are also interested in the presentation

of the International FoodTec Awards. The

prestigious technology award is presented in

the form of gold and silver medals every three

years by DLG (Deutsche Landwirtschafts-

Gesellschaft/German Agricultural Society) in

cooperation with industry and media partners. It

has recognized ground-breaking developments

in innovation, sustainability and efficiency in

the food technology sector since 1994. An international

jury of experts from research and

academia as well as practical oriented persons

selects the most innovative concepts. The gold

medal will be awarded for products in recognition

of added new functions, or significant

process improvements arising from novel underlying

concepts. The silver medal will be

awarded for existing products that have undergone

essential further development, thereby

achieving either asignificant improvement in

function or the respective process.

Later in August 2018 the 64th International

Congress of Meat Science and Technology

(ICoMST) will be held in Melbourne, Australia.

Like Anuga FoodTec this major forum promises

to be an experience of effective exchange of

information and ideas on important topics in

the world of meat, meat science and technology.

The theme of the congress is ‘Quality and Integrity

for Global Consumers’. The event will

handle this broad topic divided into thirteen

major themes from process control via packaging

to value adding to meat and offal. Therefore

professionals from research, academia, government

and industry will find the congress stimulating

and worthwhile.

2019 will be very convenient for German visionaries,

because the 65th ICoMST to be held in

Berlin, Germany,rises on the horizon.

Michael Weisenfels







Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


50 54


Meat chain

Anuga FoodTec

Process technology is the most

stronglyrepresented section at

this year‘s trade fair in Cologne. 14

Photo: Koelnmesse

3 Editorial

6 News

8 Business News

13 Foreign Markets

53 Industry News

79 Calendar

80 Advertisers, Credits, Subscriptions

88 Research News

50 Pork

Dynamic growth documented. Patterns

of EU pig meat production and trade.

62 Slaughter

Unhygienic meat processing poses risks.

The government of Ghana will develop a

comprehensive and harmonized sanitation

reporting system.

77 Protein

Value added fish meat products. There is

agreat demand for seafood based

products in RTE convenience products.

Research &Development

82 The effects of different levels of iota- and

kappa-carrageenan on some properties of abeef emulsion

By Hikmet Salman and Cemalettin Sarıçoban

89 Theinfluence of binder, fat content and degree of

comminution on the quality of restructured beef steaks –

Investigations on sodium alginate and microbial


By Julia Bogdanowicz, WacławMozolewski, Magdalena Dudek

and Zenon Nogalski

94 Efficacy of various bind enhancing agents on the quality

of extended restructured mutton chops

By Heena Sharma, B.D. Sharma, Suman Talukder,

Meena Goswami Awasthi and Imran Ahmed Ganai

100 Guidelines for authors of FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018



14 Anuga FoodTec

Toplevel of internationality.Trade show in Cologne expects to set

new exhibitor record.

18 Awards

DLG honours 17 prizewinners. The German Agricultural Society has

announced innovations from the international food manufacturing

and supplyindustry.

26 Novelties

What’s new at the fair? About 1,700 exhibitors from more than

140 countries will present themselves.

54 Poultry

High growth rates. “White” meat is gaining in popularity, and is

processed and offered in many forms.

70 Fermentation

Scope and challenges –fermented products provide an adequate

environment for the growth and survival of probiotic microbiota.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018



The fair will open in May

Cibus is coming back: the most

relevant Italian food fair will be

held in the city of Parma from 7–10

May, 2018.More than 3,000 exhibiting

companies and agrowing

number of Italian and international

buyers are expected in Parma. The

most innovative products will be

displayed in anew dedicated area,

the incoming programme for foreign

buyers has been strengthened

and anew exhibition pavilion

will be opened. The food sector

ends 2017 with remarkable results:

export increased by +7% versus the

previous year with a€32.1bn.

value. The main food export markets,

in addition to Europe and

United States, are Canada, Japan,

Australia and Russia.

In Asia the main export destinations

are: China, Hong Kong, South

Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. The

role of Cibus as aplatform for

exports (it is be held in the even

years, whereas “Cibus Connect” is

organised in odd years) will be

confirmed by the arrival in Parma of

the buyers from the most important

retailers, such as: Metro

Canada, H-E-B, Sam's Club, Publix

Supermarkets, Wakefern, Whole

Foods and Kehe Distributors (from

North America); Grupo Pao de

Açucar and Cencosud (from South

America); Mercadona, Coop Suisse,

Rewe Group, Auchan Retail, Delhaize,

Axfood, Sodexo,

Marks&Spencer (from Europe);

Womai, Metro Cash&Carry China,

BHG Group, Daimaru, Aeon Group,

Lotte, Emart, Village Grocer (from

The fair will attract many visitors.

Photo: Cibus

Asia); Panda, Carrefour, Lulu Hypermarket

and Spinneys (from the

Middle East). Some of the buyers

will be able to visit the Parma

region food valley.

The scouting and recruiting of

key foreign buyers were carried out

together with the Italian ICE Agency

(Foreign Trade Institute) and an

international roadshow that Cibus

has developed in the main target

markets: at the Anuga Exhibition in

Germany, in Paris and in the coming

months in London, Hamburg, Tokyo

during Foodex, and at the Summer

Fancy Food of New York. Cibus 2018

will also feature anew pavilion

built to meet the growing request

for exhibiting space: an area dedicated

to the most innovative and

original food products placed on

the market, selected by apanel of



Vistit us at Anuga FoodTec, cologne, hall 6.1, booth A039



Possibly lifting tariff on US ethanol

Brazil is studying the removal of a20% tariff on ethanol imports from the

United States, Agriculture Minister Blairo Maggi said, in adecision that

could depend on Washington lifting aban on fresh beef exports from

Brazil. This was reported by Reuters. Last year, Brazil imposed a20% tax

on ethanol imported from the U.S. that exceeds a600 mill. lannual quota

to protect local producers as imports spiked. Also in 2017,the U.S.

banned shipments of fresh beef from Brazil following on afood safety

scandal involving bribes paid to inspectors that led to heightened inspections

by the US and in turn uncovered potential health risks. Maggi

implied that adecision on removing the ethanol import tariff could depend

on resolving the dispute on beef exports. The ban on fresh beef

exports could be lifted by April, Maggi said, when he is expected to step

down in order to meet adeadline to run for elected office in October.

Brazil has already submitted all of the material requested by the US to

address concerns over beef exports and is awaiting for the US to decide

whether the issue is resolved, he said.



Better environmental compatibility

Four leading associations in the

heating, ventilation, air conditioning

and refrigeration (HVACR) sector

–EPEE, AREA, Asercom and

EFCTC –have joined forces in an

unprecedented effort to call upon

European installers to stop using

high global warming potential

(GWP) refrigerants in the equipment

they install, in particular

R-404A and R-507A.

To this end, the associations

have developed aleaflet for installers

highlighting the key actions

needed to tackle the difficult

market situation created by high

hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) prices and

low availability.The leaflet urges

installers to stop using R-404A and

R-507A in new equipment, retrofit

existing equipment with lower GWP

refrigerants, reduce leakages and

charge sizes, and recover, recycle

and reclaim refrigerants.

“The fact that four industry

associations representing different

parts of the HVACR sector –

installers, OEMs, compressor manufacturers

and gas producers –

worked together on this leaflet is

in itself avery strong message and

will hopefullytrigger the muchneeded

acceleration of the

“phase-out” of R404A and R507A,”

Andrea Voigt, EPEE Director General


The 2015 F-gas regulation introduced

an HFC phase-down system,

acompletelynew mechanism to

Installers and users are asked to

phase out high GWP refrigerants.

Photo: EPEE

ensure emission reductions

through agradual decrease in the

consumption of HFCs. With avery

steep phase-down reduction in

2018 and additional measures

controlling and limiting the use of

HFCs coming into force in 2020, the

EU HFC market is in turmoil –refrigerant

prices have reached record

highs and availability is very limited.

When undertaking amarket

survey as part of its Gapometer

project, EPEE found that one of the

main causes for this market situation

is that action to stop using

high GWP refrigerants like R404A

and R507A has been far too slow.

The four associations will continue

their collaboration to ensure

that the leaflet they produced will

reach contractors throughout

Europe, in their local languages.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018




Brazil showed strength of its agribusiness

Despite adeep political scandal

that has toppled apresident and

given Brazil’sreputation ablack

eye, the country’sfarms and

slaughterhouses have continued

doing what they do best: growing,

harvesting and selling agricultural

commodities on aglobal scale.

That was the message of a

Brazilian delegation occupying a

large pavilion at this year’s International

Production and Processing

Expo (IPPE) in Atlanta, USA,

which brings together many of the

world’sbiggest makers of equipment

and other products for the

raising and slaughter of proteins

like chicken and pork. The fair is

held annuallyinthe backyard of

one of the biggest poultry-producing

regions in the world –the

Southeast of the USA.

Amid all the other exhibitors,

Brazil needed away to stand out.

For the second straight year, the

Brazil occupied alarge pavilion at this year‘s fair in Atlanta. Photo: IPPE

government brought nearly20

companies to camp out under

yellow haloed banners labeled

“Brasil,” beckoning lanyard-clad

attendees to learn more about

the country.Inaddition to small

white booths surrounding the

pavilion, companies could entertain

clients in its spacious, cafestyle

seating area. Egbert Ferreira,

Brazil’snew deputy consul

for trade and investment at the

Consulate General of Brazil in

Atlanta, addresses abreakfast

focused on Brazilian innovation in

the agribusiness sector.“Ibelieve

we get more visibility if we join

forces,” Mr.Ferreira said, noting

that Brazilian producers spread

throughout the show might’ve

otherwise been subsumed by the

sea of competition.

Agricultural production has

mainlybeen abright spot for the

Brazilian economy, along-standing

and resilient sector whose success

hasn’tbeen tied to government

funding –now in short supply

amid aclampdown on federal

spending, Mr.Ferreira said.

Agribusiness was what “held the

Brazilian economy together” over

the last few years, he added.

Indeed, Brazilian firms are

among the most sophisticated in

the world when it comes to crop

and protein production. As one

example, US-based Pilgrim’sPride,

which has many poultry facilities in

Georgia, is now 75% owned by

Brazil’sJBS, amassive company

that ranks among the top food

companies in the world.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Business News

Beyond Meat

R&D center to be expanded

The R&D center will include atest

kitchen and aformal sensory lab.

Photo: Beyond Meat

Beyond Meat from El Segundo,

Calif., USA, announced plans to

expand the company’sresearch

and development space with a

2,415 m 2 addition to the company’s

headquarters in El Segundo, California.

The companies Manhattan

Beach Project will house more than

100 employees, including scientists,

engineers, food technologists,

chefs and researchers. It will

include agourmet kitchen and a

formal sensory lab for consumer

tasting and product testing of its

plant-based protein products. The

center will include asensory lab for

taste tests and consumer panels

for real-time feedback on Beyond

Meat products. “The expansion of

the Manhattan Beach Project here

in Los Angeles reflects our belief

that building meat from plants is an

opportunity of global importance,

one that is deserving of investment

levels consistent with what you’d

find in alternative energy or health

sciences, sectors with which we

certainlyshare common goals,”

Ethan Brown, Beyond Meat CEO and

founder, said. “Weare seeing a

record number of consumers expressing

interest in abroader set of

protein choices; to these consumers,

it is our brand promise to

enable them to eat what they love,

from burgers to sausage, while

feeling great about related health

and environmental implications.

The center is designed to help us

fulfill that promise to the best of

our abilities.” Beyond Meat is the

maker of the Beyond Burger, which

the company says looks, cooks and

tastes like ground beef from cows

but is made from plants.


Hain Celestial

Divesting its protein business

The Hain Celestial Group from Lake

Success, N.Y.,USA, announced its

intent to divest its Hain Pure Protein

business. The announcement

came on the same day the company

released its earnings for the

second quarter of fiscal 2018.“The

company cannot give any assurances

that this will result in any

specific action or regarding the

outcome or timing of any action,”

Hain Celestial said in astatement.

“The company does not intend to

comment further regarding the

potential divestiture at this time.”

During the second quarter ended

31 December, Hain Pure Protein

generated sales of $159mill. over

the prior-year period, reflecting a

15%increase from Plainville Farms,

17%from FreeBird and 7% from

Empire Kosher brands, partially

offset by adecrease in private

label sales, according to the company.Segment

operating income

increased to $5.3 mill.

In June 2017,Hain Celestial

Group management said it had

begun to conduct astrategic

review of the Hain Pure Protein

business. “Weare going to look at

all our businesses, all our categories

and evaluate what strategicallymake

sense,” said Irwin Simon,

chairman, president and CEO,

when he announced the review.

“Listen, the organic category is

growing nicely, but this is adifferent

business to manage. So, we

are going to look at everything.”


The management

conducted a

strategic review

of the business.

Photo: Hain


Danish Crown

Sokolow to buy Gzella

Sokolow Group, part of the Danish

Crown group and aleading meat

producer from Poland, announced

its intention of acquiring the companies

belonging to Gzella Meat

Group, awell-known and valued

meat producer in the northern part

of Poland. The deal will be executed

based on aconditional investment

agreement with the intention to

strengthen the market position of

the merged company and their

brands on the Polish as well as the

international markets.

"Our mission is to be avaluable

partner for our customers and the

consumers. We do that by providing

Gzella provides consumers with

premium products. Photo: Gzella

End of last year the Russian pig

slaughter and processing entity

Agroeco-Yug signed acontract with

the technology group GEAfrom

Düsseldorf, Germany, for the supply,

installation and commissioning

of an extensivelycooling system.

This plant will be built in the

Voronezh region and will be one of

Russia’slargest businesses for the

slaughter and processing of pigs.

The slaughter line’sprocessing rate

will be 600 pigs per hour.Commissioning

has been planned for 2020.

them with products in premium

quality, which meets their expectations

and needs and complywith

the ongoing changes in dietary

trends. The acquisition of Gzella

Meat Group is another step to meet

these objectives and it will enlarge

the potential growth of the Sokolow

Group remarkably," said Boguslaw

Miszczuk, the President of the

Management Board of Sokolow S.A.

The transaction must be subjected

to approval by the Polish

competition authorities.

"Sokolow is an industry investor

with vast experience and the most

advanced know-how in the industry.Thanks

to the investment of

such areliable partner, the business

created will gain the necessary

resources to strengthen our

competitiveness and efficiency

even more, and it is apriceless

impulse to create innovative growth

and expansion into new markets,"

added Miroslaw Gzella.



Cooler for pork production

The German company signed a

contract with aRussian partner.

Photo: Gea

The Agroeco group, holding of

Agroeco-Yug, is the largest pig

farming enterprise in the Voronezh

Region. The seven districts in the

region contain eleven successfully

operating, modern pig farms, their

own genetics and selection center,

as well as ahigh-tech feed mixing

plant with an elevator.

Agroeco-Yug has enforced

stringent requirements on the

suppliers of its equipment. The

cornerstone for best product quality

should be laid with state-ofthe-art

equipment and advanced

technologies. Adetailed design of

all the systems and equipment for

the future business is currently

being drawn up. The GEA cooling

system is an energy-efficient,

reliable and fully-automated

exothermal refrigeration unit using

NH3 and CO2.This includes for example

compression equipment,

evaporative condensers, portioning

equipment, air coolers and blast




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Business News


Strong close of agreat year

Marel, headquarted at Gardabaer,

Iceland, is one of the leading

global provider of advanced processing

systems and services to

the poultry, meat and fish industries.

The company recentlyreported

its results.

Marel Poultry delivered very

strong results in 2017 after introducing

asteady flow of innovative

solutions that strengthens the full

line offering through standardized

building blocks. Its solid operational

performance was positivelyimpacted

by good market conditions,

abalanced product mix, robust

orders received and volumes. It

accounted for 54% of Marel’stotal

revenues in 2017.Marel Poultry

generated €560 mill. in revenues

and €110 mill. in EBIT (19.5% EBIT

margin) for the full year 2017.This is

a9%increase in revenues and 28%

increase from the EBIT of €85 mill. in

2016 (16.6% EBIT margin). Facilitated

by good flexibility in the

supplychain organization, orders

booked off as revenues were at the

highest level ever in poultry.Orders

received in 4Q17 included some

large orders from the US and Italy.

Projects were well distributed

geographicallyand between different

products. Revenues in 4Q17

were the highest ever for poultry at

€154mill., up 27% (4Q16:€121 mill.).

Due to the record high revenues,

the order book decreased over the

quarter and still shows astrong

level going into 2018.These high

revenues ensured that the EBIT was

very high for the quarter or €34 mill,

up 95% YoY(4Q16:€17 mill.). The

The companies Poultry an Meat

divisons delivered good results.

Photo: Marel

EBIT margin was 21.8%, compared

to 14.2% in 4Q16 and is positively

impacted by the high margin orders

booked off.

Marel Meat had agood first half

of the year with solid operational

profit margins, strong volume and

good orders received. The second

half of 2017 was colored by product

mix and timing of deliveries of large

orders. Asoft outlook is expected

to continue in the short term. More

focus will be placed on standardization

to improve scalability,

continued integration and realize

operational synergies going forward.

The acquisition of MPS made

Marel afull-line supplier to the

meat industry by closing the value

chain gaps previouslyexisting in

the primary processing segment.

The company strengthened its

position in South America with the

acquisition of Brazilian primary

meat processor Sulmaq in 2017.

Marel Meat accounted for 32% of

Marel’stotal revenues in 2017.




Change in the management team

Sesotec from Schönberg, Germany,

developer and manufacturer of

contaminant detectors and sorting

systems, reports achange in its

corporate management team.

Xaver Auer, who joined Sesotec in

2011 in the course of achange of

ownership and as CEO is in charge

of strategy, sales, and subsidiaries,

will leave the company at

his own request at the end of

February.Ashis successor Marc

Setzen could be won.

Marc Setzen was born in Aachen

and is 48 years old. He studied

chemical process engineering at

the Aachen University of Applied

Sciences (Dipl.-Ing. /graduated

engineer) and holds an Executive

Master in Business Administration

(EMBA) of the ESSEC-Mannheim

Business School (Paris/Mannheim).

He had been working as Chief

Engineering Officer in the corporate

management of the Klöckner

Pentaplast Group.

Tyson Foods, Inc., headquartered

in Springdale, Ark., USA, one of the

world’slargest food companies

and arecognized leader in protein

with leading brands including

Tyson, Jimmy Dean, Hillshire Farm,

Ball Park, Wright, Aidells, ibp and

State Fair, reported its results.

Beef sales volume increased due

to improved availability of cattle

supply, stronger demand for beef

products and increased exports.

Average sales price increased as

demand for beef products and

strong exports outpaced the increase

in live cattle supplies.

Operating income remained strong,

although below prior year's record

results, as the company continued

to maximize its revenues relative to

the higher live fed cattle costs,

partiallyoffset by increased labor

and freight costs.

Pork sales volume decreased as

aresult of balancing the supply

with customer demand during a

period of margin compression.

Average sales price increased due

to price increases associated with

higher livestock costs. The company

was able to maintain strong

Marc Setzen (right) succeeds

Xaver Auer who will leave the

company. Photo: Sesotec

"Xaver Auer has developed

Sesotec into an innovative and

highlydynamic company.Isincerelythank

him for this optimal

basis and Igreatlylook forward to

having the chance of taking part in

shaping the success story of the

company in the future", says Marc




Food company on the upswing

The portfolio contains proteinand

non-proteien based foods.

Photo: Tyson

operating margins, although below

prior year's record results, by

maximizing the revenues relative

to the live hog markets due to

operational and mix performance,

which were partiallyoffset by

margin compression and higher

labor and freight costs.

Chicken sales volume was up

due to strong demand for chicken

products along with the incremental

volume from the AdvancePierre

acquisition. Average sales price

increased due to sales mix



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Foreign Markets


Decline in meat production

Pig slaugherings in Germany

declined significantly. Photo: ISN

As reported by Germany’sFederal

Statistical Office (Destatis), meat

production fell by 2.0% (–167,000 t)

compared with 2016,toatotal of

8.11 mill. t. Thus, the value is significantlylower

than the production

result of the total volume of industrial

production from the previous

year (8.28 mill. t).

The German Pig Breeders' Interest

Group (Interessengemeinschaft der

Schweinehalter Deutschlands –ISN)

says that with just under 57.9 mill.

slaughtered animals in 2017,pig

slaughterings fell by 2.6%

(–1.5mill.) compared to the previous

year.The volume of imported

pigs slaughtered in German farms

dropped significantlyby18.0%

(–839,000 animals). Over the same

period, the number of slaughtered

pigs of domestic origin decreased

by 1.3% (–690,000 animals) to

54 mill. Overall, this reduced the

pork production by around 127,600 t

to 5.45 mill. t.

The number of commercially

slaughtered cattle fell by 3.1%

compared to 2016 (–111,000 animals)

to 3.5 mill. Particularlynotable

here is adecrease in the slaughter

of cows by 7.0% (–93,000 animals).

In summary, this means aslaughter

volume of 1.12 mill. tofbeef produced,

2.3% (–26,000 t) less than in

the previous year.

The amount of poultry meat, at

1.51 mill. t, was 0.8% lower than in

the previous year (–13,000 t). Although

slightlymore young broiler

meat was produced (+12,000 t,

+1.3%), there was adecline in the

production of duck meat (–5,000 t,

–12,7%) and turkeys (–18,000 t,




Pork exports reached records

All over the world consumers look

for Spanish pork products.

Photo: Interporc

Spain's pork exports exceeded for

the first time avalue of €5,000 mill.

in 2017,while the country's pig

sector reached aturnover worth

€15,000 mill. This increase was

correlated with adirect increase in

wealth and employment in many of

Spain's rural areas, according to

the director of the Interprofessional

of Porcino de Capa Blanca

(Interporc), Alberto Herranz.

The Interporc representative

highlighted the stability observed

in pork production and domestic

consumption and the increase in

sales abroad, which accounted for

13%ofthe sector's turnover, or

€5,080 mill. Mr.Herranz also said

that Spain is the third largest pork

exporter in the world, its pork

shipments reaching more than 130

countries, an achievement obtained

"thanks to factors such as

quality, food safety and the implementation

of the European production

standards, the most demanding

in the world in terms of sustainability

and animal welfare."

Furthermore, Mr.Herranz addedS

that the Spanish pig sector contributes

to the country's wealth

with apositive trade balance of

more than €4,500 mill.




Fights over the pork market

Rabobank analysts believe that

China's pork market is going to be

disputed between EU, US and

Canada producers as the global pork

supplyisforecast to increase further

in Q1 2018."The most significant

story in global pork markets has

been the slowing imports into China,

which creates arisk of oversupplied

China will be an extremely

important pork market this year.

Photo: Archive

global markets. However, we do

expect China’simports to pick up

somewhat over the rest of the year,

leading the EU, the US, and Canada

to continue their battle for China’s

pork market in 2018.”according to

Chenjun Pan, RaboResearch Senior

Analyst –Animal Protein.

As the production will continue to

grow in most of the region the export

markets will become extremely

important this year, according to the

report presented by Rabobank.

Expanding production in most regions

means exports become more

important in 2018.Weexpect competition

in key importing markets,

particularlyinChina, to intensify.”

says Justin Sherrard, RaboResearch

Global Strategist –Animal Protein.

Also, in the EU market researchers

expect that additional supplyto

pressure pig prices and cutout




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Trade Fair


Visitors from more than 140countries will be able to obtain practical information by means of extensive exhibitor presence and live demonstrations.

Top level of internationality

Anuga FoodTec 2018 expects to set new exhibitor record

The eighth Anuga FoodTec, the

leading international supplier fair

for the food and beverage industry,

opens its doors from 20 to 23 March

2018.Around 1,700 exhibitors are

expected in the Cologne exhibition

halls. Afurther increase in the

number of exhibitors of +13%

compared to the previous event is

forecast. This makes Anuga

FoodTec the only trade fair in the

world to cover all aspects of food

production and will convince more

than ever in the coming year with

its enormous range of products and

quality.Under the motto "One for

all –all in one", the trade fair in

Cologne Anuga FoodTec covers the

entire production chain.

Inline with the high demand on

the exhibitor side, Anuga FoodTec

is again increasing its exhibition

space in 2018 up to 140,000 m 2

(+8%) and is being staged in Halls

4.2, 5.2, 6to9,10.1and for the first

time additionally in Hall 10.2. The

trade show is also presenting itself

in good form in terms of its degree

of internationality:Companies

from more than 50 countries will

be presenting their new products

in Cologne. The high interest from

abroad proves that Anuga FoodTec

is the leading international supplier

platform of the food and

beverage industry.Inaddition to

the comprehensive product show,

which encompasses large-surface

live presentations, awide-ranging

congress and event programme

also awaits the trade visitors again.

The top theme of the trade exhibition

2018 is Resource Efficiency.

One for all –all in one

With its exhibition segments Food

Packaging, Safety &Analytics, Food

Processing, Food Ingredients as

well as Services &Solutions, Anuga

FoodTec covers all aspects of food

production. The exhibitors present

solutions for all branches of the

food industry,from the dairy and

meat industries, from beverages to

pasta, from fruit &vegetables, to

oils &fats. The trade exhibition

offers both individual solutions as

well as holistic, cross-process

concepts across all production


Traditionally,process technology

is the most strongly represented

section at the trade fair.Almost all

of the market leaders and

renowned companies from the

industry will be exhibiting in Halls

4.2, 6, 9, 10.1 and 10.2. In Halls 7, 8

and in parts of Hall 9, the focus is

on the theme "Food Packaging"

and thus also on packaging machines,

packing materials, automation

and control technology.InHall

5.2, the trade visitors can find all

information on food safety and

quality management. Here companies

that focus on hygiene technol-


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Trade Fair

Top level of internationality

From 20 to 23 March, Anuga FoodTec will be presenting process technology, packaging, food safety and quality management as well as in the boulevard food ingredients.

ogy,analysis, laboratory and measuring

devices will be presenting

their new products. The Boulevard

offers the perfect stage for the

product segment Food Ingredients.

An international driving force

As the leading global trade fair,

Anuga FoodTec is the most important

driving force of the international

food and beverage industry.

Additional to the products offered by 1,700 exhibitors, top quality is guaranteed.

The number of companies represented

in Cologne is correspondingly

high. According to the status

in November,companies from 50

countries will be presenting their

new products in the halls in

Cologne. At 56 percent, the share of

foreign exhibitors remains at a

constantly high level. Forthe first

time companies from Egypt, Latvia,

NewZealandand Norway are

represented at the most important

supplier trade fair for the food and

beverage industry,which underlines

the increasing international

significance of Anuga FoodTec. In

terms of the number of visitors,

guests from over 140countries are

awaited in Cologne from 20 to 23

March 2018.

With numerous, large-surface

exhibitor presences, live presentations

on running production lines

and alarge diversity of offers,

Anuga FoodTec has an extremely

practice-oriented alignment. The

comprehensive event and congress

programme including star-studded

conferences, forums, guided tours

and numerous special events will

provide additional information and

inspiration. The opening conference

(2:00 p.m., Congress Centre

East, Europasaal) is dedicated to

the central theme of Resource


Koelnmesse is an international

leader in organising food fairs and

events regarding food and beverage

processing. Trade fairs such as the

Anuga, ISM and Anuga FoodTec

are established world leaders.

Koelnmesse not only organises

food trade fairs in Cologne, Germany,but

also in further growth

markets around the globe.






Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

DLG honours 17 prizewinners

Award for innovation projects of companies in the food and supply industry

The DLG (German Agricultural

Society) has announced the winners

of the 2018 International

FoodTec Award. This year,the

renowned prize will be awarded to

17 innovations from the international

food manufacturing and

supply industry.Five innovations

receive the International FoodTec

Award in gold, while afurther 12

receive the silver award. The winners

this year include companies

from Belgium, Denmark, Italy,

Russia, Switzerland and Germany.

The award ceremony will take place

on 20 March 2018 at Anuga

FoodTec, the leading global trade

fair for food and beverage technology,which

takes place in Cologne.

At this year's fair in Cologne, five companies will receive the International

FoodTec Award in gold, twelve will receive the award in silver.

The International FoodTec

Awards are presented every

three years. They are awarded by

the DLG in cooperation with the

following trade and media partners:

the European Federation of Food

Science and Technology (EFFoST);

Anuga FoodTec; the two specialist

magazines, produced by dfv media



international (Meat Industry); the

trade journals "European Dairy

Magazine" and "Deutsche Milchwirtschaft"

(German Dairy Farming),

publisher company Th. Mann;

the journal "Food Lab –Qualitätsmanagement,

Analytik und Nachhaltigkeit"

(Food Lab –Quality

Management, Analytics and Sustainability),

published by Bücker-

Fachverlag; the professional journal

"DLG-Lebensmittel" (DLG-Foods),

published by the DLG; and the

magazine "Lebensmitteltechnik"

(Food Technology), published by LT

Food Medien-Verlag.

Winners in gold


"Formsystem": The manufacturer

Albert Handtmann Maschinenfabrik

GmbH &Co. KG (Biberach,

Germany) has won the award for its

forming system. This is amodular

system for producing non-encased

food products in different, freely

selectable geometric shapes such

as cylinders, discs, small balls or

other 3D forms. The automatic

production of formed products

from avery wide variety of source

materials and cross-sections expands

the range of modern product

ideas in line with popular trends.

Newmodules can be added to the

system step-by-step, thus broadening

the scope of application with

regards to the products that can be

produced for different sectors, and

making it possible to respond

quickly to changing customer

requirements. Adriven filling flow

divider ensures precision weight

distribution of the filling material

per product and lane. Subsequently,aseparating


featuring separation movement

synchronized with the product

speed, makes it possible to produce

longer products of any cross

section. Alternatively,aforming

module for producing awide

variety of 3D shapes is available.

Linde AG

"Accu-Chill Sauce Cooling": Linde

AG (Unterschleißheim, Germany)

is awarded for its cooling system,

which has been specially designed

for liquids. Linde Accu-Chill SC is a

system for rapid cooling of sauces

and heated fluids by means of

direct injection of liquid nitrogen.

The core element of the system is

an injector unit through which

liquid nitrogen is continuously

injected so that it leads to cooling of

the warm product. The direct

introduction of the liquid nitrogen

into the sauce and the resulting

swirling in the mixing zone enable

highly efficient heat transfer to the

product to be cooled. The cooling

time is reduced substantially compared

to existing methods. The 100

percent natural cooling medium

International expert jury

The detection platform of the Danish Meat Research Institute is awarded.

The winners were selected by an

international jury consisting of the

following renowned experts from

various disciplines: Dr.Ir. C.D.

(Kees) de Gooijer (Food &Nutrition

Delta, Wageningen /The Netherlands);

Prof. Dr. Antonio Delgado

(Friedrich Alexander University,

Erlangen-Nuremberg); Prof. Dr.

Michael Doßmann (University

Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Weidenbach);

Prof. Dr. Michael Gänzle

(University of Alberta, Edmonton /

Canada); Prof. Dr. Tilo Hühn (ZHAW

Zurich University of Applied

Sciences, Wädenswil /Switzerland);

Prof. Dr. Henry Jäger (University of

Natural Resources and Applied Life

Sciences, Vienna /Austria); Prof. Dr.

Alexander Kolesnov (Peoples'

Friendship University of Russia,

Russia); Prof. Dr. Horst-Christian

Langowski (Fraunhofer Institute for

Packaging Technology and Packaging,


Prof. Dr. Helmy T. Omran (Suez Canal

University, Ismailia /Egypt); Prof. Dr.

Achim Stiebing,i.R.(University of

Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-

Lippe, Lemgo); and Prof. Dr. Jochen

Weiss (University of Hohenheim,



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

DLG honours 17 prizewinners

Handtmann receives the gold medal for its moulding system.

Gold is awarded for the

Linde AG cooling system.

BiogonN (purest nitrogen in food

quality) is used for cooling. Accu-

Chill SC can be used for virtually all

products capable of flowing in

cooled condition. By cooling the

products quickly,Accu-Chill SC

preserves their properties and

ingredients, avoids bacterial growth

and thus contributes to food safety.

The system can be used in spacesaving

and flexible manner,and

completes modern cook-and-chill

production lines.


"Avitos": It has not been possible so

far to cut meat products at extremely

low temperatures, so

against this background, Treif

Maschinenbau GmbH (Oberlahr,

Germany) has developed the Avitos

frozen meat dicer.This new technology

makes it possible to cut

blocks of frozen meat and calibrated

products into cubes, strips

or discs at temperatures down to

–18 °C. An individual cartridge

cutting disc cuts the first two cube

dimensions. The third cube dimension

is cut with acutting wheel

equipped with up to 12 blades. With

Avitos, it is possible to cut meat

products without preliminary

chopping or crushing, and without

product temperature conditioning.

This ensures maximum efficiency

and safety for the machine operator,reduces

power costs and extends

the best-before date of the


Danish Meat Research


"DynaCQ": Detecting foreign bodies

of all kinds is an enormous challenge

for the food industry,asthe

consumer expects products free of

residues. So far there has been no

method on the market that can

detect low-density foreign bodies

such as softplastic in fresh meat

and meat products. That is why

many companies use visual inspections.

The disadvantage of such

visual inspections is that they are

limited by factors such as fatigue of

the human eye and interpersonal

variations. Ahighly flexible detection

platform has now been created

in the form of the DynaCQ developed

by the Danish Meat Research

Institute (Taastrup, Dänemark).

The integrated camera is multispectral.

It detects at specific wavelengths

and at the same time contains

wavelengths in the infrared

range. This makes it more precise

than the human eye. DynaCQ

detects elements/pieces up to 1.5

times 1.5mmeven at extremely

high production speeds. Accordingly,high

product safety is ensured

and costly recalls can be

minimized. The platform stores all

images with markers so that the

production process is optimally

documented. In this way,clear

evidence is available in the event of

acustomer complaint.


"X-line": Up to now thermoform

packaging machines have generally

been regulated by time-controlled

processes. Here, the process operations

are controlled through fixed

process times that are set up by the

machine operators via the HMI.

Process parameters such as temperatures

and pressures are also set

in this way.With the X-line developed

by Multivac (Wolfertschwenden,

Germany), amachine that is

completely sensor-controlled is


++ ANUGA FOOD TEC • Köln • March 20 to 23 2018 • hall 9.1 stand Dno. 009 ++

Mastern®with Schnitzelmaster

1 mastered meat remains more juicy 2 meat thickness individually adjustable

3 shorter and always identical cooking time 4 higher selling weight

5 at least 8days non-perishable (vacuumed)

Schnitzelmaster GmbH

Fraundorfrf 9

D-84335 Mitterskirchen

+49 8725 967 430 info@schnitz




Pfeffer Filtertechnik wins the silver medal with agrease filter system.

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


DLG honours 17 prizewinners

Anuga FoodTec

The fully




machine from

Multivac receives

the gold award.

being introduced to the market for

first time. The sensor control

ensures that the process steps

proceed independently and largely

at the optimal operating point.

Typical faults in the production

process are recognized automatically

and compensated by the

system. Furthermore, the X-line

has acloud connection that greatly

simplifies its operability.The expert

knowledge necessary for parameterizing

the machine can be called

up from the cloud. When new

articles are produced, the machine

is also parameterized correctly so

that typical start-up losses are

avoided. In addition, the Multivac

cloud offers the processor comprehensive

services –such as Predictive

Maintenance –that contribute

to improving efficiency.

Winners in silver

Absolut-Soft OOO

"1C:MESbyMEAT": The software

system from Absolut-Soft(Moscow,

Russia) was developed for use in

meat-processing plants to allow

automatic recording of production

data and allow complete monitoring

of individual production and

logistic stages, with online supervision

and full documentation. This

minimizes human errors in the

collection and registration of

production data. The flexible

system can map, plan and steer

processes with high variability,

together with the steps and selection

of the raw materials. 1C:MESbyMEATisaflexible

tool for production

administration and guarantees

traceability of complete

batches, from purchasing of the

animals for slaughter or the meat

right through to the finished product.

The user interface is simple

and requires no prior knowledge

on the part of the operators. The

raw material prime costs for different

production sectors and batches

can be calculated and production

losses reduced. This enables better

use to be made of available resources.

The company Treif is awarded for its cutting system.

CSB-Automation AG

"ProMessa 2020": In the ProMessa

2020 project, the firm CSB-Automation

(Kestenholz, Switzerland)

has automated the complete intralogistics

of amedium-sized selfservice

meat producer and consistently

realized the vision of the

“Smart Food Factory”. The core of

this solution is the automated

intralogistics technology that is

controlled and monitored by the IT

system. Accordingly,the process

chain is linked to form asmart

overall solution from procurement,

via production, intermediate storage

and order picking, right

through to dispatch. By networking

the operating activities and intralogistic

components, ProMessa

succeeds in providing small batch

sizes at low cost, and in aresourcefriendly

manner within the required

time period. With the intral-


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

DLG honours 17 prizewinners

CSB-Automation receives award for its project "ProMessa 2020".

Stephan Machinery wins the silver medal with an aseptic process system.

ogistics system, ProMessa has

created all the options for shifting

the individualization of the selfservice

products –individual customer

labelling –asfar back as

possible in the process chain. This

ensures high delivery performance

(99 percent) despite short order lead

times, together with low stocking

quantities and high stock turnover.


Minerva Omega Group

"NeMoSy": Nexus Monitoring

System (NeMoSy) developed by

the Minerva Omega Group

(Bologna, Italy) is asystem with

which machine data can be managed

and monitored in order to

obtain acomplete overview of the

process. The system transmits

data from the machine via the

internet and gateways to the platform.

Aradio transmitter is installed

in the machine and transmits

machine data to agateway

located up to 100metres away.At

this point, the machine data are

transmitted via API calls from the

gateway to acloud platform where

they can be displayed and shared

with other BI in real time. In this

way,the customer can obtain and

check acomplete remote overview

of the machines. Aplug-and-play

and aretrofittable telemetry system

has been developed that collects

the information and the

essential documents that acustomer

or operator needs in order

to monitor and manage his machinery

park, and place them on

the platform.

Pfeffer Filtertechnik

"Cleaning deep-frying fat in large

deep-fryers": Up to now,deepfrying

fat in large deep-fryers has

been cleaned via metal/paper belt

filters or vibrating screens. The

disadvantage of these partly open

systems is the risk of injury for

operators due to contact with the

hot fat, and the possibility of the hot

product crumbs with their fat coat-

ing or the used paper filter belt

self-igniting. The “ProfiPurge Plus”

system developed by Pfeffer Filtertechnik

(Gingen an der Fils,

Germany) continuously separates

the most minute particles from the

full fat flow by means of cyclone

technology,removing them without

fat loss, and transferring them

without air contact into acooling

chamber pressurized with protective

gas. The crumbs cool down

safely in this chamber and are then

manually or automatically discarded

cold into acollection container.The

additional “PP-Side Assist”system

cleans the fat during emptying or

filling the deep-fryer,and automatically

conveys particles to the central

collection container.

Stephan Machinery GmbH

"SAM": Stephan Aseptic Multitherm

(SAM) developed by Stephan

Machinery GmbH (Hamlen, Germany)

has been introduced as the

core of an aseptic process chain.

The basic components of the

aseptic process system are an

inclined, vacuum-tight and hermetically

closed process container

with amixing tool of optimized

design. SAM is designed in compact

dimensions and built up in a

modular form so that the processrelevant

steps are positioned on a

basic rack and can be controlled

from there. The aseptic process

solution used in batch production,

or batch method, enables the use

of ESL (Extended-Shelf-Life)

technology not only for liquid

products, but also for particulate

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

inlays. The sterilization process

and the cooling process take place

in acontainer –without repacking

and with direct treatment of the


Tomra receives silver for its new sorting system.


"Tomra Act": This user interface for

Tomra food sorters provides fundamentally

different possibilities for

users and customers to interact with

the machines. Food sorting machines

contain highly complex

sensors, conveyor and ejection

technologies. Tomra (Leuven, Belgium)

has created asystem with

Tomra Acttokeep complicated

sorting tasks as simple as possible.

Complex adjustments have been

simplified allowing them to be

managed by drag-and-drop operations

on the sorter touchscreen.

This new interface presents the

sorter as adevice for separating

products of different quality into

different streams, and gives the

operator direct feedback about the

behavior of the machine.

Certain product quality criteria

are bundled and shown by simple


The data collected within the

process is shown in relative real

time, and the operator can adjust

important parameters within the

sorting criteria –that describe the

product in the streams/flows, not

the features or functions of the

machine –bysimply touching the

criteria blocks on the screen.

In addition to the above-mentioned

companies, which are more

or less in cooperation with the meat

industry,the following companies

will also be awarded the renowned

silver prize this year:

r Behn+Bates Maschinenfabrik

GmbH &Co. KG (Münster,

Germany): Roto-Packer –hygiene


r Brabender GmbH &Co. KG

(Duisburg, Germany): rapid

rheological method for characterization

of wheat flour

r DIL e.V.(Quakenbrück, Germany):

SmoothCut One –permeabilization

of cell membranes

r Krones AG (Neutraubling, Germany):

Express Pasteurisation

Bier –hot holding method

r ViscoTec Pumpen- u. Dosiertechnik

GmbH (Töging, Germany):

Hygienic Dispenser –continuous

piston principle

r Zeppelin Systems GmbH (Rödermark,

Germany): DymoMix –

dust prevention




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Trade Fair


What’s new at the fair?

About 1,700 exhibitors from more than 140

countries will present themselves at this year’s

international trade fair for food and beverages

with their numerous innovations and technologies.

Anuga FoodTec will once again demonstrate

itself as asector platform for producers of

machines for the food and beverage industry.

FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international asked

the exhibitors about their new developments in

advance. The following pages will give an overview

over the latest developments shown at

Anuga FoodTec, which were send to us until our

deadline. The detailed numbers of the booths

are available ob the homepage of Anuga

FoodTec: www.anugafoodtec.com.

New belt guarantees grip:

nothing sticks

Forbo Movement Systems (formerly

Siegling) from Hannover, Germany,

has developed anew polyurethane

belt with aspecial surface pattern.

The Siegling Transilon E3/2 U0/U10

WG-HACCP blue FDA belt comes with

awidth direction groove (WG) pattern.

This pattern ensures reliable

grip of the products but prevents

them from sticking. The product was

custom-developed for the meat and

poultry industry.The width groove

pattern delivers excellent results,

particularlyinslicers in areas where

greasy pieces of sausage and

cheese are fed in and good product

grip is required. The belt has also

proved itself in fish and cheese

processing. The polyurethane

coating is hard-wearing and resistant

to chemicals, so the belt has a

long service life even when aggressive

cleaning agents and sanitizers

are used. The new Siegling Transilon

conveyor belt is especiallyrobust

and laterallystiff. As aresult, it’s

ideal for many applications in the

food industry, such as doughprocessing

companies, agricultural

businesses, in packaging lines or

detection systems.

Another highlight is the new and

highlyelastic UU 20U-9 GSTR/FSTR

black/blue HACCP FDA belt which

was developed specificallyfor use

as acheck-weigher belt and already

has agood track record with

key manufacturers of checkweigher

systems. The urethane belt

scores top marks for its special

design and superior resistance to

grease, oil and hydrolysis and

therefore complies with current EUand



Now available in broader

width for larger packages

The successful thermoforming line

“Sprinter” made by Komet Maschinenfabrik

GmbH from Plochingen,

Germany, is from now on available to

process film width of 322 mm and

422 mm as well as with avariable

cut off length of 200 mm up to

300 mm. Thus, the users can create

larger packaging and respond even

more rapidlyand variablytodifferent

requirements. It is much smaller and

more compact than similar machines

of its kind you can purchase on the

market –without having to forego

the operating comfort. To the contrary:

With its length of 2.7 mitalso

fits into small rooms. But in spite of

the small external dimensions, three

complete uses to infeed the products

are available due to the extremelylong

infeed area. Therefore,

it would be possible to work extremelyefficiently–also

with several

persons at atime. The implementation

of the Vario-tool enables

and contributes to asubstantial

flexibility to process different products.

It ensures avery rapid format

change and even the film is being

replaced in avery short time.

But not onlyspeed distinguishes

the Sprinter from other machines.

Due to anew hydraulic lifting system,

the compressed air consumption

is very low. This new system

enables not onlyahigh contact

pressure but reflects also in alow

maintenance forming and sealing

station as well as cross cutting. The

used hydraulic oil is water-clear,

has no smell and is tasteless, foodsafe

and has no harmful effects on



Stainless hamburger

forming machine

The product range from Minerva

Omega Group from Bologna, Italy,

includes different machines for

meat processing. Robust, mechanicallyperfect,

quick to dismantle

and re-assemble for cleaning

purposes –they are veritable production

machines. Bone saws are

among the most comprehensive on

the market, catering to every food

processing requirement. The models

ideal for butchers, catering,

large wholesale or the meat processing

industry, and for the fishing

industry.Anadditional highlight of

the product range is the Hamburger

Forming Machine. This machine

produces hamburgers of different

weights and dimensions. The Patty

Former Machine is designed to

guarantee afast change of the

forming cylinders, available in

different shapes and dimensions.

The machine is made of stainless

steel, CE certified, fast to clean.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

Clear allocation and


RFIDick GmbH (Deizisau, Germany)

offers acomplete system of hardware,

software and tools for the

seamless and fullyautomated

traceability of the deployed tools

and quality guideline documentation.

The need for manual marking,

testing stages and time-consuming

monitoring procedures can

thereby be eliminated.

The unmanned tool dispensing

system for safe, fast and efficient

supplyofgoods and tool management

via an RFID tool dispensing

cabinet is new at Friedr.Dick. The

tools can be quicklyremoved via

the tool dispensing cabinet, while

the automaticallyopening doors

provide quick access. Operation is

easy and intuitive. Product dispensing

is done following employee

authorization via aPIN or an

RFID card. With the RFID tool dispensing

cabinet, the tools are

available to employees at all

times. The work process can now

be designed in amore efficient

manner, thereby lowering processing

costs. At the same time,

supplysecurity is ensured for the

required tools. For sensitive products,

employees can be blocked

using the "Knifeinspector" software.

orders, recipes, traceability,

process data visualization etc.). In

addition, all produced data of the

integrated production machines

will be measured, buffered and

automaticallytransferred to the

Virtual Private Cloud. The webbased

solution thus establishes a

basis to link company-wide data,

to which all authorizes users can

access online. The continuous

monitoring of the machines enables

the visualization of various

production parameters ranging

from working hours, temperatures,

rotations to maintenance cycles.

Food producers benefit from real

time-data and forward analysis,

for example for service purposes.

The valuable findings gained

through automated processes

also create abasis for business

evaluations. New in this area is

not onlythe entrance into the

secure cloud, but also the unique

fusion of engineering and technology,

as well as the gained

findings leading to productivity

increase. The solution will be

presented under real conditions

by aLive-Demo on atumbler run.

Visitors get to know the latest

cloud technology from Henneken

and SLA.




Acloud-based solution

integrates all machines

Together with the machine manufacturer

Henneken, one of world

market leader in tumblers, the

software company SLA GmbH from

Quakenbrück, Germany, developed

acloud-based overall solution

that meets the requirements of

the latest developments in the

age of digitalization. The solution

integrates all machines in production,

e.g. Henneken tumbler or

brine mixer, via SLASmart Box by

TCP communication into the existing

IT-processes (production


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Anew control clearly

increased cutting accuracy

New at Foodlogistik Fleischereimaschinen

GmbH from Neubrandenburg,

Germany, is the completelyredesigned

DicR comfort

and capacity series. Generally, all

DicR models are offered with the

unique four-dimensional precompression

for reaching aperfect

cutting quality.The strong hydraulic

drives and large quantities

of oil guarantee problem-free and

long-term use. Chamber cross

sections from 90 to 140mm, and

chamber lengths from 310to

550 mm enable awide range of

applications. Valuable additional

features, such as the special

hygienic door, the single-handed

operation, the lenghtwise chamber

opening, integrated outfeed conveyor,

lift for Euro boxes or 200 l

trolleys as well as the visual signal

for loading readiness, ensure

excellent machine handling,

safety, and hygiene of the DicR

series. With the new models comfort

105/112and capacity 120/126/

140, it is now possible to further

expand the equipment options. All

models in this series are now

available in addition to the proven

analog controls, with ahighquality

Siemens control, and a

large color touch display.Inthis

way the operator convenience as

well as the cutting and repeat

accuracy could be significantly

increased. All important cutting

parameters can be entered or

displayed via comfortable user

guidance of the touch display.In

addition to the controller option,

the customer can now choose

between discharge conveyor,

direct outfeed in Euro boxes on

cart via ahygiene door or into 200 l

trolleys. Furthermore, it is possible

to provide the machine with or

without lift for Euro boxes or 200 l

trolleys. All DicR capacity models

are also equipped with astronger

hydraulic cylinder.


High-end technologies for

reliable food processing

The technology group GEA from

Düsseldorf, Germany, will present

the future of food processing with

innovative machines and integrated

solutions.The numerous highlights

include the MaxiFormer –arotating

drum conceptfor meat forming –

and the S-Tech spiral freezer with

new features.

The MaxiFormer is arotative drum

forming concept thatcompletes

the company’s line solutionfor high

capacity formed poultry, pork or

meat replacement products. Its low

pressure meatfillingprinciple

results in amore consistent, higher

quality formed product. In addition

to this it provides more filling accuracy

and lessproduct waste by

reduced leakage –the so-called

smearing. Efficient use of acompressed

air pulse for knock-out,

without usingwater ensures

cleaner and quieter forming and

lowers operating costs.

The S-Tec spiral freezer and

chiller represents hygiene standards

with fullywelded food zone

structure assembly, open profiles,

fullywelded modular floorconfiguration

option and high efficient

Cleaning-In-Placeoptions. Capable

of handling capacities up to seven

tons per hour,this spiral freezer is

designed by expert engineersto

exact specifications based on the

product characteristics, capacities,

facility space and line layout. High

effective full heighthorizontal

airflow and exact air temperature

control ensure the best freezing

and chilling performance and product

quality.The machine can handle

single-shift to 14-day operations

without interruption to defrost,

based on the evaporator configuration

selected for customers’ needs.

The Callifreeze system, GEA’sfreezing

process control is now measuring

continuouslythe product level

of frozenness at freezer outfeed

and adjustsfreezing time, air temperature

and fan speed to achieve

the exact freezing quality with

minimum energy consumption.


High performance tools for

raw material processing

The company Power Tools GmbH

from Halle (Saale), Germany,shows a

new generation of cutting tools for

grinders and combinations of vacuum

fillers with inline grinders.

These tools and grinders have been

designed based on acooperation

with the Anhalt University of Applied

Sciences, Department for Agriculture,

Ecotrophology and Landscape

Development. This research is the

background of new cutting tools,

which induce araw material heating

of onlyΔt=0.8–0.9 °K, less meat

juice loss on minced meat, less

energy comsumption and more

power for the grinding task. Following

new tools are shown: aprecutter

that sharpens itself by the

cutting work and prevents pressure

increase in the mincemeat production

for 16 working hours; a4-piece

cutting set with induces asignificantlylower

raw material heating;

discs with flow cutting, thus making

the center perforated disc unnecessary;

sharpening with defined sharpness

of cutting edges on the knife

and perforated discs, including

optical control; new separation kits

for the continuous removal of bone,

cartilage and collagen tissues.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

UV-C disinfection using

split technology

Sterilsystems GmbH, based in

Mauterndorf, Salzburg Land, Austria,

can look back on more than 25

years of experience in the development,

production and installation

of UV-C disinfection systems.

Reason enough to showcase the

new UV-C continuous disinfection

system DE1500 in hygienic design

and split technology to the visitors

The benefit: the goods or packaging

placed on the conveyor belt are

automaticallyguided through the

disinfection system and have

unwanted microorganisms removed

at a360° angle, i.e. from all four

sides, in ahighlyefficient manner.

As aresult, an irradiation rate of

99.99% is achieved even from

below on the conveyor belt. This

reduces the number of germs by up

to 5log. The UV-C radiation emitted

inside the hygienic design housing

immediatelyeliminates germs and

other undesirable microorganisms

such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts

and mold spores; without heat and

without any chemicals on apurely

physical basis. The continuous

disinfection system is made of

high-quality, acid and alkali-resistant

stainless steel with avery high

surface quality and meets the

highest hygiene requirements. The

conveyor belt runs particularly

quietlyand the front-end electronics

and motor control are located in

awaterproof stainless steel switch



Automation and


Fresh food industries are high

demanding which require the

maximum reliability and hygiene.

The Ulma Packaging GmbH (Illertissen,

Germany) is aware that the

success of its clients depends on

the quality of their products, and

therefore on the packaging. For

this reason, Ulma can ensure top

quality, individual solutions for

product packaging requirements.

Ulma will show for the first time

its latest high production traysealer.The

new TSA 1200 traysealer

has asealing area of 1200 x

500 mm which allows to seal much

more trays per cycle than other


This machine has been also

designed for double line which is a

requirement for this kind of high

production traysealers. In the field

of vertical wrappers, the new

Tight-Bag system will be shown

with the VTC 840 which is also a

wash down machine with ahygienic

design. The Tight-Bag has

been speciallydeveloped on

Ulma's vertical wrappers in order to

preserve the quality of the product

by optimizing the required volume

of the bags. At the volume optimization

level which can be adjusted

by the control panel, it has

the same advantages as the traditional

systems that perforate the

bags but in this case, since there

are no perforations there is no risk

of contaminating the product.

Another interesting installation

will be shown with the FV 35 SD

wash down machine for the Flow-

Vacsystem. Using patent-pending

technology, Ulma has developed a

simple solution to automate the

feeding of abelt vacuum chamber

on both sealing bars. Packages are

sealed onlyonone end and prepared

to be transferred to the

buffering belt of the vacuum

chamber with the open end facing

both seal bars on the vacuum

chamber.A90° transfer system

pairs the packages to the buffering

belt of the vacuum chamber so

that both seal bars can be utilized.

If the products are not small

enough to be paired, an autodetect

system will load the product

as asingle item. This automated

system increases productivity and

reduces labor costs. The packaging

system is ideal for the meat




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Demonstrating versatility

for food applications

The weighing, packing and quality

control capabilities of Ishida Europe

from Birmingham, UK, will be

showcased with avariety of solutions

on display that meet the

differing requirements of key sectors

including salads, meat and

poultry and frozen foods. Highlights

include adedicated salad packing

line, a32head multihead weigher

ideal for mixed product applications,

an x-ray system capable of

detecting bones in meat fillets and

amultihead weigher model for

ultra-low target weights.

The Ishida salad packing line

meets growing demand for prepacked

fresh salads, sometimes

also including aprotein ingredient.

It features the market-leading

14 head RV salad weigher, specially-developed

carousel filler and

QX-775 Flex tray sealer.For effective

quality control, the line also

incorporates Ishida’sunique

AirScan leak detector, IX-EN-2493

x-ray inspection system and DACS-

GN-SE checkweigher.

The 32 head CCW-RV-232B is

being shown in awaterproof version

ideal for mix-weighing frozen

foods. It can handle asingle product

or up to eight different products

for discharge into the same

pack. Like all Ishida RV models, the

weigher offers the highest levels of

speed, accuracy and efficiency

thanks to its unique triple combination

calculation software, which


Anuga FoodTec, hall 6.1, booth E009

can calculate three optimal weight

combinations, double check them

and then select the one nearest to

the target weight –all in asingle

cycle. Ishida’sIX-G2 x-ray inspection

system offers the highest level

of quality assurance to processors

and manufacturers of complex

products. Its dual energy technology

provides highlyeffective X-ray

detection of low-density objects,

even in varying thickness or overlapping

products, making it particularlyappropriate

for the detection

of small bone pieces in meat and

poultry fillets. The 14-head CCW-

RV-214WN ‘Micro’ weigher has been

designed to handle very small pack

weights of between 0.5 and 40 g,

delivering speeds of up to

120weighments per minute with

unsurpassed accuracy to within

0.01g.Itisideal for products such

as herbs and spices, tea leaves,

soup ingredients, dehydrated

vegetables, seeds, tablets and



Hygienic design for

standard parts

Otto Ganter GmbH &Co. KG from

Furtwangen, Germany, offers a

variety of knobs, handles, clamping

levers, leveling feet and screws

under the label "Hygienic Design",

all of which are optimized for minimal

contamination and easy cleaning.

Stainless steel is the material

used in all of these cases. The

maximum surface roughness is

kept below Ra 0.8 μm, so that dirt

particles cannot adhere and can

be reliablyremoved during cleaning.

Another key feature of the Ganter

standard parts is their freedom

from "dead space". There are no

interior areas in which substances

can accumulate. Ahygienically

safe sealing concept, verified by

software simulation, guarantees

that the FDA-compliant elastomer

seals are all installed flush with

the surface and fulfill their function

in the long term. This prevents

problems from developing without

being noticed. At first glance, most

standard parts appear to be located

far away from the actual

work areas, but airborne spores

from microorganisms can spread

rapidlyand widely. To prevent

damage to the surfaces during

assembly, tools with special protective

inserts must be used.


Full-range supplier of

vacuum packers

Webomatic Maschinenfabrik GmbH

from Bochum, Germany presents

proven and newlydeveloped concepts.

The main topics this year are

skin packaging on thermoforming

machines and tray sealers as well

as shrinking machines for craft and

the industry.

Skin applications are presented,

such as protruding skin for the

proven thermoforming machine

ML-C 5600-skin and the new tray

sealer TL 650. With the protrude

skin method, the product can rise

up to 90 mm in the tray, while the

top film wraps around the product

like asecond skin and seals the

entire surface with the bottom film

(thermoforming) or the tray (tray

sealer). Both machines types win

with their flexibility: with just afew

simple steps, both machines can

also carry out MAP applications. In

addition to the protrude skin, the

TL 650 tray sealer can also perform

the pseudo skin procedure and MAP

on the same tool. This eliminates

the need for atool change if the

same tray is used for both applications

and saves time and costs. A

further highlight that ensures

process reliability and thus the

effectiveness of the packaging

during operation is the proven SCC.

Furthermore, industrial shrinking

lines with the chamber belt machine

CL-C 950 in combination with

the automatic shrink tunnel

STCW 60 and amanual shrinking

line for the craft with the chamber

machine I30and the manual shrink

tank ST 40 are presented. Further

proven vacuum packaging machines

such as the table machine

easyPack-mk 3 ,the semi-automatic

tray sealer TL 250 and the new

table machine I15complete the

exhibited program.


Reliable machinery for any

separation task

Appropriate to the theme of resource

efficiency, Flottweg SE from

Vilsbiburg, Germany, is presenting

two of its latest machines. With the

AC 1200 separator, the company is

starting anew product line of highperformance

separators for small

and mid-sized companies. The

AC 1200 is also equipped with Flottweg's

refined Soft Shot emptying

mechanism. This system permits

the flexible, very exact adjustment

of bowl opening times. The arbitrary

combination of full and partial

discharge allows the system to be

adjusted flexiblytoproduct and

process requirements. This increases

product yields.

In parallel with this, the company

is also presenting the Z2E decanter

centrifuge. Thanks to its compact

design and Flottweg's usual excellent

production, the Z2E handles key

functions in many different areas of

the food industry.But the smallest

modular machine in the Zseries

doesn't fall short of the features of

larger machines and can be customized

to different requirements.

So fluctuating production conditions

and frequent product changes

are easy for the Z2E.

Both the AC 1200 separator and

Z2E decanter centrifuges, thanks to

their construction and their easyto-clean

components and surfaces,

are ideal for any separation

task in the food industry.That

saves valuable factors like time,

cleaning water, and energy during




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Revised assistance and

data analysis system

Clean and safe storage of

cleaning equipment

Exhaust air cleaned with

lower costs

Even and stable browning

on focus

G. Muth PartnersGmbH (Wiesbaden,

Germany) willpresent arevised Q-

Chess Mobile. One of the updates is an

ergonomicand intuitive user interface.

Theoperation of theQ-Chessapp for

tablets and smartphoneshas been

revised and designed to be more

user-friendly. Using the new graphic

userinterface, users can clearlysee

the current inspectionstatus at any

time. Automation of inspections is

alsoupdatet. In addition to improving

the user interface, the degree of

automationofinspections has also

beensubstantiallyincreased by using

QR codes.For instance, users can now

scaninabatch label as part of a

returns check andthe designated

inspections for this batch automatically

start on the tablet. Further

updateisthe Management dashboard

to display operating processes. It

enables users to display production

lines using Q-Chess Mobile, assign

inspections to the relevant production


The 5S shadow boards designed by

Niebling TechnischeBürsten GmbH

from Burgbernheim, Germany,

ensuresafe andtransparent

storageofcleaning devices and

simplifies visualcontrol of the

available equipment.

The company specifically developed

the shadowboard in accordancewiththe


ordertosimplify andtofurther

optimize theapplication, storage

and separation of cleaning materials.

Thegoal is to increase order

and cleanness, ergonomyatthe

workplaceand therefore efficiency,

economy in thelong-term.

Last but not least thesystem has

benefit effects on work-related


Numerous satisfied users have

confirmed thatthisshadowboard

is contributing to realize andto

sustainestablishing these goals in

the most simple way possible.

Especiallyfor heavilyloaded exhaust

air from smoking ovens, Oxytec GmbH

(Hamburg, Germany) has developed

an automatized exhaust scrubber

with an integratedUV-C/Ozone

system. The complete system is

awarded with low maintenance costs

as it cleans automaticallyaccording

to the individual need of the production.

More over the system is only

using afragment of energy in comparison

to athermal oxidation. During

the production process of smoked

meat, high quantities of organic

componentsare leaving the smoking

chambers to be treated in order to

keep the standards of the relevant

norms. The exhaust air is cleanedby

awater scrubber.The self adjusted

pH-level of the waterissupporting a

decrease of carbonbymore than

80%. Depending on the process, the

water can be used of alonger period

of time.Atthe end of the production

cycle the automatic cleaning

process of the scrubber starts.

Red Arrow Handels-GmbHfrom

Bremenhas developedatechnology

to accelerate the natural Maillard


The useofthese innovative

productspositivelyinfluences the

formation of the crust and achieves

an even and stable browning result.

The degree of browningcan be

controlled in its intensity andis

above allreproducible anddoesnot

fade.The naturalbrown baking and

fryingcolor is also achieved at

significantlylower temperatures. In

this way, production times are

shortened, the energy consumption

is reduced and the cooking loss is

reduced by up to 50%. Different

application technologies can be

used to customize theoperational

needs. The degreeofbrowning of

thefoodcan also be customized.

Another highlight is thepresentation

of the new smokedspicesand







Vistit us at Anuga FoodTec, cologne, hall 6.1, booth F030

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

The sensitive way of

processing meat

Since more than 15 years the

Schnitzelmaster GmbH (Mitterskirchen,

Germany) provides its

customers from the gastronomy,

hospitality and meat industry with

the patented solution in terms of

meat tenderizing and surface

enlargement. The meat processing

industry relies on the proven automatic

Schnitzelmaster Turbo

whose capacity is about 400 kg per

hour.Through aconveyor belt the

meat is being brought to the processor

with its three pairs of special

tenderizing rollers which enlarge

the raw product by nearly

50% and furthermore get the meat

noticeablytender.Inthe future the

also automatic SMK-2W-34 will be

added to the product range of the

Schnitzelmaster GmbH and will

close the gap between the hand

operated units Profi, Maxi and the

automatic version Turbo. With an

hourlycapacity of about 150kgthe

SMK-2W-34 won’tbefor the meat

processing industry onlybut will

provide an economical solution for

medium-sized enterprises as well

as canteens instead of aflatteners

or asteakers, too.

Ro-Ber has grown both technologicallyand

as acompany.The new

exhibition stand reflects the companies’

position in the market and

invites their customers to engage

with them as they discuss their

projects. Central to this year’s

exhibitions is the message that

the company has made the transition

from supplier of robots to turn

key provider of complex robotic

systems. Clear evidence of this

capacity can be demonstrated in

one of the largest projects in the

companies’ history.The company

supplied asystem to afood manufacturer

in the Netherlands. The

high throughput central palletiser

consisted of three Genix robots as

well as accompanying conveyors,

lifts, open cardboard tray stackers,

pallet conveyors and twostorey

shuttle cars. The system,

programmed in-house, successfullyhandled

the output from

23 manufacturing lines.

Visitors can learn about the

benefits of gantry robots in applications

where products need to be

stored or buffered over large

areas. Thanks to the large and

scalable working area of the

Genix- and Gigant-Series, the

gantries can be used across industries

e.g. as tyre stores, pallet

stores, or as atote store with

sequential picking.




Transition from robot

supplier to akey provider

For 35 years Ro-Ber from Kamen,

Germany, has been one of the top

suppliers of robotic systems for

logistics. Since then they have

installed over 800 palletising,

de-palletising, order picking and

handling systems. Visitors to the

robotic experts will realise that


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Product identification and

brand protection

Domino Deutschland GmbH from

Mainz-Kastel, Germany, will

present its coding, marking and

label-printing systems. Domino’s

technologies enable manufacturers

in the food and beverage

industry to applytraceability

codes, with afocus on reliability,

increased productivity, future

potential and low cost of ownership.

The companies new Ax-Series

continuous inkjet printers use a

range of integrated sensors to

automate system monitoring,

allowing proactive and predictive

diagnostics. The integrated sensors

also ensure the possibility of

remote service support via the

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

and connectivity with the Domino

Cloud. The company is aleader

dedicated to innovation for the

food and beverage packaging

industry.They are the onlysupplier

of coding and marking solutions

who are members of the European

Association of Printing Ink Manufacturers

(EuPIA). In accordance

with GMP (Good Manufacturing

Practice) guidelines, the company

ensures that the raw materials

used in their inks are optimally

tailored for their intended use.

In addition, further coding and

marking technological innovations

across Domino’sproduct to pallet

range are in focus at the fair: from

CO2 lasers, thermal ink jet and

thermal transfer overprinters, label

printing systems (including corner-wrap

and pallet labeling) to

digitallyprinted labels for greater

attention on retail shelves.



New grinders offer

intelligent drive control

Machines designed by Maschinenfabrik

Laska Gesellschaft m.b.H.

from Traun, Austria, are renowned

for their high quality in over

140countries spanning every continent,

with their operation providing

the fullest customer satisfaction.

Numerous national and international

patents are testament to the

Austrian familybusiness’ ability to

innovate. With “The Perfect Cut” as

the motto, the company will be

exhibiting new high-performance

features and products –presenting

the perfect answer to the food


The food processing industry is

clearlytrending towards automated

solutions. The new WWB 200 Plus

and WWB 300 Plus angle grinders

offer “automation light” and have

intelligent drive control. Similar to

an autopilot, the machines control

themselves autonomously. The

effect is enormous: the two new

WWB angle grinders provide an

average of 50% higher output than

their predecessors. The grinders

are especiallyeffective at conserving

material and maintaining hygiene

during their work. The new

hygienic design involving use of

EHEDG-certified components minimises

the risk of adulteration.

Afurther highlight at the trade

fair booth will be the production

line for minced meat, on whose

development the company has

worked with acustomer to refine.

Laska is an expert in food processing

automation and has worked for

years on developing innovative

production lines.

The company offers customers a

complete solution. This includes

consultation and ongoing project

supervision as well as custom

adaptations to the automated line

(upon request). Planning to perfection

in advance ensures that downtimes

are kept to aminimum during

the set-up and commissioning

phase at the customer’s end.

Uses and applications

for cryogenic gases

For Linde AG from Pullach, Germany,

the Anuga FoodTec 2018 is

all about cryogenic freezing. In line

with the motto of the exhibition:

‘Flexible Freezing’, the gas specialist

is exhibiting new uses and

application technologies for cryogenic

gases such as nitrogen (N2)

and carbon dioxide (CO2).

The extremelyeffective chilling

action of gases at temperatures

as low as –196°Cenables cryogenic

freezers to achieve high

levels of performance despite low

space requirements. This means

that they not onlyoffer outstanding

flexibility in comparison with

conventional solutions, but they

also display convincing performance

in terms of the quality and

utilisation rate of products after

processing. Linde is adding anew

model to its Cryoline line of modular

freezers in the form of the

Cryoline CWI. The new product

combines the characteristic benefits

of impingement freezing with

the Cryowave system. This results

in high performance density for a

wide range of production tasks.

With impingement freezing, a

finelyatomised nitrogen coolant is

squeezed onto the product from

above at high pressure through a

perforated sheet. The mechanism

creates awave motion in the belt

that agitates the product, preventing

agglomerations from

forming during the chilling

process. The combined effect of

these two processes in asingle

device is what makes Cryoline CWI

such aflexible and multi-purpose

freezer: it is suitable both for

smaller, looselyrolling IQF (individuallyquick

frozen) products, such

as mushrooms and ham strips as

well as for general requirements.

As an all-round unit, it can also

operate as astandard linear

freezer, simplybyswitching off the




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

Efficient, tried-and-tested

mixing technology

Gebr. Lödige Maschinenbau from

Paderborn, Germany, will be showcasing

food-safe solutions for

industrial mixing and related

process technologies. The machines

were constructed in accordance

with the current international

regulations for food-grade

hygienic design. An equallyefficient

and proven example is the

Ploughshare batch mixer FKM 2000.

The batch mixer operates according

to the mechanicallygenerated,

turbulent fluidized bed

principle, developed by the company.Inthe

horizontal, cylindrical

drum of the type mixer,

Ploughshare shovels are arranged

on ashaft and rotate as mixing

elements. Powdery, granular or

fibrous bulk materials are subjected

to three-dimensional movement

and the entire product is

constantlymixed quicklyand

accurately. During this process,

the product is handled with extreme

care. Due to the special

shape of the tools, the material to

be mixed is taken off the drum wall

in aradial movement, effectively

preventing destruction of the

particles. In addition, the FKM 2000

is designed for efficiency and

features alow-maintenance mixer

concept with easy access to the

internal parts. This ensures high

availability of the machine.

The batch mixer is equipped with

various tools, depending on the

mixing job. When special requirements

are placed on the mixing

process, the mixing effect of the

mixing element can be additionally



Effective packing and

palletizing solutions

Tavil Ind S.A.U. is headquarted in

Girona, Spain. The companies technology

is based on the constant

evolution of its R+D+I Department

and Industrial Electronic Engineering

Department, together with a

technical assistance service to

meet individual client needs. This

constant evolution meets the

market requirement, thanks to the

“multiformat” concept that is responding

to the demand of an

evolving market. The company will

show the New Multiformat box

forming machine. All the machineries

are designed for the Food Industry,

with afocus on the meat

industry, fabricated with stainless

steel. The box forming machine

forms boxes from acardboard blank

using hot melt glue. The multiformat

system allows to memorize up

to 99 different boxes. Ready to work

with different box designs and

different box sizes with just the

press of abutton, with aproduction

of up to 1,200 boxes/ hour according

to designs and sizes. The instantaneous

automatic changeover

makes the machine ready to work in

less than four seconds with different

box designs and/ or different

box sizes. The box forming machine

allows to install up to four chargers

of different-sized cardboard

blanks, to feed several production

lines in asimultaneous way.Its

modularity allows an economy of

scale, as instead of purchasing new

equipment users just have to add

chargers to the box forming unit.

The automatic loading systems are

multiformat and ready to work with

different products and mosaics.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Effective blending and

mixing of food

Double chamber vacuum

packaging machine

Well-proven and economic

hygiene solutions

The specialist machine for

larger calibers

The company Elpek GmbH from

Saarlouis, Germany, presents the

MM-200 Multi-Mixer.Inthe machine,

a200 lEurobin is gentlyrotated to

mix the ingredients. The mixer has

no paddles or knives. This reduces

the likelihood of delicate ingredients,

such as pasta, in the mix-up.

The machine is suited for short

production runs. Because onlyone

bin is used for the entire process,

employees do not have to refill the

ingredients from one container to

another.This reduces the unnecessary

waste of products.

Henkelman from ’s-Hertogenbosch,

The Netherlands, has

integrated its automatic lid in the

Polar double chamber models

2-85 and 2-95. This option includes

afoot pedal to enable

semi-automatic operation. Compared

to the standard models of

the Polar series, operators experience

ahuge ergonomic advantage

with the automatic lid. Less

weight has to be lifted, so production

employees are no longer

physicallyoverloaded when operating

the vacuum packaging


Kohlhoff Hygienetechnik GmbH &

Co. KG from Unna presents different

versions of its new compact hygiene

stations of the HD-Line series.

Their new railing and chassis

design improves the splash protection

through its shape and optimizes

the range of the sensor due

to its new mounting position. One of

these innovations is the individually

configurable Check-In-Station-HD,

which unites several personnel

hygienic components in one plant:

hand washbasins, two-hand soap

dispensers, hand-dryers.

Afurther development from

Poly-clip System GmbH &Co. KG

from Hattersheim a. M., Germany, is

aspecialist machine for calibres

up to 250 mm and extra-large tail

volumes named ICA XL. Thanks to

the optimised separator range and

clips speciallydeveloped for this

automatic double-clipper, internallycoated

spice casings and

functional and multilayer casings

can also now be securelyclosed.

The machine, developed from the

tried and tested iris clipper, also

works with the patented iris separator.






Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

Optical sorting systems for

in-line fat analysis

Consistentlyhigh quality, reliable

ejection of defective products, as

well as optimum recycling and less

waste of valuable food -this is what

Tomra Sorting Food from Leuven,

Belgium contributes to with innovative

sorting systems. The leading

manufacturer of sensor-based

systems in the field of food processing

will be showcasing its broad

portfolio of optical sorters. These

are used for awide range of applications

in the food industry and ensure

uniform quality standards and optimization

of production processes.

The FatScan performs asensorbased

analysis of the fat content of

meat such as beef and pork,

whether frozen or fresh. The system

reliablyand continuouslycontrols

products of various shapes and

sizes –both trimmings and diced or

minced meat. Thanks to the transflexion

technologydeveloped by the

company, the fat content is determined

with high accuracy for the

entire product flow passing through

the system and can be adjusted in

real-time. This helps you avoid

production stops. The user-friendly

system with an intuitive user interface

provides measurement data

and reports at the touch of abutton

and enables complete traceability

and documentation of all processes.

The FatScan helps users standardise

and classify meat, optimises the

purchasing process through continuous

quality control, and ensures an

even more efficient use of raw


The filtering out of poultry breast

fillet, which is interspersed with firm

connective tissue, poses great

challenges for quality control in the

poultry industry.With the QV-P, a

unique patented detection system

for poultry meat, breast meat or

fillets with this abnormality known

as "muscle myopathy" or "wooden

breast", can now be reliablysorted

out. The system thoroughlyscans

the continuous product flow, classifies

the meat in real-time and ejects

flawed breast fillet. This helps to

avoid expensive downtimes. The

user-friendlysystem can be easily

integrated into existing lines or is

available as astand-alone version.


Asystem from slicing to

loading and packaging

With the thermoformer VMAX Weber

Maschinenbau GmbH from Breidenbach

is presenting their first packaging

machine. From now on the

company is the contact for its

customers concerning the entire

process chain. The exhibition appearance

will therefore be all about

perfectlysynchronized line concepts.

The company will show fully

integrated and automated lines

from slicing, loading and transporting

of cold cuts to portion-accurate

packaging –all one-stop. Visitors

can expect several lines consisting

of slicers, automation concepts and

packaging machines from Weber

and Textor for various requirements

and applications. The S6, for example,

presents numerous innovations,

such as the quadruple trackindependent

interleaver and the

new vacuum grippers, which reduce

remaining end pieces by more than

half and thus enable highest yield.

In combination with particularly

compact loading systems and the

thermoforming machine VMAX these

lines demonstrate what efficiency

means while maintaining maximum

flexibility and set new standards for

an advanced, trend-setting production

of cold cuts. Moreover, the

Weber Shuttle System shows how

space can be optimallyutilized and

the use of human resources can be

minimized: Built as a180-degree

line, slicer and pick robot can be

controlled by just one operator.In

addition to technological highlights,

the company will be presenting the

new pre-owned machine program

as well as the growing, worldwide

technical service offering.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Rapid defrosting by

radiofrequency technology

Stalam S.p.A. from Nove (VI), Italy,

will present the latest and most

advanced radiofrequency technology

for the rapid defrosting of meat

and seafood. RF defrosters have

become best-sellers in the market

in avery short span of time, thanks

to the great benefits they bring to

their end-users. During the show

the model RF 7kW will be displayed

and teh company will carry out two

dailydemonstrations at 11 a.m. and


Defrosting is achieved in minutes

rather than hours/ days, even

for large product blocks and, if

necessary, directlyinside packaging

used for storage (carton boxes,

polyethylene bags, etc.). The

processing speed and uniformity

minimize product degradation: no

drip loss, no deterioration of

organoleptic, chemical or physical

properties, no bacterial growth.

Thus the very best product quality

is preserved. Defrosting is carried

out continuously, with significant

logistical advantages in product

handling and production scheduling.

It requires much less floor

space compared to the traditional,

large defrosting rooms or equipment.

Overall processing costs can

also be reduced drasticallycompared

to conventional techniques.

Main construction features of

the machine:

r Radiofrequency at 27,12 MHz

r Construction in stainless steel

submitted to anti-corrosion

treatments (passivation, pickling)

r Wide conveyor belt (up to

1800 mm) made of certified

food-grade rigid polyethylene

modules or solid-surface reinforced


r Built-in conveyor belt and tunnel

washing facilities and full internal

access for cleaning through

the multiple side panel doors

r PLC control system for multiple

product recipes

r Modular design: multiple modules

can be combined to increase

the production capacity.


Custom-made washing

systems for all capacities

Colussi Ermes from Pordenone,

Italy, is one of the worldwide

leaders in the design and manufacturing

of custom-made washing

systems. With the production


of over 4,000 plants, the washing

systems are used in various industries,

such as food and logistics,

pharmaceuticals, hospitals

and automotive. In production

since the early1970s, Colussi

Ermes has an outstanding reputation

and over 40 years of field

experience, research and knowhow,

which enables it to penetrate

different markets. The company’squality-oriented


phy and production flexibility have

enabled it to develop safe and

reliable solutions in line with its

customers’ needs.

Most projects engineered by

Colussi Ermes consist of hightech

machines to wash, sanitize

and dry cooked ham molds, hams,

meat trucks, racks and toolings

placed on racks, bins, rigid and

foldable crates, pallets and tanks.

All machines are available in

multiple versions and can be

equipped with different automation

systems, to satisfy all environmental

needs and process


Alarge selection of wash capacities,

ranging from alow hourly

throughput up to thousands

pieces per hour, can fulfil all

production criteria.


Quality in separation

reaching notable outputs

Lima S.A.S. from Quimper, France,

will exhibit their New “Lima quality

meat”, meat-bone separator type

RM 50 S. In spite of its compact

size, the machien enables to

reach yet substantial outputs and

is perfectlysized for chicken

meat-bone separation applications.

As all Lima “S” separators,

this model is used satisfactorily

and acclaimed around the globe

by customers producing the highest

quality of MSM (Mechanically

Separated Meat) at high yield. With

very few additional parts the

machine can be changed over into

aRM40DDS /DDdeboner /

desinewer like any other “S” separator.

The company will also exhibit a

RM 700 DDS /DDdeboner /

desinewer.The Lima DDS /DD

range ensures to get high quality

meat on raw products such as

poultry, pork and beef. Typical

applications are:

r Desinewing of raw materials

with or without cartilage, such

as, shank meat, trimmings,

aponeurosis at high yields: from

80 to 95%, while C/P ratios

remain under controlled values

and the temperature hardly

increases during the process.

r The same machines, equipped

with an adequate deboning

head enable to produce high

quality separated meat, in

terms of structure, color and

low calcium content (

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

Delivering high throughput

on asmall footprint

Marelec from Nieuwpoort, Belgium,

adds two new machines to their

portion cutters. These, as well as

two other new features, will be

presented. The Portio 1DAP is afixed

weight portion cutter, mainlydesigned

for poultry products. It consists

out of two lanes that can run

independentlyfrom each other.In

order to get amore natural look of

the fixed weight portion, the cutting

angle can easilybechanged, individuallyper

lane, from 0° to 15°or

30° or 40°. The cutting rate can go

up to 33 cuts/sec. The new interface

with touchscreen offers intuitive

and fast straightforward

programming, even for the most

advanced conditional cutting

programs. The Portio 3D is afixed

weight portion cutter for portioning

of the largest meat products. Also

this innovative model is equipped

with double lanes, each having a

300 mm wide modular belt. The

infeed of the products is done on a

separate infeed belt, in order not to

influence the scanning and cutting

of the products already inside the

machine. To guarantee maximum

accuracy on rounder products, the

machine scans, per lane, from the

top and from both sides. The robust,

yet very accurate and popular M3/6

compact grader got an upgrade with

the new Z3 touchscreen indicator for

easy input of the programs and data

collection. Matrix is acomplete IT

platform to optimize processing

performances and profits. This

includes acockpit view on real-time

parameters, such as: yield, throughput,

give-away, stock movement,

profitability and user programmable



Fulfilling the requirements

of the professionals

Mado fromDornhan, Germany,is

going to showthe product range

with Vakona. In detail,the company

willexhibit the followingmachinery:

Sharpeners, bandsaws from

230 mm to 520mmcutting height,

grinders(Shop grinders, manual

grinders, automatic grinders, industry

grinders), extrusion grinder,

cutters (small trade cutters from 13

to 100l,industry cutters from 130

to 220l)and customized complete

solutions. Numeroustestsand

experiments before serialproductionand

continuous quality checks

duringproductionguarantee that

onlyflawless products leave the



Focus on efficient and

sustainable packaging

Sealpac from Oldenburg, Germany,

will focus on innovations around

efficient and sustainable packaging

processes and materials.

Precision, flexibility and efficiency

is demonstrated with the

fullyautomated, servo-driven,

all-in-one A7 traysealer.This flexible

packaging machine is suitable

for awide product range and efficientlyhandles

all types of sealable

materials whilst achieving

outputs of up to 100packs per

minute. Sealpac’stooling quick

exchange system with patented

tooling trolley allows the operator

to switch between different packaging

systems, such as MAP,

TraySkin or EasyLid, with minimum

downtime. The FlatSkin packaging

system combines an attractive

product presentation with extended

shelf life and aparticularly

sustainable use of packaging

materials. Atransparent barrier

skin film fixates the product directlyonto

its flat cardboard carrier,

which has been coated with a

polymeric protective layer.After

taking out the product, the thin

polymeric layer is easilyremoved

from the cardboard carrier to allow

for separate disposal. As such,

FlatSkin combines the popular skin

packaging process, which provides

extended shelf life and attractive

product presentation, with increased



Stable handling of paper

and plastic bags

Vacuum specialist Guédon GmbH &

Co. KG (Nürnberg, Germany) presents

atechnical innovation for automated

handling of food in paper and plastic

bags with the flex-o-gripgripping

system. Whetherinsolid, liquid,

porous or powder form, different

packaged products require different

packaging solutions. Bags, or

pouches, place particularlyhigh

demands on the process technology.

Due to their versatility in terms of

film type, filling degree and consistency

of the contents, they require

maximum flexibility in the handling

process. The flex-o-grip gripping

system was designed specificallyfor

paper and plastic bags and boasts a

high degree of flexibility thanks to

the numerous options for combining

the ejector and the vacuum cups.

The suction surfaces provide atight

seal to enable secure handling even

of folded, frozen or wet bags, for

example, for frozen foods.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Advanced X-ray product

line for packaged food

At Anuga FoodTec 2018, Eagle

Product Inspection (Tampa, USA)

will launch anew high-level x-ray

inspection product line for the

packaged food industry.Inaddition,

the company will showcase

other equipment designed for

specific applications: the Tall Pro

XSDV for inspecting tall rigid containers.

The systems will be on

display at the Anuga. The new

x-ray inspection line has been

developed and refined for the

needs of today’sglobal food manufacturers.

High-level benefits

include lower operating costs,

greener/more sustainable solution,

easier maintenance and

operation including anew user

interface, quick and easy access

to operational components while

delivering the unmatched contaminant


Recognizing the distinct needs

and requirements of both global

and local food companies, Eagle

has designed the new x-ray system

for packaged food products to

benefit small to mid-sized companies

seeking to protect their products

and brands. It is also well

suited for global companies who

want to standardize their contaminant

detection solutions across a

wide variety of packaged food


Also on display is the Tall Pro

XSDV, suitable for the inspection of

high-speed can, jar, bottle and

composite lines, as well as other

upright container formats. Dual

side view detection allows users to

analyze and process two images

per container to better detect

hard-to-find contaminants such

as glass shards, metal fragments,


mineral stone, some plastic and

rubber compounds and calcified

bone. The Tall Pro XSDV uses Eagle's

proprietary SimulTask Pro

imaging software with its ability to

simultaneouslyperform inline

product integrity checks, such as

fill level inspection, mass measurement,

cap detection and

alignment in addition to contaminant



Adapted to tough

conditions in aplant

For the processing of pork and beef

segments, the pneumatic handskinner

HSK8-P3 from Freund

Maschinenfabrik from Paderborn,

Germany, offers many advantages

to the user.Itissuitable for easy

derinding and degreasing of hams

and shoulders and always offers a

guaranteed consistent processing

result and aconstant cut thickness.

The unique quick-change blade

system fulfils the requirements for

tool-free blade changing in just a

few seconds. This safe and quick

handling of the system results in

less downtime and apermanently

sharp tool. Worn parts can be

replaced quicklyand individually,

which reduces operating costs. The

smart design of the hand-skinner

offers ideal cleaning options. This

avoids “dead space” where dirt can

collect, which fulfils the hygiene

requirements of cutting. Optimum

weight distribution due to an adjustable

handle position offers

users perfect working ergonomics,

whether they are right- or lefthanded.

The hand-skinner is complemented

by the extremelypowerful

and long-lasting compressedair

motor P3, which allows extremelyquiet

working. The rib top

cutter RTC will increase user’s

economic efficiency in the production

and finishing of whole loins

and chop slices. With this redeveloped

finishing machine, sharp

edges on the loin are athing of the

past. Users will achieve aperfect

cut quality and ahigh level of

efficiency due to the constant and

precise technology of the circular

knife blade. Much fewer bones and

less meat are removed than with

conventional methods. Outstanding

automatic cutting guidance in

conjunction with optimum ejection

and simple transport of the sections

allow avery high level of

safety compared to the saws that

were previouslyused on the market.

Afavorable arrangement of

machines in the production

process allows equipping and

operation of the RTC by one person.

Quick adjustment of the cut depth,

the very good cleaning options and

simple maintenance are some

additional advantages of the robustlyconstructed

rib top cutter

and they also support an output

speed of up to 1500 loins per hour.


Schnitzel flattener for

handicrafts and catering

Glass GmbH &Co. KG (Paderborn,

Germany) has developed a

schnitzel flattener and alarge

marinater especiallyfor the needs

of catering, craftsmen and gastronomy.

The 50 lmarinater is able to

process up to 30 kg of product in

one batch. The drum is removable

for charging, emptying and cleaning.

With the integrated vacuum

pump, the vacuum can be generated

within avery short period of

time. Speeds and running times

are individuallyset according to

the product and can be stored.

The best results are achieved after

15 minutes, depending on the type

of meat. The 200 mm wide flattener

offers high efficiency and an

exact end product for high quality

products. The clever design

achieves maximum performance in

the smallest possible space. Due

to the two-storey construction,

the space requirement of the plant

was significantlyreduced. The

capacity is up to 1,500 schnitzels

per hour can be produced and can

therefore also meet ambitious

requirements. First presentation of

the new systems for customers

will take place during the Anuga

FoodTec trade fair in Cologne.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

New collating system for

all kinds of fresh sausages

Albert Handtmann Maschinenfabrik

GmbH &Co. KG from Biberach/Riss,

Germany, will be presenting the

new collating system with the

functions collating, feeding and

depositing directlyinto trays. It is

suitable for fresh sausages and

sausage-shaped products in

natural, collagen or alginate casing.

An automation solution for all

processes involved, from filling

and portioning through to packaging.

Medium-scale and industrial

producers from the meat or general

food sector, such as producers of

vegetarian and dairy products,

benefit from the significant rationalisation

effect of this integrative

line solution.

ConPro sausages or fresh

sausages in natural or collagen

casing can be automaticallydeposited

into trays or thermoforming

machines. Depositing in

single-cut portions or pairs is

possible. The product length can

be selected from 80 to 310 mm in

calibre 13 to 32 mm. For fresh

sausage in collagen casing, for

example, up to 450 single portions/

min and up to 600 portions/

min in pairs and uncut are possible.

The advantages of the collating

system are cost savings, aflawless,

hygienic production process

due to the reduction of manual

intervention, increase in productivity

due to the optimisation of the

effective production, while maintaining

ahigh degree of flexibility

thanks to the simple and quick

conversion to other products and

tray formats.


Adurable construction

assures safe handling

An innovative IBC container that

will help food manufacturers and

processors keep detergents and

disinfectants safe will be one of

the highlights of the Dalvik, Iceland,

headquarted RPC Sæplast


The Varibox is aheavy duty IBC

which features an inner bottle –

capable of holding 1,000 lofproduct

–that is fullyenclosed by an

outer container.Should the bottle

become damaged, any spilled

liquid is held in the second enclosure

and does not escape. This

ensures maximum safety as well as

enhanced efficiency throughout

the distribution chain, during

transportation, storage and when

in use. In addition, the box features

aspill-free connecter which

can be connected to pumps or

dosing systems to create asafe,

closed dispensing operation where

there is no risk of contact between

the chemical and the user.

The stand will also feature latest

examples of the company’striple

walled, speciallystrengthened PE

tubs and pallets that provide safe

and hygienic handling of products.

Keybenefits including astrong and

durable construction with ahigh

insulating capacity, while smooth

surfaces ensure fast and easy

cleaning. All containers can be

personalised with customer logos

and specified with avariety of

tracking options including barcode,

QR code and RFID technology.The

PE containers are fully

recyclable and can incorporate

recycled material in their manufacture.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Pavilion of Denmark shows

high-quality solutions

Danish Food Tech Group is hosting

the largest ever national Pavilion of

Denmark,where 28 Danish suppliers

are showcasing awide range of

solutions and services to the

international food manufacturing

industry.Here are two examples of

innovative high-quality solutions

from the country.

NTF Aalborg A/S is introducing

an online tool enabling easy creation

of hygienic and cleaningfriendlymachine

guard solutions to

the food industry.The new Fence-

Creator is afree online application

where food manufacturers can

easilyupload blue prints of machines,

packaging systems or

production lines and construct

their own customised machine

guarding solution in 3D. Instead of

spending valuable time sending

machine guarding designs back

and forth between the constructors,

manufacturers of process

equipment and packaging lines to

the food industry are now able to

order the approved design of their

choice directlyfrom NFT Aalborg.

Manufacturers can choose to

design aguarding solution that

automaticallyoptimises costs by

using the minimum of fence modules

to guard the machine or a

solution that optimises the look by

creating symmetric fences.

Jeros A/S is launching an industrial

cleaning system that enables

food manufacturers to reduce

wash down time by more than 80%

and optimize production time. The

new Ace system is one of the most

flexible and efficient cleaning

system for multihead weigher

components and other scale parts

from the production machinery.

Time consumption on the entire

process from removing, washing

and reinstalling parts can be reduced

from two hours to only

20 min. because the system is

automatic and remove any human

handling of parts. This way, food

manufacturers can increase production

time and optimise workflow.

In addition to reducing time

and water consumption, the system

prevents components from

being damaged or lost during the

cleaning process, which is common

due to manual handling. The

system is already installed and

cleaning parts from the production

machinery at world-wide acting

food companies.


Solutions and technologies

for the meat industry

PSS Svidník,a.s., from Svidník is

the onlymanufacturer of meat

processing machines in Slovakia. It

has been operating for more than

four decades on the world markets

and its main objective is to achieve

maximal satisfaction of users with

the delivered product and overall

services provided. The company

will present solutions and technologies

for several operations in

the meat processing industry.

In addition to the well-proven

technologies for cutting and emulsifying

of processed material it will

also introduce machines of anew

generation that guarantee quality,

safety and reliability.The Speed

Combi Grinder SCG is one of them,

designed for fast and high-capacity

grinding of fresh and frozen

meat. According to auser's statement,

who has been using the

equipment in its operations over a

long period of time, the grinder has

avery low energy consumption and

perfectlymeets rather high demands

imposed on it, ranging from

standard grinding to grinding of


In the area of mixing raw materials,

the company will present the

Speed Mixer SM, which is the perfect

choice for fast and efficient

mixing of the material and for

perfect emptying. Visitors will

undoubtedlybeattracted by the

Speed Filler Vacuum SFV 720,

which is characterized by simple

control via the central control

panel and by ensuring acontinuous

process of dosing and filling of



Producing and packaging

chilled ready meals

Micvac from Mölndal, Sweden, has

developed an innovative technology

of producing and packaging chilled

ready meals. Visitors will be introduced

to the Micvac method, as well

as taste and enjoy the quality of the

fresh ready meals.

The method utilises in-pack

cooking and pasteurization in one

continuous process housed in a

microwave production tunnel. This

enables food manufacturers to offer

high-quality ready meals that are

fresh, healthy and full of flavor.

Added benefits of this method

include: ready meals that have an

extended shelf life without the need

of any additives, and less waste in

the food chain. These benefits make

the company asought-after partner

of the global food processing and

food retail industries. True to the


philosophy, the stand will focus on

the product development process. A

full-size production unit is available

at the company’spilot plant in

Sweden where customers can learn

how the method works and produce

ameal of their own choice along

with their marketing strategy.Customers

also have the possibility of

buying atest kit. This can be used to

develop new recipes or demonstrate

the method to decision-makers at

the customer’s company.Highlighting

the company’scustomer-oriented

outlook, the microwave tunnel

is based on amodular system. If the

customer is sure of the capacity

needed, the right size tunnel can be

bought from the start. If not, there is

the possibility of adding one module

or more depending on the production



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

Knives for food service and

meat processing

Johannes Giesser Messerfabrik

GmbH from Winnenden, Germany,

presents its latest developments

beneath proven cutting solutions.

The new PrimeLine knife series

features are inspired by nature,

making it ergonomic, hygienic,

sharp and slip-resistant. Various

blade shapes and lengths, flexible

or stiff blades, as well as the

option of ashorter or longer handle

guard makes the neue knife series

the perfect choice for all areas of

food service, meat processing and

food processing. Asoft, slip-proof

surface surrounding ahard core

guarantees stability and precise

handling. Finely-tuned proportions

make PrimeLine blades and handles

perfectlybalanced –for easy,

fatigue-free cutting. The optimised,

rounded handle with handle

guard offers asecure grip that’s

easy on users tendons and joints.

The ergonomic, soft handle coating

moulds to fit user’s hand. A

detailed surface structure makes

for asecure grip and optimum

handling. The risk of slipping is

significantlyreduced, helping to

prevent injuries.

The knives are manufactured

entirelyfrom top-class materials

processed with utmost care. The

more even the hardening, the

better the knife holds its edge –

that’s why the company uses the

latest high-tech vacuum tempering

process. Precise grinding and

hand-finishing ensure along life

span and extraordinary sharpness.

Best raw materials and ahigh

degree of know-how are the requirements

for highest quality.The

blades of the PrimeLine series are

stamped from asingle piece of

chrome molybdenum steel. Using

the technologically-sophisticated

vacuum hardening process the

blades are hardened. The result is

ablade with maximum cutting

edge retention and the best metal

structure. Giesser continuously

strives to improve its products and

to develop them further.Now, the

knife series, already highlysuccessful

in the food processing

industry, has been perfected for

food service: The ergonomic handle

is made from avery soft, nonslip

material, offering asecure grip

that’s easy on tendons and joints.

Ahard plastic core ensures that

PrimeLine Chef knives are absolutelystable,

too. The transition

from the handle to the cutting

edge is angled, which makes

resharpening the blade very easy.

Another feature of the Chef series

is that blades are numbered consecutively,

so each knife in the

series can be perfectlyassigned

and tracked.


Fully automatic vacuum


For the first time, Supervac

Maschinenbau GmbH (Wien, Austria)

will be presenting acomplete

line for the fullyautomatic production

of vacuum packaging at the

Anuga FoodTec. The raw products

to be packaged are measured at

the beginning of the line and then

packed with the right shrink bag of

the correct size. The bags can also

then be automaticallyloaded onto

avacuum packing machine. The

aim of the line is to achieve consistentlyhigh

outputs of vacuum

packed products whilst using

human resources as efficientlyas





Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Solutions for the digital

food production

Control station applications, industrial

image processing and ERP

software: The industry IT expert

CSB-System from Geilenkirchen,

Germany, presents new solutions

for digital food production. They

allow enterprises to improve resource

efficiency, increase transparency

and reduce costs. The

company focuses on the factory IT

of the future and its experts inform

about networked and automated

technologies for the smart and

resource-friendlyproduction of

food. CSB linecontrol is one of the

technologies in this field. The

control center helps to reduce

throughput and lead times, assure

constant quality, increase productivity

and consequentlyreduce

costs. The system supplies all data

about current capacity utilization

as well as the performance of the

single machines in real time.

Bottlenecks and malfunctions in

the production and packaging

lines are immediatelyvisualized. As

aresult, unplanned system shutdowns,

downtimes and rejects are

reduced while keeping the overall

equipment effectiveness (OEE) at a

constantlyhigh level.

Additionally, the company will

present new application examples

of industrial image processing with

CSB-Vision. Based on image analysis,

the CSB-Eyedentifier enables,

for example, fullyautomatic quality

controls for raw materials directly

in receiving. This ensures reliable

test results while work is reduced

to aminimum. The camera technology

also boosts efficiency

through the recognition of containers.

For example, the new Unit

Recognition captures empties

quicklyand automatically: Identify,

count, document.


Advancing the automation

of continuous processing

Fessmann GmbH und Co KG from

Winnenden, Germany, presents the

F-Loader, afullyautomatic loading

and unloading unit for continuous

facilities. The system includes

interfaces with the up- and downstream

process steps entirely

without using any robots, reducing

not onlyoperating costs but also

requirements for maintenance

staff. Many parts can be easily

replaced by the customer's own

technician in case of faults. Not

onlyindependence from external

service technicians, but also the

system's flexibility convinces: The

F-Loader is compatible with all

stuffer types and can be easily

retrofitted on existing systems.The


modular system setup keeps

space demand at aminimum and

permits flexible adjustments to

customer-specific requirements.

With the RotathermCarat, the

company presents its tried and

tested baking system as well.

Thanks to special rotation technology,

the system enables use of

temperatures of up to 250 °C.

Continuous turning of the baking

trolley in the air flow ensures the

most even products no matter

where on the trolley they are

placed. Very short heating and

baking times also reduce the

product weight loss: Amortisation

of the investment costs through

weight loss reduction alone as

compared to standard baking

systems is possible in less than six

months. Very small space demand

and up to 100% higher trolley loads

than in standard baking systems

complete the performance of the


The process monitoring software

Food.Log, used to always keep

optimal control of the product

quality and even results, is exhibited

as well.


Advancements and

well-proven machinery

The German manufacturer Nock

Maschinenbau GmbH from Friesenheim

will show novelties and

advancements but also wellproven

machinery out of their

broad programme.

The CB 435/4E HVC horizontalvertical-cutter

offers two cutting

directions: one circular blade

cutting unit for vertical cuts plus

one preceding cutting unit for one

horizontal cut. Treating the product

very gentlymakes this compact

machine especiallyinteresting

for cutting i. e. strips or thin

escalopes out of chicken breast.

With the new, optionallyavailable

separation conveyor, the upper

slice can be separatelydischarged

out of the machine, if required.

Meanwhile the lower slice is being

transported to the circular blade

cutting unit in order to cut it into

strips. Out of the line of the worldwide

proven circular blade cutting

machines the manufacturer shows

as an example the model Cortex CB

495/7KK Slicer 200, which can be

well integrated into lines given its

working width of 600 m. Thanks to

the continuous belt speed of

18 m/min these machines are

impeccablyeconomical and strong

in throughput when it comes to

cutting strips or slices. With the

new 700 mm-wide doner cutting

machine Cortex CB 703 Kebab very

big meat pieces can be cut into

slices for the doner production.

Highest possible security when

working with open top machines

offers the further developed immediate

cut-out (ICO) safety system.

This system is going to be

demonstrated in the membrane

skinner Vliesex V5744 Turbo with a

split transport roller.

Into the new scale ice maker

range NRE the company has

brought in its long-time experience

in the field of rotating evaporators

gained through the construction

of freeze-drum skinners.

The NRE ice machines are designed

for the habitual easy daily



Showcasing at the fair

for the first time

The Lombard, Ill., USA, headquarted

group delivers afull range of best

in class food packaging solutions

and services including both

Walsroder and Darmex products.

The market leading products of

Viskase Companies include: small

cellulose casings (Viskase Nojax),

cellulose fibrous casings (Viskase

Fibrous, Walsroder Fibrous, including

the barrier casings Walsroder F

plus and FVP), textile casings and a

wide range of plastic casings.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Anuga FoodTec

Compressed air dried at

–40 °C using low energy

Atlas Copco from Nacka, Sweden, is

presenting an entirelynew compressed

air dryer technology for the

first time: the MDG rotary drum

dryer.This unit is designed to

deliver air with astable discharge

dew point of –40 °C. It operates

more reliablythan other dryers and

virtuallyreduces energy costs for

drying to zero.

The new MDG has anew, simplified

design without any heating

elements or blowers –and it also

operates without compressed air

losses. This way, the dryer

achieves high energy efficiency.

With atotal power consumption of

less than 0.2 kW for discharge dew

point of –40 °C, the new MDG air

dryer is apioneering unit in compressed

air technology according

to Atlas Copco. The technology

combines high compressed air

quality with extremelylow overall

operating expenses. In addition,

the MDG has fewer moving parts,

which makes for lower maintenance

expenses and higher reliability.

The company is also showing the

ZE 2VSD, alow-pressure screw

compressor with variable speed

drive. This unit produces adischarge

gauge pressure between 1

and 3.5 bar and has acontrol range

of up to 80%. This means that the

ZE is especiallywell-suited for

fermenting processes as the oxygen

demand and the back pressure

vary between the different process

phases. The air flow therefore

needs to be continuallyadjusted, a

function that is implemented automaticallybythe

Elektronikon Mk5

compressor controller.


The controller makes compressor

operation more efficient by collecting

and processing data from

sensors installed on the compressor

and then taking appropriate



Modern technology stands

for traditional taste

Emerson Technik from Bucharest,

Romania, uses the newest technologies

to help meat processors

offer their customers the traditional

taste they are looking for.The

company’sproducts are the results

of years of research and development,

dedicated to creating better

ways to please even the most

exquisite tastes. The company

provides awide range of products

for meat processing suited for both

large industrial factories as well as

small-medium size plants, consisting

of cooking chambers, cookingsmoking

chambers, baking/roasting

chambers, intensive cooling

and defrosting solutions. Meeting

both the needs of the market and

the needs of the meat processor’s

consumers is one of the main

guiding principles.

The smoking and cooking units

designed by this company allow

automatic heat treatments for

meat, fish or other food products. In

order to guarantee the uniformity of

the products, the chambers use

one fan for each trolley and one

extra evacuation ventilator.The

perfect coordination of the sizes

and parameters results in shorter

programs and improved yields.

Users can choose from saw-dust,

wood chips, friction or liquid smoke

generators depending on their

facilities and the desired products.

The modular construction from high

quality stainless steel and mineral

rock wool panels allows the chambers

to be installed in different

locations, from small to mid-sized

to high capacity factories.

All the Emerson Technik smoking

and cooking chambers are coming

standard with an automatic cleaning

system, cleaning agent dosing

and with water pressure pump

(optional). The chambers are controlled

either via the EasyTouch

touch screen computer or with the

ViSoft PC monitoring software. Extra

optional benefits include showering,

cold smoke option, horizontal

air flow, automatic door opening,

extra rear door and many others.


Introducing afuture-proof

labeling machine

Herma GmbH from Filderstadt,

Germany, introduces the first

“evolving” labeling machine. The

652B system specializes in the top

and/ or base labeling of boxshaped

products. By default, it

features one or two Herma basic

labellers, allowing users costefficient

access to state-of-theart

labeling technology.Ataspeed

of 25 mper min. even the basic

version of the 652B is quite the

workhorse and manages both top

and base labeling in one timesaving

work step. Akeypad with a

display enables users to set the

exact speed, and the integrated

controller renders external control

cabinets unnecessary.The machine

processes label sizes between

12x12 and 160x400 mm.

However, the machine can be

easilyretrofitted with one or two

Herma 400 labelers. To enable that,

the basic was developed with

connection points identical to

those of the Herma 400. For users,

this means aconsiderablysmaller

investment volume compared to a

system that features aHerma 400

from the start. This puts some

limits on performance and ease of

operation. But especiallyinsmaller

businesses and when introducing

new products, it is often hard to

estimate the labeling output that

is needed in the medium term.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Anuga FoodTec

Processing and packaging


This year, at Anuga FoodTec, JBT

(Chicago, USA) will be sharing its

stand with some new acquisitions

as it expands its food and beverage

processing and packaging

solutions throughout Europe.

Tipper Tie packaging solutions,

Avure HPP (High-Pressure Processing)

and Schröder injectors and

massagers will be joining the other

established JBT Protein Processing

and Liquid Food brands on the


Tipper Tie will be exhibiting afull

range of its packaging solutions,

including the cost-effective Tipper

Tie SVF 1800, an automatic double

clipper that delivers clean casing

ends. Using cutting edge, spreading

voider technology to eliminate

residue, the SVF1800 provides high

performance clipping, even for

larger calibre products.

With its new smaller footprint,

the Avure AV-M, is amachine that

quicklyscales for fast-growing

food companies, enabling food

producers to buy the machine size

that fits their current production

needs without requiring additional

floor space. Avure HPP has over 60

years of high-pressure experience,

and also works with food companies

on HPP product development,

HPP recipe R&D, packaging and

navigating ever-changing food

regulations. The world-renowned

range of Frigoscandia freezing

systems continues to be aflagship

brand for JBT.The latest model is

the Gyrocompact 40 Spiral Freezer,

amore compact version with even

more hygiene benefits and new

freezing technology that replaces

the outdated wagon drive system.

AStein M-Fryer and aDSI DB20

Dual-Blade Portioning System,

which combines high capacity

linear portioning with low maintenance,

will be key highlights.

JBT's Liquid Foods is aleading

provider of integrated food processing

and packaging solutions.


Washing system for

sanitizing big boxes

Kerres,headquartered in Backnang,

Germany, has designed the

KBW 801, aunit built to clean big

boxes. The KBW 801isawashing

system that rotates the box spinning

360 degrees. The box or buggy

is fixed on amechanical device

which lifts the piece into the

cleaning chamber.With wands

surrounding each part of the box,

the cleaning cycle begins. Ablend

of high pressure, boiled water and

soap cleans the box and as a

result, all of the waste on the

container is removed, inside and

out. Dependent upon the level of

soil, an automatic belt filter can be

used. After the cycle is complete,

no residual water remains on the

piece being cleaned. The unit is dry

and sanitized.

Another highlight is the KBW 202

for 200 and 300 ltrucks or buggies.

This system uses avery similar

process lifting the buggy into a

chamber and then ahigh pressure

water and cleaner solution sprays

the piece from many angles.


The next

will be held from

23 –26March 2021.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


The production volume of pig meat in the EU increased by almost 1mill. tfrom 2012 to 2016. Photo: Fotolia_agnormark

Dynamic growth documented

Patterns of EU pig meat production and trade

Meat production and trade with meat products

showed aremarkable dynamics over the past

decades. This analysis shows the development

of pig meat production and trade. Besides a

general overview on EU level, changes at country

level will also be documented.

By Hans-Wilhelm Windhorst

Before dealing with pig meat in detail, ashort

overview on the development of meat

production in the EU between 2012 and2016

will be presented. Table 1documents that the

total meat production in the EU in the EU

increased by 2.8 mill. tor5.8% between 2012

and 2016.The highest absolute and relative

growth rates showed poultry meat with an

increase of 1.8mill. tor13.7%. Pig meat production

grew by almost 1mill. tor4.4%. Even

though the difference in the production volumes

of pig meat and poultry meat was as high

as 8.7 mill. tin2016, it decreased by 790,000 t

in the analyzed time period. The remarkable

growth of poultry meat production is aresult of

lower retail prices, abroad variety of consumer

products and its dominance in fast food restaurants.

Production and consumption

The production of pig meat in the EU increased

faster than consumption, this resulted in a

44.6% growth of the surplus. While the production

volume increased by 998,000 t, consumption

only grew by 232,000 tor1.1%.This resulted

in aconsiderable growth in the export volume.

In contrast to poultry meat, the per-capitaconsumption

of pig meat has been stagnating

Meat production in the EU

for several years. The self-sufficiency rate increased

from 104% to 112% because of the considerably

lower growth of consumption compared

to production.

Acomparison of the development of pig

meat production at country base shows the

increase of the regional concentration in the

analyzed time period (Tab. 2). The share of the

eight leading countries in the overall pig meat

Tab. 1: The development of meat production in the EU between 2012 and 2016; data in

1,000 t

Year Beef and veal Pig meat Poultry meat Total

2012 7,670 22,525 13,018 48,328

2013 7,399 22,360 13,210 48,494

2014 7,460 22,491 13,727 48,780

2015 7,712 23,352 14,246 50,233

2016 7,876 23,523 14,806 51,155

Increase (%) 2.7 4.4 13.7 5.8

Source: AMI FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018



production in the EU grew from 81.6% in

2012 to 82.7% in 2016.In2016, the three

leading countries contribute 50.1% to the

overall production, four years before it had

only been 48.3%. This is mainly aresult of

the fast increase of pig meat production by

593,000 tor17.1% in Spain. In contrast, pig

meat production in Germany only grew by

141,000 tor2.6%.InItaly,Denmark and

Belgium the production volume even decreased.

In the OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook

2017–2026, adecrease of pig meat production

until 2022 is predicted. From then on

the production volume will grow again

without reaching the value of 2016.An

almost stagnating consumption of 21 mill. t

is projected, resulting from an unchanged

per-capita consumption of 32 kg per year.In

contrast, an increase of the per-capita consumption

of poultry meat is expected from

23.1kgto24.8 kg.

As production and consumption will

develop almost parallel according to the

OECD-FAO projection, the surplus of pig

meat in the EU will remain constant. This

will result in an almost unchanged export volume

to non-EU countries. The composition and

ranking of the countries of destination may,

however,change if the Russian import ban will

be offset.

Pig meat trade

In 2016,EUmember countries exported

4.1mill. tofpig meat to non-EU countries. This

equaled ashare of almost 50% of the estimated

volume of global pig meat trade which the US

Department of Agriculture estimated at

8.3 mill. t(USDA, FAS 2017). Germany,Spain,

Denmark and the Netherlands together with the

USA, Canada and Brazil ranked among the ten

leading pig meat exporting countries. When the

intra-EU trade is included, Germany even

ranked in first place before the USA, Spain,

Denmark and Canada. The following analysis

will as well deal with the patterns of EU pig meat

trade with non-EU countries as with the total

Pig meat production

Tab. 2: The eight leading EU member countries in pig meat production in 2012 and 2016;

data in 1,000 t

2012 2016

Country Production Share (%) Country Production Share (%)

Germany 5,427 24.1 Germany 5,568 24.0

Spain 3,466 15.4 Spain 4,059 17.5

France 1,977 8.8 France 1,988 8.6

Poland 1,815 8.1 Poland 1,963 8.4

Italy 1,624 7.2 Denmark 1,567 6.7

Denmark 1,606 7.1 Italy 1,544 6.6

Netherlands 1,332 5.9 Netherlands 1,473 6.3

Belgium 1,126 5.0 Belgium 1,061 4.6

8countries 18,373 81.6 8countries 19,223 82.7

EU total 22,525 100.0 EU total 23,232 100.0

*sum does not add because of rounding

Source: AMI FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

exports and imports of the member countries at

country level.

The EU pig meat exports increased by 892,000 t

between 2012 and 2016.Parallel to this development,

imports decreased by 10.8%. This resulted

in agrowth of the surplus by almost 900,000 t.

The sharp increase of the export volume between

2015 and 2016 is mainly due to the considerable

growth of China‘s imports. In total, China‘s pig

meat imports increased by almost 1mill. t, to this

EU member countries contributed 720,000 t.

Acloser look at the composition and ranking

of the main countries of destination for the EU

exports reveals some remarkable changes. In

2012,the Russian Federation ranked in first

place with ashare of 24.7% in the overall export

volume. Three East Asian countries ranked in

the following positions, China, Hong Kong and

Japan. Together,they shared 32.7% in the exports.

After the import ban of the Russian Federation,

pig meat could no longer be exported to

Russia. This resulted in achange of the composition

and ranking of the main countries of

destination. In 2014,four East Asian countries

ranked in the top positions. They shared 60.6%

in the EU pig meat exports, China alone 33.9%.

The considerable decrease of pig meat production

by 1.9mill. tbetween 2015 and 2016 forced

China to import large amounts of pig meat to

meet the domestic demand. Between 2014 and

2016 imports grew by 1.15mill. twhich were

mainly supplied by the USA and EU member

countries. In 2016,the four leading non-EU

importing countries shared almost 70% of the

overall EU exports.

When including the Philippines, the extraordinary

importance of East and Southeast Asian

countries for the EU becomes obvious.

In case of aliftofthe import ban by Russia,

composition and ranking of the countries of

destination could change considerably, however.

From the data in Table 3one can easily see that





Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Dynamic growth documented

Pig meat exports

Tab. 3: The ten leading EU member countries in pig meat exports (2016); data in 1,000 t

product weight


Total exports

(1,000 t)



Exports into non-EU

countries (1,000 t)



Germany 2,848 25.2 904 24.4

Spain 1,845 16.3 703 19.0

Denmark 1,503 13.3 588 15.9

Netherlands 1,145 10.2 408 11.0

Belgium 901 8.0 93 2.5

Poland 680 6.0 162 4.4

France 602 5.3 241 6.5

Italy 314 2.8 91 2.5

United Kingdom 304 2.7 131 3.5

Austria 289 2.6 47 1.3

10 countries 10,431 92.2 3,368 91.0

Total 11,315 100.0 3,701 100.0

Source: AMI FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

Pig meat imports

the regional concentration in total exports and

exports to non-EU countries was very high.

The four leading countries contributed 65% of

the total export volume in 2016 and70.3% of

the exports to non-EU countries. Germany

ranked in first position with shares of 25.2%

respectively 24.4%, followed by Spain, Denmark

and the Netherlands. About one third of

the exports were imported by anon-EU country.

The four leading member countries in EU pig

meat imports in 2016 shared 52.9% of the total

import volume of 7.0 mill. t(Table 4), Germany

and Italy together 31%.The regional concentration

in pig meat imports was lower than in exports.

This reflects the high surplus in only afew

countries and the necessity of alarger number of

countries to import pig meat in order to meet the

domestic demand. Imports from non-EU countries

were only of marginal importance. Germany

shared 69% of these imports.

The imported pig meat contributed only

1.8%, however,tothe total pig meat imports. In

all other member countries imports were negligible.

Pig meat trade of the EU in 2016 wasmainly

an exchange between member countries.

Because of the self-sufficiency rate of 112%,

Tab. 4: The ten leading EU member countries in pig meat imports (2016); data in 1,000 t

product weight


Total Imports

(1,000 t)



Imports from non-EU

countries (1,000 t)



Germany 1,129 16.1 20 69.0

Italy 1,045 14.9 1 3.4

United Kingdom 909 13.0 2 6.9

Poland 626 8.9

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Industry News


Meeting FSSAI standards


Three delicious flavors

Arjuna Naturals Extracts, Ltd., from

Kerala, India, launches its natural

preservative formulation for combating

oxidation, thermal degradation,

hydrolytic rancidity and extending

the frying cycle of vegetable

oils. The new, all-natural preservative

formulation contains afew

simple ingredients and enables a

clean label. It is GMO-free, oil-soluble

and vegan. The initial response

was so strong, that the company

decided to immediatelymarket this

natural solution worldwide.

The FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards

Authority of India) has revised

its standards to allow for reuse of

vegetable oil in frying and cooking

applications until the oil reaches a

maximum Total Polar Compound (TPC)

limit of 25%. Any edible oil used for

frying application that crosses this

maximum limit of TPC will be considered

unsafe. Arjuna's novel formulation

also helps manufactures use oil

The preservative slows down the

oxidative degradation of oils.

for frying longer by slowing down the

oxidative degradation due to reuse,

thus keeping the oil safe. Frying oils

contain sensitive mixtures of different

unsaturated fatty acids that

influence oxidative stability.Degradation

of frying oil occurs quickly

due to higher temperature, oxidative

degradation and hydrolytic rancidity.


The marinades are available in

three popular flavorings.

The new sal oil marinades introduced

by Indasia Gewürzwerk GmbH from

Georgsmarienhütte are free from

hydrogenated oils and palm oil. With

their incomparable shiny optic, the

clean label marinades enrich every

dish on asustainable way.Atan

earlystage the company sets standards

in transparency and sustainability.Asamember

of the RSPO

(Round Table of Sustainable Palm Oil)

and signatory to the BSCI (Business

Social Compliance Initiative), the

sustainable cultivation of raw products

plays as important arole as

does responsible behavior towards

people and nature. The most recent

initiative for protecting the rainforest

involves changing the raw product

from palm oil to sal oil.

The three new sal oil marinades

demonstrate convincinglythat it is

possible to manage food production

without deforestation and cultivating

plantations. Due to its comparable

properties, sal oil is aperfect

alternative to palm fat for the processing.

Additionally, due to the

lower melting point, equipment can

be better cleaned after use with the

new sal oil marinades. It also improves

the transmission of flavorings

within the marinade to the meat. The

sal oil marinades are available in the

three most popular flavorings: paprika,

curry and herbs.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


High growth rates

Poultry is gaining in popularity, and is processed and offered in many forms

Consumption of poultry has risen

sharply in recent decades worldwide.

“White”meat now has the

highest growth rates in meat production.

It is especially popular in

high-income countries. Growth

rates are highest in up and coming

markets in the developing countries.

Production of poultry has also

increased significantly in the EU in

recent years. Poultry is offered at

retail in various forms. From a

technological point of view,the use

of additives in poultry meat production

has given rise to an interesting

market, which is benefiting from

the growth of the category.

By Herbert Weber

Among the reasons for the trend

to more poultry are:

r Many consumers consider

poultry ahealthier alternative to

“red”meat, i.e. pork and beef. It

meets consumers’ desires for

lower-calorie, healthier food.

According to astatement by

WHO in 2015,“white”meat is

suspected of being less carcinogenic

than red meat.

r Poultry is more ecological than

beef or pork due to its higher rate

of feed conversion.

r In terms of sustainability,poultry

is superior to beef, pork or

lamb. Meat from these animals

has alarger CO2 footprint than


r From areligious point of view,

there are fewer restrictions on

poultry than on other types of meat.

Additives are added in small quantities to achieve or improve certain properties. Photo: Hydrosol

r With the growing market for

healthy food, “wellness” and

convenience foods, new ways of

processing poultry have become


r Forprice-conscious buyers,

poultry is an attractive alternative

to other meats.

r Poultry is agood source of valuable

nutrients. It has ahigh

content of minerals that are

important for human metabolism.

Poultry is also asource of B

vitamins. The content of highquality

protein is remarkably

high, between 18 and23%.

Global production

World production of poultry will

grow much faster than in the EU

through 2025. Due to high rates of

increase in emerging and developing

countries (WINDHORST,2017)

experts expect the trend to poultry

to continue. Long-term, poultry

production is likely to dislodge pork

from its current first place.

According to WINDHORST (2017)

the production of poultry in the

EU rose by 10.4% between 2010

Fig. 1: “Poultry liver sausage finelychopped from pure poultry meat -top quality”(left) –“Liver sausage with poultry meat (right)” –

Cooked spread sausages made of and with poultry meat Scans: Weber

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018



and 2015.In2015 14.3 million

tonnes of poultry were produced

in the EU, with Poland and France

as the leading producer countries

(2015:29.9% of all production).

Germany is third largest poultry

producer in the EU. Particularly

high growth in Europe has been

seen for chicken, at 79%. Poultry

production in the EU is expected

to rise 5.3% by 2025. Poultry imports

to the EU are mostly from

Brazil and Thailand.

The trend to poultry is also very

evident in the neighboring Netherlands.

Although overall meat consumption

has steadily declined in

recent years, consumption of poultry

has continued to rise (OPLAAT,2017).

In German poultry-raising, terms

like “x%grain-fed,” “extensive

free-range,” “free range,” “farm

free-range,” and “farm unfenced

free-range”are common. Organic

poultry is also on the market.

Available forms

Poultry is offered at retail in various

forms. In addition to entire slaughtered

birds, bird parts (breast, leg,

thigh, drumstick, wings, nuggets)

are commonly found in shops.

White meat is increasingly offered

in the form of poultry preparations

and meat products. These products

remain popular and are presented

in awide variety of ways at retail.

The preparations consist of

poultry meat with seasonings (salt,

spices and their aromatic extracts,

kitchen herbs and their aromatic

extracts), additives and stabilizing

systems. Specialist meat industry

suppliers like Hydrosol GmbH &

Co.KGfrom Ahrensburg, Germany,offer

stabilizing systems that

enable the targeted adjustment of

properties like shelf life, texture and

water binding.

Typical sales descriptions of

these preparations include “seasoned

and marinated chicken

meat.” Technically,these preparations

are minimally or not at all

treated, and the cell structure of the

meat is not fundamentally altered.

Poultry products have become

commonplace in stores. They


r Rawsausage, such as salami, tea

sausage, and fresh poultry


r Cooked sausages like poultry

sausage, chasseur sausage,

mortadella, beer ham sausage,

meat patés and roulades made of

or with poultry.

Fig 2: “Air-dried turkey ham; turkey thigh lean cutted, cured and joined together”

r Spreadable cooked sausage like

poultry liver paste, chopped fine

or coarse. These spreadable

cooked sausages are made of or

with poultry (Fig. 1).

r Aspic products, typically poultry

in aspic, often with vegetables or

mushrooms. The use of gelatine

needs to be specified in the

description, for example

“Chicken in pork gelatine”.

r Cured meats, such as turkey

ham. This is made from turkey

breast filet. Air-dried turkey ham

is also offered in stores. This

cured product is assembled from

pieces of turkey thigh meat

(Fig. 2).

Organic poultry products are now

also found in shops .


Years ago, the declaration of poultry

products led to uncertainty on the

part of consumers. The most recent

change in the guidelines of the

German Food Book have brought

great improvements in consumer

information. Under the old rules, a

product sold as “Chicken sausage”

could also contain up to acertain

proportion of pork or beef meat and

fat without this being mentioned in

the sales description. These components

needed only be listed in the


A“poultry sausage”can now

contain only poultry.With the

changed guidelines, consumers can

be sure that not just products

marked “100% poultry”or“Pure

poultry,” but also products marked

as “Poultry sausage”are made

exclusively from poultry meat.

Products of mixed poultry and

pork must now be labeled “Poultry

sausage with 10%pork,” for example.

Mere listing in the ingredients

is no longer enough. Meat from

other animals must now be explicitly

mentioned in the sales description.

“Chicken sausage”or“Turkey

sausage”can contain only that kind

of poultry meat. The type of poultry

in “poultry sausage”can be seen in

the ingredients list. The exact

composition must be shown, for

example “chicken and turkey meat”,

with the highest amount being

named first.

Marking of vegetable fats and oils:

Poultry is very lean, but cooked

sausages require acertain amount

of fat, so vegetable oils or fats are

often used in poultry sausage. The

vegetable oils or fats used (such as

sunflower,rapeseed or olive oil)

must be named in the sales description.

Forexample, these products

might be sold as “Poultry sausage

with rapeseed oil.”

Rawsausage made of poultry

meat also contains vegetable fats,

since the visible pork fat normally

found in salami cannot be used.

Butthe melt behavior and mouth

feel should be similar to pork fat.

Such products are sold as “Poultry

salami with vegetable fat”(Fig. 3).




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


High growth rates

Palm fat is also used.

Nutritionally,the use of vegetable

oils and fats in sausage has its

benefits, since it can contribute to

an improved fatty acid profile. The

cholesterol content can also be

reduced through the use of vegetable

fat and lean fat.

Marketing of natural intestine

casings: Poultry sausages (Fig. 4)

are often filled into natural intestine

casings of other species. These

casings must be specified in the

ingredient list with the animal

species they are from.

Technological aspects

Ahigh percentage of the poultry

meat produced today is industrially

processed. Numerous, primarily

medium-sized companies are

active in this expanding field. In

addition to mechanical processes

like grinding and mixing, and

thermal processes like heating and

cooling, there are also various

processes for using this proteinrich

raw material like emulsifying,

extruding, deep frying, freezing,

breading (wet/dry) and separating.

In processing poultry meat, as in

food production in general, it is

important to use natural and

financial resources economically

while making products that taste

good and are nutritious.

Use of additives

Additives are substances added to

foods in small amounts to achieve

Fig. 3: “Fat-reduced chicken salami with vegetable fat, classic, smoked”–

Promotion of vegetable fat in poultry meat products

or improve certain properties. They

are used to get positive effects on

manufacture, storage, processing or

product properties. Additives expand

the product range and improve

consumer criteria like appearance,

flavor and texture. Today’s

varied food offerings would be

unthinkable without them. Additives

do not include flavorings,

coatings, casings (not eaten with

the food) and processing aids that

do not have atechnological effect in

the final product (Fig. 5).

Today it is often not easy for

producers of meat and sausage

products to identify the right combination

of additives. However,

there are specialist companies that

can help with this. They offer:

r Exact knowledge of the worldwide

raw material market

r Supply security through good,

established contacts

r Supply of standardized quality


r Help with improvement of

recipes of existing products.

As arule, the use of targeted

multifunctional compounds offers

more advantages than does the use

of separate single ingredients,

including higher functionality

through the use of synergies between

the compound components,

as well as cost benefits. This makes

the involvement of ingredient

specialists beneficial in the development

of new recipes.

Additives are regulated by EUwide

law.The EFSA (European

Food Safety Authority) examines

all additives at the European level.

Scientific advice and assistance are

generally rendered by the German

Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

(BfR) in Berlin. The international

FAO/WHO Expert Committee

on Food Additives (JECFA) also

does safety evaluations. Only

additives that are tested and rated

by the EU Commission as technically

necessary receive approval

and are assigned an E-number.

Since 20 January 2010 all additives

used for technical reasons

have been regulated by European

Directive (EU) 1333/2008. The

heart of the directive is Appendix

II, the list of additives approved for

use in foods, along with the conditions

for their use. Directive (EU)

1333/2008 goes by the principle of

“prohibit, with the right to permit.”

Fig. 4:“Organic –Chicken sausage in premium quality”–

In German the declaration “bio” stands for organic. The usage of “bio” has to

follow specific regulations.

Fig. 5: From individual ingredients with individual effects to multi-effect

stabilization systems –Overview of individual components in stabilization

systems for poultry products Photo: Hydrosol

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


High growth rates



1. OPLAAT, G.-J. (2017): Geflügel in den

Niederlanden nach wie vor beliebt. Fleischwirtschaft

97 (3), 28–29. –2.WEBER,H.

(2016): Mix aus Tradition und Innovation.

Aktuelle Trends bei Zusatzstoffen und

Gewürzen –Entdeckt auf der IFFA 2016 –

Teil 2. Fleischwirtschaft 96 (12), 33–36. –

3. WINDHORST,H.-W. (2017): Die Erzeugung

wird weiter ansteigen. Fleischwirtschaft

97 (5), 24–28.

Fig. 6: “Chicken nuggets made of finelychopped formed chicken meat ,breaded and fried”

Information on the processing of poultrymeat, provided that the product is joined together from smaller pieces of meat.

Accordingly,only the listed additives

can be used, and only for the

purposes specified (positive listing).

Currently,substances allowing a

“clean label”are in great demand.

Here again, specialist sources such

as Hydrosol can help manufacturers

switch to clean labels by bringing

the desired properties of the

final product into alignment with

the desired declaration.

They know many possible raw

material alternatives and can

advise on them. In addition, they

know what is permitted outside


Stabilising systems

With the use of additives in poultry

products, amarket that is interesting

from the technical point of view

has come up, which is profiting

from the growth of the poultry


Understanding the way each

component works is the key to

quality products. Additives often

interact to create synergy effects.

These effects can be used to improve

product quality.Insuch

cases, one and one are more than


Shelf life, texture, stability,flavor

and economy -almost all the properties

of poultry products can be

improved through the targeted

interaction of ingredients, in the

economy as well as premium segments.

Major applications and

product examples for stabilizing

systems are:

Injection brine for fresh meat: For

all uncooked full muscle tissue

products, fresh or frozen, e.g. entire

carcasses and parts (breast, wings,

legs), including marinated or

breaded, such as (full muscle)

kebab, grilling meat and cordon


Restructured cooked cured products

for eating cold: such as smoked

sliced turkey breast, chicken ham,

poultry roll roast etc.

Formed products of restructured

fresh meat: mostly for eating hot,

like nuggets,(Fig. 6) burgers/patties,

cevapcici, (ground meat) kebab


Hotdogs /emulsified products: like

poultry wieners, fine bratwurst,

meat sausage etc.

In addition to functional salts,

flavourings, functional lipids and

enzymes, the components in stabilizing

systems are:

r Hydrocolloids with thickening

and gelling properties like carrageen,

carob gum, guar,pectin,

dextrin and alginate. The latter

are produced from algae as

alginic acid salts.

r Proteins of animal or plant

origin provide the body with

essential amino acids and have

functional properties. The criteria

for the use of plant-based

proteins include sensory quality,

technical suitability,allergenic

potential, local production, and

freedom from genetically modified

organisms (GMO) (Weber,


r Emulsifiers based on mono- and

diglycerides. These support the

formation of oil-in-water emulsions

and provide acreamy


r Special starches, chemically,

physically or enzymatically modified.

Physically and enzymatically

modified starches are considered

foods under food law.However,

chemically modified starches are

considered E-numbered additives.

r Fiber/roughage is an important

part of nutrition, occurs in many

different plant-derived foods,

and can also be used to give

texture. There are water-soluble

and non-water-soluble varieties

available on the market.

Herbert Weber

is aretired professor.Until

April 2015 he taught food and

packaging technology at the

Beuth University of Applied

Sciences Berlin and was alecturer at the

University of Hohenheim. He is co-founder of

the ifp Institut für Produktqualität GmbH in

Berlin. Prior to his academic career, as a

butcher and food technologist he worked in

the seasoning and additive industry.Today

he remainsactive as aSenior Consultant.

Author’s address

Prof. Dr.Herbert Weber, Stahlackerweg 3,

73733 Esslingen, dr.web@t-online.de



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Industry News

SuperMeat /PHW

"Clean" chicken on the rise

The Israeli food-tech start-up SuperMeat

from TelAviv has joined

forces with one of Europe’slargest

poultry producers, PHW ,headquartered

at Visbek, Germany, establishing

itself as asignificant contender

in the global shift towards labgrown

clean chicken. The recent

seed round was led by US-based

venture capital fund New Crop

Capital and VC firm Stray Dog Capital

with both firms saying they are

openlycommitted to investing in

more sustainable food systems. This

funding comes on the heels of a

wildlysuccessful Indiegogo campaign

which raised $230,000 in

pre-orders for SuperMeat’s clean

meat products. “Clean” meat is

produced by growing cells that have

been painlesslyextracted from a

chicken. The cells are then grown in

conditions that allow them to thrive.

According to Oxford and Amsterdam

Universities, switching to clean

meat will allow for areduction of up

to 98% in greenhouse gas emissions,

99% in land exploitation, and

up to 96% in water usage. With the

recentlysecured funding, the company

expects to bring its clean

chicken products to market in the

very near future, at aprice point

similar to the conventional chicken

products currentlyavailable on store

shelves. “WeatPHW have time and

Astart-up partnered with one of

the largest poultry producers.

Photo: SuperMeat

again left the beaten path in conducting

our business. This approach

not onlyfacilitates the development

of best-in-class animal welfare

concepts in our core poultry business

but will also lead to the

strengthening of our vegan product

portfolio, confirming our leading role

in the global consumer trend towards

acleaner, more protein-rich

diet,” said PHW-Gruppe's CEO Peter

Wesjohann. “Weare proud to partner

with atop-tier meat producer like

PHW; this partnership will enable us

to bring to market arevolutionary

new generation of tasty, sustainable

meat products throughout Europe

and beyond.” said Ido Savir, cofounder

and CEO of SuperMeat.



More AI outbreaks reported in Asia

In Iraq, H5N8 struck again on a

commercial farm near the Baghdad

metropolitan area, according to a

report from the World Organization

for Animal Health (OIE).

It began on 8February, killing

13,240 of 29,000 susceptible birds.

The survivors were culled to control

the spread of the virus. The country

has been battling H5N8 since early

January and the latest detection

marks Iraq's sixth H5N8 outbreak

this year.Other countries in the

region have also reported recent

H5N8 detections, including Saudi

Arabia and Israel. Afghanistan also

recentlyreported highlypathogenic

H5 outbreaks, though no information

is available yet on the subtype. Elsewhere

in the region, media reports

from Iran say authorities have culled

about 25 mill. birds because of avian

flu outbreaks, though the reports

didn't note the subtype, and no

reports have appeared recentlyin

OIE notifications. One account, from

the DailySabah, quoting the head of

the Tehran Chicken and Egg Association,

said the number of poultry

destroyed equals 40% of Iran's

poultry.Earlier this month, Iran

reported the Middle East's first

detection of H5N6 avian flu, in an

outbreak among wild ducks in Gilan

province in the northern part of the

country.InAsian developments,

The AI virus killed lots of birds in

serveral Asian countries.

Photo: Dieter Schütz/pixelio.de

Cambodia's agriculture ministry

reported another H5N1outbreak,

this time in backyard poultry in

Mondolkiri in the country's east near

the border with Vietnam, according

to a9February report from the OIE.

On January 30, the poultry owner

reported that 14 of 60 were sick with

clinical signs, and samples from two

that died were sent for testing,

which on 1February confirmed H5N1.

All birds at the location were culled.

Cambodia has now reported five

H5N1outbreaks since December, but

the latest event is the first in Mondolkiri.

Meanwhile, South Korea

reported another H5N6 outbreak in

South Chungcheong province in the

west central part of the country.


Hong Kong

Poultry from Afghanistan banned

The Centre for Food Safety (CFS) of

the Food and Environmental Hygiene

Department from Hong Kong has

recentlyannounced the ban on all

imports of poultry meat and eggs

from Afghanistan. The authorities

from Hong Kong have imposed this

restriction after receiving anotification

from the World Organisation for

Animal Health (OIE) about outbreaks

of highlypathogenic H5 avian influenzainAfghanistan.


spokesman said in astatement that

since Hong Kong has not established

any protocol with Afghanistan

for imports of poultry meat and

eggs, there is no import of such

commodities from the country.The

CFS has contacted the Afghan

authorities over the issue and will

closelymonitor information issued

CFS had banned poultry meat and

eggs from Afghanistan.

Photo: pixabay

by the OIE on avian influenzaoutbreaks.

Appropriate action will be

taken in response to the development

of the situation.



First AI case this winter reported

Japan’sagriculture ministry reported

asuspected case of bird flu

in the Kagawa prefecture, western

Japan, potentiallymarking the

country’sfirst bird flu outbreak in

poultry this winter.

The ministry said chickens at a

farm in the area of Sanuki city in

Kagawa tested positive in apreliminary

examination on for highly

pathogenic avian influenza(HPAI).

The government may order all

100,000 chickens at the farm to be

culled if the results of genetic tests

confirm the infection later in the

day.The farm in question had notified

the prefectural government of

asuspected bird flu outbreak in the

morning, saying that atotal of 55

chickens in apoultry shed had died.

Japan’slast outbreak of bird flu

Japan reported this year‘s first

outbreak of AI in January.

Photo: pixabay

occurred in March. Between November

2016 and March 2017,atotal of

1.67 mill. chickens were culled due

to the H5N6 strain of bird flu.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


MarelPoultry from Boxmeer, the

Netherlands, is one of the proven

global market leadersinpoultry

processing solutions. During the last

time the company has launched

many innovations. All of them were

designed to make life easier for

processors and add value to their

processes. The company has developed

the integrated Automated

Nugget Line to facilitatemachinedriven

whole muscle nugget production.

The system consists of an

I-Cut 122which cuts filletsinto

strips. Next in line is the SingleFeed

to singulatethe strips. The brand

new StripPositioner plays acrucial

role in the process; it rotates incoming

strips 90 °and spaces them

appropriatelysothey are in the

perfectposition for the second

I-Cut 122. This portion cutter will then

take care of optimized nugget portioning.

This automated cubing

solution saves considerable labor.

The I-Cut 122PortionCutter combines

high levels of accuracy, throughput

and reliability with innovative software.

The dual-lane cutter cuts

boneless, non-frozen poultry products

to fixed weight and/oruniform

dimensions, while give-away is kept

to an absolute minimum. It will match

future requirements for filleting line

capacities. On each lane, the knife

ring angle can be adjusted. Numerous

new cutting patternsand good

accuracy levels enable processorsto

maximize the use of raw materials,

minimize give-away and increase

yield. The advanced vision control

technology on the I-Cut 122combined

with the portioning software

results in accuratecutting. The

companyalso launched its Stork

Atlas live bird handling system in the

USA. The complete configuration

features destacking, washing and

restacking, but the heart of the

system is the technologicallyadvanced

SmartStack module, which

not onlygives high attention to

animal welfare but also increases

efficiency significantly. Whileproviding

more space to each bird,the

cleverlydesigned SmartStack increases

loading capacity, which

means fewer truck movements and

therefore less CO2 emission. By

upholding food safety and preventing

cross-contamination, the handling

system also sets new standards in

hygiene. At Marel Poultry’sIPPE

booth, the Atlas showcase was

combined with aCAS SmoothFlow

controlled atmosphere stunning

application,showing the harmonious

integrationofboth solutions. Another

firstfor the USA is the brand new

MHW Medium. It’s the latest, largest

and smartest member of Marel’s

multihead weigher family.Featuring

20 heads, it can be used for fresh,

sticky poultry parts into fixed-weight

batches. The MHW Medium is particularlyfit

for the US market, as it can

batch bigger breast fillets, thighs,

drumsticks, wings, tenderloins and

nuggets. The new screw design

Industry News

Marel Poultry

Making life easier for processors and adding value to processes

ensure correct singulation; products

cannot stick to each other.With only

one product in each hopper, it is

much easier to make perfectfixedweight

batches, resulting in fewer

rejectsand higher throughput.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Unhygienic meat processing poses risks

The government of Ghana will develop acomprehensive and harmonized sanitation reporting system

Sanitation, environmental health

and human health are closely

inter-linked. The impacts of environmental

degradation on human

health are critical issues of sustainable

development. Rapid urbanisation,

climate change, globalization,

air pollution, poverty and

inequity are key concerns for environmental

health practitioners.

By Seth Nuamahand


According to the World Health

Organization (WHO, 2012),

sanitation generally refers to the

provision of facilities and services

for the safe disposal of human

urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation

is amajor cause of disease

world-wide and improving sanitation

is known to have asignificant

beneficial impact on health both in

households and across communities.

The word ‘sanitation’ also

refers to the maintenance of hygienic

conditions, through services

such as garbage collection and

wastewater disposal.

The United Nations (UN) came

up with sustainable development

goal 3(SDG 3) to ensure healthy

lives and promote well-being for all

at all ages. Ensuring healthy lives

and promoting the well-being for all

at all ages is essential to sustainable

development. Significant strides

have been made in increasing life

expectancy and reducing some of

the common killers associated with

child and maternal mortality.Major

progress has been made on increas-

Fig. 2: Animals to be slaughterd are often kept at car tires.

Fig. 1: Jamestown fishing village is located directlyatthe east of the Korle Lagoon.

ing access to clean water and sanitation,

reducing malaria, tuberculosis,

polio and the spread of HIV/

AIDS. However,many more efforts

are needed to fully eradicate awide

range of diseases and address many

different persistent and emerging

health issues. One of the targets of

goal 3istosubstantially reduce the

number of deaths and illnesses

from hazardous chemicals and air,

water and soil pollution and contamination

by 2030, yet achieving

goal 3will be very hard for some

countries since the capacity of all

countries, in particular developing

countries, for early warning, risk

reduction and management of

national and global health risks has

not completely been strengthened

(UN, 2015).

Goal 6ofthe SDGs also ensures

access to water and sanitation for

all. Clean, accessible water for all is

an essential part of the world we

want to live in. There is sufficient

fresh water on the planet to achieve

this. Butdue to bad economics or

poor infrastructure, every year

millions of people, most of them

children, die from diseases associated

with inadequate water supply,

sanitation and hygiene. Water

scarcity,poor water quality and

inadequate sanitation negatively

impact food security,livelihood

choices and educational opportunities

for poor families across the

world. Until today about 1.8bn.

people globally use asource of

drinking water that is faecally

contaminated (UN, 2015).

Goal 12 of the SDG is to ensure

sustainable consumption and

production patterns. Sustainable

consumption and production is

about promoting resource and

energy efficiency,sustainable

infrastructure, and providing

access to basic services, green and

decent jobs and abetter quality of

life for all. Its implementation

helps to achieve overall development

plans, reduce future economic,

environmental and social

costs, strengthen economic competitiveness

and reduce poverty.

Reducing resource use, degradation

and pollution along the whole

life cycle, while increasing quality

of life is part of the aims of the goal

(UN 2015).

The goal above cannot be

achieved without involving stakeholders

such business, consumers,

policy makers, researchers, scientists,

retailers, media, and development

cooperation agencies, among

others. In Ghana it will require a

systemic approach and cooperation

among actors operating in the

meat supply chain, from producer

to final consumer.Meat processors

and consumers have to be engaged

through awareness-raising and

education on sustainable consumption

and lifestyles, providing

consumers with adequate information

through standards and labels.

Goal 14 of the SDG is to conserve

and sustainably use the

oceans, sea and marine resources.

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018



Our rainwater,drinking water,

weather,climate, coastlines, much

of our food, and even the oxygen in

the air we breathe, are all ultimately

provided and regulated by

the sea. Careful management of

this essential global resource is a

key feature of asustainable future.

Butthe question is, are we managing

the seas very well. There is a

strong relationship between food,

water and health. The food and the

water that we take in as humans

support good human health and

enhance health potential but it can

also be akey factor influencing ill

health. Food and water are essential

requirements for living but a

large number of diseases are

caused by consumption of contaminated

water and food.

Many development countries

such as Ghana do not have enough

access to modern abattoirs and

therefore slaughtering of livestock

and other farms animal meant for

human consumption are done in

the local way which is considered


Fig. 3: Slaughtering is often done directlyatthe sea.

Slaughter in Jamestown

in Accra

The main objective of this work is

to observe and create awareness for

the general public on the unhygienic

nature of meat processing at

certain slaughter houses in Accra

and to come out with some suggestions

that could reduce the risk they

pose to human health.

Jamestown in Accra was selected

for the purpose of the study.

It is located directly at the east of

the Korle Lagoon in Accra.

Jamestown emerged as acommunity

around the 17th century

(Wikipedia, 2013)and remains a

fishing community inhabited

primarily by the indigenous Ga.

NEILSON (2013)describes

Jamestown as vibrant, smelly,

noisy and sound-tracked by the

clatter of pans. Low corrugatediron

roofs stand over painted

shops, shacks and houses (Fig. 1).

Secondary data were collected

from relevant sources such as

scientific literature, text, statistical

bulletins, journal, articles and

publications using desk research.

The data was collected on the

following variables: practices to

ensure good hygiene practices at

slaughter houses, measures to

ensure high quality management

practices and problems associated

with slaughter houses. The secondary

data was complemented

with primary research. The primary

data was used specifically to

address some of the research

problems and they were collected

through face-to-face personal

interactions with meat processors,

traders at the slaughter houses and

physical observations by the authors.

Many already existing facts



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Unhygienic meat processing poses risks

including other non-documented

data were also collected through

personal interactions from those

involved in the meat supply chain.

The research lasted for aperiod

of six month. This very short time

period effects some limitations.

The bureaucratic attitudes by

some staffatthe slaughter houses

and the altitude some of the

traders was amajor obstacle in the

collection of more reliable data on

what goes on at the slaughter

house. Another constraint was the

lack of funds to support transportation

expenses during the

physical observation. The constraint

together with limited time

availability did not give the authors

enough evidence for more representative

conclusions to be made.

The study does not include any

observation of meat processing in

the modern much more hygienic

slaughter houses in Accra, Ghana.

Chaining of farm animals for days

before slaughtering

The animals shown in Figure 2

were brought there by their owners

to be sold to interested buyers.

Some of the animals, mostly sheep

and goats, were chained for long

hours to disposed vehicle tires to

prevent them from running away at

the site.

The animals feed, defecate and

relax at the same place. Some of

the animals were even found

sleeping on their own excreta.

Access to drinking water was hard

to find by the chained animals.

This means the owners of the

animals do not respect the rights of

the animals. The freedom to move

around to exercise their bodies was

not detected.

Fig. 4: Car tires are the raw material for smoking and roasting.

Slaughtering of farm animals along

the sea bank

Figure 3shows abutcher carrying

two dead goats from the slaughtering

site. The animals were killed

along the sea bank and their blood

is washed into the sea when it rains

thereby making it unhygienic for

some animals and other human

beings that depend on the sea


Smoking and roasting of

slaughtered animals with

vehicle tires

The animals killed at the site were

smoked and roasted with second

hand vehicle tires (Fig. 4).

Smoking and roasting of slaughtered

animals with the tires increases

air pollution and posses

health risk to those working there.

All the workers found at the site

were without nose mask and

protecting clothing meaning they

can easily absorb into their bodies

any toxic substances that comes

out as aresult of the burning of

the tires. Figure 4indicates smoking

and roasting of car animals

with tires.

It is estimated that close to 7,000

deaths of people occurred in Ghana

in 2013 because of outdoor air

pollution, with the economic cost of

premature deaths estimated at

$5 bn. (Daily Graphic, 2017). The

Accra metropolis is the hardest hit,

with the major sources of air pollution

being road dust, emissions

from vehicles, industrial processes

and open burning. Air pollution in

the metropolis is associated with

acute respiratory infections which

are normally on the increase during

the dry season (November to


Whiles the WHO limit for particulate

matter (with asize less than

10 microns) is 50 µg/m 3 and that of

the EPA pegged at 70 µg/m 3 ,Accra

was recording averagely between

100and 200µg/m 3 ,almost four

times the acceptable level (Daily

Graphic, 2017). Among the top 20

diseases in Ghana, respiratory

ailment is second to malaria. Acute

respiratory infections rank second

among the five top diseases in

Ghana (EPA, 2017).

Dressing of slaughtered farm

animals with polluted sea water

Washing of meat with dirty water

can give diseases especially when

the consumer doesn’t wash hands

before eating. It was discovered that

polluted sea water is fetched, transported

and used as the main source

of water for the washing and the

dressing the butchered animals.

Quite often meat processors are

dressing some of the slaughtered

animals with sea water directly at

the sea side. According to Ghana

News Agency (2012), $1.5mill. is

lost each year due to productivity

losses whilst $54 mill. is spent each

year on health care treating diarrhea

and its consequences for other

diseases like respiratory infections

and malaria. Approximately 13,900

Ghanaian adults and 5,100children

under five years die each year from

diarrhea. Nearly 90% of these

figures are directly attributed to

sanitation and water related problems.

Damping of refuse along

the sea bank

Alot of waste were found along the

sea bank where the farm animals

are slaughtered. Adirty environment

with refuse all over the place

can contribute to the spread of

diseases. Figure 5isanexample of

refuse burnt and damped along the

sea bank. Also farm animals eating

refused damped along the sea bank

were to be observed.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018



Flies, cockroaches, dogs, pigs,

fowls and other animals spend time

eating, breeding, easing at refuse

places and bring with them dirt

containing diseases to the community


Poor sanitation costs Ghana

420 mill. Cedis each year,which is

equivalent to $290 mill. (WSP,

2012). In the city of Accra for

instance, poor sanitation resulting

from domestic waste water,solid

waste and overcrowding are contributory

factors to pollution and

poor environmental health conditions.

These in turn impact negatively

on economic development

and public health. Accra generates

about 1,500 tofsolid waste

per day of which only about 55%

is collected and disposed (EPA,


in the open (WSP, 2012). Sanitation

is acornerstone of public

health (WHO/UNICEF, 2010)

because improved sanitation

contributes enormously to human

health and well being. Forexample,

achievable sanitation interventions

can help to reduce the risk of

contracting diarrheal disease by a

third (WHO/UNICEF, 2010).

Using proper toilets and hand

washing –preferably with soap –

prevents the transfer of bacteria,

viruses and parasites found in

human excreta which otherwise

contaminate water sources, soil

and food. This is amajor cause of

diarrhea, the second biggest killer

of children in developing countries,

and leads to other major

diseases such as cholera, schistosomiasis

and trachoma.

Suggestions to improve

the hygiene and sanitation


The challenges observed during the

field observation can effectively

mitigated by effectively implementing

anumber of strategies to improve

the situation discussed in the

next sub-sections.

Good and effective national

policies on hygiene and sanitation

The Government of Ghana together

with the Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA) and the Ministry of

Environment, Science and Technol-


Damping of human excreta

in the sea

Human excreta were discovered

been damped into the part of the

sea which is not very far from

where the farm animals are slaughtered.

Sanitation is about waste disposal

and management of sanitation

facilities such as toilets, sewers,

waste water treatment plants,

latrines and septic tanks. Sanitation

continues to remain one of the key

health issues in the developing

world and Ghana in particular.Itis

estimated that, 82% of Ghanaians

lack access to improved sanitation

(BENSAH et al.,2010). Water quality

is affected by its sources and contamination

from biotic and abiotic

factors as aresult of either dissolved

nutrient or deposition of urine of

fecal material containing nutrients

and possible parasites. Apredictable

factor that can reduce

palatability of water for animals is

fecal contamination. Cattle for

example can decrease in weight

when they drink from polluted

water (WALTER et al. 2002). Figure 6

indicates how human excreta is

released into the parts of the sea at

the study location.

Polluted water can cause diseases

such as diarrhea, dysentery,

cholera, intestinal worms, Guinea

worms, bilharzia and typhoid fever

especially if you drink it, if you

wade through it, if you swim in it or

if you use it to wash your body.

Out of Ghana’s total population

of 24.2 mill., 16 mill. use unsanitary

or shared latrines and 4.8 mill.

have no latrines at all and defecate


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Unhygienic meat processing poses risks

ogy (MEST) should come out with

effective policies that will prohibit

any entity from damping waste into

the sea. A policy that will also control

the operation in abattoirs in a

hygienic manner.The Metropolitan,

Municipal and Districts Assemblies

(MMDAs) should be equipped

to be operation in monitoring any

activity on the environment that

causes danger to the human beings

and its surrounding. The Waste

Management Department of each

district assembly should be made

responsible for inspection and

monitoring. The law enforcement

agencies within the county should

see to the enforcement of bye-laws

in an attempt to safeguard public

health. Imposing afine on those

who dirty the environment with

refuse will be an added advantage.

Prevention of dislodging of faecal

waste into the sea

All the waste management companies

must be prevented from damping

fecal waste in to the sea. This

practise is not hygienic for some

aquatic and terrestrial animals

especially livestock that depend on

the sea for their source of water.

Unsafe drinking water,inadequate

availability of water for maintaining

good hygienic conditions and lack of

access to sanitation facilities together

contribute to about 88% of deaths

from diarrheal diseases. Worldwide,

millions of people are infected with

neglected tropical diseases (NTDs),

many of which are water and/or

hygiene-related, such as guinea

worm disease, buruli ulcer,trachoma,

and schistosomiasis. These

diseases are most often found in

places with unsafe drinking water,

poor sanitation, and insufficient

hygiene practices (WHO, 2006). Two

and ahalf billion people around the

world do not have access to clean

toilets. Diarrheal diseases kill someone

every 20 seconds. More people

die from poor sanitation than

measles, malaria, and HIV/AIDS

combined (Caltech, 2012).

Recycle or reuse of waste to

prevent indiscriminate disposal

Establishment of waste recycling

facilities can bring about reduction,

re-use, recycling and recovery of

waste. Blood for example is about

3–5% of the complete weight of a

slaughter animal and could be used

in the best case as araw material for

pet food instead of been thrown away

(NUAMAH,2013). The faecal waste

Fig. 5: Burnt refused are damped at the roasting site along the sea.

could also be used to produce organic

fertilizers to support plant growth.

Provision of improved

toilet facilities

Provision of improved toilet facilities

in Jamestown will reduce the

act of open defecation along the sea

banks at Jamestown, Accra. Inadequate

access to toilet facilities is

compelling people to practice open

defecation. More than one billion

people are forced to practice open

defecation around the world and

this is causing diseases such as

cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, polio,

diarrhea, worm infestation, reduced

physical growth, impaired cognitive

functions, and undernutrition.

Open defecation is one of the clearest

indications of the global sanitation

crisis and ending it can help to

reduce hospital visits, child death

and missed school days. Forexample,

according to the United Nations

(2015), for every minute about

1.1 mill. liters of human excrement

enters the river Ganges and children

drink water that has mixed

with their neighbor’s faeces every

day.Two andahalf billion people

Fig. 6: Human excreta are directlydamped into the sea.

live without access to improved

sanitation facilities, 1bn. currently

defecate in the open and 748 mill.

live without safe drinking water.

Improved sanitation and hygiene

conditions drive good health, socioeconomic

development and contribute

to acleaner and healthy

environment. Lack of access to

sanitation, including the practice of

open defecation costs the world’s

poorest countries about $260 bn. a

year.Figure 7indicates the percentage

of people without access to

improved sanitation in the world

while Figure 8shows the global

costs of inadequate sanitation.

Almost 520,000 children under

five die from diarrheal diseases

every year due to alack of safe

water,sanitation and basic hygiene.

Inadequate hygienic and sanitation

facilities and clean water is making

it difficult for Ghana and most

developing countries to achieve

development goals, like maternal

and child health, education, gender

equality and ending extreme

poverty and hunger.The World

Bank (2013)indicates that hygiene

is the most cost-effective health

intervention available because it has

the ability to significantly reduce

extreme poverty.Goodsanitation

and hygiene practices are vital for

human health; they help to reduce

morbidity and mortality rates and

minimize the spread of diseases.

Forevery dollar spent on eliminating

open defecation in rural areas,

approximately $6 of economic

gains are generated. Likewise,

providing universal access to basic

sanitation at home will return $3

for every dollar spent (UNEP, 2015).

Proper education and

understanding of hygiene

The World Bank (2013)describes

hygiene and sanitation promotion

as abroader concept than hygiene

education. Hygiene education is

concerned with teaching people

about how diseases spread; for

example through the unsafe disposal

of excreta or by not washing

your hands with soap after defecation.

The entire Ghanaian population

should be made to understand

the importance and the health

benefit of proper hygiene. Hygiene

programmes should be introduced

as acompulsory syllabus in all

basics schools. The syllabus should

provide opportunities to teach

about dirt and diseases and what

can practically be done to improve

health through better sanitation

and hygiene practices. Schools may

be better places for enforcing certain

good environmental health

behaviors in children than the

home. Improving sanitation facilities

and promoting hygiene in

schools benefit both learning and

the health of children. Nevertheless,

hygiene promotion in schools

should not solely rely on teaching

and enforcing certain habits. Re-




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Unhygienic meat processing poses risks

Source: Source: The World Bank (2013) FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

Fig. 7: Most people in Africa have no access to improved sanitation.

search has shown that children will

more willingly change behavior if

they are having fun and if they are

following their peers. Imitation is

one of the most successful forms of

learning. Hence, young children

will look to their elder brothers and

sisters or to older school friends to

adopt new behaviors and life skills.

When developing and implementing

school sanitation and hygiene

programmes, several key issues

need to be kept in mind (World

Bank, 2013).

Also the government should

assist in organizing adult education

on hygiene and sanitation for all

those who cannot read and write.

This will help so that people don’t

dispose refuse at unauthorized


Source: Source: The World Bank (2013) FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

Fig. 8: Inadequate sanitation results in high costs.

Awareness raising campaigns on

hygiene through the media

Public hygiene education through

the media (television, radio, newspapers)

and other social media

platforms such as Facebook, Whatsapp,

Instagram and Twitter can

make people adopt better hygiene

and sanitation. Non-governmental

organiszations in the environmental

sector in Ghana constitute a

major stakeholder for advocating

hygiene and sanitation training,

improved environmental health

conditions and sustainable development.

Together with the media, they

can ensure growth and survival of

society through the dissemination

of relevant information to highlight

hygiene and sanitation issues

through talk shows on radio and

television, conferences as well as


Capacitating Sanitary

Inspectors to do proper work

The Ghanaian Ministry of Local

Government and Rural Development

(MLGRD) is mandated to

implement effective environmental

health sanitation (through

Sanitary Inspectors), dissemination

of sanitary information (hygiene

education) and vector control

(FRIED,2012). Sanitary Inspectors

in Ghana must be well

equipped with assets such as

motorbikes and smart phones so

that they could move around easily

to monitor any activity that results

in improper disposal of waste into

the environment. It will help the

government to at least develop a

comprehensive and harmonized

sanitation reporting system that

may allow stakeholders to draw

and simultaneously feedback

information that is applicable to

their work in sanitation project

design, implementation and policy



Literature references can be requested

from the corresponding author or the

editorial office, respectively.

Seth Nuamah

Seth Nuamah is areturnee

expert from Ghana. He holds

several degrees from

Universities in Ghana and

Germany.Hehas also taken further courses

such as EU Project Management, HACCP,

Quality Management and Marketing for

Organic Agricultural Commodities.

Francis Obeng

is alecturer in the Environmental

Management and

Technology Department at

the Koforidua Technical

University in Koforidua, Ghana.

Author’s adresses

Seth Nuamah (corresponding author:

nuamahseth@yahoo.co.uk), OAK Avenue 12,

East Legon, Accra, C/o P. O. Box DS 545,

Dansoman, Accra, Ghana, and Francis Obeng

(kwasibeng@yahoo.co.uk), Lecturer,

Environmental Management and Technology

Department, Koforidua Technical University,

P.O. Box KF 981Koforidua, Ghana.

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018 69

Industry News

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Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Probiotic meats –scope and challenges

Fermented products provide an adequate environment for the growth and survival of probiotic microbiota

Novel food products developments

for special health uses, also called

functional foods are the today’s

consumers’ demand. Functional

foods are those which have beneficial

effects on human’s health

beyond nutrition. Their effects

might be due to the addition of

active ingredients, the removal or

the replacement of undesirable

compounds in its composition

(ERKKILA et al., 2001).Among the

different types of functional foods,

probiotics represent alarge share of

the functional food market in the

world, being used mainly in dairy

beverages, cereal products, infant

formulas, fruit juices and ice


By Devendra Kumar

Ifwelook into the world’s scenario,

meat and meat products

play an important role in human

nutrition and many represent the

major component of the typical

daily diet in some regions. Therefore,

the demand for new products

has greatly influenced its development,

especially for sausage type

products. However,lately,those

meat products are considered

unhealthy by apart of the population

because of their fat content and

the use of additives and spices in

their formulation. Therefore, the

addition of probiotics to processed

meat products (Fig. 1) could promote

the health benefits associated

with lactic acid bacteria and contribute

to the increase in the consumption

of such products. The main

technological problem of meat

matrices is that the probiotic/lactic

acid bacteria may be inactivated due

to the high content of curing salt,

low pH and low water activity (aw).

On one hand, processed meat

products which are not generally

heated before consumption might

support growth and survival of

probiotic bacteria. The inherent

microbial flora of raw meat may

create serious problem in minimally

processed meat products. A

class of meat products such as dry

and semi-dry sausages and intermediate

moisture meat products

are also not suitable for supporting

Fig. 1: The addition of probiotics to fermented meat products could promote the health benefits associated with lactic acid

bacteria, which are the main flora of this category.

growth and/or maintenance of

organisms unless they are protected

by some means. Application of

suitable technologies to protect the

probiotic bacteria before addition in

to processed meat products would

be another alternative for effective

delivery of probiotics to the consumers

through meat products.

There is aurgent need for developing

meat based probiotic products

to fulfill consumer’s needs for

modern meat and meat products.

Because probiotic bacteria have also

been widely recognized to have

health benefits to the consumers

such as effects on immunological

functions, aiding in digestion, as

well as protection against pathogenic

bacteria such as Salmonella

Typhimurium, Helicobacter pylori,

and Escherichia coli.Other functions

of probiotics include improvement

of lactose intolerance, decreasing

cholesterol levels, treatment of

Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis,

IBS, and replenishment of intestinal

flora after an antibiotic therapy

to prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.

Therefore, while producing

probiotic meat products, one

should consider the appropriateness

of the probiotic cultures to the

target consumer,the intestinal

functionality expected for the probiotic

species, the rate of survival of

probiotic during food processing

and the need of maintenance in the

probiotic product of the same

sensory attributes that characterize

the regular product (Fig. 2).

What are probiotics?

According to FAO (2001),probiotics

are “live microorganisms which

when administered in adequate

amounts confer ahealth benefit on

the host”. The main species of

bacteria used in probiotic formulations

are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium

spp., which are classified as

facultative anaerobic to anaerobic

bacteria and therefore require an

oxygen-free environment for

growth and maintenance.

Characteristics of

ideal probiotics

Certain characteristics of probiotic

bacteria are unique and need to be

fulfilled by the strain of bacteria to

be called as probiotic. Abasic

schematic detailing the properties

of an ideal probiotic bacteria are

depicted in Figure 3.

Health benefits of probiotics

Probiotics must be able to exert

their benefits on the host through

growth and/or activity in the human

body (COLLINS et al., 1998;

MORELLI,2000). Anumber of

health effects are associated with

usage of probiotics. Examples have

been listed below which are the

outcome of clinical studies through

illustrated studies on specific

strains by different researchers.

r Prevention of diarrhea caused by

certain pathogenic bacteria and


r Effective in control of Helicobacter

pylori infection and complications

r Inflammatory diseases and bowel


r Cancer

r Constipation

r Mucosal immunity

r Allergy


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018



r Cardiovascular diseases

r Urogenital tract infection

r Autism

Probiotic delivery systems

Foreffective delivery of probiotics

to the gastrointestinal system,

many systems have been developed

which include both conventional

pharmaceutical systems and nonconventional

commercial products.

These commercial formulations

consist mainly of food-based products,

many of which use probiotic

bacteria in their production with

others having added these bacteria

as an adjunctive health benefi


ingesting the product. These products

account for 90% of probiotic

formulations and with the large

amount of research into improvement

of commercial food-based

products for delivery of functional

probiotic bacteria, their ability to act

as probiotic delivery systems cannot

be ignored. Non-conventional

probiotic formulations range from

cheeses, yogurts, creams, chocolates,

milk, and meat products to

others. Due to their easy availability

and convenience, these non-conventional

probiotic formulations

have become very popular as excellent

probiotic delivery systems.

There are many challenges that

exist in delivery of probiotics in

both the pharmaceutical and commercial

products include lack of

protection in the harsh gastric

environment, delivery of inadequate

amounts of viable bacteria at

the time of administration, delivery

of the incorrect strains of probiotic

bacteria as well as little protection

against the concurrent delivery of

antibiotics. Studies have shown that

at least 10 8 –10 9 viable cells must

reach the intestine for health benefi

ts to be achieved for the consumer.

To achievethistarget the processor

must take care of the survival and

maintenance of required number of

bacterial population up to the end

of the shelf life of the products. If

the food matrices do not favor the

growth and maintenance of target

organism, one must apply asuitable

technique to protect the organ-

Source: Kumar FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

Fig. 2: All parametershave to aim at the delivery of probiotics in the final product.

isms. Coatingorencapsulation

might be suitably applied in such

conditions. The Tablegive an overview

about the probiotic delivery

systems in meat products.

Meat products as potential

carrier of probiotic bacteria

Forthe effif cient transfer of probiotic

bacteria through meat and

meat products into the human



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Probiotic meats -scope and challenges

gastrointestinal tract, the finished

products should not be heated or

only amild heat application is

allowed before consumption. In

such cases ready-to-eat meat products

(RTE) will be the best option to

deliver probiotics. The probiotic

culture should be well-adapted to

the conditions in fermented meat

products like hams, loins or

sausages and should become dominant

in the final products which

contain the high natural inherent

microbiota. However,the low pH

and water activity (aw), and high

content of curing salt creates a

potential negative impact of the

meat environment on the cell

viability which must be taken into

account during the acidification

and drying process. It is much

more difficult to produce probiotic

meat products than other probiotic

products. The reasons might be the

raw material, ingredients and

processing technique applied which

may not support survival of probiotic

strains. Therefore, it is always

advised to screen isolates for probiotic

properties from starter cultures

used for the production of fermented

meat products.

Lactobacilli are the most important

bacteria in meat fermentation

because of their ability to provide

rapid and effective fermentation

and acidification, thus preserving

the sausages from the development

of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

Therefore, they are often used as

starters in many fermented meat

products. Combining probiotic

potential and technological performance

of Lactobacillus strains

would lead to interesting probiotic

starters for use in novel meat products.

Alternatively,the probiotic

human isolates having proven

health benefits may also be

screened in meat environment for

their functionalities. In addition to

the acid producing nature of strains

of Lactobacilli, it shows avery

complex proteolytic and lipolytic

system for their growth and metabolism

which could also affect the

stability and sensory quality of

finished products. It is also reported

that in very harsh conditions,

many strains of Lactobacillus

produce different metabolites

which may not be desirable for food

quality meat products.

RUIZ-MOYANO et al. (2011)reported

that use of apotential probiotic

L. fermentum HL57 strain

increased the amount of malonaldehyde

in Iberian dry-fermented

sausages resulting in an unattractive

color and taste due to hydrogen

peroxide formation. The hydrogen

peroxide can also react with myoglobin

(Fe 2+ )yielding ferrylmyoglobin

(Fe 4+ )which acts as aprooxidant

on lipids. Therefore, agood

idea to prevent the oxidative effect

of H2O2 may be to add an antioxidant

with the probiotic strain.

WOJCIAK et al. (2012)suggest that

probiotic strains L. casei LOCK 0900

and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK

0919 can be used as ingredients

during the curing of pork meat. The

addition of these probiotic strains to

pork meat samples significantly

reduces pH values not only in the

meat stuffing but also in finally

cooked meat products during their

whole storage. Asample cured with

probiotic bacteria at 4°Cfor 24 h

was more effective in protecting the

red color of meat because of its

reductive activity (low redox potential

value, low TBARS value), delayed

lipid oxidation and delayed

discoloration over 30 days of storage

in comparison to asample

without probiotic strains.

Quality and safety of probiotic

meat products

When probiotic products are manufactured

using different probiotic

strains, the one objective as the low

pH of meat products is achieved,

simultaneously,the maintenance of

the required number of bacteria in

the products becomes out most

important to get intended health

benefits. Sometimes it is believed

that fat present in meat mixtures

encapsulates the bacteria naturally

and protect them from harsh conditions.

pH changes are also achallenge

for the survival of probiotics

in fermented meat products. pH



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018



Source: Kumar FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

Fig. 3: Certain characteristics of bacterianeed to be fulfilled to be calledasprobiotic.

reduced from 5.6 to 4.9 after fermentation

limited the survival of

probiotics (L. rhamnosus GG and

E-97800) in the fermented sausage

over the entire fermentation and

ripening process (ERKKILA et al.,

2001).Curingagents such as

sodium nitrite are added to the

meat batter for preservation. The

potential of probiotic bacteria to

resist this compound is one of the

challenges faced in meat fermentation.

ARIHARA and ITOH (2000)

reported that L. gasseri was able to

grow better than L. acidophilus, L.

crispatus, L. amylovorus, L. gallinarum

and L. johnsonii in meat

containing 2.5% NaCl and 5ppm

sodium nitrite.

The microbiological and sensory

quality of fermented meat products

depended on the kind of probiotic

strains used for fermentation.

Therefore, strains of bacteria to be

used in meat fermentation must be

explored for its different metabolites

produced in different growth

conditions. The sensitivity of probiotic

bacteria to sodium chloride and

sodium nitrite used for the processing

of meat can be reduced by the

physical treatment of probiotic

cells. ARIHARA and ITOH (2000)

demonstrated that UV irradiation

of L. gasseri generated several mutants

resistant to these compounds.

Poor survival of probiotic bacteria

during meat fermentation can be

also overcome by microencapsulation.

Most of the researchers involved

in incorporation of probiotic bacteria

into foods focus only on their

survival during manufacture and

storage. But, the effect of probiotic

adjuncts on the oxidative stability of

meat products also needs to be

considered. The loss of fl


and nutritional values and reducing

the shelf-life of processed meat

products might be due to different

oxidative processes which lead to

the degradation of lipids and proteins

(including pigments) which

in turn contributes to the deterioration

in color,texture (cross linking

binding) and fl

avor.Many authors

(ARIHARA,2006; MIN and AHN,

2005; WOJCIAK et al., 2012)have

reported that certain probiotic

bacteria of the Bifi

dobacterium and

Lactobacillus type affect the fatty

acids profi

le by converting unsaturated

acids into Conjugated Linoleic

Acid (CLA) through isomerization,

hydrogenation and dehydration.

Most frequently,linoleic and

linolenic acids are subject to these

transformations. It is considered

that the linoleic acid conversion to

CLA is adetoxifi

cation mechanism

used by bacterial cells. By producing

health-promoting components,

such as CLA, probiotics impact the

functional characteristics of food.

Studies of the effects of the potentially

probiotic L. acidophilus CH-2

strain and green tea infusion on the

oxidative stability of ripening pork

loin showed that adding the L.

acidophilus CH-2 strain, glucose

and green tea infusion improved

the products color as well as oxidative

stability in comparison with the

control sample (JAWORSKA et al.,


(2010)also reported lower TBARS

values (0.385 mg MDA/kg and

0.97 mg MDA/kg, respectively) and

lower levels of oxidized myoglobin

(46.3% and 43.35%, respectively) in

raw ripening hams with added

probiotic bacteria and green tea

infusion (without probiotic strains).

The infl

uence of microorganisms

on the sensory quality of

processed products with probiotic

properties raises increasingly more

interest; however,research reports

Fig. 4: Fermented meat

products provide an

adequate environment

for the growth and

survival of probiotic

microbiota, when

adequate processed.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Probiotic meats -scope and challenges

Probiotics in meats

Tab.: Probiotic delivery system in meat products

Meat products Microorganisms a Wall material Delivery technique Function b Reference

Fermented sausage Lb. plantarum, P. pentosaceus

Calcium alginate Extrusion-lyophilization O KEARNEY et al. (1980)

Dry-fermented sausage Lb. reuteri ATCC 55730 Sodium alginate Extrusion-Emulsion P MUTHUKUMARASAMY and

HOLLEY (2006)

Dry-fermented sausage Lb. reuteri ATCC 55730,

B. longum ATCC 15708

Sodium alginate Extrusion B MUTHUKUMARASAMY and

HOLLEY (2007)

Dry-fermented sausage Lb. casei ATCC 393 Wheat grains Immobilization-matrix B/P SIDIRA et al. (2014)

Dry-fermented sausage Lb. casei ATCC 393 Wheat grains Immobilization-matrix P SIDIRA et al. (2014)

Salami Lb. curvatus MBSa2 Calcium alginate Extrusion B BARBOSA et al. (2015)

Dry-fermented sausage Lb. casei ATCC 393 Wheat grains Immobilization-matrix O SIDIRA et al. (2015)

Cooked meat batters A. viridians UAM21,En.

faecium UAM10c,Lb.

plantarum UAM10a, P.

pentosaceus UAM17

Arabic gum Spray drying B PEREZ-CHABELA et al.



A = Aerococcus; B = Bifidobacterium ; En = Enterococcus ; Lb = Lactobacillus and P = Pediococcus.


Added as B=Bioprotector, P=Probiotic, O=Other functions, mainlytechnological properties.

Source: CAVALHEIRO et al. (2015) FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

on meat products are quite scarce.

Meat products fermented with

intestinal bacteria may taste different

than those manufactured in

traditional starter cultures: they are

mildly acidic and usually with an

unspecified aroma. Such sensory

properties may be unacceptable to

consumers. Therefore, addition of

food ingredients or herbs becomes

necessary in such case to improve

aroma of finished products. In the

study by KLINGBERG et al. (2005) on

sausages fermented by various

Lactobacillus strains almost identical

flavor profiles were reported

compared with samples produced

by the commercial starter culture.

In the reports by JAWORSKA et al.

(2011)anon significant difference

in acidic taste was observed. It was

also claimed that the sensory

quality of fermented pork loin

depends on the variety of probiotic

strains used for fermentation.

ZDOLEC et al. (2008) reported that

the addition of aprobiotic L. sakei

culture to fermented sausages did

not have anegative impact on the

sensory properties of the sausages.

Furthermore, improvement in

sensory parameters, mainly acidity,

juiciness and tenderness was

observed. ERKKILA et al. (2001) also

reported that the (potential) probiotic

L. rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus

LC-705, L. rhamnosus E-97800 and

L. plantarum E-98098 strains did

not negatively affect the technological

or sensory properties of

sausage. When intestinal isolates

of L. paracasei L26 and Bifidobacterium

lactis B94 were used in

combination with atraditional

meat starter culture, no negative

impact on the sensory properties of

the product was noted (PIDCOCK et

al., 2002).


sumer’s gut flora. The therapeutic

effect of consuming food with

probiotic bacteria is afactor contributing

to the development of

research on this new segment of

functional food. Looking into

todays’ consumer interest towards

functional food products and its

role in human nutrition, in near

future probiotic meat products will

become an important part of the

meat processing industry and

hopefully will fill the gap of probiotic

products of animal origin.

However,the assurance of microbiological

and chemical safety as well

proFagus from Bodenfelde is

widelyknown throughout Germany

for its charcoal products made

from regional beechwood.

Meat and meat products (Fig. 4)

provide an adequate environment

for the growth and survival of

probiotic microbiota, and recently

there have been attempts to use

probiotic bacteria in the production

of fermented meat products. However,toproduce

probiotic meat

products, one must have to overcome

certain technological limitations,

such as the native microflora

of meat, aneed to use additives

such as nitrites and salt and also

low water activity and low content

or absence of natural sugars. Probiotic

bacteria strains that can be

used in the manufacturing of meat

products should be capable of

surviving in conditions found in

meat products; furthermore, they

should dominate other microorganisms

found in the finished

product. Moreover,the product

should maintain its sensory characteristics.

Probiotic strains should

be present in the product in the

number at least 10 7 –10 8 /g to have

an impact on the health of conas

sensory acceptability of new

developed products it is of utmost



Literature references can be requested

from the corresponding author or the

editorial office, respectively.

Authors address

Devendra Kumar (devendra.kumar2

@icar.gov.in), ICAR-National Research

Centre on Camel, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India.


New plant for smoke flavorings

Now larger volumes are possible.

The company has also been

producing smoke flavorings for

more than 20 years. Anew plant

has enabled them to increase

production volumes significantly.

For large-scale smoking, traditional

methods –such as burning

sawdust and shavings –are not

advisable for health and cost

related reasons. Abetter alternative

is the use of smoke flavorings.

The raw ingredients from which

proFagus Pure Smoke are made are

produced directlyfrom natural

beechwood of the region.


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Value added fish meat products

There is agreat demand for seafood based products in RTE convenience products


Fish has received an increased attention as apotential source of animal

protein and essential nutrients for human diets. Fish meat contains significantly

lower lipids and more water than beef or chicken and is favored

over other white or red meats. The nutritional value of fish meat comprises

the contents of moisture, dry matter,protein, lipids, vitamins and

minerals. Fish protein has an excellent nutritive value because it contains

essential amino acids and is highly digestible.

By Parveez Ahmad Para

Moreover,fish is agood source of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin

E, found in flesh, and vitamin Aand D, found in liver.Fish also contains

several polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic

acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Additionally,fish

flavor is desirable in snacks produced for the international market.

At present, it is known that ahigh consumption of fish meat has abeneficial

role on human health. The health benefits of fish are attributed to their

lipid components which are rich in long chain unsaturated fatty acids of the

omega-3 family,primarily docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) and eicosapentaenoic

acid (EPA, 20:5n3). Fish meat helps to the fortifying nutrition of

the individual on one hand and on the other hand, it is minimizing the

incidences of the cardio-vascular diseases, helping in brain development,

reproduction and infant growth, is decreasing the cholesterol and the triglycerides

level and shows anti-inflammatory benefits. The chemical composition

of fish is thus valuable in developing high protein foods, while ensuring

the finest quality flavor,color,odor,texture, and safety obtainable with maximum

nutritive value. India with avast coast line is the world’s third largest

producer of fish. Use of fish may also reduce the cost of protein because the

rates of fish protein in most markets is lower than meat protein.

The flesh from species which are marketable or even unmarketable either

in whole or in conventional form can be used to make minces. Many of the

under-utilized species are not used for consumption because of consumer

unfamiliarity:boniness, bad names and unpleasing looks as whole fish. As

the process disguises the original nature of fish, the consumer may accept

products made from mince even though the original fish would have been

unacceptable in whole. It has been observed that the by-catch in shrimp trawl

can be as high as 70–80% under normal operation. This by-catch is often

being discarded in the sea. Fish consumption at every level can be substantially

improved by proper utilization of low priced fish as well as shrimp

by-catch by utilizing as minced fish products, thus adding value to the fish.

Minced fish products

As the process of mincing disguises the original nature of fish, the consumer

may accept products made from mince. In the utilization of lowvalue

fish, considerable progress has been made through the development

of the minced meat technology.Itisalso important to transform the available

fish catches into stable, acceptable products and to distribute them to

people who need them at aprice they can afford. Proper utilization of low

priced fish as well as shrimp by-catch as minced fish products has hence

immense scope and opportunity.

Minced fish technology

Fish meat separated from skin and bones using amechanical meat-bone

separator is known as minced fish. The flesh can be removed from the fish

using filleting knives. Fish can also be passed through aconventional meat

mincer (either hand operated or powered). Many of the fish used for mince

are small and available in large quantities (e.g. shrimp by-catch) in which

case amechanical device for removing the flesh from the fish is advisable.

These meat/ bone separators separate the softparts of the fish from the

harder parts (bones, skin, scales, etc.). The minced fish preparation is

Fig. 1: Proper usage of low priced fish as well as by-catch by utilizing as

processed fish products will add value.

based on physical squeezing out the flesh from bones, skin and scales

through aperforated filter.Abelt and aperforated drum system are generally

used. The minced fish is unstable and gets contaminated during production

if handling practices are not hygienic and sound. Yield of minced

fish varies from 40–50% depending upon size and species. The mince can

be packed in polythene bags and kept in ice for short term storage. The

mince can be gently pressed and put in cartons and frozen at –40 °C in a

plate freezer.The frozen mince blocks can be stored at –20 °C or below.The

frozen minced fish has agood shelf life up to one year at –30 °C.

Fish wafer

Ingredients required for the preparation of fish wafer are fish mince,

tapioca starch, common starch, common salt and water.Fish mince, starch,

salt and water are mixed in agrinder to make smooth slurry.The slurry is

spread on aluminum trays to athickness of 3–4 mm and cooked in steam

for 10–15 min. The gelatinized layer is cut into adesired shape and dried in

the sun or in adrier (at 45–50 °C) to amoisture content less than 6%.

Fish cutlets

Ingredients required for preparation of fish cutlets are cooked fish meat,

cooked potato, peeled and chopped onion, ginger,green chilly,pepper

powder,clove powder,cinnamon powder,turmeric powder,salt and oil. A

typical process shows the following steps:

r Cooking of minced fish meat

r Mixing with smashed boiled potato, salt and turmeric powder

r Mixing with fried onion, ginger and chilly and other coarsed spices

r The whole mass is cooked for three minutes while mixing continues

r Powder spices are added and mixed thoroughly

r Molding in suitable shape

r Dipping in batter like egg white and roll in bread powder

r Deep frying in oil

Similarly,using the composition of batters and bread mix, fish fingers can

also be prepared depending upon the taste of the consumers.

Fish sausage

Fish sausage is another product which can be prepared from minced fish.

Most recipes are based on those used for meat sausages except replacing

the meat components with fish. Fish sausage is very popular in Japan. The


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Value added fish meat products

technology of sausage making though it is known in India it is not yet

commercialized. Fish sausage is prepared by mixing minced fish with oil,

seasoning materials (sugar,salt, and sodium glutamate), coloring material,

preservatives and condiments and is blended in acutter.The paste is

then stuffed into casings, sealed and steamed or boiled. The fish raw

material may be partly smoked before stuffing in casings.

Surimi and surimi based products

Surimi is aJapaneseterm for mechanically deboned fish flesh that has

been washed with cold water and mixed with cryoprotectants for agood

frozen shelf life. Washing not only removes fat and undesirable matters

such as blood, pigments and odorous substances but also increases the

concentration of myofibrillar protein, thereby improving gel strength and

elasticity.Because of this unique property,surimi is extensively used in

Japan since many centuries to develop avariety of fabricated products. The

underutilized fish species will ensure asufficient production of surimi at

reasonable costs. There are two types of surimi products:

r frozen surimi (salt free =muen surimi and salted =Ka-en surimi) and

r raw surimi (nama surimi), which is produced in alimited scale for local

factories to make final products on the same day.

Rawsurimi has the advantage of ahigh water holding capacity which

enhances the yield compared to frozen surimi.

Preparation of surimi

The prime requirement for making surimi is that the minced fish meat

must be elastic. Croakers, lizard fish, etc. have the desired elasticity.The

steps for preparation of surimi are given below:

r The head, scales and viscera are removed. The flesh is cut into fillets.

r Washed and dressed fish or fillet is fed to the meat separator.The bones

and skin are removed. Care must be taken not to have dark meat mix

with white meat.

r The meat is mixed well with cold water 7–8 times of the volume of meat

and is lefttosettle. The supernatant is removed. The washing is repeated

for 2–3 times.

r Excess water is removed either in abasket centrifuge or by squeezing

through atextile sieve.

r Additives such as 4–5% sugar,upto0.3% polyphosphate, 4–5% sorbitol

and 2.5% salt (for Ka-en surimi) are mixed with the washed meat using

acooling type mixer or acutter.The amount of additives in surimi

varies with manufacturers. The additives are blended with meat for

15 minutes at temperature below 13 °C.

r The prepared surimi is filled into polyethylene bags and packed in trays

for freezing in aplate freezer.

r Freezing is done rapidly at –40 °C. The frozen bags/blocks are packed in

carton boxes and stored in frozen storage at below –20 °C.

The additives in surimi help to retain the quality during freezing and

frozen storage, but loss of quality is reported on long storage. The yield is

around 40% of the whole fish.

Surimi based products

The suirmi based Kamaboko is prepared by adding salt, potato,

monosodium glutamate and sugar (if necessary) one by one to the surimi

and kneaded for 15 min. after each addition. The dough is molded into

half cylinders on wooden blocks, steamed for 80–90 min., cooled in air

and then packed in cellophane. The product can be kept for aweek in


summer.Many allied products with different shapes eg. tubes, noodles

etc., are prepared in similar way using extrusion/shaping machines.

Fish and prawn/shrimp pickles

Pickles are prepared out of different type of fish and shell fish. Traditionally,

vegetable pickles are used in India as aready to serve item with Indian dishes.

Fish and shell fish pickles are non-traditional items and are becoming popular.

Salt and acetic acid are the main ingredients used in the pickle preparation as

preservatives. Yeasts and molds can easily survive in the acidious medium of

pickle and hence preservatives are used in pickle for safe storage. In pickle the

bacterial spoilage is not aserious problem, where as proteolytic enzymes in

fish will still remain active. So,fish is well cooked to take care of the enzymatic

action of fish. As the pickle contains higher concentration of acid, disintegration

of meat may take place due to acid hydrolysis. So,salt is used in sufficient

quantities in pickle to take care of the problem of hydrolysis of meat. In the

acid and salt brine the fish flesh becomes firm.

Pickle is aRTE product with long storage life at room temperature.

Thus it should be prepared hygienically and stored carefully to avoid

contamination. Pickle can be prepared with wide range of recipe to suit

consumer’s choice. Ingredients required for preparation of pickle are

dressed and cut pieces of fish meat, spices, salt, sugar,and sodium benzoate

as preservative. Forthe preparation the fish is thoroughly mixed

with salt (5% of fish weight) and kept for 2h.Light salted and partially

dried fish also may be used. Then its is fried in aminimum quantity of

oil and set apart. The ingredients like mustard, ginger,and turmeric are

fried in the remaining quantity of oil for 2–3 min. using alow flame. All

the powdered spices are to be made into athick paste by adding water

and stored for 15 min. before use. The required amount of salt is added

and the mixture boiled. The fried meat is then added and stirred for

some time. The pan is removed from the flame and the ingredients are

mixed thoroughly for 2–3 min. and cooled. When sufficiently cooled,

vinegar is added. Sodium benzoate is added and mixed thoroughly before

packing into apasteurized glass screw-cap bottle and stored at room


Clam pickle

Forthe preparation of clam pickle living clams are stored in clean sea

water for 16–24 hours and allowed to purate after collecting from the

landing center.The clam is later thoroughly washed with 10 ppm chlorine

water and shucked. The meat is thoroughly washed with potable water and

then blanched in 6% boiling brine for 5min. The blanched meat is

drained well on perforated avessel and then fried in oil until it is brown in

color.The fried meats are kept apart and proceed as in other cases.

The following points are to be kept in mind for preparation of pickle:

r There should be alayer of oil over product; this will effectively prevent

the contents from contact with air as seal against bacteria from external


r Use fresh raw material for pickles.

r Powdered salt with alow calcium content should be used in pickle. A

high calcium content will toughen the texture besides affecting flavor.

r Powdered spices are to be used to improve the flavor.

r Sodium benzoate is to be used to control the growth of molds.

Future prospects of value addition

There is agreat demand for seafood and seafood based products in RTE

convenience form. Anumber of such diverse products have already entered

the western markets. The factors responsible for the popularity of value

added products are: an increasing trend in the employment of women in

the context of shifttowards small family norm, increased income and

purchasing power,education, awareness and consciousness towards hygiene

and health, and increased emphasis on leisure pursuits, etc.

Authors’ address

Dr.Parveez Ahmad Para (corresponding author: Parveezpara621@gmail.com), Assistant Professor,

Department of Livestock Products Technology, Arawali Veterinary College, Bajor, Sikar (RAJUVAS)

Rajasthan-332001, India.

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018







13 –14March



13 –15March

Rennes, France

20 March

Neumünster, Germany

20 –23March

Cologne, Germany

27 –29March

Lagos, Nigeria


Khartoum, Sudan

10 –12April

Karachi, Pakistan

Training date PDC/PDC-A 600/700

Poly-clip System GmbH &Co. KG

( +49 6190 8886-344)

Training date TSCA 120/160

Poly-clip System GmbH &Co. KG

( +49 6190 8886-344)

Cfia, Parc Expo Rennes Aeroport

( +33 553367878)

Leitfaden Lebensmittelrecht: So finden Sie

sich zurecht, KIN-Lebensmittelinstitut

(+49 4321-601-0)

Anuga FoodTec

Koelnmesse GmbH ( +49 221 8210)

Agrofood, fairtrade GmbH &Co. KG

( +49 6221 4565-22)

FoodEx Africa, Khartoum International Fair

Ground ( +249 994 824 977)

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19 –21April

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23 –27April

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24 –25April

Kulmbach, Germany

24 –26April

Brussels, Belgium

26 –27April

Kulmbach, Germany


Parma, Italy


Ceará, Brazil

15 –16May



Livestock Asia Expo 2018, Kuala Lumpur

Convention Centre ( +603 2176 8788)

Hannover Messe

Deutsche Messe ( +49 511 89-31024)

DLG-SensorikSeminare für Fleischerzeugnisse/Wurst,

DLG e.V.,DLG-Akademie

( +49 69 24788-372)

Seafood Expo

Seafood Expo Global ( +1 207-842-5590)

DLG-SensorikSeminare für Fleischerzeugnisse/Wurst,

DLG e.V.,DLG-Akademie

( +49 69 24788-372)


Fiere di parma ( +39 0521 9961)

10th Tecnofrigorífico 2018 Fair

Training date FCA 120/160,

Poly-clip System GmbH &Co. KG

( +49 6190 8886-344)

16 –18April

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Foodex, Japan Management Association

( +81-3-3434-1238)

16 May

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Meat Vision Day, Deutscher Fachverlag

GmbH ( 069 7595-1213)

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Alimentaria 2018

Fira de Barcelona ( +34 932 33 20 00)

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SIAL, Comexposium-Sial Exhibition Co., Ltd

( +86106588 6794)

Book review

Understanding trends will enhance competence

HOOGENKAMP,H.(2018): Protein

Transition: Technological, Economic

&Societal Impact of Global

Protein Sustainability |Paperback

446 p. |$48 |ISBN-10:1985117495 |

ISBN-13:978-1985117495 |


Disruptive innovation can be

defined as the introduction of new

technologies and products –such

as generated by cellular biotechnology

–that unexpectedlydisplaces

an established technology

and often "disrupts" the status

quo. By 2050, the global population

is predicted to reach 9.8 bn.

The expected increase in income

per capita will confer increased

competition for resources and,

subsequently, there will be great

need to "produce more and using

less". Population growth, climate

change, ecosystem degradation,

as well as scarcity of energy,

water and land are making today's

food production increasingly

unsustainable. Land, water and

energy are three major but limited

resources needed to increasing

future food production, which may

particularlychallenge resourceintensive

livestock industry.

This new book provides valuable insights

into the complexity of traditional and

emerging food protein ingredients.

Extensive production systems

tend to increase environmental

impacts, especiallywhen considering

that sustainability is the

balance of responsibility, economic

viability and social acceptability.Especiallyfor

the growing

population in developing countries,

the availability of animal

protein sources i.e. meat, dairy

and eggs should not be underestimated.

Consumption of these

foods, which are deeplyembedded

in social culture and are signs

of wellbeing and prosperity, will

continue to increase.

The author is an interdisciplinary

writer who balances the world

between food proteins, social

interactions, environment, as well

as the disruption of the marketing

dynamics. Written in arefreshing

straightforward engaging style,

he shares practical know-how.




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


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Research and



82 Hikmet Salman and Cemalettin Sarıçoban

The effects of different levels of iota- and kappa-carrageenan

on some properties of abeef emulsion

89 Julia Bogdanowicz, Wacław Mozolewski, Magdalena Dudek

and Zenon Nogalski

The influence of binder, fat content and degree of comminution

on the quality of restructured beef steaks

Investigations on sodium alginate and microbial transglutaminase

94 Heena Sharma, B.D. Sharma, Suman Talukder, Meena Goswami Awasthi

and Imran Ahmed Ganai

Efficacy of various bind enhancing agents on the quality

of extended restructured mutton chops

88, 93 Research News

100 Guidelines for authors of FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international


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The effects of different levels

of iota- and kappa-carrageenan

on some properties of abeef emulsion

Investigations on amodel system prepared with sodium chloride

By Hikmet Salman and Cemalettin Sarıçoban

In this study,the effects of different levels of iota- and kappa-carrageenan

on the emulsion properties of fresh beef were investigated by using a

model system. The beef emulsions (oil/water) were created with two types

of carrageenan (iota- and kappa-) at four levels (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and

1.5%). The pH value, emulsion capacity (EC), stability (ES), viscosity (EV),

the color parameters of cooked emulsion gel and flow properties of the

prepared model system emulsions were analyzed. In addition, the water

holding capacity (WHC) and cooking loss (CL) of ground beef treated with

carrageenan types were determined. The carrageenan addition decreased

the EC and increased the ES. The highest EC value was found in the control

(0.0%) sample and the highest ES value was reached when 1.5% of

carrageenan was added. The emulsions with ι-carrageenan had higher EC,

ES and CL values than those of κ-carrageenan. An increase in the carrageenan

level caused to increase the EV values. Increasing levels of carrageenan

increased the L*, a* and b* values of the cooked emulsion gels.

Emulsion viscosity (EV) values were positively correlated with an increase

in the carrageenan level and the highest EV value was obtained from the

emulsions with 1.5% carrageenan. Carrageenan addition did not change

the flow properties of the emulsions and, besides, increased the pseudoplasticity.Asaresult,

the use of ι-and κ-carrageenans might be apotential

ingredient to enhance some functional and technological properties for

emulsion type meat products.

The most important technological and sensory properties of meat products

is associated with the capacity of muscle tissue to bind and hold

water and to form gels. All these properties are joined with changes that

occur in meat after slaughter and with the application of substances added

to it in the course of technological processes (EILERT et al., 1996). Carrageenan

is one of the most interesting hydrocolloids gums used in meat

industries. Carrageenan has also been used as agelatinizing additive to

improve the texture and water holding capacity of water based gel systems,

meat and poultry products, seafood products, and dairy products (HUNT

and PARK,2013). Carrageenans are sulphated polysaccharides provided

from seaweeds. Carrageenan is asulphated and linear polysaccharide with

achemical structure repeated units of galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose

(TRIUS and SEBRANEK,1996; CHIOVITTI et al., 1997; HUNT and PARK,2013).

There are three forms of carrageenan: kappa (thermo reversible brittle gel

formation), iota (thermo reversible elastic gel formation) and lambda

(thickener,non-gelling), and their gelling abilities are known to be affected

by cations such as K + ,Na + ,and Ca 2+ (ORTIZ and AGUILERA,2004). They are

commonly used in food industries such as in canned meat and in reduced

fat products (Frankfurters) for their gelling characteristic, thickening and

water binding properties (CANDOGAN and KOLSARICI,2003 a,b; BIXLER and

PORSE,2011). ι-and κ-carrageenan form gels that can be changed by heating

and cooling and in the meat product this behaves as effective water

binding (TRIUS et al., 1994). Carrageenan particles connect the water in

meat products during the heat treatment and form gels during cooling.

Water in meat products is held in gaps between the protein gel, rather

than the relationship between meat proteins and carrageenan (TRIUS and

SEBRANEK,1996). Carrageenan gelling properties in meat products are

affected by the type of salt in meat products reacting with carrageenan


» Beef

» Carrageenan

» Cooking loss

» Emulsion capacity

» Emulsion stability

fractions (TRIUS et al., 1994). DEFREITAS et al. (1997), who have found that

κ-carrageenan when used together with the addition of NaCl in sausages

made from pork increases the hardness of the product, and that KCl is

used with no change. Some researchers (CANDOGAN and KOLSARICI,2003

a,b; VERBEKEN et al., 2005; FEINER,2006; AYADI et al., 2009; BARBUT,2009)

studied the effect of carrageenan addition on the functional properties of

formulated meat products. In those products carrageenans can improve

yield, control purge, improve the sliceability of finished products, and

enhance juiciness. The use of polysaccharide gums such as carrageenans

and alginates as water binders in low-fat meat products is of great interest

to meat processors because of the consumer’s demand for leaner and

lower cost muscle foods. The USDA Meat Research Unit accepts carrageenan

as astabilizer in meat products. It has been reported by this unit

that carrageenan can be added at most 1.5% and cannot be used with other

binders permitted for use in meat products (TRIUS and SEBRANEK,1996).

No research has been directed on the effect of carrageenan on some emulsion

properties of abeef emulsion model system. The aim of this study

was to evaluate the effects of the model system emulsions prepared with

different levels (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) of two types of carrageenan

(iota and kappa) on the emulsion properties of beef.

Materials and methods


Beef (M. semitendinosus muscle) was purchased from abutcher in Konya,

Turkey.After the removal of the surface fat and connective tissue, the beef

muscles were chopped into small pieces, grounded using alab style

grinder (Kitchen Aid, Classic Model, USA) through aplate with 3mm

holes, well mixed, and divided into eight batches for the preparation of

samples under investigation. The ground beef was produced in combination

with four increasing levels of each carrageenan types. All emulsions

were applied to asingle batch of beef.

Iota-carrageenan (ι-Carrageenan commercial grade, Type II, Predominantly

iota carrageenan, C-1138) and kappa-carrageenan (κ-Carrageenan

sulphated plant polysaccharide, 22048) were purchased from Sigma Co.

(Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Mo,USA). Analytical grade NaCl (Merck,

Darmstadt, Germany) and K2HPO4 (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) were

used in all emulsions. Refined corn oil (Zade, Konya, Turkey) used in the

Received: 20 April 2017 |reviewed: 1May 2017 |revised: 8May 2017 |accepted: 10 May 2017


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Research &Development

Chemical and physico-chemical parameters

Tab. 1: Chemical and physicochemical properties of the fresh beef, refined corn oil and carrageenans used in prepared of the beef

emulsions (n=6)

Material pH Moisture








L* a* b* Hueangle


Beef 5.72 76.16 21.02 1.68 0.80 40.72 19.51 4.93 14.18 20.12

Refined corn oil 6.06 0.00 0.00 99.10 0.00 60.80 –4.23 17.86 76.68 18.35

ι-carrageenan 9.06 9.10 0.63 0.45 14.80 86.43 0.47 13.41 87.99 13.42

κ-carrageenan 8.95 8.70 0.65 0.44 15.00 90.64 –0.83 9.85 85.18 9.85

ι-carrageenan: Iota-carrageenan; κ-carrageenan: Kappa-carrageenan


Source: SARIÇOBAN and SALMAN FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

emulsion preparation was obtained from alocal market in Konya. The

refined corn oil was stored at room temperature and in adark ambience.

Experimental design and preparation

of model system emulsions

ANaCl(2.5%)/ K2HPO4 (0.5%) combination was prepared and dissolved

in cold distilled water (4 o C). Eight different emulsion samples including

two types (ι-and κ-carrageenan) and four levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0and 1.5%) of

carrageenan were used in this study.For each emulsion sample, 25 gof

meat plus 100mLofcold (0–4 o C) salt-phosphate solution (SPS) plus

corresponding levels and types of carrageenan were placed into ablender

jar and crumbled for 2min at 13.000 rpm to obtain aslurry.The resulting

12.5 gofthe slurry and 37.5 mL of additional SPS were transferred to

another blender jar and homogenized for 10 satlow speed (5.000 rpm)

and 50 mL of refined corn oil was added at first. The blender was

brought under to the model system with the water-jacketed burette

containing oil maintained at 11 o C. The oil was added at 1.0 mL/s until

the total amount of oil (dispensed plus original) reached 100 ml. The

emulsions were prepared by mixing the oil into the dispersions at the

levels indicated and then, emulsifying with aWaring Blender (Waring

Commercial Blendor,Torrington, Connecticut, USA) at 13.000 rpm

during oil addition at 11 o C. All emulsions were carried out in triplicate

samples with two repetitions.

Chemical and physico-chemical analysis

The moisture (hot air oven), protein (Kjeldahl), ash (muffle furnace) and

fat (ether-extraction) contents were determined using standard methods of

the AOAC (2003). Moisture (%) was determined by drying a3gsample at

103±2 o Ctoconstant weight. Protein (%) was analyzed according to the

Kjeldahl method. Factor 6.25 was used for conversion of nitrogen to crude

protein. Ash content (%) was determined by using amuffle furnace at

550 °C for 24 h. Fatcontent (%) was determined by using aSoxhlet fat

extraction apparatus. The pH values of the samples were measured with a

pH meter (WTW 315i set model, Weilheim, Germany) following the

instructions outlined by OCKERMAN (1985).

Emulsion capacity (EC)

EC was determined by using amodel system described by OCKERMAN

(1985). The end point was determined as described by WEBB et al. (1970).

EC was calculated as millilitres of the oil content per gram of protein after

the protein (Kjeldahl) contents of the beef samples were determined


Emulsion stability (ES)

The emulsion stability (ES) of the newly formed emulsions was determined

using amodel system described by OCKERMAN (1985). ES was

calculated as apercentage (%) from the amount of separated oil (SO) plus

separated water (SW) released by the emulsion (OCKERMAN,1985).

Water holding capacity (WHC)

The method reported by WARDLAW et al. (1973) was used to determine the

WHC of the beef batches. The beef samples (each 8g)with different levels

(0.0, 0.5, 1.0and 1.5%)ofι-and κ-carrageenan added were weighed in a

tube and then 12 mL of 0.6 MNaCl solution were added into this tube. The

tubes were placed into awater bath (5 o C) for 15 min. Then, the tubes were

centrifuged (4 o C) at 10.000 rpm for 15 min using arefrigerated centrifuge

(Nüve NF 800 Rmodel, Ankara, Turkey). The supernatant was obtained to

determine the WHC (%) of the beef batches.

Cooking loss (CL)

The beef samples (each 20 g) with different levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0and 1.5%)

of ι-and κ-carrageenan added were placed in polyethylene bags and heated

in awater bath at 80 o Cinorder to achieve an interval temperature of

72 o C. During cooking, the center temperatures of the beef samples were

monitored with aglass thermometer inserted into the center of the sample.

The drip was drained from the sample. The cooked mass was cooled

and subsequently weighted to determine weight loss (KONDAIAH et al.,


Color determination

Color measurements were carried out on the beef emulsions cooked in a

water bath until the geometric center of the model emulsions reached

72 o C. The inner temperature was monitored using athermocouple probe

(Omega Engineering, Inc., Stamford, CT,USA) positioned in the geometric

center.When the endpoint temperature was reached, the cooked emulsions

were immediately chilled by tap water.Color measurements were

performed at 18 o Cusing acolorimeter (Konica Minolta Chroma meter

CR-400, Minolta, Inc., Osaka, Japan; illuminate D65, calibrated with a

white reference tile, L*= 97.10, a*= –4.88, b*= 7.04). The L* (lightness), a*

(±red–green) and b* (±yellow–blue) color coordinates were determined

according to the CIELab color space system. The American Meat Science

Association (AMSA) guidelines for color measurements were followed

(HUNT et al., 1991).Measurements were made directly upon the emulsion

samples and carried out six times, two on the middle and four on the

different parts of the cooked emulsion samples.

Emulsion viscosity and flow properties

The apparent viscosity of solutions was measured at 20 o Cusing aLab

Line viscometer,Model No 4535 (Lab Line Instruments, Inc., Melrose

Park, Ill., UK). An appropriate spindle (No. 7) was used to get all readings

within the scale. The viscometer readings were recorded at six different

rotational speeds (2.5, 5, 10,20, 50 and 100rpm). All data were taken after

60 sineach sample. The results were recorded as Pa s. Forthis analysis,

approximately 25 gofthe newly formed emulsion was transferred into a

cellulose nitrate test tube in order to just cover the immersion grooves on

the spindle shafts. The temperature was kept at 20 o Cconstantly using a

thermostatically controlled water bath. The flow curves, apparent viscosity



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The effects of different levels of iota- and kappa-carrageenan...


Tab. 2: Effects of different types and levels of carrageenan on the pH, EC, ES, WHC and CL parameters (mean ±SD) (n=6)

Emulsion properties Carrageenan type Carrageenan level (%)

0.0 (Control) 0.5 1.0 1.5 Sig.

pH Iota 7.15±0.02 aB 7.23±0.00 aA 7.23±0.00 aA 7.14±0.02 aB **

Kappa 7.16±0.02 aA 7.14±0.02 bA 7.15±0.02 bA 7.16±0.02 aA NS

EC (mL oil /g protein) Iota 256.79±5.27 aA 251.92±1.72 aAB 245.92±5.92 aB 246.92±2.48 aB **

Kappa 256.79±5.27 aA 242.82±4.49 bB 236.54±0.00 bB 236.41±1.73 bB **

ES (%) Iota 71.67±4.66 aB 77.50±2.58 aB 77.50±5.92 aB 88.33±1.29 aA **

Kappa 71.67±4.66 aB 71.67±1.01 bB 73.33±1.29 aAB 75.83±1.29 bA **

WHC (%) Iota 17.50±0.00 aA 17.50±2.24 bA 14.17±1.29 bA 17.08±4.23 aA NS

Kappa 17.50±0.00 aB 22.50±0.00 aA 15.83±1.29 aB 18.33±3.42 aB **

CL (%) Iota 26.20±1.91 aA 22.99±3.99 aA 14.17±2.18 aB 11.10±4.36 aB **

Kappa 26.20±1.91 aA 18.63±2.18 aB 13.07±4.56 aB 6.80±1.49 bC **


Meanswith differentsmall letter superscript (carrageenan type) in the same column for each parameter are significantlydifferent.


Means with different capital letter superscript (carrageenan level) in the same row are significantlydifferent(*P


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The effect of carrageenan type and level on ES values of samples is

shown in Table 2. It was observed that both carrageenan types improved

the 1.0% and 1.5% levels, and the highest ES was at the 1.5%level. The

best result on ES can be obtained at emulsion samples with 1.5% ι-carrageenan.

Table 2indicates that the ι-carrageenan emulsions exhibited

better stability than κ-carrageenan emulsions. AYADI et al. (2009) found

that increasing the level of κ-carrageenan results in decreasing the emulsion

stability in aresearch on turkey meat. FLORES et al. (2007) observed

that ι-carrageenan improves the emulsion stability in astudy with ι-carrageenan.

Water holding capacity (WHC)

The effect of carrageenan type and level on the WHC of model system beef

emulsions is shown in Table 2. There was asignificant (P




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The effects of different levels of iota- and kappa-carrageenan...

Effects on viscosity

Tab. 4: Effects of different types and levels of carrageenan on the emulsion viscosity (mean ±SD) (n=6)

Rotational speed




Emulsion viscosity (Pa s) values

Carrageenan level (%)

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Sig.

2.5 Iota 43 800±3134 aB 38267±3863 bB 53 533±845 bA 51 400±5190 bA **

Kappa 43 800±3134 aC 50 233±4751 aBC 58 000±4549 aAB 62 500±3591 aA **

5 Iota 23 700±795 aB 18467±2017 bC 26 900±1787 aA 25 900±1008 bAB **

Kappa 23 700±795 aC 26 400±1377 aB 28 500±1567 aB 32 933±1392 aA **

10 Iota 11200±390 aB 8933±547 bC 13633±1221 aA 12600±473 bAB **

Kappa 11200±390 aC 13367±609 aB 13500±1397 aB 16133±539 aA **

20 Iota 5333±659 aBC 4433±441 bC 7133±869 aA 6533±459 bAB **

Kappa 5333±659 aC 7033±362 aB 7300±587 aAB 8367±441 aA **

50 Iota 3067±186 aA 2233±137 bB 3467±339 aA 3433±137 bA **

Kappa 3067±186 aC 3567±137 aB 3567±207 aB 4033±186 aA **

100 Iota 1667±52 aBC 1400±237 bC 2000±155 aA 1933±52 bAB **

Kappa 1667±52 aC 2000±100 aB 2000±89 aB 2133±52 aA **


Meanswith differentsmall lettersuperscript(carrageenan type) in thesame column for each parameter are significantly different.


Means with different capitalletter superscript (carrageenan level) in thesame roware significantly different (**P0.05); Sig.: Significance

Source: SARIÇOBAN and SALMAN FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

carrageenan level caused an decrease in the EC values (Tab. 2), namely,a

decrease in the level of refined oil is resulting in ahigh Chroma value

(18.35) as seen in Table 1. Chromavalues were higher in the κ-carrageenan

emulsion samples than those in the ι-carrageenan emulsion samples,

which indicated browner and more vivid color properties of κ-carrageenan

emulsion samples. The effect of carrageenan type and carrageenan level

on the L* values of cooked emulsion gel color is shown in Table 3. It has

been observed that the ι-carrageenan a* value is higher than that of κ-carrageenan.

Addition of carrageenan decreased the yellowness (b* values) of the

emulsion samples, and afurther increase of the carrageenan level

caused further yellowness of the samples. This was attributed to the

yellowness of the carrageenan (Tab. 1). κ-carrageenan emulsion samples

showed higher yellowness than ι-carrageenan emulsion samples did.

This higher b* values could be related to high yellowness (17.86) of the

refined oil (Tab. 1),which was retained higher in κ-carrageenan emulsions

than in ι-carrageenan emulsions. The effect of carrageenan type

and carrageenan level on the b* values of cooked emulsion gel color is

shown in Table 3. It has been observed that the ι-carrageenan decreased

the b* value.

Emulsion viscosity (EV)

Table 4indicates the effect of carrageenan level and carrageenan type on

the viscosity of the model system emulsions at different rotation speeds.

Emulsion viscosity (EV) values increased by carrageenan addition at all

rotation speeds. This could be partly explained by the similar fact that the

effect of carrageenan increases the ES values –anindicator of unseparated

fat and water retained by meat proteins –uptothe level of 1.5% carrageenan

(Tab. 2). It was already reported that, as the oil was emulsified,

the protein matrix extended in the emulsion, which resulted in an increase

in viscosity (SMITH,1988). For2.5, 5, 10,20, 50 and 100rpm, while the

highest emulsion viscosity was observed in κ-carrageenan, the lowest

emulsion viscosity was observed in ι-carrageenan (Tab. 4). Forall rpm, the

highest emulsion viscosity was observed at the 1.5% level in κ-carrageenan

while the lowest emulsion viscosity was observed at the 0% and 0.5%

levels in ι-carrageenan. To obtain more viscous emulsions it was found to

be suitable to use the 2.5% NaCl+1.5% κ-carrageenan blend. Increase in

EV is desired for the high fat emulsion type products, because higher EV

gives an increased elasticity to emulsion type meat products (YAPAR et al.,

2006). Accordingly,the effect of oil to increase the viscosity was reported

(SMITH,1988). On the other hand, asignificant difference was observed

Rheological effects

Tab. 5: Consistency index, flow behavior index and determination coefficient values a

Carrageenan level (%) Iota-carrageenan emulsion Kappa-carrageenan emulsion

n Index k Index (Pa s n ) R 2 n Index k Index (Pa s n ) R 2

0.0 (Control) 0.122 92.77 0.992 0.122 92.77 0.992

0.5 0.108 77.81 0.992 0.138 105.47 0.997

1.0 0.120 112.38 0.997 0.105 121.28 0.996

1.5 0.125 105.62 0.995 0.097 139.35 0.999


k and n (dimensionless) values were obtained by fitting rotational speed-viscosity data to the power-law model, η = kγ (n -1) ,where η is the apparent viscosity, k is the consistency index and n is

the flow behavior index.

Source: SARIÇOBAN and SALMAN FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

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between the emulsion types with regard to EV values (Tab. 4). Table 4

indicates the effect of the carrageenan level and carrageenan type on the

viscosity (EV) of model system emulsions at all rotation speeds

(2.5–100rpm). The same trend was seen in the EV of either ι-orκ-carrageenan

emulsions at all rotation speeds, namely,adecrease at the 0%

carrageenan level and amaximum at the 1.5% carrageenan level. Forthe ι-

and κ-carrageenan emulsion samples tested, the viscosity decreased to the

lower value by adding 0% carrageenan. Adding higher levels of carrageenan

(1.5%) increased the viscosity of the beef emulsion samples

(Tab. 4). The maximum viscosity measured corresponded to beef emulsion

containing 1.5% carrageenan. This could cause adisruptive effect on

the system; therefore, it gives raise to further reactions such as carrageenan/water

interaction and thus increasing the viscosity of the O/W

emulsion system. URESTI et al. (2003) reported that the swelling of pectin

could induce adisruptive effect on the O/W emulsion gel structure by

absorbing water,which might be associated with adecrease in free water

molecules by competing for the water molecules (salting out effect), and

thus increasing viscosity.Accordingly,for many proteins, apositive correlation

is observed between water absorption and viscosity (CHEFTEL et al.,


Flow behavior

The apparent viscosity (AV) of the model system emulsions prepared with

ι-and κ-carrageenan is shown in Table 5, respectively,which illustrates the

AV data of each emulsion as afunction of rotation speed (rpm). Table 5

shows the flow behavior index (n), consistency index (k)constants and

apparent viscosity values (AV) by the power-law equation of the all emulsions.

The AV versus speed data for the emulsions at atemperature of

20 °C fitted well to the Ostwald-de-Waele model or power law model with

high determination coefficients (R 2 =0.992–0.999). The n values of emulsion

samples were found to be less than unity.These model emulsions

showed anon-Newtonian flow in which the AV decreased with shear rate.

Therefore, it can be said that all emulsion samples exhibited atypical

shear-thinning behavior,asalso can be clearly seen in Table 5, thus, these

O/W model system emulsions can be regarded as pseudoplastic fluids.

Forthe ι-carrageenan emulsion samples tested, the consistency index

values varied from 92.77 to 112.38 Pa s. Control emulsion had aconsistency

of 92.77 Pa s. The consistency decreased to the lower value

(77.81Pas)byadding 0.5% carrageenan. Adding higher levels of carrageenan

(1.5%) increased the consistency of ι-carrageenan emulsion

samples. Besides, the flow behavior index values, n –afunction of the

consistency index –showed acompletely reverse trend with the consistency

index values, k,ascould be expected (Tab. 5). The maximum consistency

(112.38 Pa s) measured corresponded to the fresh beef emulsion

containing 1% carrageenan. The lowest consistency index value, k

(77.81Pas)was reached by adding 0.5% carrageenan into the ι-carrageenan

emulsion gels; even though amaximum increase was seen by

adding 1% carrageenan. As for the consistency index values (k)ofκ-carrageenan

emulsions, the similar trend was seen in the fresh beef emulsions,

except for adecrease in consistency at a1.5% addition of carrageenan

(Tab. 5). In addition, an inverse trend in the consistency index

values was observed in the flow behavior index values (n)ofthe κ-carrageenan

samples, as seen in the ι-carrageenan emulsions. In summary,

the phenomena seen in the viscosity of ι-and κ-carrageenan emulsions

were also observed in the consistency of the emulsions. This could be

expected because consistency is the function of viscosity;therefore, the

similar explanations done for viscosity above could also be done for consistency

values of the ι-and κ-carrageenan emulsions.

Conclusion and practical importance

The results of this study show that ι-and κ-carrageenan addition was found

to significantly affect certain quality parameters of beef emulsions. The

cooking loss (CL) values decreased with an increasing addition of ι-and

κ-carrageenan. Also, the addition of both ι-and κ-carrageenan was found

to decrease the emulsion capacity (EC) and increase the emulsion stability

(ES) values. The carrageenan samples with 0.5% had the highest water

holding capacity (WHC) values. The L* and a* values of cooked emulsion

gels increased by addition of carrageenans. Emulsion viscosity (EV) was

positively affected by an increase of the carrageenan addition. Increase in

EV is desired in high fat emulsion type products. Accordingly,when high

fat emulsion type products are manufactured, the advantage of carrageenan

addition should be taken into consideration to produce better

products. Carrageenan addition did not change the flow behavior type of

the model system emulsions, and even increased the pseudoplasticity.Asa

consequence, the use of ι-and κ-carrageenan to beef emulsions up to 1.5%

levels can be apotentially ingredient for commercial meat products such as

Frankfurter to enhance these emulsion and desirable quality properties.


The authors would like to thank the Selçuk University Coordinating Office for

Scientific Research Projects (SU-BAP, Konya TURKEY) for financial support (Project

Number: 10201003).


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York: Elsevier Applied Science, 11–35. –5.BIXLER,H.J. and H. PORSE (2011): Adecade

of change in the seaweed hydrocolloids industry.Journal of Applied Phycology 23

(3), 321–335. –6.CANDOGAN,K.and N. KOLSARICI (2003a): Storage stability of low-fat

beef frankfurters formulated with carrageenan or carrageenan with pectin. Meat

Science 64 (2), 207–214.–7.CANDOGAN,K.and N. KOLSARICI (2003b): The effects of

carrageenan and pectin on some quality characteristics of low-fat beef frankfurters.

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Amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In: O.R. Fennema (Ed.), Food Chemistry (2nd

ed.), New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 246–369. –9.CHIOVITTI,A., A. BACIC,D.J. CRAIK,

S.L.A. MUNRO,G.T. KRAFT andM.L. LIAO (1997): Cell-wall polysaccharides from Australian

red algae of the familySolieriaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta ): novel, highly

pruvated carrageenans from the genus Callophycus.Carbohydrate Research 299,

229–243. –10. CIERACH,M., M. MODZELEWSKA-KAPITUŁA and K. SZACIŁO (2009): The influence

of carrageenan on the properties of low-fat frankfurters. Meat Science 82 (3),

295–299. –11. DEFREITAS,Z., J.G. SEBRANEK,D.G. OLSON and J.M. CARR (1997): Carrageenan

effects on salt soluble meat proteins in model systems. Journal of Food

Science 62 (3), 539–543. –12. EILERT,C.M. S.J., CALHOUN and R.W. MANDIGO (1996):

Phosphate type, concentration and preblend duration to improve water holding

capacity of beef connective tissue. Journal of Muscle Foods 7 (2), 255–269. –

13.FEINER,G.(2006): Meat products handbook –Practical science and technology.

Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England. –14. FLORES,M., E. GINER,S.M.

FISZMAN,A.SALVADOR and J. FLORES (2007): Effect of anew emulsifier containing

sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate and carrageenan on the functionality of meat emulsion

systems. Meat Science 76, 9–18.–15.HUNT,M.C., J.C. ACTON,R.C. BENEDICT,C.R.

CALKINS,D.P.CORNFORTH,L.E. JEREMIAH et al. (1991):Guidelines for meat color evaluation.

Chicago: American Meat Science Association and National Live Stock and

Meat Board. –16. HUNT,A.and J.W. PARK (2013): Alaska pollock fish protein gels as

affected by refined carrageenan and various salts. Journal of Food Quality 36,


(1985): Effect of salt and phosphate on the quality of buffalo and goat meats. Meat

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Effect of carrageenan level and packaging during ripening on processing and

quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages produced with olive oil.

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17.0 for windows. Minitab Inc., USA. –20. NAS,S., H.Y. GÖKALP and M. ÜNSAL (1998):

Bitkisel yağ teknolojisi (Vegetable oil technology) (2nd ed.). Denizli, Turkey: Pamukkale

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post-mortem muscle tissue (13th ed.). The Ohio State University.Columbus, OH,

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gelation of horse mackerel (T. Murphyi)raw paste surimi-type. Food Science and

Technology International 10,223–232. –23. SMITH,D.M. (1988):Meat proteins:

Functional properties in comminuted meat products. Food Technology, 42 (4),


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

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116–121. –24. SNEDECOR,G.W. and W.G. COCHRAN (1994): Statistical Methods, (8th

Edition) Iowa State Univ.Press, Ames, Iowa, USA. –25. TRIUS,A., J. SEBRANEK,R.RUST

and J. CARR (1994): Carrageenans in beaker sausage as affected by pH and sodium

tripolyphosphate. Journal of Food Science 59 (5), 946–951. –26. TRIUS,A.and J.G.

SEBRANEK (1996): Carrageenans and their use in meat products. CRC Critical Reviews

in Food Science and Nutrition 36, 69–85. –27. URESTI,R.M., N. LOPEZ-ARIAS,J.J. GONZA-

LEZ-CABRIALES,J.A. RAMIREZ and M. VAZQUEZ (2003): Use of amidated low methoxyl

pectin to produce fish restructured products. Food Hydrocolloids 17 (2), 171–176. –

28. VERBEKEN,D., N. NEIRINCK,P.vAN DER MEEREN and K. DEWETTINCK (2005): Influence of

κ-carrageenan on the thermal gelation of salt-soluble meat proteins. Meat Science

70, 161–166. –29. WARDLAW,F.B., L.H. MCCASKILL and J.C. ACTON (1973): Effect of

post mortem muscle changes on poultry meat loaf properties. Journal of Food

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(1970): The measurement of capacity by electrical resistance. Journal of Food

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carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758). Food Hydrocolloids 20, 825–830.

Authors’ addresses

Dr.Cemalettin Saricoban (corresponding author: cscoban@selcuk.edu.tr) and Hikmet Salman,

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Selçuk University, 42075, Konya, Turkey.

ICoMST 2018

Call for short papers is open

The 64th International Congress of

Meat Science and Technology will

be held in Melbourne, Australia

from 12 to 17 August 2018.

This major forum promises to be

amost rewarding experience of

effective exchange of information

and ideas on important topics in

the world of meat science and

technology while sampling some of

the best hospitality and scenery

on the planet.

The theme of the Congress is

‘Quality and Integrity for Global

Consumers’. The Congress will

focus on the following thirteen

major themes; Provenance and

fraud detection; Process control in

the meat industry; Next generation

technologies to assess carcass

and meat quality; Food safety and

microbiology; Smart packaging for

quality, safety and integrity; Dietary

muscle proteins for stage of

life; Revolution in biometrics and

consumer sensory science; Value

adding to meat and offal; and

Glycolytic and proteolytic metabolism

across species. For this reason,

professionals from research,

academia, government and industry

from around the world will find

the 64th ICoMST stimulating and


Several national and international

speakers will deal with the

theme of the congress. One of the

national speakers is Dr.Narelle

Fegan. She is aPrincipal Research

Scientist in the Food Safety and

Stability Group at CSIRO. Dr.Fegan

is amicrobiologist with particular

interests in food borne bacterial

pathogens. Since starting at CSIRO

in 1995, she has worked mostly

with Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC)

and Salmonella in relation to animal

production systems. The main

focus of her research has been

studying the epidemiology and

ecology of STEC and Salmonella in

red meat production systems in

Australia to gain abetter understanding

of how they survive,

persist and are transmitted

through the food chain.

One of the international speakers

is Dr.Carlos Alvarez from Spain.

He obtained his doctorate in the

University of Oviedo (Spain) in 2012,

the topic of the research work was

focused on characterization of

isolated proteins from porcine

blood, based on their functional

and antioxidant properties. CurrentlyheisResearch

Officer in the

Teagasc Food Research Centre

involved in the ReValue Protein

project, focused in recovery and

re-valorisation of molecules of

high-added value from co-products

and processing streams of

meat industry as blood, lungs,

heart and other offal. As researcher,

his main interest is to

develop and applyemerging technologies

to increase the value of

food wastes and co-products.

Another international speaker is

Prof. Keith Belk from the USA. He is

aProfessor in the Department of

Animal Sciences and the Center for

Meat Safety &Quality.His research

focuses on red meat quality and

safety, live animal development,

international marketing of red

meats, and quality management

systems. Prof. Belk has won several

awards over the course of his

career, including the North American

Meat Association’sHarry L.

Rudnick Educator’s Award and the

American Meat Science Association’sSignal

Service Award, both in

2013.Heearned his B.S. and M.S.

from CSU in 1983 and 1986, respectively.

He received his Ph.D in Meat

Science from Texas A&M University

in 1992. Prof. Belk is affiliated with

several professional organizations,

This year ICoMST will be held in Melbourne, Australia.

including the American Society of

Animal Science, the Western Stock

Show Association, and the Institute

of Food Technologists.

In addition to the the presentations

several guided tours are

offered. The Beef Tour for example

brings the attendees to the beautiful

west Gippsland farming region

where participants will visit abeef

processor whom supplyhigh

quality pasture raised and grain

fed beef to the domestic and

international markets.

The event will celebrate 20 years

of Meat Standards Australia and 30

years since ICoMST was in Australia.

The organizators have

planned an array of informative

and enjoyable technical and

scenic tours and all attendees will

experience Australian culture and

hospitality through asocial programme.

Melbourne is ideallylocated for

those wishing to extend their stay

and immerse themselves in Victoria’sbeautiful

landscape, excellent

food and friendlyculture. The town

is known for its festivals,

laneways, coffee and food. It has

been voted by the Economist, as

the ‘Worlds most livable city’.

Short paper submission is now

open. The submission process will

be through an online portal. Submitters

are requested to create an

account and submit ashort paper

for review according to the guidelines

set out on the congress

website. Papers will onlybeaccepted

if submitted in English.

In August 2019,the 65th International

Congress of Meat Science

and Technology will be held in

Berlin, Germany.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Research &Development

The influence of binder, fat content

and degree of comminution

on the quality of restructured beef steaks

Investigations on sodium alginate and microbial transglutaminase

By Julia Bogdanowicz, Wacław Mozolewski,

Magdalena Dudek and Zenon Nogalski

The effect of two binders –sodium alginate and microbial transglutaminase

–onthe properties of restructured beef steaks was analyzed. Restructured

beef steaks were made from meat of crossbred Limousin xHolstein-

Friesian cattle. The meat batter was classified based on its fat content

(10%) and degree of comminution (grinder size Ø5 mm,

Ø13 mm and Ø30 mm). The applied binder,fat content and degree of

comminution significantly influenced cooking yield and the results of

instrumental and sensory evaluations (P



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Research &Development The influence of binder, fat content and degree of comminution ...


Tab. 2: Mean values of the analyzed attributes of raw batters /restructured raw logs /restructured grilled beef steaks

Treatment Raw batters Raw logs Cooking













Water Protein Fat pH (%) strength (point) (point)

(%) (%) (%)


Binder ALG 5.77 a 30.79 a 9.89 a 7.04 a 6.24 a 5.88 a 6.03 a 5.69 a

TG 5.67 b 31.61 a 7.07 b 6.57 b 5.12 b 5.42 b 5.76 b 5.78 a

Fat 10 66.61 c 20.51 b 10.97 c 5.62 b 32.28 b 9.78 a 6.59 b 6.00 b 6.47 c 6.45 c 5.25 c


size (mm)

5 5.72 a 29.39 a 5.52 a 7.37 a 6.03 a 5.31 a 5.70 a 6.27 a

13 5.75 a 30.68 a 10.17 b 7.10 a 5.40 b 5.67 b 5.89 ab 5.58 b

30 5.68 a 33.53 b 9.74 b 5.94 b 5.61 b 5.97 b 6.09 b 5.36 b

SEM 0,29 0,04 0,11 0.02 0.32 0.31 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06

a, b, c–means within columns and treatments with different superscripts are significantlydifferent (P< 0.05); SEM –standard error of the mean

Source: BOGDANOWICZ et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

The sodium alginate logs were produced with the addition of 1% sodium

alginate (ALG) in the form of Promix, acommercial preparation powder (Promar,

Łomianki, PL). The transglutaminase logs were produced with the

addition of 1% transglutaminase (TG) in the form of commercial preparation

named Activa EB (Ajinomoto Europe Sales GmbH, Hamburg, DE) in acold

aqueous solution (3±1°C) in a1:4 ratio. The operations of dosing the binding

agents and mixing were repeated five times for each type of meat batter

and binding agent (five replicates). Mixing was performed in atumbler (Pek

Mont MP-74, Bielsk, PL) for 2–4 min. and meat batter was stuffed by hand

into polyamide casings with adiameter of 80 mm. The logs were chilled at

4±1°Cfor 1h., frozen at –20 °C and stored for around two weeks. The frozen

logs were sliced into steaks of 1cmthickness in afood slicer (MA-GA S2-

712,Bydgoszcz, PL) and thawed at 20±1°Cfor 1h.The remaining log portions

were thawed under identical conditions and used for pH analyses.

Analytical procedures

The pH of the thawed logs was measured in three replicates on each log,

with apHmeter (HI99161, Hanna Instruments, PL) equipped with aknife

probe (FC232D, Hanna Instruments, PL).

The thawed steaks were weighed and grilled on adouble-sided electrical

contact plate (SpidoCook XP020PT,UNOX, IT) for 4min. at 240 °C. The grilled

steaks were cooled for around 30 min. at 20±1°Cand weighed. The cooking

loss was calculated based on the difference in weight before and after

grilling, and it was expressed in percentage terms. Subsequentlythe steaks

were analyzed for the maximum breaking strength (Fmax). The measurement

parameters and the shape of samples were determined based on the work

of HONIKEL (1998) and the results of apilot study (DUDEK et al., 2012). The

texture analysis was carried out in the Instron 5965 (Instron Corp., Canton,

US) with a1kN load cell (sNo: 2580-106, Instron Corp., Canton, US) and 2kN

pneumatic grips (sNo: 2712-042, Instron Corp., Canton, US). The crosshead

speed was 200 mm/min. The measurements were performed in triplicate for

each of five logs of the same type (3x5).

Sensory evaluation

The sensory evaluation was performed immediatelyafter grilling the steaks

(conditions as described above). The steaks were analyzed by ateam of ten

trained panelists who evaluated the binding strength, consistency, juiciness,

flavor and color.Each panelist evaluated one steak from each of five

logs of the same type (1x5)inafive separate sessions in arandom order.

Every attribute was evaluated according to DIMITRAKOPOULOU et al. (2005) on a

grading scale (extreme points described in Tab. 1).The panelists were

trained to use the above scale.

Statistical analysis

The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica 12.0 program

(StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, US). One-way, two-way and three-way ANOVAwere

performed. When asignificant treatment effect was detected, the data

were compared to identify significant differences among main effects. At

the first stage, non-parametric tests were used to determine whether five

logs of the same type differed significantly(P


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Research &Development


Tab. 3: Analysis of variance of the effect of binder type, fat content and degree of comminution on the evaluated attributes of restructured

raw logs /restructured grilled beef steaks (F-values for independent variables and interactions)


Source of variance


pH (raw logs) 56.50 *** 62.00 *** 9.10 *** 20.30 *** 5.50 ** 20.80 *** 7.80 ***

Cooking loss 3.95 * 13.86 *** 34.55 *** 6.52 ** 35.16 *** 45.43 *** 8.85 ***

Max. breaking 106.32 *** 40.35 *** 117.77 *** 131.63 *** 139.94 *** 17.50 *** 14.08 ***


Binding strength 42.09 *** 22.61 *** 148.28 *** 8.12 *** 326.99 *** 8.46 *** 3.76 **

Consistency 187.66 *** 18.80 *** 20.55 *** 111.19 *** 43.73 *** 27.30 *** 11.42 ***

Juiciness 30.71 *** 111.42 *** 21.31 *** 78.68 *** 40.36 *** 15.81 *** 40.37 ***

Flavor 10.95 ** 63.63 *** 7.67 *** 106.01 *** 83.07 *** 23.07 *** 2.54 **

Color 1.22 ns 44.31 *** 46.94 *** 51.79 *** 12.14 *** 26.79 *** 41.08 ***

A–binder; B–fat content (%); C–grinder size (mm); ns –not significant; *Significant at P



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Research &Development The influence of binder, fat content and degree of comminution ...

are triggered by fat to maximize the sensation

of juiciness. For this reason, (MF)

steaks were awarded the highest scores

for juiciness and flavor despite their lowest

water content (Tab. 2).

Interestingly, sodium alginate contributed

to the juiciness of steaks made from (SLF)

meat (not published). The above could

suggest that in very lean batters where fat

does not contribute to juiciness, the gelling

effect of sodium alginate leads to water

retention, thus improving the sensory attributes

of the final product.

Steaks restructured with sodium alginate

were softer than those made with the use of

transglutaminase (Tab. 2). In experiments

conducted by ESGUERRA (1994) and FAROUK et

al. (2005), steaks containing sodium alginate

were also characterized by asofter consistency

than steaks produced with the use of

transglutaminase or other binders. The cited

authors attributed their observations to

sodium alginate’sability to retain water in

meat during heat processing. The scores

awarded for steak color were influenced

mainlybythe fat content and the degree of

comminution of meat batter (Tab. 3). The

color scores decreased with an increase in the

size of meat particles and the fat content

(Tab. 2). Finelyground meat and fat (Ø5 mm)

formed amore homogeneous mixture, which is

the reason why the steaks were more uniform in

color.Steaks made from medium-ground and

coarselyground meat (Ø13 and Ø30 mm) with the highest fat content (MF)

were not homogeneous in color.After grilling, some meat particles were

very light, whereas others were very dark which resulted in alack of color

uniformity.Evidently, this trait was not perceived as highlyattractive by the



Restructured beef steaks made from meat (Ø30 mm) or meat with more than

10%fat content were characterized by higher binding strength when

sodium alginate was used as abinder.Transglutaminase was amore effective

binder in more finelyground meat with less than 10%fat content. The

cooking loss during steak grilling was determined mainlybythe degree of

comminution and the fat content. Steaks made from medium-fat meat

batter received high scores for juiciness and flavor, regardless of the applied

binder.The juiciness of steaks produced from super low-fat can be

improved by using sodium alginate as the binding agent.

Practical importance

The assortment of binding agents used in the restructured meats technology

is extremelyhigh and their mechanisms of action differ considerably.

This study was focused on determining which of the two commonlyused

binding agents has better binding properties for super low-fat meat and

which one for meat with ahigher fat content.

The results of this study may have apractical application for the meat

processing industry to receive aproduct with better functionality and more

attractive organoleptic qualities.


This study was supported by the European Fund of the Regional Development as

part of the Innovative Economy Operating Program, Project WND-POIG.01.03.01-00-

204/09: Optimization of beef production in Poland according to the “from fork to

farm”strategy(Agreement No. UDA-POIG.01.03.01-00-204/09-03).

Source: BOGDANOWICZ et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

Fig.: Breaking strength of restructured beef steaks made from meat batter with different binders, fat content and

degree of comminution (error bars indicate the standard error).


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Author’s addresses

J. Bogdanowicz, Ph.D. (corresponding author: julia.marchel@uwm.edu.pl), W. Mozolewski, Ph.D.

and M. Dudek, Dept. of Meat Technology and Chemistry, Faculty of Food Sciences, and Z. Nogalski,

Prof., Dept. of Cattle Breeding and Milk Quality Evaluation, Faculty of Animal Bioengineering /

University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland


Wales establishes prevention zone


Risks in Europe aggravate concerns

An avian influenzaprevention zone

established in England on 18 January

was extended to all of Wales as

aprecautionary measure, the Departmentt

for Environment, Food &

Rural Affairs (DEFRA) reported. There

are currentlynofindings of AI in

Wales. “Asaprecautionary measure,

in response to the increased risk

level, and to mitigate the risk of

infection, Iamdeclaring an All

Wales Avian InfluenzaPrevention

Zone,” Cabinet Secretary for Energy,

Planning and Rural Affairs Lesley

Griffiths said.

Poultry growers in Wales now are

required to implement stricter

biosecurity controls, including:

r ensuring the areas where birds

are kept are unattractive to wild


r feeding and watering birds in

enclosed areas to discourage

wild birds;

r minimizing movement of people in

and out of bird enclosures;

r cleaning and disinfecting

footwear and keeping areas

where birds live clean and tidy;


r reducing any existing contamination

by cleansing and disinfecting

concrete areas and fencing off

wet or boggy areas.

Poultry growers with more than 500

birds must take additional biosecurity

measures, such as restricting

access to non-essential personnel,

Wales is included in DEFRA‘s

precautionary measures.

Photo: schemmi /pixelio.de

changing clothes and footwear

before entering enclosures and

cleaning and disinfecting vehicles.

“All keepers of poultry and other

captive birds will need to comply

with the requirements of the Avian

InfluenzaPrevention Zone,” Chief

Veterinary Officer Christianne Glossop

said in astatement. “Keepers

must remain vigilant for signs of

disease and practice the very highest

levels of biosecurity.“Istrongly

encourage all poultry keepers, even

those with fewer than 50 birds, to

provide their details to the Poultry

Register.This will ensure they can

be contacted immediately, via email

or text update.”


The possibility of an African Swine

Fever (ASF) outbreak in EU is raising

concerns among the pork producers

in the US as additional measures are

considered to prevent such asituation

in Poland, Germany and Denmark.

National Pork Producers Council

Chief Veterinarian Dr.Liz Wagstrom

and Director of International Trade

Policy, Sanitary and Technical Issues

Courtney Knupp joined pork producers

on NPPC’sTrade Committee and

its Animal Health and Food Security

Committee in Denmark, Poland and

Germany to explore the steps being

taken to prevent or limit the spread

of ASF to commercial pig production

sites, informs NPPC. All three EU

State Members require traceability of

animals and reporting of all animal

movements, even if Denmark is not

affected yet by the disease. Also,

measures of increased biosecurity in

ASF-positive zones and focus on

surveillance of wild boar and dead

domestic animals that have signs

consistent with ASF, zoning/ regionalization

of areas with positive

animals and ensuring that meat from

animals in positive zones is not

exported outside of the domestic

market have been enforced in these

countries. The US pork industry

representatives are expected to

communicate their findings to their

respective organizations, and conclusions

also will be discussed with

the working group for the Secure

Pork SupplyPlan. In the meantime,

the risk of an ASF outbreak in Europe

has been atopic included in the

agenda of Green Week Berlin 2018,

with EU representatives discussing

the subject with the Russian counterparts.



measures will limit

an ASF outbreak

over Europe.

Photo: NPPC


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Research &Development

Efficacy of various bind enhancing agents

on the quality of extended restructured

mutton chops

By Heena Sharma, B.D. Sharma, Suman Talukder, Meena Goswami Awasthi

and Imran Ahmed Ganai

In this study,extended restructured mutton chops were prepared to compare

the efficacy of various bind enhancing agents at pre-optimized levels

of incorporation viz., tamarind seed powder (1 g/100gof product), flaxseed

flour (1 g/100g), gum tragacanth (0.1g/100g)and gum acacia

(0.5 g/100g)byreplacing lean meat in apre-standardized restructured

mutton chops formulation. The products were analyzed for physicochemical,

sensory attributes, textural properties, water activity and microbiological

evaluation. The incorporation of tamarind seed powder resulted

in significantly higher (P



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Research &Development

Physico-chemical properties

Tab. 1: Physico-chemical properties of extended restructured mutton chops incorporated with optimum levels of bind enhancing agents


Parameters Control Treatment (Optimum level of bind enhancing agents)

1% TSP 1% FF 0.1% GT 0.5% GA

Cooking yield (%) 86.87±0.44 87.93±0.54 86.69±0.79 86.86±0.49 88.01±0.47

pH 6.15±0.17 6.20±0.21 6.21±0.23 6.29±0.10 6.14±0.06

Moisture (%) 66.99±0.19 b 68.93±0.50 a 68.89±0.62 ab 66.78±0.49 b 67.91±0.41 b

Protein (%) 19.96±0.82 20.63±0.29 18.65±0.34 19.42±0.55 20.09±0.31

Fat (%) 4.30±0.46 b 3.45±0.11 b 6.61±0.44 a 3.99±0.27 b 3.99±0.83 b

Ash (%) 2.51±0.07 2.61±0.05 2.60±0.09 2.64±0.05 2.55±0.06

Shear force value (kg/cm 2 ) 0.59±0.06 c 0.64±0.09 ab 0.83±0.04 a 0.79±0.06 ab 0.60±0.03 bc

*Mean±S.E. with different superscripts in arow differ significantly(P0.05) than control

which might be attributed to the gelatinizing property of starch components

on heating, which prevented evaporative moisture loss during

cooking (CHEN et al., 2004). The product with an optimum level of TSP had a

slightlylower pH than control, which might be due to acidic nature of TSP.

Moisture percentage of the product with 1% TSP showed asignificantly

higher (P




Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Research &Development Efficacy of various bind enhancing agents on the quality of extended restructured mutton chops


Tab. 3: Effect of optimum levels of bind enhancing agents on color values and water activity of extended restructured mutton chops


Parameters Control Treatment (Optimum level of bind enhancing agent)

1% TSP 1% FF 0.1% GT 0.5% GA

Redness 2.18±0.03 c 3.18±0.03 a 2.69±0.20 b 2.53±0.16 c 2.48±0.03 c

Yellowness 12.5±0.21 13.01±0.09 12.89±0.09 13.08±0.09 12.94±0.04

Hue 77.29±0.16 a 75.92±0.39 c 77.81±0.32 b 78.98±0.82 a 79.09±0.28 a

Chrome 12.95±0.24 13.26±0.08 12.99±0.03 13.72±0.82 13.61±0.18

Water activity 0.965±0.002 a 0.954±0.002 b 0.964±0.002 ab 0.960±0.001 b 0.962±0.001 ab

*Mean±S.E. with different superscripts in arow differ significantly(P

................... ....................


Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Research &Development

crease in pH of gum tragacanth and gum

acacia incorporated products, which was

expected due to neutral pH of gum.

The lower TBARS value of the tamarind seed

powder product was expected due to the antioxidant

property of tamarind seed powder

(RAZALI et al., 2012). The overall day mean

showed that the TBA values increased with the

increasing storage period, which might be due

to an increased lipid oxidation and production

of volatile metabolites in the presence of oxygen

during the aerobic storage (KUMAR et al.,

2015b; SHARMA et al., 2017a). TARLADGIS et al.

(1960) also reported that the minimum threshold

value of TBARS number of cooked meat products

during storage was 0.50–1.0mg, as detected

by atrained panel. The overall treatment

mean did not record any significant difference

(P>0.05) in TBA values. However, these values

were marginallylower for treatment products

than control which could be due to the lower fat

content of tamarind seed powder, gum tragacanth

and gum acacia and due to the antioxidant

property of dietary fiber in flaxseed flour

(FISCUS et al., 1999).

Psychrophilic count

Psychrophilic microbes were not detected

on day 0ofstorage either in control or treatment

products, which could be due to the

destruction of the psychrophiles during cooking (Fig. 1).These counts

were detected on day 5ofstorage and thereafter, it increased significantly(P0.05) was obtained in the

psychrophilic count between control and treatment products. The

Source: SHARMA et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

Fig1:Effect of refrigerated storage on microbiological characteristics of aerobicallypackaged extended

restructured mutton chops with optimum level of binders

Source: SHARMA et al. FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international 1_2018

Fig 2: Effect of refrigerated storage on microbiological characteristics of aerobicallypackaged extended

restructured mutton chops with optimum level of binders

increase in psychrophiles from day 5onwards could be due to the

recovery of injured organisms and following in amultiplication during

the subsequent period of storage (KUMAR et al., 2017;SHARMA et al.,

2017b). Acomparativelyfaster growth of psychrophiles in other treatment

products when compared to control might be attributed to the

presence of aeasilyuseable source of carbohydrates in these products

(TALUKDER et al., 2013). The limit of

psychrotrophic counts have been reported

as log10 4cfu/g (JAY,1996), which could

cause microbiological spoilage of stored

meat products.

Totalplate count

There was asignificant difference (P0.05) between control and treatment

products on day 0. The TPC of flaxseed flour

and tamarind seed powder incorporated

products remained significantlylower


in the TPC of control and treatment products.

Similar results were obtained by KUMAR

et al., (2015a) and SHARMA et al., (2015b) in

meat spread and chicken fingers, respectively.



Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018

Research &Development Efficacy of various bind enhancing agents on the quality of extended restructured mutton chops


Tab. 5: Effect of refrigerated storage on sensory attributes of aerobicallypackaged extended restructured mutton chops with optimum level

of binders (Mean±S.E.)*


Refrigerated storage period (days)

Day 0 Day 5 Day 10 Day 15

General appearance

Control 7.02±0.06 a2 6.89±0.06 ab2 6.80±0.08 bc1,2 6.61±0.08 d1,2

1% TSP 7.21±0.07 a2 6.92±0.08 b1,2 6.76±0.06 bc1,2 6.68±0.08 c1,2

1% FF 7.46±0.05 a1 7.10±0.08 b1 6.93±0.06 bc1 6.82±0.07 c1

0.5% GT 7.03±0.07 a2 6.80±0.07 b2 6.78±0.05 b1,2 6.54±0.06 c2

0.5% GA 7.04±0.06 a2 6.95±0.05 a1,2 6.63±0.07 b2 6.28±0.07 c3


Control 7.06±0.06 a 6.97±0.05 ab 6.84±0.06 bc 6.70±0.05 c

1% TSP 7.03±0.05 a 6.94±0.07 ab 6.82±0.06 b 6.78±0.10 c

1% FF 7.15±0.06 a 7.06±0.05 ab 6.94±0.05 b 6.67±0.10 c

0.5% GT 7.00±0.06 a 6.94±0.06 ab 6.81±0.05 bc 6.75±0.04 c

0.5% GA 7.00±0.06 a 6.93±0.07 ab 6.83±0.09 ab 6.74±0.06 b


Control 6.92±0.05 a2 6.83±0.07 ab2 6.79±0.07 ab2 6.67±0.08 b

1% TSP 7.32±0.07 a1 7.26±0.05 a1 6.98±0.04 b1 6.78±0.06 c

1% FF 7.33±0.06 a1 7.19±0.04 a1 6.91±0.09 b12 6.77±0.05 b

0.5% GT 7.32±0.06 a1 7.24±0.04 a1 6.96±0.04 b12 6.64±0.04 c

0.5% GA 7.28±0.05 a1 7.13±0.05 b1 6.87±0.03 c12 6.60±0.07 d


Control 6.92±0.05 a2 6.82±0.06 ab2 6.68±0.07 bc2 6.55±0.07 c2

1% TSP 7.30±0.04 a1 7.15±0.05 a1 6.91±0.05 b1 6.75±0.07 c1

1% FF 7.26±0.03 a1 7.07±0.06 b1 6.83±0.08 c1,2 6.71±0.05 c1,2

0.5% GT 7.32±0.04 a1 7.14±0.06 b1 6.96±0.07 c1 6.62±0.05 d1,2

0.5% GA 7.23±0.06 a1 7.07±0.05 a1 6.80±0.06 b1,2 6.64±0.06 b1,2


Control 7.08±0.06 a 6.82±0.06 b 6.63±0.08 bc 6.50±0.09 c

1% TSP 7.27±0.07 a 6.98±0.06 b 6.77±0.08 c 6.62±0.08 c

1% FF 7.17±0.08 a 6.98±0.06 ab 6.80±0.08 b 6.57±0.06 c

0.5% GT 7.03±0.06 a 6.83±0.06 ab 6.64±0.09 bc 6.50±0.09 c

0.5% GA 7.03±0.06 a 6.88±0.07 a 6.61±0.08 b 6.44±0.07 b

Overall acceptability

Control 6.92±0.06 a1 6.89±0.06 a2 6.69±0.07 b2 6.42±0.07 c2

1% TSP 7.17±0.07 a1,2 6.97±0.07 b1,2 6.89±0.06 bc1 6.75±0.05 c1

1% FF 7.26±0.06 a1 7.13±0.04 a1 6.87±0.06 b1,2 6.63±0.05 c1

0.5% GT 7.22±0.04 a1,2 6.95±0.06 b2 6.87±0.04 b1,2 6.59±0.05 c1,2

0.5% GA 7.08±0.06 a2,3 6.90±0.05 b2 6.70±0.06 c2 6.58±0.07 c1,2

*Mean±S.E. with different superscripts row wise (alphabet) and column wise (numeral) differ significantly(P

Fleischwirtschaft international 1_2018


Research &Development

in all products except the product with an optimum level of tamarind seed

powder.The decrease in juiciness could be attributed to some loss of

moisture during aerobic storage. There was asignificant decrease (P0.05) in the mean sensory scores of the overall acceptability.The overall

acceptability of the products decreased, which was expected due to the

increase in lipid oxidation, pigment oxidation and degradation of proteins

and fats in extended restructured mutton chops with the advancement in

storage period.


The incorporation of different bind enhancing agents in extended restructured

mutton chops resulted in improved cooking yields and shear force

values of the products as compared to control. The fat content was highest

in the product incorporated with flaxseed flour (1%). The inclusion of

tamarind seed powder (1%)and flaxseed flour (1%)not onlyimproved the

binding and texture of the product but also led to an increased overall

acceptability of the product. Water activity was recorded lowest for the

product incorporated with tamarind seed powder (1%)indicating more shelf

life of this product when compared to others. The microbiological study

revealed that all products could be kept for 15 days at refrigeration temperature

without any marked loss in their quality and sensory attributes.

However, due to the anti-oxidant behavior of tamarind seed powder and

flaxseed flour, their products showed better results. Therefore, tamarind

seed powder and flaxseed flour were found to equallyefficacious in improving

the binding of extended restructured mutton chops which in turn,

will make the product more economicallyviable due to its cheaper cost.


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Authors’ addresses

Heena Sharma (corresponding author: s.heenavet@gmail.com), Dairy Technology Division,

ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, Haryana, India; B.D. Sharma and Suman

Talukder, Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar,

Bareilly-243122, Uttar Pradesh, India; Meena Goswami Awasthi, Division of Livestock Products

Technology, DUVASU, Mathura-281001,Uttar Pradesh, India, and Imran Ahmed Ganai, Programme

Assistant, Mountain Research Centre for Sheep and Goat, Skuast-Kashmir, Srinagar-190025,

Jammu &Kashmir, India


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Undulylong lists of references will not be printed. Those interested

can obtain these from the author.

r 8. The academic degrees and full postal addresses of all the authors

should be given at the end of the paper as well as minimum one e-mail

address for quick contact.

r 9. Abbreviations should be avoided as far as possible in the text; if

they are unavoidable the word should be given in full the first time with

the abbreviation following in brackets.

r 10.The tables should be confined to essentials. They should be set out

on separate sheets, numbered seriallyand appear under asubheading.

Areference to each table should be made at the relevant place in

the text. Abbreviations should be explained at the end of the table.

r 11. Figures (photos and diagrams) should be given separatelyand

numbered. Legends to the figures should appear on aseparate sheet.

When inserting the captions it should be remembered that they must

still be legible should the figure have to be reduced in size. Areference

to each figure must be given in the relevant part of the text.

Reading of research papers

Presented research papers are read by FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international

reviewers (see list of editorial board). The authors are informed of

their decision without the reviewers’ names being given. Papers dealing

with practical experiences in the meat industry or with new developments

in the practice are reviewed onlybythe editor.


Along with the printed version the text of the manuscript (including

legends to figures, tables and literature references) should either be

provided on adisk or electronically. Please save the text as MS-Word.x

data file. If you use other word-processing-programmes, please talk to

the editorial department to determine their compatibility.Photos shall

be provided as jpg-files with a300 dpi resolution.

E-mail address of FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international:

info@fleischwirtschaft.com March 2018

Schedule and Topics 2018

Issue ED OD PD Topics in Focus, Trade Fair Specials Fairsand Exhibitions

















Made in







15.01.18 05.02.18 06.03.18

19.03.18 09.04.18 09.05.18

15.05.18 05.06.18 04.07.18

18.07.18 08.08.18 06.09.18

07.09.18 28.09.18 30.10.18

15.10.18 05.11.18 04.12.18

26.02.18 19.03.18 16.04.18

16.07.18 06.08.18 03.09.18

- 15.05.18 19.06.18

29.12.17 19.01.18 14.02.18

25.07.18 15.08.18 10.09.18

Anuga FoodTec Main Issue

Smoking, Air-Conditioning and Ripening Technology,

Liquid Smoke

Extracting, Processing, Packaging of Poultry Meat

Mincing, Blending, Mixing

Hygiene and Disinfection, Cleanroom Technology

Anuga FoodTec Review

Meat from Europe and the world

Production of RawSausage and RawHam

Meat Gaining: Slaughtering and Cutting Up

Seasonings, Additives, Ingredients

Cutting Technology,Packaging (Machinery and Materials),


Production of Convenience Foods, Halal and Superfood

Filling, Portioning, Clipping

Planning, Building, Fitting of Plants


Cooking, Pickling, Tumbling, Ham Production

Preservation of Meat and Meat Products

TOPSELLER -Products, Solutions and Ideas

SIAL Main Issue

Meat Gaining and Cutting Up

Extracting and Processing of Poultry Meat

Process Control, Automation, Industry 4.0

Packaging (Machinery and Materials), Labelling

CIMIE and ANUFOOD Main Issue

Mincing, Filling, Clipping


Hygiene and Disinfection, Cleanroom Technology

Seasonings, Additives, Ingredients

Made in Europe is the Trade Directory of

Leading European Suppliersfor the Chinese

Meat Industry

SIAL Main Issue

Meat Gaining and Cutting Up

Extracting and Processing of Poultry Meat

Process Control, Automation, Industry 4.0

Packaging (Machinery and Materials), Labelling

CIMIE and ANUFOOD Main Issue

Mincing, Filling, Clipping


Hygiene and Disinfection, Cleanroom Technology

Seasonings, Additives, Ingredients

IPPE, AMI‘s International Meat Expo,

Georgia, Atlanta, USA,

30.01. -01.02.18

Gulfood,Dubai, UAE,

18.02. -22.02.18

Cfia,Rennes, France,

13.03. -15.03.18

Anuga FoodTec,Cologne, Germany,

20.03. -23.03.18

Foodex,Birmingham, UK,

16.04. -18.04.18

Hannover Messe,

23.04. -27.04.18

Seafood Expo,Brussels, Belgium,

24.04. -26.04.18

Meat Vision Day,Frankfurt, Germany,


SIAL,Shanghai, China,

16.05. -18.05.18


12.06. -15.06.18

FachPack,Nuremberg, Germany,

25.09. -27.09.18


30.09. -03.10.18

Meat Industry/AgroProdMash,

Moscow,Russia, 08.10. -12.10.18

Pack-Expo International, Chicago,

USA, 14.10. -17.10.18

CIMIE,Beijing, China,

18.10. -20.10.18

ANUFOOD,Beijing, China,

05.11. -07.11.2018


21.10. -25.10.18

FoodTech,Herning, Denmark,

13.11. -15.11.18

Meatmania,Sofia, Bulgaria,

November 2018

SME,Shanghai Meat Industry

Exhibition, 2018

ED = Editorial Deadline; OD = Ordering Deadline; PD = Publication Date

We reserve the right to make any necessary changes. Please see also www.fleischwirtschaft.com/mediakit

Contact us:

Editorial department FLEISCHWIRTSCHAFT international

(Editorial deadline 3weeks before ordering deadline)

Mainzer Landstrasse 251 |60326 Frankfurt am Main |Germany

Phone +49 69 7595-1575 |Fax +49 69 7595-1570 |E-mail info@fleischwirtschaft.com

E-Mail red-flw@dfv.de | www.fleischwirtschaft.de

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