Planet under Pressure

The 2020s are the make-or-break decade for Sustainability. But Covid-19 questions almost everything. How can we handle increasingly frequent shocks? What can a resilient society and economy that is in line with planetary boundaries look like? These and many other questions are discussed in the new 2020 edition of the Global Goals Yearbook titled “Planet under Pressure”. The Yearbook supports the UN Sustainable Development Goals and is one of the publications in strong international demand.

The 2020s are the make-or-break decade for Sustainability. But Covid-19 questions almost everything. How can we handle increasingly frequent shocks? What can a resilient society and economy that is in line with planetary boundaries look like? These and many other questions are discussed in the new 2020 edition of the Global Goals Yearbook titled “Planet under Pressure”. The Yearbook supports the UN Sustainable Development Goals and is one of the publications in strong international demand.


Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.





2020<br />

<strong>Planet</strong> <strong>under</strong><br />

<strong>Pressure</strong><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


This publication is kindly supported by:<br />

Arab African International Bank<br />

Audi<br />

BASF<br />

Bayer<br />

Beaulieu International Group<br />

Bosch Group<br />

Business Keeper<br />

CEMEX<br />

Clariant<br />

EDF Group<br />

Elomatic<br />

E.ON<br />

Green Delta Insurance Company<br />

Inditex<br />

iPoint-systems<br />

Knorr-Bremse<br />

K+S<br />


macondo foundation<br />

MAN<br />

Merck<br />

MTU Aero Engines<br />

Netafim<br />

Nomura Group<br />

pervormance international<br />

Philip Morris International<br />

Sakhalin Energy<br />

SAP<br />

Symrise<br />

Vonovia<br />

Wilo Group<br />

The Global Goals Yearbook is a product of macondo publishing GmbH in support of the Sustainable Development Goals, and the advancement of<br />

corporate sustainability globally. This publication is intended strictly for learning purposes. The inclusion of company names and / or examples<br />

does not constitute an endorsement of the individual companies by the United Nations.<br />

2 Global Goals Yearbook 2020

H.E. António Guterres<br />

The Covid-19 pandemic has plunged us into an<br />

UN Secretary-General<br />

acute health and economic crisis, the severity of<br />

“<br />

which has not been seen in nearly a century.<br />

Secretary-General's remarks to<br />

High-level segment of the United The socio-economic impacts will likely unfold<br />

Nations Economic and Social Council<br />

for years to come. The crisis risks halting and<br />

on July, 17, 2020.<br />

reversing progress on poverty eradication,<br />

food security, gender equality and other Sustainable Development<br />

Goals. The pandemic has exposed and exacerbated vulnerabilities and<br />

inequalities within and among countries. It has reconfirmed that the<br />

systems on which we depend – food, trade, health, climate – are not only<br />

increasingly interdependent, but increasingly fragile.<br />

Indeed, the pandemic has <strong>under</strong>scored the world’s fragilities not just<br />

in the face of a health emergency, but in confronting the climate<br />

crisis, lawlessness in cyberspace, and the still-very-real risks of nuclear<br />

proliferation. As we strive to respond and recover, we must reexamine<br />

many longstanding assumptions and reconsider the approaches that<br />

have led us astray.<br />

We must also reimagine the way nations cooperate. The pandemic has<br />

<strong>under</strong>scored the need for a strengthened and renewed multilateralism:<br />

A multilateralism based on the powerful ideals and objectives enshrined<br />

in the Charter and in the agreements defined across the decades since.<br />

A multilateralism built on trust, that is based on international law<br />

and is geared towards the overarching goals of peace and security,<br />

human rights and sustainable development. We need a networked multi-<br />

lateralism, in which the United Nations and its agencies, the international<br />

financial institutions, regional organizations and others work<br />

together more effectively with stronger institutional links. And we need<br />

an inclusive multilateralism, drawing on the critical contributions of civil<br />

society, business, foundations, the research community, local authorities,<br />

cities and regional governments.<br />

This, in turn, will help lead to an effective multilateralism with the<br />

mechanisms it needs to make global governance work where it is needed.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


QUOTE<br />

3 H.E. António Guterres,<br />

United Nations<br />

Secretary-General<br />




10 Resilience in the Time of<br />

Pandemic<br />

Dr. Elmer Lenzen<br />

50 Covid-19 Makes ESG Factors<br />

More Financially Relevant<br />

Meaghan Muldoon<br />

54 The Corona Effect<br />

Four Future Scenarios<br />


60 We Are Creating Conditions<br />

for Diseases such as Covid-19<br />

to Emerge<br />

John Vidal<br />

66 Caught on Film<br />

Actor & Activist Edward Norton<br />

James Evans<br />

70 Paradigm Shifts, Reactance, and<br />

Fighting Our Demons<br />

Prof. Dr. Harald Welzer<br />

REVIEW<br />

148 Review to the Global Goals<br />

Forum: Berlin – October 10, 2019<br />

2030 Agenda: Are we running<br />

out of time?<br />

17 The <strong>Planet</strong>ary Momentum<br />

Prof. Dr. Dr. Stefan Brunnhuber<br />

22 "The most radical decelerator of<br />

our time"<br />

Hartmut Rosa<br />


26 The EU Recovery and Resilience<br />

Plan<br />

Interview with EU Commissioner<br />

Paulo Gentiloni<br />

<br />

10<br />

Resilience in the Time<br />

of Pandemic<br />

32 10 Theses on the Coronavirus for<br />

the State and Society<br />

Dr. Markus Engels<br />

36 Global Governance vs. National<br />

Sovereignty: To Whom Does the<br />

Amazon Belong?<br />

Dr. Dominic Lenzi<br />


42 Guidance and Arguments for a<br />

More Sustainable World During<br />

Covid-19 Recovery<br />

Interview with Emily Auckland,<br />

Pietro Bertazzi,<br />

Prof. Dr. Maja Göpel, and<br />

Julian Hill-Landolt

26<br />

Interview with<br />

EU Commissioner<br />

Paulo Gentiloni<br />


78 Arab African International Bank<br />

80 Audi<br />

82 BASF<br />

84 Bayer<br />

86 Beaulieu International Group<br />

88 Bosch Group<br />

90 Business Keeper<br />

60<br />

We Are Creating Conditions<br />

for Diseases such as<br />

Covid-19 to Emerge<br />

92 CEMEX<br />

94 Clariant<br />

96 EDF Group<br />

98 Elomatic<br />

100 E.ON<br />

102 Green Delta Insurance Company<br />

104 Inditex<br />

106 iPoint-systems<br />

110 Knorr-Bremse<br />

112 K+S<br />

116 KYOCERA<br />

118 macondo foundation<br />

122 MAN<br />

124 Merck<br />

66<br />

Caught on Film<br />

Actor & Activist<br />

Edward Norton<br />

126 MTU Aero Engines<br />

128 Netafim<br />

130 Nomura Group<br />

132 pervormance international<br />

134 Philip Morris International<br />

138 Sakhalin Energy<br />

140 SAP<br />

142 Symrise<br />

144 Vonovia<br />

146 Wilo Group

<strong>Planet</strong> <strong>under</strong><br />

<strong>Pressure</strong><br />

The 2020s are the make-or-break decade<br />

for the Global Goals. We say this every<br />

decade, but this time it really is true. 2020<br />

ought to be a super year for nature issues.<br />

That's why we have chosen to focus on<br />

PLANET. But then lockdown came. Since<br />

then the world as we know is rapidly<br />

changing before our eyes. The Covid-19<br />

pandemic is a profound stress test for all<br />

life on earth. Many of the sustainability<br />

successes already achieved could fall victim<br />

to the crisis. That's why we have added<br />

the word PRESSURE. Now begins the time<br />

for a fresh start: Recover better, recover<br />

stronger, recover together. Three questions<br />

will be in the focus: What are the<br />

principles that will organize the future?<br />

How do we safeguard the path change to<br />

sustainability? How do we learn to deal<br />

constructively with asymmetric shocks,<br />

disruptions and conflicting goals? That<br />

means living on a planet <strong>under</strong> pressure.<br />

JUNE<br />

Originally planned<br />

timeline 2020<br />

UN Ocean Conference in Lisbon, Portugal<br />

“Scaling up ocean action based on science and innovation<br />

for the implementation of Goal 14: stocktaking, partnerships<br />

and solutions”<br />

6 Global Goals Yearbook 2020

JULY<br />

High-level Political Forum, in New York, USA<br />

"Accelerated action and transformative pathways: realizing the<br />

decade of action and delivery for sustainable development"<br />


Climate Week NYC 2020, in New York, USA<br />

... will explore what lessons we can learn in the pursuit of a<br />

net-zero future through just transition.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />



Uniting Business LIVE<br />

Combining 3 in-person events to one virtual roundup:<br />

Private Sector Forum, Global Impact Forum and<br />

SDG Business Forum<br />


75th Anniversary of the UN<br />

"The Future We Want, the UN We Need: Reaffirming<br />

our Collective Commitment to Multilateralism" with<br />

pre-recorded statements by heads of state and government<br />

8 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


UN Biodiversity Conference (COP 15), in Kunming, China<br />

Thematic consultation on the sustainable use of biological<br />

diversity for the post‐2020 global biodiversity framework<br />


COP26 UN Climate Conference, in Glasgow, UK<br />

The run-up to see if countries make long-term commitments<br />

to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


10 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Resilience<br />

in the Time of Pandemic<br />

How can we handle increasingly frequent shocks? What can a resilient society and<br />

economy that is in line with planetary boundaries look like? What options do we have,<br />

and which ones are already being implemented in practice? Can this work without<br />

risking our prosperity?<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


Dr. Elmer Lenzen<br />

Publisher<br />

Global Goals Yearbook<br />

The Covid-19 pandemic is keeping<br />

the world in suspense in 2020 and<br />

beyond. By declaring a “lockdown,”<br />

countries around the world have temporarily<br />

frozen their social, economic,<br />

and cultural lives in order to slow the<br />

spread of the virus.<br />

When such unexpected events occur,<br />

experts speak of “asymmetric shocks.”<br />

However, the pandemic is not the only<br />

crisis in recent times: The last decade<br />

has been characterized by a whole series<br />

of severe shocks. The intervals between<br />

them appear to be getting shorter and<br />

shorter: the financial crisis in 2008/2009,<br />

the refugee crisis in 2015, Brexit (and, as<br />

a result, an EU integration crisis), unbelievable<br />

losses of biodiversity, increases in<br />

extreme weather events due to climate<br />

change, to name but a few. And it will<br />

not be the last crisis: In the aftermath of<br />

the lockdown, there are already signs of<br />

an impending global food crisis that is<br />

due to destroy supply chains, and a debt<br />

crisis – right up to national bankruptcy<br />

– due to the economic consequences of<br />

the pandemic.<br />

Living with the crisis: “The new<br />

normal“?<br />

If such crisis-like external influences are<br />

to a certain extent unavoidable, then<br />

the logical question is: What about our<br />

ability to adapt to such shocks? The ideas<br />

of vulnerability and resilience have recently<br />

gained a high level of prominence<br />

in the current economic and political<br />

debates. Specifically “resilience” has<br />

become a standard term in the OECD,<br />

the EU, and the G20 conference formats.<br />

In addition, in the Anglo-Saxon world,<br />

numerous grassroots movements have<br />

formed – participating in what they call<br />

“community resilience” – and are closely<br />

linked to the sufficiency, degrowth, and<br />

commons movements.<br />

Purely in terms of the number of mentions,<br />

the concept of “resilience” is in<br />

the process of supplanting that of “sustainability”<br />

due to the frequency with<br />

which it is being used in (economic)<br />

political discourse. However, the term<br />

also runs the risk of becoming a filler<br />

word to give new emphasis to old demands.<br />

The Bertelsmann Foundation<br />

rightly points this out in a study from<br />

2017: “However, the virtually inflationary<br />

use of the resilience concept has<br />

been accompanied by a lack of precision.<br />

In particular, there is often no<br />

clear <strong>under</strong>standing that alongside its<br />

static interpretation (retention of a system’s<br />

existing functions in the case of<br />

a crisis), crisis resilience also includes<br />

an adaptive dimension (adjustment to<br />

new surrounding conditions).”<br />

What exactly does resilience mean?<br />

The term “resilience” comes from the<br />

Latin resalire (to jump back). The English<br />

translation “resilience” is commonly<br />

translated as “resistant.” Many interpret<br />

this resilience to mean that one returns<br />

to the starting position after an external<br />

impact. This corresponds to the image of<br />

a pendulum. This is catchy and visual,<br />

but nevertheless wrong, because it does<br />

not take into account dynamic changes<br />

in the society: People can, for example,<br />

learn from past events and prepare for<br />

imponderables to come. In a natural system,<br />

processing shock is predetermined<br />

(natural curve); in a man-made system,<br />

we can shape it (learning curve).<br />

The Bertelsmann study therefore concludes:<br />

“Resilience thus no longer necessarily<br />

refers to the ability of a system to<br />

return to the old and unchanged state<br />

after a short deviation. Rather, adaptive<br />

resilience is based on the ability to make<br />

a transition to a possibly new state that<br />

is no less satisfactory than the old state.”<br />

12 Global Goals Yearbook 2020




Connections to other discourses<br />

► Anthropocene: The debate about the Anthropocene shares similar<br />

approaches with the discourses on vulnerability and resilience – especially<br />

regarding socio-ecological systems.<br />

► <strong>Planet</strong>ary boundaries: The discourse on planetary boundaries is strongly<br />

linked to the debate about the Anthropocene and was mainly established<br />

through the Stockholm Resilience Center, which was also involved in the<br />

popularization of the resilience discourse in the context of socio-ecological<br />

systems.<br />

► Good life: The debate about a good life – for example in the context of “Buen<br />

Vivir” in Latin America or Gross National Happiness in Bhutan – is gaining<br />

importance on the political level in Germany as well as internationally.<br />

► Security: While the vulnerability concept can be traced back to military<br />

research, the discourse on resilience is increasingly taking up room in<br />

debates on security policy. This is especially evident in the intense<br />

psychological debate on vulnerability and resilience of soldiers in the<br />

United States, and it is finding prominence within their training programs.<br />

Source: UBA 2017: Nachhaltigkeit 2.0 – Modernisierungsansätze zum Leitbild der<br />

nachhaltigen Entwicklung Diskurs „Vulnerabilität und Resilienz“<br />

Back to the future or past?<br />

Already in ancient times, the philosopher<br />

Heraclitus knew that you cannot go into<br />

the same river twice. And so it is with<br />

the return to normality after an external<br />

shock event. If one keeps this in mind<br />

– and at the same time remembers the<br />

frequency with which the concept of resilience<br />

is used in politics – it is surprising<br />

that most definitions are extremely<br />

imprecise. A recent working paper of<br />

the European Central Bank, for example,<br />

says: “Resilience is <strong>under</strong>stood here as<br />

the capacity to minimise output losses<br />

once an adverse shock hits the economy.”<br />

This equating of resilience with the reduction<br />

in growth impacts does not help<br />

us. The definition is backward-looking,<br />

and there is no reflection on how the<br />

“new normal” can look and be assessed<br />

after a crisis. A one-dimensional growth<br />

path is easy to measure, but that is no<br />

longer enough to explain a world that<br />

knows planetary boundaries, conflicting<br />

goals, and development goals. Let’s >><br />


Massive disturbance<br />

e.g. revolution<br />

System<br />

Tipping point<br />

System<br />

The degree of resilience is measured by the strength of the<br />

shock absorbed by the system before the original equilibrium<br />

is finally destabilized (“tipping point”).<br />

Damped vibrations<br />

after regime change<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


take a closer look at the example of the<br />

Covid-19 pandemic: In retrospect, the<br />

pandemic mercilessly exposed the weaknesses<br />

of our globalized world. These<br />

include, in particular, the insights that<br />

• those at the bottom of the wealth and<br />

income spectrum are being hit the<br />

hardest by Covid-19;<br />

• there is <strong>under</strong>investment in almost all<br />

healthcare systems around the world;<br />

• (multilateral) institutions have badly<br />

eroded;<br />

• flattening the infection curve means<br />

also flattening the economic heartbeat;<br />

• there has been too big a focus of many<br />

company leaders on “just in time” production.<br />

At the same time, the discussion about<br />

the lessons of the crisis is gaining momentum.<br />

Economic recovery packages<br />

of well over $4 trillion have been<br />

launched all over the world to revive<br />

local economies. This is a once-in-ageneration<br />

opportunity; there will probably<br />

never be so much money available<br />

again in this century. Will we use this<br />

money in the short, medium, or long<br />

term? Are we going to use the thousands<br />

of billions for a very concrete,<br />

ecological-social transformation of the<br />

economy? A different, better future<br />

seems possible – with more solidarity<br />

and sustainability as well as a fundamentally<br />

rethought society.<br />

But the defenders of the old world order<br />

are also active: Lobbyists, industrial associations,<br />

and political parties are at<br />

their best worldwide. On the agenda<br />

are therefore not only sustainability<br />

goals, but also demands for subsidies,<br />

tax cuts, the weakening of climate goals,<br />

the postponement of the National Action<br />

Plans on Business and Human Rights, etc.<br />

These two opposing positions raise a<br />

number of fundamental questions: Do<br />

state interventions aimed at sustainable<br />

economic transformation fit in a time<br />

when many companies are struggling to<br />

survive? Why should we spend billions<br />

of dollars and euros to save jobs in the<br />

automotive, tourism, and aviation industries<br />

when such sectors may not have a<br />

future in a low-carbon world anyway?<br />

How do we know which industries will<br />

no longer be needed in the future? Are<br />

we using the crisis as an opportunity<br />

for change, or is it immoral to mix the<br />

plight of the crisis victims with social<br />

goals and desires?<br />

14 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


How does resilience work in<br />

practice?<br />

The answers to these questions will be<br />

crucial in determining the strategies for<br />

the post–Covid-19 world.<br />

1. Economy<br />

The main issue now is to realign supply<br />

chains. Many experts suspect that there<br />

will be a de-globalization. Production<br />

will move closer to the sales markets<br />

again. It is no longer a question of “just<br />

in time,” but also “just in case.” However,<br />

we must not forget the consequences for<br />

workers in developing countries who<br />

could be affected by de-globalization. The<br />

American economist Barry Eichengreen<br />

therefore warns: “But this is a small<br />

problem compared to the impact on<br />

labor. In other words, while there has<br />

been no destruction of physical capital<br />

in the pandemic, the risk of damage to<br />

human capital is significant.”<br />

2. Society<br />

An exclusive interview with EU Commissioner<br />

Paolo Gentiloni, who is responsible<br />

for economic affairs as well as<br />

the SDGs, highlights the link between<br />

society, economy, and the environment.<br />

We talk about state opportunities, global<br />

interdependencies, and the dilemma<br />

of sustainability as a community and<br />

generational task.<br />

The state and its international communities<br />

play the leading role in absorbing<br />

external shocks, writes Markus Engels,<br />

Secretary-General of the Global Solutions<br />

Initiative, in his essay. But for the<br />

future, we need a debate about what<br />

kind of protections we want to retain<br />

for basic rights following this crisis. The<br />

good news is: Populist heads of state and<br />

government are part of the problem, not<br />

the solution.<br />

In a White Paper, The Zukunftsinstitut<br />

describes four possible scenarios of how<br />

the corona crisis<br />

can transform the world. They are based<br />

on two central basic coordinates that<br />

describe the possible directions of development:<br />

Successful relationships versus<br />

unsuccessful relationships (optimistic<br />

versus pessimistic), and local versus<br />

global (disconnected versus connected).<br />

This brings us to the important point that<br />

crises not only change systems, but also<br />

the people in the system. If acceleration<br />

is the problem, then the solution, argues<br />

the well-known sociologist Hartmut Rosa,<br />

lies in “resonance.” The quality of a<br />

human life cannot be measured simply<br />

in terms of resources, options, and moments<br />

of happiness, Rosa explains in an<br />

interview in this Yearbook. Instead, we<br />

must consider our resonance with the<br />

world. Resonance and resilience can<br />

perhaps be used synonymously.<br />

3. Agenda 2030<br />

What will be the new normal? What<br />

will happen after corona? These are<br />

frequently asked questions, but they do<br />

not go far enough.<br />

We had better ask ourselves: What are the<br />

principles that will organize the future?<br />

Guiding ideas such as “just transition” or<br />

“leave no one behind” continue to play<br />

an important role in this context. From<br />

a sustainability perspective, “keep it up”<br />

cannot be an option. Climate change,<br />

planetary overexploitation, and a lack<br />

of distributive justice speak against it.<br />

From a transformation point of view, the<br />

moment when there is less stability is<br />

the moment when there is a potential<br />

for much deeper and stronger change.<br />

Everybody feels that the future is much<br />

more open than it used to be. How that<br />

moment of instability is used depends<br />

on who is putting forward what kind of<br />

ideas, who has influence, and who gets<br />

more to say and to decide. A very vivid<br />

panel discussion with Emily Auckland<br />

(UKSSD), Julian Hill-Landolt (WBCSD),<br />

Maja Goepel (Scientists for Future), and<br />

Pietro Bertazzi (CDP) clearly shows the<br />

connection between sustainability, crisis,<br />

reconstruction, and pitfalls.<br />

4. Global megatrends<br />

What is important in all of this is that<br />

we not only grasp the current crisis, but<br />

also think about the other existing crises<br />

and the coming crises. Only then will<br />

our future be resilient.<br />

a) Loss of biodiversity<br />

Recent UN reports show that 1,000,000<br />

species are threatened with extinction.<br />

The IPBES Chair, Sir Robert Watson, says:<br />

“The health of ecosystems on which we<br />

and all other species depend is deteriorating<br />

more rapidly than ever. We are<br />

eroding the very foundations of our<br />

economies, livelihoods, food security,<br />

health, and quality of life worldwide.”<br />

This has an economic aspect: According<br />

to UN studies, the monetary value of<br />

goods and services provided by ecosystems<br />

is estimated to amount to about<br />

$33 trillion per year. The other aspect is<br />

health: As habitat and biodiversity losses<br />

increase globally, the novel coronavirus<br />

outbreak may be just the beginning of<br />

mass pandemics, says John Vidal. In >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


his article, he warns that we are creating<br />

conditions for diseases such as Covid-19<br />

to emerge.<br />

b) Climate change and consumption<br />

In his essay, Harald Welzer warns that<br />

the ecological problems of the present<br />

day, and climate change too, are ultimately<br />

due to the fact that expansive<br />

luxury consumption unleashes its<br />

destructive power, especially when it<br />

becomes mass consumption. We as individuals<br />

do things that we know to be<br />

wrong but we cope with it astoundingly<br />

well. Changing behavior means "fighting<br />

our demons."<br />

But there is hope: Project Civilization<br />

is not over and continues still today.<br />

But neither does it have a finite goal or<br />

an ultimate solution. Society must be<br />

adaptable to changing conditions and<br />

requirements and deal with mistakes<br />

and collateral damage – and therefore<br />

be correctable.<br />

c) Multilateralism<br />

believes that the Amazon fires show<br />

why we need global governance in the<br />

Anthropocene.<br />

d) The efficiency trap<br />

The WBCSD states in a recent study: “In<br />

the coming months and years, companies<br />

will need to prioritize resilience-building<br />

to ensure they are better prepared for the<br />

next shock when it comes. For many, this<br />

will mean establishing a better balance<br />

between efficiency and resilience in everything<br />

from supply chain configuration<br />

to financial management.”<br />

Unconsidered efficiency becomes a risk:<br />

Overly complex systems and supply<br />

chains are very sensitive. Agriculture<br />

also teaches us that although monocultures<br />

are very efficient, they also<br />

lead to high vulnerability. Eichengreen<br />

concludes: “For firms, enhanced security<br />

and certainty will mean higher costs and<br />

lower productivity, which will translate<br />

into higher prices for consumers.”<br />

The planetary limits of growth play another<br />

important role. In our world, dealing<br />

with limited resources is a constant reality,<br />

and therefore normal. Mario Schmidt<br />

writes an essay on the importance of efficiency<br />

for sustainability: “In the market<br />

economy, the profit motive of individuals<br />

is used to accomplish this task. However,<br />

the maximization of profits by companies<br />

is only a means to an end and not, as is<br />

often circulated, the goal in itself. An<br />

economy that does not fulfill its social<br />

function is ultimately impractical.”<br />

The road to recovery is paved with uncertainty,<br />

agrees EU Commissioner for<br />

Economy, Paolo Gentiloni. And he adds<br />

in his detailed interview that the EU<br />

will continue defending multilateralism<br />

while working to adapt it to the new<br />

realities of our highly connected and<br />

digitalized world economy.<br />

A practical example of this debate on<br />

multilateralism, the borders of the<br />

nation-state, and the obligations of the<br />

global community is the dispute over<br />

the protection of the Amazon. Lenzi<br />

16 Global Goals Yearbook 2020

The <strong>Planet</strong>ary<br />

Momentum<br />


Asymmetric shocks, global mental<br />

preparedness for change – the paradigm<br />

shift and the economics of anti-fragility<br />

Prof. Dr. Dr. Stefan<br />

Brunnhuber<br />

Professor for Sustainability<br />

and Psychology<br />

Member of the Club of Rome<br />

Asymmetric shocks are the “new normal”<br />

I Asymmetric shocks are shocks that hit human societies even<br />

though we think we have done everything right, and even<br />

though we believe we have not caused this shock. II Asymmetric<br />

shocks affect human societies in an uneven manner,<br />

hitting some harder than others. III Asymmetric shocks affect<br />

entire systems in disruptive and extreme ways, requiring<br />

interventions that go beyond well-known conventional tools<br />

and instruments. Covid-19, global warming, financial crises,<br />

loss of biodiversity, plastic waste, forced migration, terrorist<br />

attacks, failed states, and ongoing deforestation are examples<br />

of such asymmetric shocks.<br />

These shocks can hit anybody on this planet, irrespective<br />

of where they live, how old they are, how much they earn<br />

– anytime and anywhere. In general, any system hit by an<br />

asymmetric shock experiences stress and is put <strong>under</strong> >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


pressure to adapt to the new circumstances. Depending on<br />

the severity of the stressor, its duration, and the system’s own<br />

configuration and resilience, systems either have to readjust<br />

the given rules to improve their governance in order to better<br />

cope with the stressor, or they have to question the rules<br />

of the game themselves in a more radical manner. In this<br />

second alternative, the system needs to find new ways of selforganization,<br />

a new set of rules, and new ways of doing and<br />

processing. As a world community, we presently find ourselves<br />

in such a situation. Asymmetric shocks have become the new<br />

normal, and this requires us to change the rules of the game.<br />

A<br />

B<br />

Rules of the game<br />

identifying the rules<br />

<strong>under</strong> which governance<br />

should play out<br />

Playing the game<br />

improving, operating,<br />

competing, and following<br />

the rules of the game<br />

Two forms of governance:<br />

A rules of the game<br />

B playing the game<br />

Governance<br />

Process governance<br />

remaining agnostic about<br />

the results like chess,<br />

monopoly or market<br />

Goal governance<br />

determined by the targets<br />

to be achieved like social<br />

and enviromental projects<br />

Though humanity has always experienced crises, catastrophes,<br />

and conflicts, this time is different: As a world community<br />

in the 21st century, we are better equipped with empirical<br />

scientific evidence than ever; we have a deeper and better<br />

<strong>under</strong>standing of complex, non-linear systems; we have dozens<br />

of new disruptive digital technologies at hand that can help<br />

us to navigate this Kairos moment; and we have a strong third<br />

sector involving millions of non-governmental organizations<br />

able to step in with their expertise and hands-on experience,<br />

well-placed to change the world. In fact, this Kairos moment<br />

helps us to better <strong>under</strong>stand that, historically, globalization<br />

started some 100 years ago with the trading of goods, followed<br />

first by the exchange of capital flows all over the world, and<br />

then by the exchange of services. Until 1989, globalization<br />

followed the aim of increasing national wealth and well-being.<br />

Following the 1992 Washington Consensus, however, globalization<br />

became an end in itself, with isolated agencies and<br />

individuals able to benefit, and nations themselves becoming<br />

a means of enriching this globalized elite. This overstretching,<br />

which lasted almost three decades, is now over. Now we are<br />

entering “Globalization 4.0,” where we not only share goods,<br />

capital, and services, but also where we are poised to share<br />

common values such as trust, cooperation, reciprocal tolerance,<br />

and agnostic solidarity. about We are starting to <strong>under</strong>stand that we<br />

remaining<br />

the need results a failure-friendly like chess, environment in which we can make<br />

monopoly mistakes or market and accept advice from others without losing face<br />

– all on a global scale. It is this form of Globalization 4.0 that<br />

will provide us with the required humility and grace, grit, and<br />

determined by the targets<br />

mindfulness to move forward toward a new era.<br />

to be achieved like social,<br />

enviromental projects<br />

Dealing with uncertainty: Dancing with the system and<br />

finding the right attractor<br />

Global mental preparedness for change: The “Kairos<br />

moment”<br />

Any changes to the rules of the game require the mental readiness<br />

to do so. For the first time in history, we are witnessing<br />

a collective mental readiness across the globe for change for<br />

the 7.5 billion humans on this planet. The viral pandemic has<br />

triggered this preparedness. Governments all over the world<br />

have proven they are willing to take radical steps and bold<br />

decisions, embracing more far-reaching perspectives than<br />

ever before. However, there are now two ways to go. One way<br />

takes us back into a business-as-usual scenario, whereas the<br />

other leads us forwards toward new thinking, making a new<br />

paradigm possible. Humanity has not experienced an opportunity<br />

like this for decades, if not centuries. This is a kind of<br />

“Kairos moment.” In Greek mythology, Kairos was the god of<br />

the right moment and the perfect opportunity. We are now<br />

experiencing such a Kairos moment.<br />

Never in history have we been confronted with so much<br />

information, so much ignorance, and so many unknown<br />

factors at the same time, and never have we had to take so<br />

many relevant decisions <strong>under</strong> such uncertainties and time<br />

pressures. The uncertainties we face are not entirely quantifiable,<br />

and probability statistics will not help us to put a price<br />

tag on them. They are not complicated puzzles we can solve,<br />

but rather complex mysteries we can discover. These uncertainties<br />

form part of the systems dynamic of every complex<br />

system. They will not go away, but rather require us to adopt<br />

a different attitude. There are several ways of dealing with<br />

such uncertainties. The most prominent way is to create a<br />

false illusion of control through increased regulatory efforts<br />

and more data. Another way is to start avoiding complexity<br />

through denial. A third prominent way is to adopt the so-called<br />

fight or flight mode.<br />

Either way, these approaches are insufficient and inappropriate<br />

for coping with non-linear, complex systems. They<br />

18 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Degrees of globalization<br />

Globalization 1.0<br />

Trading of goods (terms of trade)<br />

Globalization 4.0<br />

Globally shared values<br />

Globalization 3.0<br />

Trading of services – digitalization<br />

Globalization 2.0<br />

Free capital flow – foreign direct investment (FDI)<br />

◄ 1920 1980 1990 2020 ►<br />

Globalization 4.0<br />

Sustainability<br />

100<br />

Optimum<br />

Anti-fragile zone<br />

Natural ecosystems<br />

will then start to engage and deal with<br />

the dilemmas and paradoxes that will not<br />

go away, we will begin to accept that the<br />

unknown is part of any decision-making<br />

and is sharply distinguished from purely<br />

statistical probabilities, and we may end<br />

up with the capability to distinguish<br />

between “relevant” and “less relevant”<br />

issues. If this assessment is correct, then<br />

identifying singular cause–effect relations<br />

through isolated experimental and<br />

analytical designs that only rarely occur<br />

in complex living systems will provide<br />

us with little additional information to<br />

solve complex problems.<br />

Acknowledging this scenario, it will become<br />

more rational for our risk assessments<br />

to look into the future and identify<br />

so-called attractors. Attractors are like<br />

funnels that pull all of a system’s major<br />

variables toward the future, rather than<br />

these variables being pushed by singular<br />

causal links from the past. Our financial<br />

system, digitization, and shifts in our<br />

gravity of consciousness constitute such<br />

fundamental attractors.<br />

Toward an anti-fragile economics:<br />

Improving through failure<br />

0<br />

Resilience<br />

diversity + interconnections<br />

The anti-fragile zone: Improving through failure<br />

cause asymmetric shocks, Black Swan effects, uncontrollable<br />

exponential developments, unexpected knock-on effects, irreversible<br />

tipping points, and feedback loops that nobody can<br />

foresee. Instead, we need to learn to “dance with” or “ride”<br />

the system. This might require us to take a mental pause and<br />

embrace failure-friendly procedures that allow us to explore<br />

new territories and engage in outside-the-box thinking, where<br />

revision, critical public discourse, the introduction of new<br />

ideas, and a new paradigm become the game changers. We<br />

Efficiency<br />

streamlined<br />

Living in a complex, connected, and<br />

constrained world in which non-linear,<br />

non-sequential effects prevail and interdependencies<br />

and multiple perspectives<br />

dominate – a world in which we have to<br />

operate within planetary boundaries and<br />

are equipped with imperfect information<br />

to change the course of history – we have<br />

a collective interest not only in moving<br />

out of the current crisis, but also in solving<br />

the associated problems that caused<br />

the crisis in the first place. The time after<br />

one asymmetric shock is quite literally the time before the<br />

next asymmetric shock. Acknowledging this, we can see that<br />

complex systems find their optimum not in an ever-increasing,<br />

expanding, and streamlined throughput per time, referred to<br />

as “efficiency” (measured in global value chains), but rather in<br />

a balance between efficiency and “resilience” (measured in the<br />

amount of diversity and interconnectedness), sometimes called<br />

the anti-fragile zone. This zone describes a situation in which<br />

we can start to improve and gain from failure.<br />

>><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


The question is: How does this antifragile<br />

zone translate into concrete<br />

steps?<br />

We will start considering new forms of<br />

risk management whereby “total cost<br />

analysis,” which takes the liability of<br />

the entire value chain into account, becomes<br />

more relevant. This would, in<br />

consequence, honor circular “forms of<br />

economy,” where we look at our business<br />

not as a river, where everything downstream<br />

is depreciated and outsourced,<br />

but rather like a lake, where we need<br />

to take potential negative externalities<br />

into account. We will begin to decouple<br />

business from globalization and reach<br />

out to more local, regional, and national<br />

clients and supply chains instead of<br />

global ones. Multi-channel supply chains<br />

and more regional markets will become<br />

key. This process of “regionalization”<br />

already started after the 2008 financial<br />

crisis. Fifty percent of China’s trade is<br />

now with Asia itself, and 70 percent<br />

of the EU’s trading partners are other<br />

EU members. The same is true for the<br />

Americas. This trend will continue.<br />

In such a situation, where less efficiency<br />

and more resilience is required, we will<br />

look very carefully at the concentration<br />

and size of private businesses and<br />

ensure that they are not “too big to fail,”<br />

which would force the public sector and<br />

taxpayer to bail them out when the next<br />

crisis comes around. Instead, we will<br />

favor small but high-performing businesses<br />

(from SMEs to hidden champions).<br />

This could also include new forms of regulated<br />

credit default swaps that help private<br />

companies to better hedge their risks.<br />

Taking this argument one step further<br />

would mean that there will be a renaissance<br />

of governance, administration, and<br />

regulation. This should include a new<br />

mandate for monetary regulators (green<br />

Quantitative Easing, parallel digital currencies,<br />

sovereign green bonds), a new<br />

set of antitrust laws that guarantee fair<br />

market competition, higher quality, and<br />

lower prices, especially for the digital<br />

platform economy. This renaissance of<br />

governance and regulation will put the<br />

perverse subsidies of the agricultural sector<br />

on the table and set up a new form of<br />

political economic agenda, enabling and<br />

ensuring that system-relevant industries<br />

(healthcare, pharmaceuticals) and public<br />

affairs (research and education, public<br />

infrastructure) are properly regulated<br />

for the good of the citizens.<br />

Where digitization will further penetrate<br />

our daily lives, our work places, and our<br />

businesses as a whole, where millions<br />

of jobs will potentially become replaced<br />

by robots and automated industries, we<br />

need to reframe the social fabric in an<br />

intelligent manner by starting to provide<br />

an unconditional basic income. This<br />

would send the message that there are<br />

no more “useless” people, instead turning<br />

them into those “needed, wanted,<br />

and required” for a new age and a new<br />

society.<br />

In a more general sense, we will need<br />

to address the topic of commons and<br />

clarify what a private good and service<br />

is and what is better managed as a public<br />

good. Healthcare, education, and infrastructure<br />

are examples of the latter. This<br />

would include a shift in our energy sector<br />

away from the centralized fossil industry<br />

20 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Where digitization<br />

will further penetrate<br />

our daily lives, our<br />

work places, and our<br />

businesses as a whole,<br />

where millions of jobs<br />

will potentially become<br />

replaced by robots and<br />

automated industries,<br />

we need to reframe<br />

the social fabric in an<br />

intelligent manner by<br />

starting to provide an<br />

unconditional basic<br />

income.<br />

toward more decentralized and regionalized<br />

renewables. Social entrepreneurship will<br />

gain momentum over Big Pharma, Big<br />

Banking, Big Farming, and Big Energy,<br />

where downsizing and rightsizing will<br />

generate a sense of “small is beautiful”<br />

that will become the new standard. This<br />

could even mean that we shift away<br />

from a more production-based economy<br />

toward a more care-based economy, where<br />

human-centered services (nursing, social<br />

work, cultural creatives) are honored<br />

and properly reimbursed. Any necessary<br />

production will be done by a robot<br />

anyway. This anti-fragile zone does not<br />

stop at the societal level, but includes<br />

new consumption patterns and lifestyle<br />

modifications on a personal level, too.<br />

There are countless examples, including<br />

traveling on public transport, riding<br />

a bike, becoming a vegetarian, being<br />

engaged in neighborhood activities, and<br />

so on. The following table summarize<br />

major changes in the corporate business<br />

model and in consumer behaviors to<br />

ensure the shift.<br />

This altogether will finally change our<br />

gravity of consciousness, where mindfulness,<br />

gratitude, humility and forgiveness<br />

will set the path toward a fairer, greener<br />

and more sustainable future. All this is<br />

not an easy task, but it will help us to<br />

better discriminate between the parallel,<br />

multiple worlds we are living in simultaneously<br />

that require different forms of<br />

responsibilities. We might conclude that<br />

instead of being observers and spectators,<br />

we already have become indispensable<br />

players who have the skin in the game.<br />

This is the planetary momentum we<br />

have right now to change the world.<br />

The four "Rs"<br />

Examples<br />

Risk assessment<br />

• Total cost analysis (TCA)<br />

• Taxonomy, Recording, Disclosure (ESC-criteria)<br />

• Regulated credit default swaps (CDS)<br />

Regionalization<br />

Regulation<br />

• Decentralized energy supply and business value chains<br />

• From production-based to care-based economy<br />

• Circular economy<br />

• Decoupling business from globalization<br />

• Small is beautiful<br />

• Renaissance of governance (taxation, surveillance, stress tests)<br />

• Redefining the commons (healthcare; education, environment)<br />

• New social fabric addressing digitalization (unconditioned income)<br />

• Extended central bank mandate (green QE, parallel currencies, CBDC)<br />

• Avoiding ‚ "Too big to fail" (anti-trust laws)<br />

Reshaping behavior<br />

• Individual mobility<br />

• Diet preferences<br />

• Housing and living<br />

The four "Rs": risk assessments, regionalization, regulation, and reshaping individual behavior<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


Sociologist Hartmut Rosa<br />

“<br />

on Covid-19<br />

“The most<br />

radical<br />

decelerator of<br />

our time<br />

The uncontrollable coronavirus has people worldwide<br />

feeling uncertain, says sociologist Hartmut Rosa. But<br />

the crisis may also harbor an opportunity. An interview<br />

conducted by Elena Matera.”<br />

22 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Professor Rosa, in your books you write about<br />

social acceleration in the modern age. What<br />

effect is the coronavirus pandemic having here?<br />

The virus is the most radical decelerator<br />

that we have experienced in the past<br />

200 years. There have been moments<br />

like this from time to time in the past,<br />

for example after September 11, or after<br />

the volcanic eruption in Iceland. In both<br />

cases, air travel came to a halt temporarily.<br />

They were partial decelerators. Public<br />

life was not affected.<br />

It is historically unprecedented for the<br />

modern age, which constantly feeds off<br />

of acceleration, to decelerate as radically<br />

as it has now. It’s as if it had stomped on<br />

the brakes. What’s fascinating about it,<br />

in fact, is that we are the ones stomping<br />

on the brakes. It’s not as if the virus were<br />

eating up our airplanes. We are placing<br />

restrictions on ourselves as a precautionary<br />

measure, which is remarkable indeed.<br />

What are these restrictions doing to people?<br />

For us, many things that were a matter of<br />

course until just recently are now out of<br />

reach: Businesses are closed, events are<br />

canceled. As a result, our global reach<br />

has grown much, much narrower, both<br />

physically and in terms of time.<br />

My theory is that we are always looking<br />

to broaden our global reach, move faster,<br />

go further. Right now, the physical reach<br />

for most people is dwindling down to<br />

their own four walls. And when it comes<br />

to time, no one knows what things are<br />

going to look like a week or two from<br />

now. The virus is the epitome of a monstrous<br />

unavailability.<br />

Care to elaborate?<br />

We try to make our world fully controllable,<br />

predictable, reachable. Strangely<br />

enough, these attempts tend to make<br />

unavailability return in a monstrous way.<br />

We’re experiencing that right now with<br />

the virus. It’s new; we don’t know exactly<br />

where it comes from, how it acts, or how<br />

we can get it <strong>under</strong> control medically.<br />

We can’t control it politically or regulate<br />

it legally, and it has incalculable consequences<br />

economically. We can’t see<br />

it, hear it, or smell it. It is beyond our<br />

everyday grasp. And society is acting as<br />

one might expect: It’s trying to frantically<br />

restore availability.<br />

How do you mean?<br />

We absolutely want to get the virus <strong>under</strong><br />

control. To do so, society is even<br />

accepting massive restrictions. It’s fascinating<br />

to watch, and we can all see it<br />

in ourselves. I believe we are currently<br />

in the midst of a huge experiment. It is<br />

narrowing the global reach of the physical<br />

world in a totally unforeseen way.<br />

Is the widespread panic buying an attempt to<br />

maintain our global reach?<br />

You could say that. By setting our global<br />

reach a certain way, we want things to<br />

be available. Now people see a threat. So<br />

they want to make sure that basic things<br />

are available in case something happens.<br />

Up to now, we’ve been sure that there<br />

will be enough toilet paper in stores.<br />

Now there’s this uncertainty that the<br />

store might be closed tomorrow. We’re<br />

finding out that not everything is available,<br />

and now we have to learn to live<br />

with it. But right now, we’re still in the<br />

mode that we’re used to.<br />

What do you mean by that?<br />

You could call it “rat race mode,” where<br />

we constantly need to check items off<br />

our to-do lists. In this crisis, we can no<br />

longer physically live out this habit of<br />

“I need to go here real quick right now,<br />

I need to go there real quick right now.”<br />

But we can digitally. We’re saying, “I<br />

need to post something here and post<br />

something there, what’s in the news,<br />

what are the stats?” We’re continuing<br />

to accelerate in the digital world, with<br />

even greater strength.<br />

What impact is this shift in acceleration to the<br />

digital world having? Are we going to miss<br />

having contact with people in the long run?<br />

I would say so. The big question is: Can<br />

video conferencing or social media replace<br />

real contact? I think it’s important<br />

to have such options. But this kind of<br />

communication doesn’t seem to have<br />

the same quality as physical contact. >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


That’s why I believe people are currently<br />

feeling that something is missing –<br />

they’re feeling a sense of alienation, so<br />

to speak. Alienation is a disturbance in<br />

our relationship to the world. And it’s<br />

something we can feel collectively right<br />

now. We’re building up mistrust: The<br />

doorknob, the banister, all that could<br />

be contaminated. You can’t hug people<br />

anymore, we’re distrustful of them. Our<br />

relationship to the world is disturbed<br />

as a result.<br />

And how can we deal with that?<br />

There are two options. One is to regain<br />

control over everything, to flee into all<br />

the social media channels – to post<br />

something here, and post something<br />

there. That’s what we normally do:<br />

control, regulate, optimize. The second<br />

mode is to listen to ourselves and the<br />

world again.<br />

I believe we should individually and<br />

collectively try to shift into this second<br />

mode. In this new situation, we are all<br />

by ourselves in our homes or apartments,<br />

maybe with a cat – along with our lives.<br />

It could be an opportunity to create new<br />

patterns of togetherness.<br />

for the first time in a while. I call that<br />

“resonance,” a mode of hearing and responding.<br />

My hope is that it could perhaps<br />

also be a moment of collective pause<br />

and that we might now think about the<br />

way we navigate and perceive the world.<br />

People are supposed to stay at home and avoid<br />

social contact as much as possible. Why are so<br />

many people not following those instructions?<br />

I think the problem is that we don’t<br />

really notice the virus at all. Very, very<br />

few of us are around truly ill people.<br />

There’s no existential crisis that you<br />

can physically feel. And that makes<br />

it hard to grasp personal contact as<br />

something bad.<br />

People are programmed to seek contact.<br />

Social relationships are one of the four<br />

axes of resonance. That’s gone right now,<br />

“<br />

My hope is that<br />

it could perhaps<br />

also be a moment<br />

of collective<br />

pause and that<br />

we might now<br />

think about the<br />

way we navigate<br />

and perceive<br />

the world.<br />

One example is the concerts on balconies<br />

that are taking place in Italy. We’re finding<br />

a new way of being in the world. So<br />

the social crisis situation may also harbor<br />

an opportunity.<br />

How can a society shift into this second mode?<br />

At first, I thought, “This kind of forced<br />

deceleration is great.” But apparently<br />

we’re not finding our way out of the ratrace<br />

mode that quickly after all. Maybe<br />

we will with time. Right now, we’re<br />

focused on the world around us.<br />

Suddenly, we’re spending a lot of time<br />

looking out the window, seeing the first<br />

flowers, or really noticing the neighbors<br />

24 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


since we’re no longer able to embrace<br />

or meet each other. However, this crisis<br />

also presents us with an opportunity to<br />

discover the other resonance axes.<br />

One of them is the relationship to objects<br />

or things, such as a piano or a paintbrush.<br />

Then there’s the axis of existential<br />

spheres, such as art, nature, religion. And<br />

the last axis is the self axis: feeling and<br />

perceiving one’s self. The deceleration<br />

is also having an impact on nature. The<br />

canals in Venice are clear again, and the<br />

first dolphins have been spotted off the<br />

coast of Sardinia.<br />

Could these changes also have a positive effect<br />

for the future?<br />

I’m skeptical here. Dolphins off the coast<br />

of Sardinia will lead to people going to<br />

Sardinia to see the dolphins. That’s the<br />

mode of wanting to make things reachable<br />

and available. You can’t switch it off<br />

just like that. We can directly see the way<br />

climate change is changing the world.<br />

Yet, so far it has had zero effect on the<br />

way we live and act. I’m also skeptical<br />

because we have this compulsion to<br />

want to go higher and faster and further.<br />

The institutional logic of society is that<br />

it can only maintain the things it has<br />

– state pensions, healthcare, incomes,<br />

jobs – through constant expansion and<br />

growth. So we can’t just up and say,<br />

“That’s enough.”<br />

Why do you believe that?<br />

I think it would lead to a crisis. That’s<br />

why the great unknown right now is<br />

not just how we want to live as human<br />

beings, but also how we are going to<br />

manage to do so institutionally. The<br />

economic side of things is going to play<br />

a decisive role here. For the time being, I<br />

expect there to be a huge economic crisis.<br />

After that, we’re probably going to want<br />

to stimulate growth again. People are<br />

going to have to consume, spend money,<br />

produce – back to acceleration. But<br />

maybe there’s hope yet of a change in<br />

the way we think. We ought to see the<br />

crisis not only as forced deceleration,<br />

but perhaps also as a collective pause.<br />

Would you have thought that this kind of<br />

global deceleration was possible?<br />

I myself, as a sociologist, am surprised<br />

that all of the things I talk about are<br />

suddenly apparent for all to see. The<br />

deceleration is upon us in a way no one<br />

would ever have dared to imagine. I find<br />

this monstrous unavailability particularly<br />

interesting. Suddenly there’s this<br />

virus we don’t have <strong>under</strong> control. That<br />

leads to a disruption in our relationship<br />

to the world, to alienation. It’s hard to<br />

say what the end result will be and what<br />

it’s going to do to us. My hope at first<br />

was that this forced deceleration would<br />

be a great experience. But when I talk<br />

to other people, I notice that it certainly<br />

doesn’t feel like that.<br />

Hartmut Rosa<br />

One of Germany’s foremost<br />

sociologists<br />

Friedrich Schiller University,<br />

Jena, director of the Max-Weber-<br />

Kolleg, University of Erfurt.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


26 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


The<br />


and RESILIENCE<br />

PLAN<br />

Two deals – one goal: European Green Deal and the<br />

Next Generation EU deal both are committed to securing jobs,<br />

promoting ecological projects, and fostering the long-term<br />

transformation of the economy toward more sustainable<br />

growth. We discussed this with Paulo Gentiloni, European<br />

Commissioner for Economy, and asked him, in particular, of<br />

the impact on Agenda 2030.<br />

Covid-19 is a global crisis of historic proportions.<br />

To be honest: We were not prepared<br />

for this, and we face enormous uncertainties<br />

predicting the future. Now the EU has presented<br />

a comprehensive economic program as<br />

a countermeasure. What gives you confidence<br />

that this will resolve future problems?<br />

We are indeed facing a crisis of historic<br />

proportions. And as a result, our response<br />

can only be historic, too. The European<br />

Commission has shown that we are able<br />

to act fast and that we are committed<br />

to rising to the challenge. In May, we<br />

proposed an ambitious recovery plan,<br />

built around a new instrument called<br />

Next Generation EU, together with a<br />

revamped, long-term EU budget. Just<br />

two months later, EU heads of state and<br />

government agreed on a multiannual<br />

budget for 2021–2027 worth €1,074.3<br />

billion, and that Next Generation EU<br />

would amount to €750 billion (consisting<br />

of €390 billion in grants and €360<br />

billion in loans). The total package adds<br />

up to €1.8 trillion, the largest-ever EU<br />

multiannual budget (amounting to 5<br />

percent of the EU27’s GDP). Such a >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />



Grants<br />

€390<br />


€360<br />


Loans<br />

TOTAL:<br />

€750 BILLION<br />

€750<br />


• Capital raised on financial markets<br />

• Repayment period until 2058<br />

Investing in a green, digital, and resilient EU<br />

Recovery and Resilience Facility:<br />

€672.5 billion<br />

loans:<br />

€360 billion<br />

grants:<br />

€312.5 billion<br />

• Legal commitments: by December 31, 2023<br />

• Payments: by December 31, 2026<br />

Horizon Europe:<br />

€5 billion<br />

Just Transition Fund:<br />

€10 billion<br />

ReactEU:<br />

€47.5 billion<br />

Rural<br />

development:<br />

€7.5 billion<br />

RescEU:<br />

€1.9 billion<br />

InvestEU:<br />

€5.6 billion<br />

powerful financial and policy response<br />

is needed to stimulate investment and<br />

prevent structural divergences between<br />

the Member States from growing further.<br />

We need to prevent this great recession<br />

from turning into a great fragmentation.<br />

Yet, the road to recovery is paved with<br />

uncertainty. Our latest economic forecast<br />

shows even greater economic stress this<br />

year than we anticipated a few months<br />

ago, with an incomplete recovery next<br />

year subject to many risks. But I am<br />

confident that we are taking steps in the<br />

right direction. The challenge before us<br />

is enormous, but what is important is<br />

that the awareness and willingness to<br />

act are there, as are the necessary tools<br />

to turn this crisis into an opportunity<br />

to embrace the twin green and digital<br />

transitions.<br />

Recently, the EU Parliament adopted the EU<br />

taxonomy of “Sustainable Finance.” NGOs have<br />

extensively criticized the draft deals concerning<br />

environmental sustainability, but social issues<br />

have also not been given sufficient consideration.<br />

What is your response?<br />

Recovery and Resilience Facility: grants<br />

Total grants: €312.5 billion<br />

€218.75<br />



KEY:<br />

• unemployment 2015-2019<br />

• inverse GDP per capita<br />

• population share<br />

2021-2022<br />

2023<br />

€93.75<br />



KEY:<br />

• drop in real GDP over 2020<br />

• overall drop in real GDP<br />

2020-2021<br />

• inverse GDP per capita<br />

• population share<br />

The role of this piece of legislation is to<br />

stimulate green investment projects by<br />

putting forward a classification of what<br />

is “green” – and, as such, instrumental<br />

in implementing the Green Deal and<br />

reaching our goal of climate neutrality<br />

by 2050. As shown in our recent Eurostat<br />

monitoring report on progress toward the<br />

SDGs in the EU, it is with the environment<br />

and climate objectives that the EU<br />

faces the biggest challenges.<br />

That doesn’t mean we don’t pay due attention<br />

to social issues – to the contrary.<br />

In the context of the InvestEU program,<br />

28 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


sustainability is defined by three dimensions:<br />

climate, environment, and social.<br />

The Commission is currently working<br />

on a methodology for sustainabilityproofing<br />

against these three dimensions<br />

of projects that are supported <strong>under</strong><br />

InvestEU. Moreover, the Commission is<br />

fully committed to implementing the<br />

European Pillar of Social Rights during<br />

our mandate, which runs until 2024.<br />

The Pillar is our compass for action<br />

with respect to social issues. We have<br />

already adopted a number of proposals<br />

to strengthen the EU’s social dimension:<br />

from gender equality to youth employment<br />

and re- and upskilling. All of these<br />

will play an important role in cushioning<br />

the negative social consequences of this<br />

crisis, including among the young. We<br />

must do everything to prevent another<br />

lost generation.<br />

Many of the sustainability successes achieved<br />

over the last years could fall victim to the crisis.<br />

This is problematic because now is the time to<br />

act. We need a (new) global strategy to “Leave<br />

no one behind.” What do you recommend doing<br />

to support UN Secretary-General António<br />

Guterres’ “decade of action”?<br />

We are confronted with the need to both<br />

restart the economy and save jobs and<br />

livelihoods, and accelerate our progress<br />

toward sustainability in all its dimensions.<br />

It is perfectly possible – indeed<br />

indispensable – to not merely rebuild,<br />

but to build back better. I stand firmly<br />

behind the idea of a green and inclusive<br />

recovery, whereby we seize this opportunity<br />

to invest in skills, projects, and<br />

reforms for a more sustainable future.<br />

The Green Deal and the European Pillar<br />

of Social Rights are our guides in<br />

doing so. We will channel funds into<br />

activities that will help us accelerate the<br />

twin green and digital transitions, while<br />

leaving no one behind. Our proposals are<br />

commensurate with this ambition. Our<br />

recently adopted strategy for integrating<br />

and decarbonizing energy systems and<br />

our hydrogen strategy, which aims to<br />

further develop and upscale this clean<br />

energy source, are cases in point. We<br />

can only accelerate our progress toward<br />

the SDGs if we act decisively and immediately,<br />

drawing on the lessons learned<br />

from the crisis.<br />

Do we have to redefine the scope, significance,<br />

and priorities of the SDGs?<br />

I believe the framework of the 2030<br />

Agenda for Sustainable Development<br />

with its 17 SDGs is as relevant today as<br />

when it was adopted in 2015. It covers all<br />

of the elements that constitute our life on<br />

this planet and shows how all spheres of<br />

human activity – environmental, social,<br />

and economic – are interrelated. The<br />

current crisis has further highlighted<br />

that fact. What we need now – in view<br />

of the 2030 milestone as well as our<br />

pledge to reach climate neutrality by<br />

2050 – is to turn our attention firmly<br />

to implementation. We have a wealth of<br />

information on what the concrete challenges<br />

are and a wealth of knowledge on<br />

how to solve them. What we need is the<br />

political willingness to act on all levels of<br />

governance. Since the beginning of my<br />

mandate as Commissioner, I have been<br />

taking concrete steps to achieve the SDGs:<br />

This year, we have integrated them into<br />

the European Semester and will take<br />

this exercise further in the coming years.<br />

All of the deliverables of this Commission<br />

contribute to achieving the SDGs.<br />

Every Commissioner is responsible for<br />

implementing the SDGs in their policy<br />

area, while we are all jointly responsible<br />

for implementing the 2030 Agenda in<br />

its entirety. I can assure you that we are<br />

taking this very seriously.<br />

The pandemic is a taste of what is to come if<br />

we do not rethink a world where nature is not<br />

exploited. In this regard, how can national policies<br />

and enforcement efforts be strengthened to<br />

address habitat and biodiversity loss?<br />

Partnerships for goals are an important<br />

element of SDG implementation, which<br />

is why, <strong>under</strong> my watch, we have been<br />

actively engaging with civil society representatives<br />

and other external stakeholders<br />

to exchange views and learn from<br />

their on-the-ground experiences. The<br />

implementation necessarily happens<br />

at the national, regional, and local levels,<br />

while our role is to coordinate >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


“I believe that –<br />

together with<br />

the people<br />

demanding a<br />

better future<br />

for their children<br />

and exercising<br />

their democratic<br />

rights across the<br />

world – we can<br />

truly make a<br />

difference.”<br />

these efforts and provide frameworks<br />

conducive to achieving the SDGs. The<br />

European Semester is an important tool<br />

at our disposal. While we already integrated<br />

the European Pillar of Social<br />

Rights into the Semester a few years ago,<br />

we are now taking steps to better reflect<br />

environmental and climate concerns.<br />

This year’s country reports therefore –<br />

for the first time – featured a chapter<br />

on environmental sustainability, and<br />

this is just the beginning. That way, we<br />

hope to steer national measures in the<br />

right direction, together with our Green<br />

Deal-related outputs, such as the recently<br />

adopted Biodiversity Strategy.<br />

That brings us to a fundamental conflict: There<br />

are global interests such as the protection of<br />

biodiversity, climate change, human rights,<br />

etc. These are the basics of a Global Governance.<br />

On the other side, there are national<br />

interests – and in some countries, nationalist<br />

governments. They insist on their right to<br />

national sovereignty. But we cannot have both,<br />

for example protect and exploit the Amazon<br />

at the same time. How will the EU handle<br />

the divide between Global Governance and<br />

National Sovereignty?<br />

It is true that the interactions between<br />

fairness, the Green Deal, productivity,<br />

stability, and resilience sometime imply<br />

trade-offs, and policymakers need to be<br />

aware of these. But the SDGs as a whole<br />

are a comprehensive economic, social,<br />

and environmental model based on synergies.<br />

I have a lot of faith that the tide for<br />

populist governments, also due to their<br />

disastrous handling of the pandemic, is<br />

turning. What we are observing instead<br />

is the mobilization of young people and<br />

civil society around issues such as climate<br />

change, good governance, and an economy<br />

of well-being. The EU is, of course,<br />

fully committed to spreading its values<br />

and high standards globally, including<br />

via its commitment to multilateralism<br />

as the best guarantor of human and environmental<br />

rights everywhere. We are<br />

taking every opportunity to project our<br />

leadership in sustainable development<br />

globally. I believe that – together with<br />

the people demanding a better future<br />

for their children and exercising their<br />

democratic rights across the world – we<br />

can truly make a difference.<br />

Multilateral institutions are not very visible<br />

in the public discussions. It is the hour of the<br />

nation-state. Is this the beginning of a new<br />

political culture and global architecture?<br />

The European Union has multilateralism<br />

in its DNA and will always support<br />

multilateral institutions, which are the<br />

basis of our international order. At the<br />

moment, we are, for example, committed<br />

to finding a global solution for<br />

digital taxation in the framework of the<br />

international process led by the OECD,<br />

because we believe that a common solution<br />

applied internationally constitutes<br />

the best way of achieving fair taxation in<br />

the 21st century. However, we will come<br />

forward with a new EU-level proposal<br />

if no global deal can be reached by the<br />

end of this year.<br />

A good example of well-functioning<br />

multilateralism at the service of the<br />

weakest in our global community is<br />

the Debt Service Suspension Initiative,<br />

which offered 77 countries the chance<br />

to suspend debt payments to their G20/<br />

Paris Club bilateral official creditors<br />

until the end of 2020. This will allow for<br />

an immediate provision of liquidity for<br />

30 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


health, economic, and social spending<br />

to respond to the crisis. It is an important<br />

step forward because it creates an<br />

institutional framework to get China and<br />

other non-traditional creditors on board,<br />

while also making significant progress<br />

toward transparency of debt flows and<br />

conditions on the use of freed-up funds.<br />

In short, the EU will continue defending<br />

multilateralism while working to adapt<br />

it to the new realities of our highly connected<br />

and digitalized world economy.<br />

This is the best way to defend and promote<br />

the fundamental rights our union<br />

is based on globally.<br />

Covid-19 has revealed critical weaknesses and<br />

blind spots, which international organizations<br />

– including the United Nations, governments,<br />

the private sector, and NGOs – must collectively<br />

address. The word “resilience” is used very often<br />

these days. What is the future architecture for<br />

political resilience?<br />

I am a firm believer in the virtue of<br />

democratic accountability. In my role as<br />

Commissioner, I am in constant contact<br />

with the European Parliament, which<br />

directly represents EU citizens. Likewise,<br />

parliaments everywhere have to<br />

remain vigilant and scrutinize their<br />

governments, which will be especially<br />

important in the recovery period as we<br />

rebuild our economies and societies.<br />

With so many flaws in our economic<br />

system exposed and so much at stake,<br />

I also find this a perfect opportunity to<br />

draw up a new social contract. We have<br />

to build a society where we rethink our<br />

relationship with the environment, the<br />

way our economies operate – including<br />

ensuring that corporations pay their<br />

fair share of taxes – how we take care<br />

of our elderly citizens, and how we<br />

help young people to have the best<br />

start in life.<br />

Thank you very much for the interview!<br />

Paolo Gentiloni is a former<br />

professional journalist and<br />

graduated with a degree in Political<br />

Science from the University<br />

of Rome. He was Minister of<br />

Foreign Affairs in Italy before he<br />

became 57th Prime Minister of<br />

Italy from 2016-2018. He has<br />

been serving as European<br />

Commissioner for Economy in<br />

the von der Leyen Commission<br />

since December 1, 2019.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


10 Theses on the<br />

for the State and Society<br />

The coronavirus pandemic has plunged the whole world into a<br />

state of health-related, economic, and social stress. This stress<br />

has made it clear what is working – and what is not.<br />

1.<br />

The state and its international<br />

communities play<br />

the leading role in absorbing<br />

external shocks<br />

such as pandemics.<br />

Dr. Markus Engels<br />

Secretary-General<br />

Global Solutions Initiative<br />

In his book Political Theology, the legal<br />

scholar Carl Schmitt concluded some 100<br />

years ago that the “sovereign is he who<br />

decides on the exception.” Based on this<br />

definition, states and governments have<br />

proven that they are entitled to make decisions<br />

during the coronavirus crisis, and<br />

that they are very capable of doing so,<br />

by taking drastic measures to protect the<br />

populace and putting together aid packages<br />

worth billions. Every day, state-run<br />

institutions have provided information<br />

on the latest developments and issued<br />

recommendations on what should be<br />

done to control the virus.<br />

The pandemic has rocked the plausibility<br />

of predictions foretelling the end of the<br />

state. That is something most people are<br />

bound to be thankful for. After all, the<br />

state – at least in its democratic form<br />

– is a legitimate and neutral arbiter<br />

that makes decisions based on verifiable<br />

criteria, without pursuing its own<br />

business interests.<br />

32 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


2. situation to lead to a<br />

Pandemics are proof<br />

positive that we, as a<br />

global community, are<br />

all affected. But for the<br />

renaissance of multilateralism, it is going<br />

to require a common view that global<br />

challenges can only be solved globally.<br />

We need a new global narrative of kinship<br />

and solidarity.<br />

Joining together in a new spirit of unity<br />

may seem easy if we follow the Hollywood<br />

logic that we have seen a thousand times<br />

before: A global peril befalls humanity,<br />

bringing it together in its hour of need.<br />

This plot has been cinematized countless<br />

times, usually in connection with an<br />

extraterrestrial menace that leads to a<br />

new feeling of brotherhood on the planet.<br />

Although the coronavirus pandemic is<br />

undoubtedly a global threat, it has not led<br />

to a resuscitation of multilateralism. Even<br />

in the European Union, which has been<br />

trying for decades to develop a common<br />

post-national identity (albeit tentatively),<br />

the first reflex was a national one. Once<br />

the Covid-19 crisis has passed, we must<br />

realize that pandemics, climate change,<br />

extinction, and artificial intelligence are<br />

challenges that can only be solved once<br />

and for all through multilateral efforts.<br />

3.<br />

Democratic and federal<br />

states are well positioned<br />

to fight pandemics.<br />

Even though the processes<br />

may look complicated and arduous,<br />

the democratic and federal state has done<br />

a good job of mastering the crisis so far.<br />

In Germany, the Bundestag is actively<br />

involved in crisis management, and the<br />

national government regularly consults<br />

with individual, regional leadership.<br />

Although individuals may try to make<br />

a name for themselves in the fight for<br />

the best approach, and although it may<br />

not always be easy to <strong>under</strong>stand why a<br />

restriction applies in one place but not<br />

in another, Germany’s leaders and parliamentarians<br />

have acted appropriately and<br />

prudently. They have kept the populace<br />

informed and involved, and have avoided<br />

looking for scapegoats. Moreover, local<br />

and county officials have also been providing<br />

information through the local<br />

press on a regular basis, often turning to<br />

social media. If ever there were a need<br />

to prove how important a functioning<br />

government with a legitimate claim to<br />

power from the very top of the chain to<br />

the very bottom is, then the coronavirus<br />

crisis has done so, albeit unwittingly.<br />

4.<br />

Technocracy <strong>under</strong>mines<br />

the ground rules<br />

of how a democracy<br />

works.<br />

Some have argued that<br />

virologists and doctors are the better<br />

decision-makers. Media appearances by<br />

experts may also have helped to calm the<br />

debate. At the same time, it would be a<br />

fatal mistake to draw the wrong conclusions.<br />

As a matter of fact, only elected<br />

representatives – and not experts – may<br />

make decisions.<br />

Weighing different interests, treading<br />

carefully when it comes to decisions that<br />

could infringe upon basic rights, and<br />

setting priorities based on a plethora of<br />

relevant information are of the essence.<br />

All of that needs to be comprehensible,<br />

well communicated, and subject to checks<br />

and balances. Taken together, this sum<br />

total of needs and wants is what you<br />

would call “politics.”<br />

5.<br />

Populist heads of state<br />

and government are<br />

part of the problem,<br />

not the solution.<br />

It goes without saying<br />

that populist elected officials can<br />

be good crisis managers, just as levelheaded<br />

democrats can fail in a crisis.<br />

During the coronavirus crisis, populists<br />

have displayed a pattern of behavior<br />

that prevents successful management:<br />

focusing on alternative facts, passing the<br />

buck, and making off-the-cuff decisions.<br />

All these behavioral patterns prevent<br />

the world’s brightest minds from working<br />

together and keep the international<br />

community from concerting its efforts.<br />

That makes populists part of the problem.<br />

Nowhere is that more apparent than in<br />

the United States, where the president,<br />

who is completely out of his league, is<br />

flo<strong>under</strong>ing his way through the crisis<br />

and is responsible for tremendous suffering.<br />

Whether or not this leads a majority<br />

of voters to turn away from such narcissists<br />

and responsibility dodgers, however,<br />

remains to be seen. So far, some heads of<br />

government have been quite successful<br />

in capturing the hearts and minds of at<br />

least half of their constituents with lies<br />

and finger-pointing. As long as the other<br />

half of the populace is divided into camps<br />

or uninterested in politics, people will<br />

continue to die due to populist public<br />

policy – all because those opposed are<br />

unable to attain a majority. >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


6. pandemic make new<br />

The dramatic restrictions<br />

of basic rights<br />

in connection with<br />

efforts to fight the<br />

criteria-based approaches to limiting<br />

basic rights a necessity.<br />

In times of crisis and disaster, basic<br />

rights must sometimes be restricted,<br />

and there are procedures in place for<br />

doing so. The current measures are a<br />

massive infringement on the right of<br />

assembly, religious freedom, and occupational<br />

freedom, to name just a few.<br />

That is permissible, provided that these<br />

restrictions are imposed for a limited<br />

time and have been legitimated through<br />

a democratic process – and provided<br />

that opposing viewpoints and protest<br />

are given a forum.<br />

May Minority Report serve as a<br />

warning<br />

However, measures that are difficult<br />

to justify, if at all, have come up for<br />

debate as a result of the coronavirus<br />

crisis. It may well be that an app on<br />

every mobile phone that transmits a<br />

personal movement profile has the<br />

potential to be used to great benefit in<br />

pandemics. That same app may very<br />

well also have the potential to reduce<br />

crime in general. A thermometer worn<br />

on the wrist might help us find our way<br />

out of the Covid-19 crisis. It also might<br />

help save the lives of people who have<br />

a heart attack or stroke. Nevertheless,<br />

such measures are largely incompatible<br />

with our <strong>under</strong>standing of basic rights.<br />

It is not even necessary to have watched<br />

Steven Spielberg’s dystopian film Minority<br />

Report to grasp the risk of misuse or<br />

the fundamental harm to all freedoms<br />

posed by such measures. Apart from<br />

temporary restrictions in the event of<br />

a crisis, which are legitimized by democratic<br />

processes, basic rights continue to<br />

apply in tough times. They also protect<br />

individuals from the will of the majority.<br />

Opposition has to be possible, even if<br />

the opinions expressed may be wrong.<br />

But because the Covid-19 pandemic<br />

shows that governments have to be able<br />

to act swiftly and flexibly, and because<br />

our societies are now experiencing for<br />

themselves how quickly supposedly<br />

inviolable rights can be restricted, we<br />

need a debate about what kind of protections<br />

of basic rights we want to retain<br />

following this crisis. The Federal Constitutional<br />

Court’s decision on restricting<br />

people’s rights to practice their religion<br />

freely during the coronavirus crisis is a<br />

good starting point and provides initial<br />

orientation.<br />

7. People have noticed the<br />

Public services should<br />

not be subjected to a<br />

doctrine of efficiency.<br />

lack of funding for basic<br />

public services in the past and their<br />

excessive privatization. Decrepit schools<br />

and a shortage of police officers are just<br />

one indication thereof. Germany has<br />

largely been spared a hard neoliberal<br />

hand, which is why the healthcare system<br />

is still well-funded and organized,<br />

and why we have so far seen fewer<br />

deaths than other countries during the<br />

coronavirus crisis.<br />

Globally, however, economic progress is<br />

not always the same as social progress.<br />

That is why the coronavirus crisis also<br />

illustrates how important a social security<br />

net and investments in public<br />

services are. The reluctance or inability<br />

of workers to call in sick to work despite<br />

showing symptoms of illness because<br />

they will not be paid in the event of<br />

absence, or because they do not have<br />

health insurance, accelerates the spread<br />

of disease exponentially.<br />

Furthermore, the digital revolution is<br />

only going to lead to more prosperity<br />

and better lives if we invest enough<br />

money in education and training.<br />

The banking crisis did not trigger<br />

a shift<br />

It is essential to quickly turn the onetime<br />

bonus payments for medical<br />

workers into structural reforms for<br />

adequate pay and working conditions<br />

in the healthcare sector, and to help<br />

generally adapt the healthcare system<br />

to deal with an aging population. Still,<br />

measures to strengthen the healthcare<br />

and education systems are not going<br />

to be enough.<br />

Once the coronavirus crisis is behind<br />

us, we are going to need a new <strong>under</strong>standing<br />

of what is truly important to<br />

us – and of what aspects of our lives are<br />

so important to us as common, public<br />

goods that we are unwilling to surrender<br />

control over them through privatization.<br />

The banking and financial crisis of 2008<br />

and 2009 did not lead to a fundamental<br />

shift toward more sustainability and<br />

different ways of doing business. The<br />

coronavirus crisis has once again exposed<br />

systemic shortcomings and false<br />

priorities. We ought to learn from crises<br />

and develop a new <strong>under</strong>standing of<br />

public services and public goods.<br />

34 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


8.<br />

The empowerment of<br />

local communities and<br />

value chains strengthens<br />

the resilience of<br />

societies.<br />

Any calls to toss globalization on the ash<br />

heap of history are mistaken, as are any<br />

appeals to the populace to spend their<br />

future vacations at the local swimming<br />

hole. Indeed, there have long been many<br />

things awry in global trade and mass<br />

tourism fueled by budget airline tickets.<br />

But a supposed return to the “good old<br />

days” is not going to happen. They never<br />

existed in the first place.<br />

Important trade and value chains work<br />

globally, and globally is the only way to<br />

produce a wide range of essential goods.<br />

Excluding entire regions from technological<br />

advancement by way of deglobalization<br />

would be a tremendous injustice<br />

– one that would go well beyond the<br />

injustice done daily by an imbalanced<br />

international trade system.<br />

Local businesses help the world<br />

master the crisis<br />

At the same time, it is important to<br />

strengthen local and regional communities,<br />

because they play a crucial role<br />

in times of crisis. Those who have been<br />

shopping at local supermarkets for years,<br />

those who are familiar faces at local<br />

bookstores and repair shops around the<br />

corner, and those who maintain good<br />

relationships with their neighbors are<br />

better armed to survive the crisis.<br />

Personalized and local initiatives –<br />

people buying groceries for elderly or<br />

at-risk neighbors, at-home offerings<br />

from regional sports clubs and cultural<br />

institutions, and delivery and take-away<br />

services from local restaurants, to name<br />

just a few – have played a vital role in<br />

helping us master the crisis to such a<br />

large extent so far. That is why every<br />

one of us should think about whether<br />

shopping at stores in our neighborhoods<br />

or supporting local culture ought to be<br />

given more weight in future spending<br />

decisions.<br />

9. Most families will agree<br />

The efforts to promote<br />

digitalization raise new<br />

social questions.<br />

that school closures,<br />

digital instruction, and parents subbing<br />

in as teachers are trying for all involved.<br />

Although digital learning offers countless<br />

benefits for students and professionals<br />

to expand their horizons, digitalization<br />

is creating a new social divide. That is<br />

because households with little education<br />

or money are technically ill-equipped to<br />

take advantage of these global education<br />

opportunities. As a result, children whose<br />

parents are digitally well-equipped will<br />

not only emerge from the crisis with<br />

their education futures intact, but they<br />

may also have been able to use their time<br />

at home to gain an even greater edge.<br />

Social inequality is on the rise<br />

This structural inequality may have<br />

nothing to do with Covid-19, but the<br />

pandemic has widened the economic gap<br />

that has been growing for many years<br />

now. If strengthening digital learning<br />

is one of the lessons of the coronavirus<br />

crisis, then efforts should be <strong>under</strong>taken<br />

to even out the social impact by providing<br />

children from poorer families with basic<br />

digital tools as a public service.<br />

10.<br />

Overcoming<br />

global<br />

poverty and<br />

strengthening<br />

climate<br />

protection and environmental conservation<br />

efforts will be essential to avoid a<br />

new era of pandemics.<br />

The coronavirus pandemic makes clear<br />

that poorer states are significantly more<br />

affected by the spread of a virus. Often,<br />

they lack a healthcare system and an effective<br />

social safety net. With distancing<br />

and hygiene guidelines virtually impossible<br />

to implement correctly, a humanitarian<br />

disaster is unavoidable. Help is of the<br />

essence. The G20’s debt relief efforts for<br />

lower-income nations is not going to be<br />

enough, even though it is undoubtedly<br />

the right thing to do.<br />

The ecological aspect takes on a whole<br />

new dimension in this context. Protecting<br />

biodiversity, fighting pandemics, and<br />

climate change are not issues that can<br />

be flexibly prioritized from one day to<br />

the next. On the contrary, they are causally<br />

intertwined. Those who demand a<br />

respite from environmental protections<br />

and climate action in light of the coronavirus<br />

crisis are irresponsibly working<br />

in cahoots with lobbyists and have failed<br />

to <strong>under</strong>stand what is actually going on.<br />

Helping the poorest of the poor is an act<br />

of self-preservation. A pandemic outbreak<br />

will have an impact on the entire world,<br />

no matter where it begins. A second<br />

wave of Covid-19 – with a high number<br />

of deaths and infected individuals, and<br />

with a renewed round of restrictions on<br />

public life – would have the potential to<br />

bring even wealthy states to their knees.<br />

The article was originally published in<br />

Tagesspiegel Online on April 16, 2020.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


By Dr. Dominic Lenzi<br />

Global Governance vs.<br />

National Sovereignty:<br />

To Whom Does the<br />

Amazon<br />

Belong?<br />

The Amazon fires show why we need global<br />

governance in the Anthropocene.<br />

36 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Several months ago, as fires engulfed<br />

large parts of the Amazon,<br />

world leaders, led by French<br />

President Emmanuel Macron,<br />

declared an international emergency and<br />

pledged support to help Brazil. President<br />

Jair Bolsonaro of Brazil responded with<br />

accusations of colonialism and foreign<br />

interference, asserting that the Amazon<br />

is Brazilian territory and no business of<br />

outsiders. One should, of course, take<br />

political rhetoric with a large grain of<br />

salt, especially in our current “post-truth”<br />

era. For instance, roughly 60 percent<br />

of the Amazon is within Brazilian territory,<br />

while Peru controls 13 percent<br />

and Colombia around 10 percent, with<br />

the rest being shared by Venezuela, Ecuador,<br />

Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and<br />

French Guiana. But even if the Amazon<br />

does not entirely belong to Brazil, these<br />

claims reflect genuine conflicts between<br />

state sovereignty and global governance,<br />

which continue to hamper responses to<br />

environmental crises. Addressing these<br />

conflicts is especially urgent in the Anthropocene<br />

– the new geological epoch<br />

in which human activity has produced<br />

interconnected ecological problems on<br />

a planetary scale.<br />

Previous international efforts to halt<br />

rainforest destruction have often flo<strong>under</strong>ed<br />

due to sovereignty concerns –<br />

whether real or merely perceived. One<br />

high-profile example is the Indonesian<br />

Palm Oil Pledge (IPOP), adopted with<br />

great expectations at the UN Climate<br />

Change Summit in New York in 2014.<br />

This initiative failed due to lobbying<br />

from large palm oil producers and the<br />

perception that the IPOP infringed upon<br />

Indonesia’s sovereignty.<br />

The jury is still out on whether the failure<br />

of the IPOP was bad news for forest<br />

conservation, or merely the demise of<br />

a failed policy mechanism. But what is<br />

clear is that sovereignty concerns played<br />

a significant role in this failure.<br />

These concerns about sovereignty continue<br />

to hamper efforts to improve<br />

global environmental governance. For<br />

example, the carbon stored in the >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


Amazon, as in other rainforests, has also<br />

long been envisaged to become part of a<br />

global emissions trading scheme <strong>under</strong><br />

the UNFCCC’s REDD+ program of the<br />

UN Framework Convention on Climate<br />

Change (UNFCCC). However, sovereignty<br />

again looms large, given the implication<br />

that foreign agents – potentially<br />

including foreign governments – might<br />

end up owning carbon assets within the<br />

jurisdiction of states. At the most recent<br />

Conference of the Parties in Madrid (COP<br />

25), President Bolsonaro claimed that<br />

carbon stored by Brazil’s forests should<br />

count in Brazil’s national emissions<br />

quota, since they belong to Brazil, while<br />

also being traded on an international<br />

carbon market. Although critics have<br />

pointed out that this would amount to<br />

double-counting, the attempt to enclose<br />

elements of a global environmental good<br />

within the boundaries of the nationstate<br />

reflects a paradox in the standard<br />

logic of the nation-state: Annex territory<br />

and be free to exploit its resources. The<br />

problem, of course, is that for any global<br />

environmental resource, “annexation” is<br />

impossible without an effective global<br />

regime – which is precisely what resource<br />

sovereigntists do not want.<br />

Previous attempts to classify something<br />

as a “global common good” continue to<br />

provoke controversy. From a biophysical<br />

perspective, there is no doubt that<br />

rainforests are essential components of<br />

the global carbon cycle. There is so much<br />

carbon stored in rainforests that their<br />

destruction would doom all efforts to halt<br />

climate change, tipping the planet into<br />

a new and dangerous equilibrium, such<br />

as a nightmare “Hothouse Earth” scenario.<br />

However, countries with areas of<br />

rainforest within their borders complain<br />

that recognizing rainforests as common<br />

goods in any jurisdictional sense would<br />

be both unfair and an arbitrary loss of<br />

territorial authority. There is some truth<br />

to these complaints. For instance, any<br />

attempt to classify rainforests as the<br />

“Common Heritage of Mankind” would<br />

require ceding territorial jurisdiction.<br />

This principle was developed following<br />

Maltese Ambassador Arvid Pardo’s proposal<br />

to the United Nations to equitably<br />

38 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


share the mineral resources of the deep<br />

sea bed. The Common Heritage of Mankind<br />

was subsequently enshrined in the<br />

United Nations Convention on the Law<br />

of the Sea, and the Agreement Governing<br />

the Activities of States on the Moon<br />

and Other Celestial Bodies (the “Moon<br />

Treaty”). But because the Common Heritage<br />

requires ceding territorial control<br />

over whatever it governs, the principle<br />

remains controversial, and its extension<br />

has often been blocked by states wary<br />

of any infringement of their resource<br />

rights. Moreover, the current formulation<br />

of the Common Heritage merely<br />

concerns resource exploitation, and it<br />

implies nothing for environmental sustainability<br />

beyond standard protections<br />

against transboundary harm.<br />

The loss of sovereignty implied by the<br />

Common Heritage principle encouraged<br />

the development of the Common<br />

Concern of Mankind, a principle that<br />

registers a need for cooperation to govern<br />

transboundary goods but is non-binding<br />

and implies nothing about territorial<br />

sovereignty. Thus, the UN Convention on<br />

Biological Diversity (1992), the UNFCCC<br />

(1992), and the Paris Agreement (2015)<br />

affirm biodiversity and climate change<br />

to be of common concern, but this does<br />

not require anything from states. Thus,<br />

even if some good can be described as a<br />

“global commons” in descriptive terms,<br />

in legal terms it has proved difficult to<br />

articulate this notion without triggering<br />

sovereignty concerns or without becoming<br />

merely advisory.<br />

The fundamental problem seems to be<br />

the governance structure inherited from<br />

the post–World War II global order,<br />

which was established to ensure state<br />

security against foreign aggression. Of<br />

course, the architects of this global order<br />

were ignorant about most, if not all of<br />

the global environmental challenges we<br />

now face. But as the existence of these<br />

challenges reveals, the common benefits<br />

of environmental goods are not properly<br />

acknowledged by the international order.<br />

Instead, free-riding upon many global<br />

common goods continues, reflecting<br />

the previous order of autonomous states.<br />

States do not enjoy<br />

complete autonomy to<br />

use resources<br />

as they wish, and<br />

all states are<br />

accountable if<br />

their decisions<br />

impose harm or risks<br />

upon others.<br />

Moreover, political rhetoric appealing to<br />

isolationism and national sovereignty<br />

risks dangerous ecological brinkmanship.<br />

It has proved far too easy for critics of<br />

multilateralism to wrap themselves in<br />

a border-bounded nationalism, where<br />

the interests of the state always trump<br />

those of distant outsiders.<br />

But while this global order does not<br />

facilitate effective global environmental<br />

governance, it is untrue that there is little<br />

more than anarchy at the global level.<br />

The assertions of Bolsonaro and others<br />

overstate their case: States do not enjoy<br />

complete autonomy to use resources as<br />

they wish, and all states are accountable<br />

if their decisions impose harm or risks<br />

upon others. Although the international<br />

legal principle of “Permanent sovereignty<br />

over natural resources” does indeed establish<br />

sovereign states’ unrestricted<br />

rights to make use of resources within<br />

their territorial boundaries, since the<br />

Rio Declaration of 1992, states are also<br />

obliged to consider transboundary harms<br />

that might arise from activities within<br />

their territories or in common spaces.<br />

Moreover, states also have duties to cooperate<br />

to address any transboundary<br />

emergencies or risks that emerge. These<br />

obligations and expectations are secured<br />

through a mix of “hard” treaty law and<br />

“soft” customary law, which, along with<br />

informal regimes, constitute existing<br />

global environmental governance. While<br />

enjoying sovereign resource rights, states<br />

are already obliged to consider the interests<br />

of other states, to avoid creating or<br />

exacerbating environmental risks, and<br />

to assist other states should an environmental<br />

problem emerge.<br />

One might ask: If this is so, why has it<br />

proved so difficult to address our global<br />

environmental problems? The short answer<br />

is that although these regimes have<br />

laid the groundwork for future global<br />

environmental governance, their spirit<br />

has yet to become the letter of international<br />

law. Thus, climate change and<br />

biodiversity loss have yet to be brought<br />

<strong>under</strong> effective global governance, despite<br />

(or according to its critics, because<br />

of) the signing of the Paris Agreement.<br />

Furthermore, many requirements <strong>under</strong><br />

international environmental law<br />

remain advisory, and agreements are<br />

voluntarily entered into. States that do<br />

not wish to play along with such governance<br />

regimes can check out or obstruct<br />

by refusing to comply with the spirit of<br />

the law. A cautionary example may be<br />

the International Convention for the<br />

Regulation of Whaling. Signed in 1946<br />

by 15 nations, it has now been ratified by<br />

89 states. Yet, this convention only arose<br />

after whaling ceased to be commercially<br />

viable, and not when the existence of a<br />

problem was first discovered. Moreover,<br />

traditional whaling states such as Norway<br />

have withdrawn from and reentered<br />

the convention several times, and they<br />

have never accepted the moratorium<br />

on whaling signed into action in 1986<br />

<strong>under</strong> paragraph 10e. Japan, by contrast,<br />

officially pulled out in 2019 after maintaining<br />

a whaling fleet since 1986 <strong>under</strong><br />

the clearly false pretence of conducting<br />

scientific research. Although Japan never<br />

produced any credible evidence that<br />

they were conducting scientific research,<br />

or that this research required killing<br />

whales, it took nearly four decades for<br />

the pressure from other signatories to<br />

encourage Japan to withdraw. By withdrawing,<br />

Japan intends to continue commercial<br />

whaling, now without any false<br />

pretence of conducting research. The<br />

Trump administration’s withdrawal of<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


the United States from the Paris Agreement<br />

on climate change is another case<br />

of non-compliance, following decades of<br />

obstructing climate governance <strong>under</strong><br />

the binding Kyoto Agreement.<br />

One way to strengthen existing environmental<br />

governance is for cases to<br />

be brought that hold some states or<br />

agents responsible for climate-related<br />

harms. To date, there has been a conspicuous<br />

absence of such cases concerning<br />

activities affecting climate change or<br />

biodiversity, such as building fossil fuel<br />

infrastructure or clearing ecosystems.<br />

For climate change, one key stumbling<br />

block seems to be the law’s difficulty in<br />

considering causally uncertain effects<br />

based upon probability estimates. Different<br />

climate models produce widely<br />

varying estimates of the effects of actions<br />

upon the global climate, and they cannot<br />

always be aggregated into compatible<br />

findings. Moreover, the standard model<br />

in law is for actions with clear causes to<br />

be attributed to actors who can be held<br />

responsible. Yet, uncertainty is unavoidable<br />

in estimating the sensitivity of the<br />

planet’s climate system to atmospheric<br />

greenhouse gas concentrations, or in attributing<br />

the harmful effects of climate<br />

change to particular agents, given the<br />

problem of multiple causations.<br />

Among other things, addressing this<br />

challenge requires clarity on admissible<br />

scientific evidence. Recent research on<br />

attribution has proposed a modification<br />

of the standard criteria for determining<br />

risk attribution to capture the incentives<br />

of actors who might select climate<br />

models favorable to themselves, and to<br />

establish clear rules for determining<br />

admissible research as evidence that a<br />

climate risk has been exacerbated. Research<br />

on “carbon-majors,” that is, the<br />

corporations that have emitted the most<br />

CO 2<br />

up until now, could also provide<br />

the basis for such claims. Short of international<br />

cases, there may be more<br />

immediate success in citizen-led cases<br />

against national governments, such<br />

as the successful case brought against<br />

the Dutch government. However, the<br />

Dutch constitution explicitly invites<br />

One way to<br />

strengthen existing<br />

environmental<br />

governance is for<br />

cases to be brought<br />

that hold some states<br />

or agents responsible<br />

for climate-related<br />

harms.<br />

such litigation through a constitutional<br />

requirement that the government secure<br />

a healthy environment – a provision<br />

that many constitutions lack. Nonetheless,<br />

as the climate crisis worsens, it is far<br />

from impossible for such cases to emerge.<br />

Obviously, such a development would<br />

be vigorously opposed by states worried<br />

about becoming newly liable. Although<br />

the spirit of existing laws against transboundary<br />

harm and actions affecting<br />

commons seems to apply to these issues<br />

equally strongly (if not more so), such an<br />

extension requires cases being brought<br />

in order to establish new precedents and<br />

interpretations.<br />

At a deeper level, it has been claimed<br />

for some time that more far-reaching<br />

changes to the international order of<br />

states are required. Although calls for the<br />

establishment of a “world state” are rare,<br />

a more promising proposal may be to<br />

extend the Common Heritage and Common<br />

Concern principles to recognize the<br />

entire planet as the “intangible common<br />

heritage of mankind.” This proposal is<br />

based upon an analogy of nested jurisdiction<br />

and overlapping ownership on the<br />

model of the condominium: States would<br />

enjoy ownership of their territories, just<br />

as individuals own their apartments, yet<br />

aspects such as windows or gardens can<br />

be owned collectively. In this way, it is<br />

claimed that effective global governance<br />

requires recognizing the Earth system<br />

as a legal entity in its own right, but<br />

in a way that does not require nullifying<br />

existing state sovereignty. Of course,<br />

such proposals raise profound moral and<br />

political questions. Yet, from a moral<br />

perspective, it is hard to find convincing<br />

moral reasons for states’ complete sovereignty<br />

over natural resources, whether<br />

one looks at securing the well-being of<br />

citizens, warding off threats, or even a<br />

historical relationship between people<br />

and places. The distribution of goods of<br />

global environmental significance imposes<br />

costs and benefits upon the providers<br />

of a resource and the beneficiaries. Yet,<br />

the distribution of rainforests, as with<br />

the distribution of coral reefs and deserts,<br />

depends on very specific biological<br />

and geological conditions, whereas the<br />

world map was determined by human<br />

occupations, migrations, and conquests,<br />

with little regard for ecological borders.<br />

As a result, from the perspective of any<br />

state, the presence of a rainforest within<br />

its borders is simply random chance. But<br />

states without rainforests have often cut<br />

down their forests and were never asked<br />

to consider the global consequences. For<br />

example, the United Kingdom today has<br />

little more than 2 percent of its original<br />

forests intact. Yet, nations with rainforests<br />

are being asked to preserve far more<br />

than 2 percent, and to do this because<br />

of global consequences. These double<br />

standards are at the heart of debates<br />

about sovereignty and the global commons.<br />

Perhaps until the Global North<br />

ramps up mitigation, rainforest countries<br />

are <strong>under</strong> no obligation to listen to their<br />

hypocritical demands. However, if all<br />

countries think this way, we ensure a<br />

world of runaway climate change and<br />

mass extinction, likely far beyond the<br />

ability of even the richest countries<br />

to adapt. Although Ecuador’s bid for<br />

funding to offset the lost revenue from<br />

oil extraction in its Amazonian Yasuní<br />

National Park failed amid accusations<br />

of environmental blackmail, it is far<br />

from clear that the principle at stake<br />

tells against Ecuador. Fairness was an<br />

additional reason for the failure of the<br />

IPOP: Indonesian policymakers consid-<br />

40 Global Goals Yearbook 2020

ered it unfair for Indonesia to submit<br />

to stringent deforestation conditions,<br />

when other states were free to do as<br />

they pleased. So if Ecuador is to forego<br />

the same kind of fossil fuel extraction<br />

that countries in the Global North have<br />

long availed themselves of (and continue<br />

to do so, despite current warnings of a<br />

climate emergency), fair compensation<br />

and development aid for non-carbon<br />

projects would seem to be the only just<br />

outcome.<br />

It is morally intolerable that a single<br />

nation could endanger all of humanity<br />

by using natural resources in ways that<br />

are still legally within their power. At<br />

least in theory, Brazil could decide to cut<br />

down all of the trees on its territory. The<br />

architects of such a plan would likely not<br />

survive long, but the mere possibility<br />

that one rogue country could decide to<br />

act in ways that endanger all is an affront<br />

to the post-war order that the permanent<br />

sovereignty principle was supposed to<br />

protect. However, research suggests that<br />

much less than this would be enough<br />

for a global catastrophe: If the Amazon<br />

lost between 20 and 25 percent of its<br />

trees, the entire ecosystem would pass<br />

an irreversible “tipping point,” leading<br />

to its collapse. Humanity simply cannot<br />

afford another decade of complacency on<br />

international rule-making. Addressing<br />

global environmental challenges requires<br />

finding a way around sovereignty concerns,<br />

whether real or imagined, while<br />

ensuring the protection of the global<br />

environmental commons.<br />

Dr. Dominic Lenzi<br />

Philosopher<br />

Working Group on Scientific<br />

Assessments, Ethics and Policy<br />

(SEP)<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


Guidance and Arguments<br />

for a More Sustainable World<br />

During Covid-19 Recovery<br />

42 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


The world as we know is<br />

rapidly changing before<br />

our eyes. The coronavirus<br />

pandemic is a profound<br />

stress test for humanity.<br />

Many of the sustainability<br />

successes already achieved<br />

could fall victim to the<br />

crisis. The most vulnerable<br />

to the crisis are the elderly,<br />

workers in precarious<br />

employment conditions,<br />

and all the people living<br />

in countries with weak<br />

health, economic, and<br />

political systems. What will<br />

be the new normal? What<br />

will happen after corona?<br />

These are frequently asked<br />

questions, but they do not<br />

go far enough. We had<br />

better ask ourselves: What<br />

are the principles that will<br />

organize the future? Four<br />

excellent experts give us an<br />

outlook.<br />

Emily Auckland is UKSSD Network Director. UK Stakeholders<br />

for Sustainable Development (UKSSD) is an open platform that<br />

supports public, private, and voluntary organizations working<br />

toward sustainable development in the UK. UKSSD’s mission is<br />

to inspire and support all stakeholders to transform the UK into<br />

a sustainable society by generating new partnerships and<br />

innovative solutions for sustainable development by convening<br />

and coordinating stakeholders from all sectors; and providing<br />

thought leadership on the benefits for the UK resulting from<br />

action for sustainable development and the implementation of<br />

the Sustainable Development Goals.<br />

Pietro Bertazzi is Global Director – Policy Engagement at<br />

CDP. The Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) is a not-for-profit<br />

charity running the global disclosure system for investors,<br />

companies, cities, states, and regions to manage their<br />

environmental impacts. Each year, CDP takes the information<br />

supplied in its annual reporting process and scores companies<br />

and cities based on their journey through disclosure and<br />

toward environmental leadership. Through their independent<br />

scoring methodology, they measure corporate and city<br />

progress and incentivize action on climate change, forests,<br />

and water security.<br />

Prof. Dr. Maja Göpel is cofo<strong>under</strong> of Scientist for future and<br />

Secretary-General of the German Advisory Council on Global<br />

Change (WBGU), which works on the science-policy-society<br />

interface. As Secretary-General Maja Göpel divides her time<br />

between management, public speaking, pioneer engagement,<br />

and networking as well as continued research on system<br />

transformations for sustainable development. Her personal<br />

focus is on new prosperity models, with an emphasis on the<br />

role of paradigm shifts as strategic leverage points,<br />

summarized in her book The Great Mindshift (Springer 2016).<br />

Julian Hill-Landolt is Director, Vision 2050 Refresh,<br />

Sustainable Lifestyles at the World Business Council for<br />

Sustainable Development (WBCSD), which is a global,<br />

CEO-led organization of over 200 leading businesses working<br />

together to accelerate the transition to a sustainable world.<br />

Their mission is to help make member companies become<br />

more successful and sustainable by focusing on the maximum<br />

positive impact for shareholders, the environment, and<br />

societies. Since 1995, WBCSD has been uniquely positioned to<br />

work with member companies along and across value chains<br />

to deliver impactful business solutions to the most<br />

challenging sustainability issues. >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


Prof. Dr. Maja Göpel<br />

Dr. Elmer Lenzen: Pietro, the IMF speaks of<br />

the biggest crisis since The Great Depression<br />

of the 1920s. Is the present pandemic a black<br />

swan event no one was prepared for?<br />

Pietro Bertazzi: Indeed, I’m afraid this<br />

can be interpreted as a black swan event.<br />

Especially in Europe and in the Western<br />

world, it caught us by surprise. We were<br />

definitely not ready for such a situation.<br />

I was just chatting with a student from<br />

Hong Kong, and she was surprised that<br />

we did not have masks and sanitizers<br />

more readily available in every town.<br />

But now we have been experiencing<br />

a total shift of priorities from all governments<br />

around the world. The first<br />

one has been about saving lives, and<br />

the second one is about the economic<br />

recovery. I believe this is important: We<br />

cannot achieve sustainable development<br />

or tackle the climate agenda without<br />

stability.<br />

Economic recovery is a good catchword. The<br />

Covid-19 crisis shows how fragile societies are.<br />

The interesting aspect for me is to see that it’s<br />

Everybody feels that the<br />

future is much more open<br />

than it used to be.<br />

probably not the stability and inertia that<br />

prevent societal changes, but maybe it’s the<br />

instability. Maya, can we switch to a more<br />

sustainable economic path without the risk<br />

of running a total loss?<br />

Maja Göpel: From a transformation point<br />

of view, the moment when there is less<br />

stability is the moment when there is a<br />

potential for much deeper and stronger<br />

change. Everybody feels that the future<br />

is much more open than it used to be.<br />

How that moment of instability is used<br />

depends on who is putting forward what<br />

kind of ideas, who has influence, and<br />

who gets more to say and to decide.<br />

I keep on using the World Economic Forum’s<br />

global risk report to remind people<br />

that there was a clear <strong>under</strong>standing<br />

about environmental issues, especially<br />

climate change, being the rising risks on<br />

the horizon. We know that decarbonization<br />

means structural change in basically<br />

all sectors, and this means we are going<br />

to unbundle some of the structures that<br />

are very stable now to build them anew.<br />

Some elements are dying in order for<br />

”<br />

others to be able to grow, and that is<br />

nothing that is against the economy. It’s<br />

a very liberal idea of creative destruction<br />

as Schumpeter called it.<br />

The other aspect we should talk about<br />

is solidarity: In the beginning, solidarity<br />

was mainly for the people who were<br />

most vulnerable if they got Covid-19. And<br />

then there was a second round where we<br />

have solidarity with the people that are<br />

hit hardest by the anti-Corona measures,<br />

who don’t have a buffer, whose incomes<br />

are declining from one day to the other,<br />

who are really worried because they<br />

don’t have savings that they can depend<br />

on. And this is where my country, Germany,<br />

is really fortunate, because we<br />

do have a welfare state and economicl<br />

performance was so solid that the state<br />

can borrow a lot of cash for very little<br />

money.<br />

So there have been a lot of programs<br />

that are trying to increase solidarity<br />

with those most at risk, both from the<br />

pandemic and from the kind of lockdown<br />

measures. But now we have to really<br />

look at what is the level of solidarity<br />

mid-term, because people are starting<br />

to get very anxious about who gains the<br />

most, now that we are battling about<br />

the biggest stimulus packages. A lot of<br />

people fear that those most connected<br />

to industry – being the incumbents of<br />

the old system – will get most of the<br />

money. So we will go back to the old nor-<br />

44 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


mal, and the whole transformation that<br />

was already on the way is pushed back.<br />

Let’s talk a little bit later about solidarity and<br />

the transformation of industries. But first I<br />

would like to pick up on what you said about<br />

risks. Julian, in a recently published World<br />

Business Council for Sustainable Development<br />

publication, one can read that all this was very<br />

predictable. It was clear that such a pandemic<br />

could show up, and it was clear that we have<br />

chronic <strong>under</strong>investment in the health system,<br />

we have short-term profit maximization by<br />

many companies, and all these things were<br />

<strong>under</strong>mining the resilience of society at all<br />

levels. What happened to the highly praised,<br />

sustainable concept of stakeholder capitalism?<br />

Julian Hill-Landolt: We take a different<br />

view of this (and our view is in line with<br />

Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s, who came up<br />

with the black swan concept): the difference<br />

is between predictability and<br />

preparedness. The Covid-19 crisis is behaving<br />

like a black swan because we<br />

were completely unprepared for it, but<br />

it wasn’t a black swan because it was<br />

entirely predictable. There is an international<br />

body called the Global Preparedness<br />

Monitoring Board, co-convened by<br />

the World Bank and the World Health<br />

Organization, to discuss health disruptions<br />

like Covid-19. At the top of their<br />

list last year was our preparedness for<br />

a respiratory viral pandemic. A lot of<br />

the resilience conversation in business<br />

right now focuses on a shift from “just<br />

in time” thinking to “just in case.”<br />

In terms of the stakeholder capitalism<br />

question that you asked, again I think it’s<br />

important to think about preparedness.<br />

The World Economic Forum had made a<br />

relatively strong point at its meeting back<br />

in January with Klaus Schwab releasing<br />

his manifesto about the role of stakeholder<br />

capitalism. Pace and momentum<br />

have been gathering behind the need for<br />

a shift toward a more stakeholder-led<br />

model. The pandemic has brought into<br />

sharp relief the failings of our current<br />

systems – from <strong>under</strong>funded healthsystems,<br />

to economic systems that highly<br />

are vulnerable to shocks, to increasing<br />

risks of future public health crises stemming<br />

from climate change or zoonotic<br />

diseases. A move toward a stakeholder<br />

model of capitalism can help to address<br />

some of these failures and WBCSD is<br />

working with its members and partners<br />

to accelerate the shift.<br />

That having been said, there is an urge<br />

to force sustainability factors into all<br />

conversations and decisions immediately.<br />

I think we need to be respectful of the<br />

phase that we are currently in, which is<br />

about “rescue” in the immediate term,<br />

and the phase that we are going to get<br />

into, which is about recovery. And at<br />

the moment, I think its important that<br />

people get help receiving essential medical<br />

care and putting food on the table.<br />

Yes, we need to have conversations about<br />

where stimulus money is going to go<br />

but, at the end of the day, nothing will<br />

recover if you have mass unemployment<br />

and mass public anxiety about the state<br />

of a given society’s economy.<br />

Emily, your expertise centers on the UK’s progress<br />

on the SDGs, on cross-sector engagement,<br />

and localization of Agenda 2030, among<br />

other things. So actually before this crisis or<br />

pandemic started, António Guterres called the<br />

beginning of the year a decade of action to<br />

make the SDGs happen. Instead of action, we<br />

are experiencing a lockdown. Are we expecting<br />

a lost decade in terms of the SDGs, or a swing<br />

in the right direction?<br />

Emily Auckland: It slightly depends on<br />

my mood on the day as to how I answer<br />

that question. In the UK context, we<br />

started this year with UKSSD launching<br />

our action plan for the SDGs with our<br />

network to say: Actually, if we all work<br />

together, we can do this, and this is what<br />

we need to do. So we started with a really<br />

positive outlook, and then obviously<br />

everything has changed since then.<br />

But nevertheless, we have seen some<br />

really positive signs of the types of behaviors<br />

and attitudes that are going to be<br />

necessary for achieving and implementing<br />

the SDGs: The way that businesses<br />

have responded to the crisis, many of<br />

them have had to pivot their product<br />

lines, many of them have developed<br />

really progressive approaches to partnerships<br />

and to communities. If those<br />

behaviors and those attitudes continue,<br />

then maybe we do stand the chance of<br />

making progress with the SDGs.<br />

Similarly, in the United Kingdom, I think<br />

it’s very fair to say that, ever since the<br />

vote on the EU referendum, and leading<br />

up to that, there was division in<br />

our society. The pandemic has created<br />

– certainly at the community level – a<br />

sense of unity in our society that we<br />

haven’t had for a while, and in the face<br />

of that crisis we have come together. If<br />

we can continue to use that community<br />

unity, we have an opportunity to<br />

really localize the SDGs and to achieve<br />

them by 2030. But it depends on what<br />

happens now within government, what<br />

decision-makers take forward in terms<br />

of economic stimulus, what the recovery<br />

program looks like, what happens globally.<br />

It’s not a lost decade yet, but it feels<br />

like it’s just too soon to say either way<br />

what is going to happen next.<br />

Stimulus is a good keyword for passing this<br />

question to Maja. There are billions of euros,<br />

dollars, or British pounds waiting to stimulate<br />

economies and societies. This is probably<br />

a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity because in<br />

this generation, we will not have a second<br />

opportunity to invest so much money. Share<br />

with us your wish list! How should we spend<br />

it to get as much sustainability and as much<br />

Agenda 2030 as possible?<br />

Maja Göpel: I would actually like to<br />

tie it to the points that Julian has made<br />

because chipping away has already happened.<br />

Every company that was sincere<br />

in contributing to sustainable societies<br />

has known about the collaterals. Most<br />

of the businesses I speak to say we need<br />

legal signals so that we can shift, >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


especially <strong>under</strong> the pressure of shareholder<br />

orientation and short-termism.<br />

If we can continue to<br />

use that community unity,<br />

we have an opportunity to<br />

really localize the SDGs<br />

and to achieve<br />

”<br />

them<br />

by 2030.<br />

Emily Auckland<br />

So my wish list is, in particular, a good<br />

combination of public and private money<br />

in order to foster value chains of decarbonization,<br />

circularity and maximum<br />

resource use reduction. Even if we were<br />

expecting a phase where sales will be<br />

lower because of demand not being there<br />

to the same degree, we could have lots<br />

of very, very positive economic activity<br />

in form of transformative jobs, and it<br />

could be financed with public money.<br />

At least that comes into my head. I am<br />

absolutely surprised how little that is<br />

discussed, because it could go straight<br />

into the pain points that we are looking<br />

at: People are totally concerned about<br />

their incomes, totally concerned about<br />

job losses, totally concerned about losing<br />

structures in the economy that have<br />

worked, but they are also concerned<br />

about rebooting the old models that<br />

we know are behind the worldwide risk<br />

society that we have. And in addition, it<br />

is really the moment for strong G7 and<br />

G20 action on finally redirect subsidies<br />

from “fossil fuels into renewable ones.”<br />

Let’s pass the question to Julian. Isn’t it quite<br />

difficult to identify in advance economic sectors<br />

that are not needed in the future?<br />

Julian Hill-Landolt: I totally agree with<br />

what Maja is saying, that there is this<br />

mass of opportunity and we know what<br />

we should do – we had been thinking<br />

about the kinds of transformations that<br />

needed to occur before the pandemic hit.<br />

But as I said, the problem at the moment<br />

is the difference between rescue and<br />

recovery: It’s very hard to suggest that<br />

certain things shouldn’t exist during that<br />

rescue period. And then in the recovery<br />

period is where we have to start asking<br />

questions about where we go. One way<br />

we can influence the direction that we<br />

head in, is through using transformation<br />

of legacy systems, infrastructure, industries<br />

as a way of generating the demand<br />

that will be needed to rebuild economies,<br />

46 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


with funding going toward things that<br />

line up with our sustainability ambitions.<br />

However, we need to be careful about<br />

trying to remove, in one step, aspects<br />

of our society that we don’t necessarily<br />

agree with. The standard punching bag<br />

for many is the airline industry, which<br />

isn’t really that fair – their proportion<br />

of global emissions is actually not that<br />

enormous. WBCSD does not have any<br />

airline members, so I’m not defending<br />

the airline industry, but the global airline<br />

industry employs about three and a half<br />

million people and represents two or<br />

three percentage points of global GDP.<br />

I think we need to focus on generating<br />

demand in service of our sustainability<br />

goals, rather than destroying where we<br />

don’t think it aligns. It would be cleverer<br />

to link the outcome of what we were<br />

working on to the kinds of things that<br />

are required right now, like recovery,<br />

stability, jobs, etc.<br />

Maja Göpel: Julian, you put your finger<br />

exactly on the wound: There is something<br />

like a license to operate if business<br />

practice is not helping us deliver on the<br />

needs of the people in a sustainable way,<br />

but increases the risks. We cannot say:<br />

We can’t touch them. That is a failure<br />

of the state, and I think it’s really helpful<br />

to look at what Franklin Roosevelt<br />

put forward in his New Deal: The state<br />

needs to stop a race to the bottom and<br />

thus support that the pioneers can up<br />

the level of how business is performing<br />

and not the laggards.<br />

When I listen to European Commissioner Frans<br />

Timmermans, the cure seems very clear: We invest<br />

the money in climate-sensitive technologies,<br />

in the Green Deal, and this will give us in Europe<br />

a competitive advantage. That all sounds too<br />

good. Pietro, does CDP share this view?<br />

Pietro Bertazzi: I am glad that you<br />

mentioned Timmermans because I was<br />

thinking about referring to his recent<br />

statements, where he talked about linking<br />

the recovery to the European Green<br />

Concretely,<br />

we want to<br />

see companies<br />

that have been<br />

beneficiaries<br />

of economic<br />

recovery<br />

policies to<br />

commit to<br />

low-carbon<br />

transition<br />

plans.<br />

Pietro Bertazzi<br />

”<br />

Deal. He was actually trying to push<br />

environmental safeguards and the environmental<br />

agenda forwards. Because<br />

at the same time, some business associations<br />

have been trying to push back on<br />

this environmental agenda to put the<br />

economic recovery in front. I fully agree<br />

with Maja that we should be thinking<br />

long-term, but unfortunately I believe at<br />

the moment the thinking is still shortterm.<br />

And that’s because we are governed<br />

by fear. During the pandemic, which in<br />

some sense is very similar to a war – you<br />

try to fix just what you see in front of<br />

you.<br />

We do have a wish list at CDP, and of<br />

course it won’t be a surprise to you that<br />

we want to see the economic recovery<br />

be linked to the climate agenda. We<br />

believe in just transitions, and so all<br />

industries should be helped and get recovery<br />

support if the recovery package<br />

is linked to long-term environmental<br />

and climate goals. Concretely, we want<br />

to see companies that have been beneficiaries<br />

of economic recovery policies to<br />

commit to low-carbon transition plans.<br />

The second thing that we would like to<br />

see is getting companies prepared for<br />

the environmental and climate crisis.<br />

How can we do that? We recommend<br />

disclosure aligned with the TCFD recommendations,<br />

which help companies<br />

make assessments about the risks that<br />

climate change poses to financial stability.<br />

Emily, we talked a lot about the recovery of<br />

the economy, but what about the recovery of<br />

communities? >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


Emily Auckland: In the UK context,<br />

we do have a lot of influential voices<br />

delivering a message to government<br />

that the recovery needs to be a green<br />

recovery. Our position on that is that it<br />

also needs to be a socially just recovery,<br />

and that’s where the SDGs can be helpful.<br />

They should be used as a way to<br />

frame decision-making to check that it is<br />

coherent and that it addresses multiple<br />

challenges at the same time. Those of us<br />

who are more immersed in sustainability<br />

recognize that this is all interconnected,<br />

and that what we are seeing socially in<br />

our communities is a manifestation of<br />

global issues. So I think there is a greater<br />

need for a recognition of the interconnectedness,<br />

of the way that we live at<br />

the global, national, and local levels<br />

when it comes to recovery programs.<br />

We do actually have some really good<br />

leadership within cities in the UK when<br />

it comes to recovery planning. I mean<br />

it’s early stages, but some of what we are<br />

hearing and seeing is certainly a call for<br />

an inclusive, just, and green recovery. We<br />

have city governance that is decentralized,<br />

and they have certain powers, but<br />

they don’t necessarily have all the powers<br />

they need to do what they would like<br />

to do to respond to their local contexts.<br />

That’s why we need locally, nationally,<br />

and regionally relevant responses to<br />

these issues. And if we want to see our<br />

societies come together to address these<br />

challenges, then the SDGs help us have<br />

those conversations, open up those dialogues,<br />

and give us a sense of direction.<br />

You mentioned the importance of dialogues<br />

and participation. But reality is a bit confusing.<br />

We have these days many people going on<br />

the streets fighting for their rights. It sounds<br />

like a fantastic human rights story, but it is<br />

not because some protestors are just angry,<br />

some are conspiracy theorists, right-wingers,<br />

crackpots, etc. Are we facing a kind of very<br />

aggressive debate culture, where it seems to me<br />

that only the loudest voices are being heard?<br />

Emily Auckland: It’s a good point. There<br />

is a huge polarization of views, and I<br />

think perhaps those initiatives, organizations,<br />

partnerships, idealists who are<br />

calling for transformation right now<br />

need to find ways to collaborate. What<br />

I have learned through stakeholder engagement<br />

is that by having a collective<br />

sense of purpose, we are able to overcome<br />

a lot of the differences. Whether<br />

we are talking about political polarization<br />

or whether we are just talking about<br />

the dominance of certain agendas, we<br />

see a tendency to be very protective of<br />

those agendas, and I think we have to<br />

let go of some of that protectiveness<br />

and drop our barriers a bit if we are to<br />

find ways to work much more collaboratively<br />

and influence people. The SDGs<br />

can help us to do that when it comes<br />

to building narratives that are able to<br />

reach and influence a larger number<br />

of people.<br />

Pietro, how can we foster ambition to go the<br />

right way, be it with climate change issues or<br />

other issues?<br />

Pietro Bertazzi: Ambition is something<br />

that we really tackle at CDP, especially<br />

with the support of the Science Based<br />

Targets initiative. The UN Secretary-<br />

General just earlier this week issued the<br />

SDG Progress Report and warned that<br />

Covid-19 could imperil the progress of<br />

the Agenda 2030. Therefore, at CDP we<br />

encourage companies to set sciencebased<br />

targets to make a real impact in<br />

progressing the climate agenda. In an<br />

open letter, more than 150 global corporations<br />

participating in the SbT initiative<br />

urged world leaders to pursue a net-zero<br />

recovery from Covid-19. This is a very<br />

practical example of what Maja was<br />

talking about – transformation of the<br />

system. We can indeed work together<br />

to try to readdress and reorientate the<br />

system at large.<br />

We are living in a complex world, and we have<br />

to find a new kind of narrative to show the<br />

positive side of such a transformation. How<br />

can we pour more happiness and more positive<br />

thinking into Agenda 2030?<br />

Transformation,<br />

aligned with<br />

the SDGs, is<br />

how we need<br />

to generate the<br />

demand needed<br />

to rebuild<br />

economies.<br />

”<br />

Maja Göpel: Make sustainability the easy<br />

outcome, and make it less hard to live a<br />

sustainable life and lead a sustainable<br />

company! I would really love to see people<br />

stop repeating that sustainability is<br />

about bogging down, that sustainability<br />

is about prohibiting, that sustainability<br />

is about less, and not much fun. Most<br />

people, when you talk to them in private,<br />

know that things have to change. So I<br />

don’t appreciate when people’s presumably<br />

relentless needs are being abused in<br />

a discourse that describes sustainability<br />

as something unpleasant. We are far<br />

beyond that point. Sustainability is a<br />

desirable vision for many people, and<br />

this is what we should emphasize and<br />

use new technologies, new ways of doing<br />

things to make it reality: We always talk<br />

about the trade-offs between the social<br />

and the environmental. If there was<br />

anything that has become visible during<br />

Covid-19, it’s the trade-ins between<br />

better environmental surroundings and<br />

less pollution and people’s health and<br />

people’s well-being. This holds true for<br />

richer and poorer people alike.<br />

48 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


We are going to do that through our<br />

massive advertising budgets, but actually<br />

it’s not our fault if they buy those<br />

products. And governments are saying:<br />

Well that is capitalism, right? It’s up<br />

to free markets, that’s how the system<br />

works.<br />

I have worked in community development<br />

with vulnerable and marginalized<br />

groups, and I think there is very often<br />

an assumption that if someone is on<br />

the breadline that they don’t care about<br />

things. And actually they do, they just<br />

don’t have the platform to say so.<br />

Julian Hill-Landolt: Just one remark: I<br />

just feel we might be using a view of the<br />

public that is not as broad as it needs to<br />

be. I am a committed environmentalist,<br />

I want the world to change. But I<br />

don’t see a world yet in which people<br />

are as open to changes as we (people<br />

working to bring about more sustainable<br />

societies) want them to be. And I<br />

don’t see a world in which people are<br />

sufficiently well-off, stable, and secure<br />

to have the time available to care about<br />

these things, particularly right now. For<br />

a lot of people, their pandemic has been<br />

absolutely awful. There are millions<br />

who have lost their jobs, who don’t<br />

have outdoor spaces to use, who have<br />

no access to healthcare, or who live in<br />

countries with no safety net and therefore<br />

have to keep on working because<br />

they live from one meal to the next. So,<br />

it’s important for us to have empathy<br />

– as governments, as companies, as a<br />

sustainability sector – and have the<br />

right conversations with people. I agree<br />

wholeheartedly with everything that has<br />

been said. But unless we get the public<br />

Julian Hill-Landolt<br />

on board, we won’t see transformation<br />

at the rate and scope required.<br />

Maja Göpel: Here I would like to add<br />

that being forced to do things that are<br />

environmentally harmful is not the<br />

same as not caring about these effects.<br />

That is exactly my point when I say we<br />

need to pull the social and environmental<br />

co-benefits of sustainability proposals<br />

and policies to the forefront. Justice runs<br />

across both domains and to me is a key<br />

building block for acceptance.<br />

I would like to turn to Emily.<br />

Emily Auckland: I’m going to be a mediator<br />

and sit somewhere in between<br />

the two of you because I think that both<br />

points are right. I think that there is<br />

an assumption that people can’t make<br />

the right decisions, and there has been<br />

a history of business and government<br />

behaviors that reinforce that within<br />

society. So we are going to push them<br />

toward these products that are not good<br />

for them and are not good for the planet.<br />

I also think that business and government<br />

have to take really serious responsibility<br />

for their role in consumer<br />

behavior. I heard a quote recently from<br />

Myles Allan, who is the physicist that<br />

came up with the net-zero concept. He<br />

said that we cannot entrust the future<br />

of the planet to the individual decisions<br />

of eight billion people, and I think that<br />

is ultimately it. We can’t say it’s down<br />

to individual choice to change these big,<br />

complex, systemic issues. It is down to<br />

those that have the power and that are<br />

able to pull the right levers for change.<br />

Pietro, what are your remarks or your narrative<br />

for Agenda 2030?<br />

Pietro Bertazzi: Well, actually, I think<br />

we should highlight what is possible,<br />

because there are some niches where<br />

things are actually happening and going<br />

in the right direction, and we should<br />

put a spotlight on those. In Canada, the<br />

government did link their economic<br />

recovery package to the climate agenda.<br />

Companies that want to be beneficiaries<br />

of the recovery funds must disclose<br />

their climate risks in line with the TCFD<br />

recommendations. That’s great. Why<br />

can’t we propose this to other jurisdictions?<br />

The interview was conducted by Dr. Elmer<br />

Lenzen, publisher of the Global Goals Yearbook<br />

and chair of the macondo foundation.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


By Meaghan Muldoon<br />

Covid-19<br />

Makes<br />

ESG Factors<br />

More<br />

Financially<br />

Relevant<br />

The tremendous toll of the<br />

Covid-19 crisis – on health,<br />

economic well-being, and<br />

everyday activity – has<br />

precipitated a widespread<br />

reassessment of the way we<br />

live our lives. While the market<br />

viewed 2019 as a watershed<br />

year for the mainstreaming<br />

of sustainable investing, we<br />

expect that the response to<br />

the Covid-19 crisis in the first<br />

half of 2020 will prove to be<br />

an even more meaningful<br />

test case for – and evolution<br />

of – the global sustainable<br />

investing landscape.<br />

50 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Prior to the pandemic,<br />

there were two core hypotheses <strong>under</strong>pinning<br />

the growth of sustainable<br />

investing. First: that broad sustainable<br />

exposures could not only perform in<br />

line with traditional benchmarks (moving<br />

away from the “financial trade-off”<br />

stigma), but could in fact build greater<br />

portfolio resilience by better weathering<br />

market downturns. Second: that investors<br />

were on the front-end of a long-term,<br />

structural shift in<br />

preferences in favor of sustainability,<br />

which would lead to a major<br />

reallocation of capital and ultimately a<br />

revaluing of assets and risks consistent<br />

with these preferences over the course<br />

of many years.<br />

Market performance and market behavior<br />

during the first quarter of 2020 have<br />

reinforced both hypotheses. The Covid-19<br />

crisis is the first real test for sustainable<br />

strategies during a period of historic<br />

financial<br />

market stress since sustainable<br />

investing has gone mainstream,<br />

and although one quarter is short and<br />

certainly not determinative, what we<br />

observed was meaningful.<br />

First, from a performance perspective,<br />

sustainable strategies demonstrated<br />

more resilience than their traditional<br />

counterparts. From an index perspective,<br />

Morningstar reported that 51 of their 57<br />

sustainable indices outperformed their<br />

broad market counterparts in the first<br />

quarter, while MSCI reported that 15<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


ESG<br />

Second, rather than fleeing sustainable<br />

funds in favor of traditional strategies,<br />

the market saw investors accelerating<br />

into sustainable strategies during the<br />

period of massive market volatility, making<br />

the move into sustainability a part<br />

of their portfolio rebalances. In the first<br />

quarter of 2020, global sustainable openended<br />

funds (mutual funds and ETFs)<br />

brought in $40.5 billion in new assets, a<br />

41 percent increase year-over-year. Meanwhile,<br />

US sustainable funds attracted a<br />

record $7.3 billion for the quarter. That<br />

investors used an extraordinary market<br />

drawdown as an impetus to grow sustainable<br />

exposure in their portfolios is<br />

evidence of the persistence in investor<br />

preferences toward sustainability.<br />

With this experience in mind, how do<br />

governments, businesses, investors, and<br />

stakeholders start to <strong>under</strong>stand the<br />

sources of resilience during these past<br />

few months, and how will the experience<br />

of Covid-19 change sustainable investing<br />

as we return to a new normal? What<br />

have we learned?<br />

of their 17 sustainable indices outperformed<br />

over the same period – consistent<br />

across geography and methodology.<br />

In active mutual funds, our research has<br />

found that open-ended funds that score<br />

in the top 10 percent of Morningstar’s<br />

sustainability ratings have significantly<br />

outperformed low-scoring peers (bottom<br />

10 percent). Specifically, a majority of<br />

high ESG-scoring funds landed in the<br />

top half of performance in their Morningstar<br />

category, while low ESG scorers<br />

were more likely to be near the bottom.<br />

Not only has Covid-19 validated the<br />

growing role for sustainable investing<br />

strategies in financial markets, but it has<br />

provided important new information to<br />

existing notions of materiality. Our investment<br />

conviction is grounded in the<br />

expectation that companies with strong<br />

profiles on material sustainability issues<br />

have the potential to outperform those<br />

with poor profiles. The breadth and scale<br />

of the Covid-19 crisis has prompted investors<br />

to reevaluate how environmental,<br />

social, and governance (ESG) information<br />

can be used to help identify investment<br />

opportunities and risks.<br />

52 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Case in point: In a mid-April internal survey<br />

of our own investment professionals,<br />

more than two-thirds of respondents said<br />

they believed Covid-19 would make ESGrelated<br />

factors more financially relevant<br />

to a firm’s bottom line going forward,<br />

even in the short term. Equally interesting,<br />

respondents signaled a shift from an<br />

“Esg” focus pre-crisis to an “ESG” focus<br />

moving forward – with the materiality<br />

of S and G considerations seen in heightened<br />

relief during the crisis and response.<br />

The reason for this is clear: The Covid-19<br />

crisis is above all things a health crisis.<br />

Companies – acting <strong>under</strong> the scrutiny<br />

of public authorities, unions, and<br />

broader society – have had to quickly<br />

plan and adapt to ensure the health and<br />

safety of their employees, demonstrate<br />

commitments to safeguard jobs, and<br />

mitigate the worst consequences of activity<br />

loss for customers and supply chains.<br />

Our research has found that across 15<br />

leading sustainability themes (five each<br />

across environmental, social, and governance<br />

pillars), the strongest relationship<br />

to short-term performance during the<br />

Q1 market displacement was found in<br />

customer relations (“S”), firm culture<br />

(“S”), and board effectiveness (“G”) –<br />

all indicators pointing to adroitness in<br />

pivoting quickly to address immediate<br />

stakeholder needs.<br />

Just as resilience and adaptiveness have<br />

been valued in the near term, maintaining<br />

a strong “social license to operate”<br />

will matter more going forward – particularly<br />

among companies that have<br />

received public support, or those that<br />

have suffered less and may be better<br />

positioned to contribute. Embedded in<br />

this stakeholder focus is the transformation<br />

of the core principles of corporate<br />

governance: Companies are facing pressure<br />

from governments around the world<br />

to cut dividend payments beyond the<br />

lifetime of the crisis, to reassess executive<br />

remuneration, and to overhaul risk<br />

management policies to better prepare<br />

for systemic risks. In the longer run, the<br />

manner in which firms serve their stakeholders<br />

during the Covid-19 outbreak<br />

may prove to be a key differentiator for<br />

companies looking to accelerate out of<br />

the crisis on the back of strong employee<br />

satisfaction, corporate culture, and brand<br />

reputation, especially in regulated sectors<br />

and those that will benefit from<br />

public financial support.<br />

In short, the rising salience of stakeholdercentric<br />

issues in the Covid-19 crisis has<br />

reinforced a shift in the balance between<br />

shareholder and stakeholder capitalism,<br />

with health, social, and employment<br />

concerns moving workers and the community<br />

into the investor’s focus.<br />

Despite the very human nature of the<br />

Covid-19 crisis, its lasting impact on how<br />

investors price sustainability considerations<br />

will not just be an “S” and “G” story.<br />

The experience of a global health pandemic<br />

has also made the slow-moving,<br />

catastrophic consequences of climate<br />

change, deforestation, and other onceabstract<br />

threats to natural capital suddenly<br />

much easier to imagine. As we<br />

move into the new normal, a legacy of<br />

the Covid-19 crisis will be a validation of<br />

the structural shift toward sustainable<br />

strategies, and an evolution of material<br />

sustainability insights focused across E,<br />

S, and G.<br />

A final way the Covid-19 crisis may shape<br />

the future of sustainable investing is an<br />

increased focus on mapping ESG factors<br />

onto the United Nations Sustainable<br />

Development Goals, as governments internalize<br />

new social and environmental<br />

challenges and as stakeholder capitalism<br />

gains traction. The SDG framework is<br />

well-adapted for alleviating the worst<br />

social and economic impacts of the<br />

Covid-19 crisis, as well as the natural<br />

capital issues that lead to the conditions<br />

which make future pandemics more<br />

likely. Better <strong>under</strong>standing the alignment<br />

between the SDGs and financial<br />

materiality – where doing good also<br />

means doing well – could open a path<br />

for impact objectives to also benefit from<br />

a broader market reallocation to sustainable<br />

strategies.<br />

Meaghan Muldoon<br />

Managing Director<br />

Global Head of ESG Integration<br />

at BlackRock<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


The Corona Effect<br />

Four Future Scenarios<br />

How will the pandemic<br />

change the way we live<br />

and do business? The<br />

Zukunftsinstitut describes<br />

four possible scenarios of<br />

how the corona crisis can<br />

transform the world.<br />

1. Total isolation:<br />

Everyone against everyone<br />

→ Welcome to the Super Safe Society! Society<br />

is once again clearly defining itself<br />

as a nation – because security can only<br />

be guaranteed if the boundaries of the<br />

security zone are clearly defined. Security<br />

comes first. Every man for himself. The<br />

state uses all available means to protect<br />

its citizens – even if that means stirring<br />

up deep-rooted fears or artificially<br />

scarifying food. People therefore use all<br />

possible open spaces to grow their own<br />

fruit and vegetables. The black market<br />

and bartering are also flourishing.<br />

→ De-urbanization: The countryside is<br />

gaining power. Those who can, move out<br />

of the city, to feed themselves – and earn<br />

good money by supplying impoverished<br />

city dwellers with food. The trend toward<br />

single life, ever smaller apartments and<br />

co-living, reliance on public transport,<br />

and global commodity flows has made<br />

the urban population dependent. The<br />

urban hipsters have become a precarious<br />

class.<br />

→ Germophobia, the longing for sterility,<br />

has steadily increased mistrust of<br />

products whose origins cannot clearly be<br />

traced. Fruit and vegetables are clinically<br />

disinfected before consumption, and<br />

research into safe packaging is being<br />

conducted at full speed. Imports have<br />

been restricted because the fear of germs<br />

being introduced via products from<br />

abroad is too high. There are fewer exotic<br />

fruits – but many of them can now be<br />

grown in countries where it was not<br />

previously possible, thanks to climate<br />

change. Agriculture and the manufacturing<br />

industry have experienced an<br />

enormous upswing, nearshoring has<br />

been put into practice.<br />

→ What began with recommendations<br />

to cancel large events with more than<br />

1,000 people has developed into a ban<br />

on meetings with more than 10 people,<br />

for the benefit of the people. Public<br />

cultural life has therefore come to an<br />

almost complete standstill. Concerts or<br />

sporting events still take place, but the<br />

audience sits at home and watches the<br />

event from their couch at home – free<br />

of charge, sponsored by the state. Once<br />

popular third places such as cafés are<br />

being avoided, restaurants have become<br />

ghost kitchens, supplying customers with<br />

meals to the highest hygienic standards.<br />

For city dwellers in particular, social<br />

contacts have shifted to virtual space.<br />

54 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


2. System crash:<br />

Permanent crisis mode<br />

→ Frictions in the multipolar world order<br />

are the order of the day: Mutual<br />

recriminations, aggressive threatening,<br />

and nervous action alternate with efforts<br />

toward openness and cooperation – because<br />

there is nevertheless an awareness<br />

that we are dependent on each other.<br />

Neo-nationalism is on the rise, there is<br />

a constant state of tension.<br />

→ Looking to national sale markets,<br />

nearshoring is becoming a political-ideological<br />

premise. At the same time, however,<br />

dependence on international trade<br />

relations and commodity flows remains.<br />

Both tendencies abruptly and permanently<br />

stand side by side and rub against<br />

each other. Glocalization, too, is only<br />

an expression of the discrepancies<br />

between local and international<br />

markets, which cannot exist<br />

without each other. Global<br />

cities are the most nervous<br />

places in the world:<br />

This is where the tensions<br />

between the regional,<br />

national, and<br />

international flows<br />

of finance, services,<br />

and goods are constantly<br />

felt.<br />

→ High times for<br />

Big Data! The<br />

more uncertain<br />

the times, the<br />

more analysis is<br />

required. The collection<br />

and processing<br />

of large<br />

amounts of data<br />

are experiencing a<br />

continuous boom. The development of<br />

artificial intelligence is being intensified,<br />

especially for the simulation of crisis<br />

scenarios and the control of crises. Consequently,<br />

cybercrime on behalf of the<br />

state is also on the rise – with the aim<br />

of weakening international competitors.<br />

Internally, the state is using technology<br />

for monitoring: predictive analytics, the<br />

data-based prediction of human behavior,<br />

is becoming increasingly important in a<br />

permanently insecure society.<br />

→ Privacy is declining. Individual freedom<br />

of data is increasingly<br />

restricted, and laws<br />

concerning<br />

privacy and data protection have largely<br />

been abolished, both in international exchanges<br />

with other states and in dealing<br />

with one’s own population. Health data<br />

is becoming a matter for the state – and<br />

the population is joining in, as confidence<br />

in the state’s health provision and care<br />

has been waning for a long time. More<br />

and more people are relying on personal<br />

health responsibility, digital health, continuous<br />

self-tracking, and the monitoring<br />

of their vital signs by smart devices that<br />

feed personal health data into government<br />

databases at any time. >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


3. Neo-tribes:<br />

The retreat into the private sphere<br />

→ People no longer trust state actors and<br />

supranational alliances – nor do they<br />

trust them with the power to act. The<br />

turning away from the global world<br />

community leads to a particularized<br />

we-culture and the increased formation<br />

of neo-tribes. Community is sought on<br />

a small scale, because in the wake of<br />

the corona crisis the trend toward postindividualization<br />

has become attractive<br />

to a broader mass.<br />

→ The fear of infection has spurred a<br />

retreat into the private sphere and the<br />

rediscovery of domesticity. There are<br />

practically no major events anymore, but<br />

there is a lot of streaming, because you<br />

can participate in mega-events via virtual<br />

reality without having to leave your<br />

secure and comfortable home. Neighborhood<br />

help is a top priority, and there are<br />

fixed structures for helping each other in<br />

a crisis. Supplies are shared or exchanged,<br />

special attention is paid to the old and<br />

weak. People are also increasingly moving<br />

to the countryside or smaller towns<br />

– the Progressive Province has reached<br />

its peak.<br />

→ Instead of using public transport, people<br />

are more and more switching to bicycles<br />

or e-scooters. Long-distance travel<br />

has lost much of its appeal – in contrast<br />

to surrounding regions or neighboring<br />

countries. Massive de-touristification<br />

has the effect that entire landscapes<br />

and former tourism hotspots are able<br />

to recover from overtourism. Travel is<br />

no longer taken for granted, but is –<br />

again – seen as something special, also<br />

because it requires a lot of precautions<br />

and planning in post-corona times. Tourism<br />

is turning even more into resonant<br />

tourism.<br />

→ The failure of global retail chains and<br />

mistrust of certain countries of origin<br />

are leading to a fundamental re-regionalization.<br />

More than ever, people are<br />

buying locally, the sharing economy is<br />

gaining momentum in regional networks,<br />

traditional handicraft techniques are experiencing<br />

a renaissance. Urban farming<br />

and cooperatives are replacing capitalist<br />

consumption patterns, and a circular<br />

economy with autonomous ecosystems<br />

is emerging in regional communities.<br />

Concepts such as Cradle to Cradle or<br />

post-growth are naturally embedded in<br />

people’s everyday lives – as practices<br />

that are as desired as they are necessary.<br />

The regional economy functions<br />

completely autonomously.<br />

→ The corona crisis has proven to be a<br />

surprising driver of new work trends<br />

toward more flexicurity: The fact that<br />

flexibility in the workplace was made<br />

possible on a broad scale out of necessity<br />

has permanently changed working<br />

cultures. Home office is now an essential<br />

part of every corporate culture, international<br />

companies arrange meetings in VR<br />

conferences, contracts are concluded via<br />

blockchain. Digital health applications<br />

calculate the potential risk of personal<br />

business meetings in advance – which<br />

are usually not recommended anyway.<br />

4. Adaption:<br />

The resilient society<br />

The corona virus has triggered a selfpurification<br />

of the markets: a collective<br />

reflection on the origin of our goods,<br />

which has stimulated new patterns of<br />

consumption. The breakdown of global<br />

chains of production and action has led to<br />

a rediscovery of domestic alternatives. Stationary<br />

trade, regional products, and supply<br />

chains have experienced an upswing.<br />

Not only has a sensible balance between<br />

online and offline been achieved, but<br />

above all a wise approach to globalized<br />

retail chains, a balance between local and<br />

global trade and a flourishing of direct<br />

trade platforms. Since then, weekly markets,<br />

regional producers, and local online<br />

shops have been booming. The monopoly<br />

position of online retailers such as Amazon<br />

and Alibaba has dissolved in favor<br />

of several smaller players that are less<br />

dependent on global production chains<br />

and more readily available locally. Society<br />

is moving away from mass consumption<br />

and a throwaway mentality toward a<br />

healthier economic system.<br />

→ Corona has made the vision of a new<br />

holistic <strong>under</strong>standing of health come<br />

true: Health is no longer seen as something<br />

that concerns only the individual<br />

body and behavior. Rather, health is now<br />

viewed more holistically: Environment,<br />

city, politics, global community – all<br />

these factors are important for human<br />

health. World health and individual<br />

health are being looked at as a whole.<br />

This new mindset is turning the entire<br />

healthcare system upside down: Governments,<br />

city planners, and businesses are<br />

working together to create healthy environments<br />

for all people. In this context,<br />

the use of digital health apps has become<br />

a matter of course to share health data<br />

anonymously in real time. Thanks to<br />

predictive health, accurate predictions<br />

can be made, for example about the<br />

likelihood of an epidemic. It is clear<br />

to everyone that individual health can<br />

no longer be viewed in isolation from<br />

environment and society.<br />

→ Global risks require supranational players<br />

who can act in a globally networked<br />

manner. The corona crisis, for example,<br />

has given political power to act a new<br />

weighting. While nation-states have<br />

lost relevance, cities and supranational<br />

56 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Impact Map for Scenarios<br />

and Megatrends<br />

Scenario 1<br />

Total isolation<br />

1<br />

Strong megatrends<br />

Driving megatrends<br />

Ambivalent megatrends<br />

Silver Society<br />

3<br />

Scenario 3<br />

Neo-Tribes<br />

Individualization<br />

New Work<br />

Security<br />

Health<br />

2<br />

Scenario 2<br />

System crash<br />

Connectivity<br />

Globalization<br />

Scenario 4<br />

Adaption<br />

4<br />

Neo-ecology<br />

Culture of Knowledge<br />

Mobility<br />

Gender Shift<br />

Urbanization<br />

Source: Zukunftsinstitut, FAS Research<br />

bodies are becoming increasingly important<br />

– a reorganisation in the sense of<br />

glocalisation: The local level (cities, municipalities,<br />

mayors etc.) is directly linked<br />

to global organizations. In this way, local<br />

problems can be solved quickly and creatively,<br />

and global risks can be identified<br />

more quickly and tackled cooperatively.<br />

Overall, since the pandemic, humanity<br />

has perceived itself more strongly as a<br />

global community that must solve challenges<br />

together. For neither an epidemic<br />

nor the climate crisis stops at national<br />

borders. A global identity has emerged,<br />

supported by a fundamental change in<br />

values: solidarity and we-culture not<br />

only with our neighbors, but also at<br />

international and global levels.<br />

→ The corona crisis has led to concrete<br />

lessons in supranational handling of<br />

big data, predictive analytics, and early<br />

warning systems. Artificial intelligence<br />

is now being used more constructively:<br />

not only to contain epidemics at an<br />

early stage, but also to minimize all<br />

possible global risks that do not respect<br />

national borders. Everyone is equipped<br />

with health tracking devices, because<br />

the global exchange of up-to-date health<br />

data allows risks to be detected early on.<br />

The continuous learning from each other<br />

in a multitude of functioning networks<br />

creates global resilience. This new spirit<br />

also shapes the media landscape: Constructive<br />

journalism focuses on solutions<br />

instead of spreading alarmism and fake<br />

news. This also helps to maintain a resilient<br />

and adaptive society that knows<br />

how to deal productively with crises.<br />

Copyright and more information:<br />

Zukunftsinstitut GmbH<br />

Kaiserstr. 53<br />

60329 Frankfurt am Main<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


Loss of Species Biodiversity<br />

Every 20<br />

minutes the world adds<br />

3,500<br />

human lives and loses<br />

6 out of 7<br />

marine turtles<br />

are threatened by extinction<br />

one or more species Every 60<br />

m i n u t e s<br />

240 acres<br />

of natural habitat are destroyed<br />

70%<br />

of the world’s known species<br />

risk extinction if the global<br />

temperature rises by<br />

more than 3.5°C<br />

20%<br />

of the world’s species<br />

could be gone in<br />

30 years<br />

75%<br />

of genetic diversity in<br />

agriculture crops<br />

has been lost<br />

Data: www.globalissues.org<br />

58 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


1 out of 4<br />

amphibians birds, conifers,<br />

and mammals are threatened<br />

by extinction<br />

75%<br />

of the world’s fisheries<br />

are fully or over exploited<br />

27,000<br />

species<br />

lost a year<br />

80%<br />

of the decline in biological<br />

diversity is caused by<br />

habitat destruction<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


We Are Creating<br />

Conditions for<br />

Diseases such<br />

as Covid-19<br />

to Emerge<br />

As habitat and biodiversity loss<br />

increase globally, the novel<br />

coronavirus outbreak may be just the<br />

beginning of mass pandemics.<br />

By John Vidal<br />

60<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Mayibout 2 is not a healthy place. The 150 or so people<br />

who live in the village, which sits on the south bank<br />

of the Ivindo River, deep in the great Minkebe Forest<br />

in northern Gabon, are used to occasional bouts of diseases<br />

such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and sleeping sickness.<br />

Mostly they shrug them off.<br />

But in January 1996, Ebola, a deadly virus then barely known<br />

to humans, unexpectedly spilled out of the forest in a wave<br />

of small epidemics. The disease killed 21 of 37 villagers who<br />

were reported to have been infected, including a number who<br />

had carried, skinned, chopped, or eaten a chimpanzee from<br />

the nearby forest.<br />

I traveled to Mayibout 2 in 2004 to investigate why deadly<br />

diseases new to humans were emerging from biodiversity “hot<br />

spots” such as tropical rainforests and bushmeat markets in<br />

African and Asian cities.<br />

It took a day by canoe and then many hours down degraded<br />

forest logging roads passing Baka villages and a small gold<br />

mine to reach the village. There, I found traumatized people<br />

still fearful that the deadly virus, which kills up to 90 percent<br />

of the people it infects, would return.<br />

Villagers told me how children had gone into the forest with<br />

dogs that had killed a chimp. They said that everyone who<br />

cooked or ate it got a terrible fever within a few hours. Some<br />

died immediately, while others were taken down the river<br />

to hospital. A few, such as Nesto Bematsick, recovered. “We<br />

used to love the forest, now we fear it,” he told me. Many of<br />

Bematsick’s family members died.<br />

Only a decade or two ago, it was widely thought that tropical<br />

forests and intact natural environments teeming with exotic<br />

wildlife threatened humans by harboring the viruses and<br />

pathogens that lead to new diseases in humans, such as Ebola,<br />

HIV, and dengue.<br />

But a number of researchers today think that it is actually<br />

humanity’s destruction of biodiversity that creates the conditions<br />

for new viruses and diseases such as Covid-19 – the viral<br />

disease that emerged in China in December 2019 – to arise,<br />

leading to profound health and economic impacts in rich and<br />

poor countries alike. In fact, a new discipline – planetary<br />

health – is emerging that focuses on the increasingly visible<br />

connections among the well-being of humans, other living<br />

things, and entire ecosystems.<br />

Is it possible, then, that it was human activity, such as roadbuilding,<br />

mining, hunting, and logging, that triggered the<br />

Ebola epidemics in Mayibout 2 and elsewhere in the 1990s,<br />

and that is unleashing new terrors today? >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


“We invade tropical forests and other<br />

wild landscapes, which harbor so many<br />

species of animals and plants — and<br />

within those creatures, so many unknown<br />

viruses,” David Quammen, author<br />

of Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next<br />

Pandemic, recently wrote in the New York<br />

Times. “We cut the trees; we kill the<br />

animals or cage them and send them to<br />

markets. We disrupt ecosystems, and we<br />

shake viruses loose from their natural<br />

hosts. When that happens, they need a<br />

new host. Often, we are it.”<br />

Increasing threat<br />

Research suggests that outbreaks of<br />

animal-borne and other infectious<br />

diseases such as Ebola, SARS, bird flu,<br />

and now Covid-19, caused by a novel<br />

coronavirus, are on the rise. Pathogens<br />

are crossing from animals to humans,<br />

and many are now able to spread quickly<br />

to new places. The US Centers for<br />

Disease Control and Prevention estimates<br />

that three-quarters of “new or emerging”<br />

diseases which infect humans originate<br />

in non-human animals.<br />

Some, such as rabies and plague, crossed<br />

from animals centuries ago. Others, such<br />

as Marburg, which is thought to be transmitted<br />

by bats, are still rare. A few, such<br />

as Covid-19, which emerged last year<br />

in Wuhan, China, and MERS, which is<br />

linked to camels in the Middle East, are<br />

new to humans and spreading globally.<br />

Other diseases that have crossed into humans<br />

include Lassa fever, which was first<br />

identified in 1969 in Nigeria; Nipah from<br />

Malaysia; and SARS from China, which<br />

killed more than 700 people and traveled<br />

to 30 countries in 2002–2003. Some,<br />

such as Zika and West Nile virus, which<br />

emerged in Africa, have mutated and<br />

become established on other continents.<br />

Kate Jones, Chair of ecology and biodiversity<br />

at University College London,<br />

calls emerging animal-borne infectious<br />

diseases an “increasing and very significant<br />

threat to global health, security, and<br />

economies.”<br />

Amplification effect<br />

In 2008, Jones and a team of researchers<br />

identified 335 diseases that emerged between<br />

1960 and 2004, at least 60 percent<br />

of which came from non-human animals.<br />

Increasingly, says Jones, these zoonotic<br />

diseases are linked to environmental<br />

change and human behavior. The disruption<br />

of pristine forests driven by logging,<br />

mining, road building through remote<br />

places, rapid urbanization, and population<br />

growth is bringing people into closer<br />

contact with animal species they may<br />

never have been near before, she says.<br />

The resulting transmission of disease<br />

from wildlife to humans, she says, is<br />

now “a hidden cost of human economic<br />

development. There are just so many<br />

more of us, in every environment. We<br />

are going into largely undisturbed places<br />

and being exposed more and more. We<br />

are creating habitats where viruses are<br />

transmitted more easily, and then we<br />

are surprised that we have new ones.”<br />

Jones studies how land-use change contributes<br />

to the risk. “We are researching<br />

how species in degraded habitats are<br />

likely to carry more viruses which can<br />

infect humans,” she says. “Simpler systems<br />

get an amplification effect. Destroy<br />

landscapes, and the species you are left<br />

with are the ones humans get the diseases<br />

from.”<br />

“There are countless pathogens out there<br />

continuing to evolve which at some<br />

point could pose a threat to humans,”<br />

says Eric Fevre, chair of veterinary infectious<br />

diseases at the University of<br />

Liverpool’s Institute of Infection and<br />

Global Health. “The risk [of pathogens<br />

jumping from animals to humans] has<br />

always been there.”<br />

62 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


“We cut the trees;<br />

we kill the animals<br />

or cage them and<br />

send them to<br />

markets. We disrupt<br />

ecosystems, and we<br />

shake viruses loose<br />

from their natural<br />

hosts. When that<br />

happens, they need<br />

a new host. Often,<br />

we are it.”<br />

The difference between now and a few<br />

decades ago, Fevre says, is that diseases<br />

are likely to spring up in both urban and<br />

natural environments. “We have created<br />

densely packed populations where<br />

alongside us are bats and rodents and<br />

birds, pets and other living things. That<br />

creates intense interaction and opportunities<br />

for things to move from species to<br />

species,” he says.<br />

Tip of the iceberg<br />

“Pathogens do not respect species boundaries,”<br />

says disease ecologist Thomas<br />

Gillespie, an associate professor in Emory<br />

University’s Department of Environmental<br />

Sciences, who studies how shrinking<br />

natural habitats and changing behavior<br />

add to the risks of diseases spilling over<br />

from animals to humans.<br />

“I am not at all surprised about the<br />

coronavirus outbreak,” he says. “The<br />

majority of pathogens are still to be<br />

discovered. We are at the very tip of<br />

the iceberg.”<br />

Humans, says Gillespie, are creating the<br />

conditions for the spread of diseases by<br />

reducing the natural barriers between<br />

virus host animals — in which the virus<br />

is naturally circulating — and themselves.<br />

“We fully expect the arrival of<br />

pandemic influenza; we can expect largescale<br />

human mortalities; we can expect<br />

other pathogens with other impacts. A<br />

disease like Ebola is not easily spread.<br />

But something with a mortality rate of<br />

Ebola spread by something like measles<br />

would be catastrophic,” Gillespie says.<br />

Wildlife everywhere is being put <strong>under</strong><br />

more stress, he says. “Major landscape<br />

changes are causing animals to lose<br />

habitats, which means species become<br />

crowded together and also come into<br />

greater contact with humans. Species<br />

that survive change are now moving<br />

and mixing with different animals and<br />

with humans.”<br />

Gillespie sees this in the United States,<br />

where suburbs fragmenting forests raise<br />

the risk of humans contracting Lyme<br />

disease. “Altering the ecosystem affects<br />

the complex cycle of the Lyme pathogen.<br />

People living close by are more likely<br />

to get bitten by a tick carrying Lyme<br />

bacteria,” he says.<br />

Yet, human health research seldom<br />

considers the surrounding natural<br />

ecosystems, says Richard Ostfeld, distinguished<br />

senior scientist at the Cary<br />

Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook,<br />

New York. He and others are<br />

developing the emerging discipline of<br />

planetary health, which looks at the<br />

links between human and ecosystem<br />

health.<br />

“There’s misapprehension among scientists<br />

and the public that natural<br />

ecosystems are the source of threats to<br />

ourselves. It’s a mistake. Nature poses<br />

threats, it is true, but it’s human activities<br />

that do the real damage. The health<br />

risks in a natural environment can be<br />

made much worse when we interfere<br />

with it,” he says.<br />

Ostfeld points to rats and bats, which<br />

are strongly linked with the direct and<br />

indirect spread of zoonotic diseases. “Rodents<br />

and some bats thrive when we<br />

disrupt natural habitats. They are the<br />

most likely to promote transmissions<br />

[of pathogens]. The more we disturb the<br />

forests and habitats the more danger we<br />

are in,” he says.<br />

Felicia Keesing, professor of biology at<br />

Bard College, New York, studies how<br />

environmental changes influence the<br />

probability that humans will be exposed<br />

to infectious diseases. “When we erode<br />

biodiversity, we see a proliferation of<br />

the species most likely to transmit new<br />

diseases to us, but there’s also good evidence<br />

that those same species are the<br />

best hosts for existing diseases,” she wrote<br />

in an email.<br />

>><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


“Wet markets<br />

make a perfect<br />

storm for<br />

cross-species<br />

transmission of<br />

pathogens.”<br />

The market connection<br />

Disease ecologists argue that viruses and<br />

other pathogens are also likely to move<br />

from animals to humans in the many<br />

informal markets that have sprung up<br />

to provide fresh meat to fast-growing<br />

urban populations around the world.<br />

Here, animals are slaughtered, cut up,<br />

and sold on the spot.<br />

The “wet market” (one that sells fresh<br />

produce and meat) in Wuhan, thought<br />

by the Chinese government to be the<br />

starting point of the current Covid-19<br />

pandemic, was known to sell numerous<br />

wild animals, including live wolf pups,<br />

salamanders, crocodiles, scorpions, rats,<br />

squirrels, foxes, civets, and turtles.<br />

Equally, urban markets in west and<br />

central Africa see monkeys, bats, rats,<br />

and dozens of bird, mammal, insect,<br />

and rodent species slaughtered and sold<br />

close to open refuse dumps and with<br />

no drainage.<br />

“Wet markets make a perfect storm for<br />

cross-species transmission of pathogens,”<br />

says Gillespie. “Whenever you have<br />

novel interactions with a range of species<br />

in one place, whether that is in a<br />

natural environment like a forest or a<br />

wet market, you can have a spillover<br />

event.”<br />

The Wuhan market, along with others<br />

that sell live animals, has been shut by<br />

the Chinese authorities, and the government<br />

in February outlawed trading and<br />

eating wild animals, except for fish and<br />

seafood. But bans on live animals being<br />

sold in urban areas or informal markets<br />

are not the answer, say some scientists.<br />

“The wet market in Lagos is notorious. It’s<br />

like a nuclear bomb waiting to happen.<br />

But it’s not fair to demonize places which<br />

do not have fridges. These traditional<br />

markets provide much of the food for<br />

Africa and Asia,” says Jones.<br />

“These markets are essential sources of<br />

food for hundreds of millions of poor<br />

people, and getting rid of them is impossible,”<br />

says Delia Grace, a senior<br />

epidemiologist and veterinarian with<br />

the International Livestock Research<br />

Institute, which is based in Nairobi,<br />

Kenya. She argues that bans force traders<br />

<strong>under</strong>ground, where they may pay<br />

less attention to hygiene.<br />

Fevre and Cecilia Tacoli, principal researcher<br />

in the human settlements research<br />

group at the International Institute<br />

for Environment and Development,<br />

argue in a blog post that “rather than<br />

pointing the finger at wet markets,” we<br />

should look at the burgeoning trade in<br />

wild animals.<br />

“It is wild animals rather than farmed<br />

animals that are the natural hosts of<br />

many viruses,” they write. “Wet markets<br />

are considered part of the informal<br />

food trade that is often blamed for<br />

contributing to spreading disease. But<br />

[…] evidence shows the link between<br />

informal markets and disease is not<br />

always so clear cut.”<br />

Changing behavior<br />

So what, if anything, can we do about<br />

all of this?<br />

Jones says that change must come from<br />

both rich and poor societies. Demand<br />

for wood, minerals, and resources from<br />

the Global North leads to the degraded<br />

landscapes and ecological disruption<br />

that drives disease, she says. “We must<br />

think about global biosecurity, find the<br />

weak points, and bolster the provision<br />

of health care in developing countries.<br />

Otherwise we can expect more of the<br />

same,” she says.<br />

“The risks are greater now. They were<br />

always present and have been there for<br />

generations. It is our interactions with<br />

that risk which must be changed,” says<br />

64 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Brian Bird, a research virologist at the<br />

University of California, Davis School<br />

of Veterinary Medicine One Health Institute,<br />

where he leads Ebola-related<br />

surveillance activities in Sierra Leone<br />

and elsewhere.<br />

“We are in an era now of chronic emergency,”<br />

Bird says. “Diseases are more<br />

likely to travel further and faster than<br />

before, which means we must be faster<br />

in our responses. It needs investments,<br />

change in human behavior, and it means<br />

we must listen to people at community<br />

levels.”<br />

Getting the message about pathogens<br />

and disease to hunters, loggers, market<br />

traders, and consumers is key, Bird says.<br />

“These spillovers start with one or two<br />

people. The solutions start with education<br />

and awareness. We must make<br />

people aware things are different now.<br />

I have learned from working in Sierra<br />

Leone with Ebola-affected people that<br />

local communities have the hunger and<br />

desire to have information,” he says.<br />

“They want to know what to do. They<br />

want to learn.”<br />

Fevre and Tacoli advocate rethinking<br />

urban infrastructure, particularly within<br />

low-income and informal settlements.<br />

“Short-term efforts are focused on containing<br />

the spread of infection,” they<br />

write. “The longer term — given that<br />

new infectious diseases will likely continue<br />

to spread rapidly into and within<br />

cities — calls for an overhaul of current<br />

approaches to urban planning and development.”<br />

The bottom line, Bird says, is to be prepared.<br />

“We can’t predict where the next<br />

pandemic will come from, so we need<br />

mitigation plans to take into account<br />

the worst possible scenarios,” he says.<br />

“The only certain thing is that the next<br />

one will certainly come.”<br />

This article was originally published by Ensia.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />



66 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


There comes a point in most actors’ lives when the journey,<br />

the profession, the lifestyle that has served them so well,<br />

and for so long, ultimately becomes less interesting.<br />

The catalyst for this could be one of many things – age, family,<br />

burnout, perhaps even a shift to another part of an industry<br />

that is perennially asking more and more of its leading lights.<br />

Why actor Edward Norton’s shift toward<br />

a vision for our planet has been a<br />

career in the making.<br />

By James Evans<br />

For Edward Norton, the stimuli responsible for making a change<br />

were beginning to stack up after a particularly fervent period<br />

of moviemaking in the first decade of the new millennium.<br />

Through Red Dragon, Kingdom of Heaven, The Illusionist, and The<br />

Painted Veil, the Boston-born actor’s output was unsustainably<br />

high, and notwithstanding perhaps one or two film projects<br />

that did not hit the mark, the deep-thinking Yale graduate<br />

always seemed to engage and enchant cinemagoers with<br />

informed, intelligent drama.<br />

And yet, as a passionate, driven, dynamic, and respected<br />

environmentalist, activist, social entrepreneur, and orator of<br />

positive global initiatives, Norton, justifiably, began to see the<br />

value in cinema diminish.<br />

“When you have a perspective that runs across two very polarized<br />

parts of culture, they will only, over time, become more<br />

separated,” he begins. “Trying to justify, validify the importance<br />

of a fight scene in a movie junket at a posh LA hotel, when<br />

on the next page of your diary you have an environmental<br />

project that will preserve, change, and perhaps even save lives<br />

… that becomes a very different thing to try to balance up.<br />

“The reality, of course, is you don’t attempt to balance it up.<br />

The reality is you accept one is more important than the other,<br />

and you let that guide you.”<br />

Norton’s investment in social and ecological change is not a<br />

charitable signup, nor a PR stunt; nor is it provoked by guilt<br />

stemming from years of living the high life. The reality is<br />

that the trappings of wealth and the adulation of fame have<br />

never been of particular interest to Norton, whose yearning<br />

for privacy goes far beyond that of most other actors in the<br />

profession. >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


alance. From the World Surf League to<br />

International Day for Biodiversity and<br />

the Friends in Europe exhibition, each<br />

has garnered direct support from the<br />

star, typifying the actor’s desire to stay<br />

grounded to a variety of different causes.<br />

More than that, his dedication toward<br />

world health has been a lifelong devotion,<br />

and he is certainly happy to use his<br />

fame to publicize the issues surrounding<br />

renewable energy, biodiversity, illegal<br />

poaching, and even affordable housing,<br />

knowing that while his actions may not<br />

provoke direct policy change, they can<br />

certainly prompt action in others. “I<br />

don’t want to be that guy who brings<br />

about an end point purely on the basis<br />

of him being famous. I feel that cheapens<br />

the whole ethos – it misses the point.<br />

Genuine change is a mechanism based<br />

on listening to and trusting the voice<br />

of the smallest, most timid person in<br />

the room. If the point they are making<br />

is correct, then that is enough. Who<br />

you are and how many movies you’ve<br />

been in should never come into it. What<br />

we’re talking about are not geopolitical<br />

questions or issues born out of celebrity<br />

trends – they are binding, common<br />

challenges for everyone on this planet.”<br />

Of course, Norton is smart enough to<br />

know the strength of influence, and the<br />

effect a prominent, recognizable personality<br />

can have in galvanizing movement<br />

and action, but he counters: “The modern<br />

environmentalist can build a platform<br />

purely based on their viewpoint – they<br />

don’t need to have done something<br />

spectacular or headline-grabbing in a<br />

previous life. In that respect, we are in<br />

a dynamic era of activism.”<br />

For someone so revered in environmental<br />

circles, it is perhaps surprising to find<br />

that Norton is only a light user of social<br />

media, until you factor in his craving of<br />

privacy. “I just don’t find my private life<br />

relevant or even that interesting,” he<br />

says. “There are so many better things<br />

to talk about.”<br />

Sure enough, as well as the headlinegrabbing<br />

initiatives, in 2019 the actor<br />

also supported various small organizations<br />

in their efforts to strike the right<br />

Norton – who has a six-year-old son,<br />

Atlas, with his wife, Canadian film producer<br />

Shauna Robertson – is President<br />

of the American branch of the Maasai<br />

Wilderness Conservation Trust, which<br />

supports sustainable tourism and wildlife<br />

preservation in Kenya. He is also CEO of<br />

Baswood Inc., a green wastewater treatment<br />

alternative he and his partners are<br />

currently selling and building around<br />

the United States. In addition, he is a UN<br />

Goodwill Ambassador for Biodiversity.<br />

“As is often the case in life, things accumulate<br />

around you and it’s easy to keep<br />

adding new challenges without necessarily<br />

relinquishing older ones,” he admits.<br />

“That was certainly the way I was brought<br />

up, with a variety of positive influences<br />

around me and the encouragement to<br />

bring about change. I was very fortunate<br />

to be raised in a family of doers … of<br />

activists and entrepreneurs. They have<br />

all had a very, very heavy commitment<br />

to social impact, long before someone<br />

had even thought of a name for it.<br />

He continues, “My grandfather was very<br />

well-known – he was a commercial real<br />

estate developer called Jim Rouse. The<br />

Rouse Company was really one of the first<br />

developers of enclosed retail shopping<br />

malls – and according to some people,<br />

my grandfather coined the term ‘shopping<br />

malls.’ Even in the 1960s, when he<br />

68 Global Goals Yearbook 2020

uilt Columbia Maryland, which was<br />

the first planned community, he had<br />

an incredible sense of how developers<br />

and urban planning needed to have<br />

progressive values.<br />

“It’s interesting, in modern life, the phrase<br />

‘shopping mall’ is taken to represent bad<br />

things, but you have to consider the fact<br />

this was social change on a colossal scale,<br />

and it’s hypocritical to demean that<br />

just because it was consumerism. The<br />

fabric of the movement was the same,<br />

and it’s those sorts of qualities we need<br />

to embrace.”<br />

Norton’s father was a former US Attorney<br />

for Maryland, who went over to become<br />

the litigator and Head of Public Policy for<br />

The Wilderness Society. He founded the<br />

Grand Canyon Trust, among others, and<br />

remains one of the Senior Advisers for<br />

the Environment at TPG, an American<br />

investment company. “However they<br />

have gone about it, the reality is I have<br />

spent a lot of my life around people who<br />

care about society and the environment<br />

… right the way through to my mother,<br />

who was a teacher. They were using their<br />

smarts to think about how to work on<br />

social problems, but they were also very<br />

entrepreneurial. I think that’s a good<br />

mix – I’m okay with that.”<br />

As far as current projects go, Norton<br />

remains dedicated to promoting sustainable<br />

tourism with the Maasai in Kenya.<br />

“Across everything I do, I probably find<br />

Kenya the most engaging, and I’ve been<br />

going there for many years. My sister<br />

once worked for an American travel<br />

company that organized climbs up Mt.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />

“<br />


I don’t want<br />

to be that guy<br />

who brings<br />

about an end<br />

point purely<br />

on the basis<br />

of him being<br />

famous.<br />

I feel that<br />

cheapens the<br />

whole ethos –<br />

it misses<br />

the point.<br />

”<br />

Kilimanjaro, and on one such expedition<br />

I decided to accompany her. That’s when<br />

I met Luca Belpietro, who is the fo<strong>under</strong><br />

of the Maasai Wilderness Conservation<br />

Trust and was also running Campi Ya<br />

Kanzi, a tourist resort in Kenya.<br />

“People believe conservation is the concept<br />

of leaving something alone, but it’s<br />

not always that way. In this case, Luca<br />

was trying to create a much different,<br />

more enhanced kind of tourist experience.<br />

Now I have both friends and family<br />

who live there and I go every year for<br />

fun as well as for environment-related<br />

meetings. I look forward to every visit<br />

there and it’s my favorite place in Africa.”<br />

The fact that Edward Norton has rebelled<br />

against the plastic glamour of the entertainment<br />

industry is, in many ways,<br />

very satisfying. Of course, he is not alone,<br />

and alongside him, Leonardo DiCaprio,<br />

Robert Redford, Gisele Bundchen, and<br />

others are treading a new path that<br />

challenges our perception not just of<br />

the individual, or the industry, but the<br />

world around us.<br />

“In film, in environmentalism … whatever<br />

it is, I never want to feel that I am<br />

going through the motions or repeating<br />

myself. I’ve had periods where I’ve asked<br />

myself, ‘What am I doing?’ and that’s<br />

very troubling.<br />

“What I’m certain of now is there will<br />

always be more to do, and for someone<br />

entrenched in the idea of changing the<br />

world for the better, that’s not such a<br />

bad emotion.”<br />


Paradigm Shifts,<br />

Reactance, and<br />

Fighting Our<br />

Demons<br />

Humanity knows more than ever about climate change –<br />

but we are lazy when it comes to action. Constant<br />

admonitions and calls to act in a climate-conscious manner<br />

often leads to the opposite. In this essay, the well-known<br />

sociologist and social psychologist Harald Welzer explores<br />

the question why we fear climate change, but often do<br />

nothing about it.<br />

“My Madcap Trip around the World” was<br />

the title of a full-page article in Germany’s<br />

daily tabloid newspaper Bild on<br />

Sept. 12, 2017. In it, reporter Michael<br />

Quandt wrote about his journey to “four<br />

continents and eight cities” in just five<br />

days, flying 40,200 kilometers in the<br />

process. Because he relied solely on lowcost<br />

airlines, the entire trip cost a mere<br />

€1,827. His accounts were sprinkled with<br />

tales of excursions, from dromedary<br />

riding in Dubai to savoring a shaved<br />

ice at Waikiki Beach – all of it backed<br />

up by the obligatory Instagram photos,<br />

of course.<br />

>><br />

Prof. Dr. Harald Welzer<br />

Sociologist, Executive Director,<br />

Futurzwei Foundation<br />

Professor for Transformation<br />

Design at the University of<br />

Flensburg<br />

70 Global Goals Yearbook 2020

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


Another full-page article in the technology<br />

and motoring section of Germany’s<br />

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) informed<br />

readers on May 14, 2019, about<br />

“explorer ships,” the new “pinnacle of<br />

yacht-building excellence.” This particular<br />

class of yacht is designed for active,<br />

adventurous, and very wealthy individuals<br />

who love exploring uncharted territory,<br />

such as the Arctic. The ships have<br />

a lot to offer: “The SeaXplorer 75 will<br />

provide suites for up to 12 passengers.<br />

The first specimen, measuring exactly<br />

76.9 meters long and 14 meters wide, is<br />

<strong>under</strong> construction. The buyers – keen<br />

skiers, surfers, and divers – will find an<br />

arsenal of sporting and leisure equipment<br />

on board: surf equipment, diving<br />

chamber, dive support boat, ski room<br />

with avalanche safety equipment, two<br />

snowmobiles, four personal watercraft,<br />

a submersible, a rescue boat, a luxury<br />

tender, and two inflatable outboard boats.<br />

A roughly 11-meter lift raises the two<br />

Airbus ACH 125 helicopters, with a maximum<br />

takeoff weight of 4,000 kilograms,<br />

from the double below-deck hangar to<br />

the certified helideck.”<br />

Both stories report on different iterations<br />

of the enlargement of global reach<br />

today, depending on income bracket. The<br />

sociologist Hartmut Rosa uses the term<br />

“global reach” to describe a marker of the<br />

modern age: As prosperity grows, and<br />

with each new technology, the ability<br />

of an individual to avail oneself of the<br />

world increases. A hundred years ago,<br />

it was not unusual for a person to have<br />

never left their village, or at least to have<br />

never been farther than the next largest<br />

city – a situation that today would be<br />

strange and require some explanation.<br />

Well into the second half of the 20th<br />

century, long-distance or foreign travel<br />

was mainly an experience had by soldiers<br />

on military campaigns. Except for<br />

a few very wealthy individuals, everyone<br />

else stayed home their entire lives.<br />

Mass tourism did not start in Germany<br />

until after World War II, initially with<br />

Italy as the dream vacation destination,<br />

followed later by Spain, Tunisia,<br />

and Turkey, depending on the price<br />

class. During the Nazi era, the trips offered<br />

by the leisure organization “Kraft<br />

durch Freude,” or Strength Through Joy,<br />

provided a preview of the mass tourism<br />

yet to come. Things really took off<br />

during the postwar “Wirtschaftsw<strong>under</strong>,”<br />

or economic miracle, and have yet to<br />

quiet down. The example presented<br />

by the Bild reporter impressively illustrates<br />

that even round-the-world trips<br />

are no longer the exclusive domain of<br />

the upper classes. That, in turn, is bad<br />

news for the super-wealthy. After all,<br />

increasing global reach is a part of their<br />

status-confirming consumption patterns.<br />

If everyone can do it, then the edge<br />

that sets them apart starts to dwindle.<br />

An upgrade is the logical consequence,<br />

and explorer ships deliver just that. But<br />

mass consumption is also playing catchup.<br />

Thanks to Hurtigruten, people can<br />

venture into purportedly untouched<br />

regions by cruise ship, following in Roald<br />

Amundsen’s footsteps.<br />

72 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


What determines our actions?<br />

Why am I telling you this? First, the<br />

ecological problems of the present day,<br />

and climate change too, are ultimately<br />

due to the fact that expansive luxury<br />

consumption unleashes its destructive<br />

power especially when it becomes mass<br />

consumption. It goes practically without<br />

saying that the owners of the SeaXplorer<br />

75 are doing more than their fair share<br />

to destroy the environment. But the damage<br />

caused by the hundreds of thousands<br />

of tourists on a shoestring budget who<br />

are following in the footsteps of the<br />

wealthy is several times worse. Second,<br />

the stories in Bild and the FAZ are being<br />

told because they profess expanded<br />

global reach as good news – as something<br />

we should strive to reproduce.<br />

That is the more important aspect in<br />

the following thoughts and reflections.<br />

It is precisely in this way that “imperial<br />

modes of living” – as the political scientists<br />

Ulrich Brand and Markus Wissen<br />

have termed such global consumption<br />

– are propagated as being worth striving<br />

for. In media, advertising, business, and<br />

The <strong>under</strong>lying issue<br />

immediately becomes<br />

clearer if we replace<br />

the word “growth”<br />

with the term “increased<br />

consumption.”<br />

It is precisely this<br />

pattern of permanent<br />

growth in global<br />

consumption that is<br />

bringing the 20th<br />

century model of<br />

civilization into such<br />

difficulty in the 21st<br />

century.<br />

politics alike, increased global consumption<br />

is still seen as desirable and is both<br />

subsidized and promoted accordingly.<br />

To this day, the majority of people view<br />

cruising the seas, monstrously oversized<br />

SUVs, enormous flat-screen TVs, and spacious<br />

country-house kitchens in which<br />

no meals are ever cooked neither as<br />

a nightmare nor as an anachronism.<br />

In fact, the opposite is true: For most<br />

people, it evokes a spontaneous sense<br />

of “I want that too.”<br />

And that is ultimately the point. According<br />

to standard theories of economics<br />

and politics, growth is not simply an<br />

economic necessity, it is essential to<br />

maintain a stable society. The <strong>under</strong>lying<br />

issue immediately becomes clearer<br />

if we replace the word “growth” with<br />

the term “increased consumption.” It<br />

is precisely this pattern of permanent<br />

growth in global consumption that is<br />

bringing the 20th century model of<br />

civilization into such difficulty in the<br />

21st century.<br />

If we look into how we encourage citizens<br />

in hyperconsumerist societies such<br />

as Germany to act with a sustainable<br />

and environmentally friendly mindset,<br />

we must account for the fact that one’s<br />

own efforts will stand in stark contrast<br />

– or even be completely negated – by<br />

stories such as those described above.<br />

After all, stories of global reach, such<br />

as the one about the explorer ships, are<br />

everywhere – simply glance at the travel<br />

section in any magazine or newspaper<br />

and the constant background noise that<br />

is online advertising. Faced with such<br />

excess, it appears quite audacious to<br />

present frugality as some sort of alluring<br />

counterpoint.<br />

Striving for improvement by establishing<br />

a conscience is misguided, too. Consciousness<br />

is only loosely linked to our<br />

actions, as we can easily see if we correlate<br />

concerns about the environment<br />

and the climate with the rapid increase<br />

in our consumption of this very environment.<br />

The spread of environmental<br />

consciousness has been accompanied by<br />

continuous GDP growth. In other words,<br />

more materials have been extracted and<br />

processed at a greater energy cost, more<br />

goods have been handled and transported<br />

around the world, and more emissions<br />

and waste have been generated. These<br />

flagrant contradictions have been made<br />

socially acceptable by explaining that<br />

greater prosperity is a prerequisite for<br />

reducing environmental impact and by<br />

allowing products to become “greener.”<br />

In the end, an enormous hybrid SUV appears<br />

just as eco-friendly as a cruise ship<br />

powered by natural gas. All this ignores<br />

the fact that the only way to make such<br />

products sustainable is to not have them<br />

at all. But that is how capitalism works:<br />

It is capable of gently swallowing up<br />

any aspect of society that was originally<br />

critical of it. Even environmental consciousness<br />

can be commodified.<br />

Any remaining concerns that may arise<br />

when we as individuals do things that<br />

we know to be wrong are astoundingly<br />

easy to cope with. People can go >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />


through their lives embracing the most<br />

blatant of contradictions without so<br />

much as batting an eyelid. The human<br />

ideal based on a desire to live without<br />

contradiction has seeped its way into our<br />

collective mindset from the theories of<br />

moral philosophy and theology, but in<br />

truth it is a complete falsity. Our behavior<br />

varies wildly in different situations, as<br />

the requirements that are set of us in our<br />

jobs, in sports, within our families, and<br />

among our friends vary, and because the<br />

roles we are expected to fill are constantly<br />

changing. The functional differentiation<br />

found in societies based on the division<br />

of labor has produced a human character<br />

that is highly adaptable and capable of<br />

taking on changing – and often even<br />

contradictory – roles with aplomb. The<br />

sociologist Erving Goffman devoted his<br />

life’s work to demonstrating this and<br />

deciphering the social choreography<br />

that governs the relationships, roles, and<br />

performances of its participants. Ignoring<br />

borderline pathological actions, it makes<br />

no sense to place human activity in a<br />

context that does not take into account<br />

the situation in which it occurs. In turn,<br />

modern societies are incapable of dealing<br />

with normal pathology. Someone who<br />

always has the same response to different<br />

requirements in different situations will<br />

soon end up in a secure psychiatric unit.<br />

Human adaptability is not pathological<br />

variation. Instead, it is precisely what<br />

all social and educational institutions<br />

produce in modern societies because<br />

they need adaptability in order to function.<br />

Moral convictions do not guide<br />

our behavior, but rather show us what<br />

justifications we can use to bring our<br />

incorrect actions into line with a correct<br />

consciousness.<br />

added texture by the cultural and social<br />

framework of our existence, and its rules<br />

are so effective at determining our reality<br />

because they are almost never the<br />

product of conscious consideration. It is<br />

impossible to criticize or cast into doubt<br />

something of which you are not aware.<br />

The social rules of our everyday lives<br />

by no means form the sole unconscious<br />

backdrop to our values and expectations.<br />

Modern societies, in particular, are<br />

structured from top to bottom through<br />

all manner of rules, regulations, and<br />

infrastructure. The “assumptive world”<br />

(Alfred Schütz) in which we live confers<br />

cultural obligations upon us and<br />

generates bonds of which we are also<br />

not aware. Every culture provides its<br />

members with standards of behavior,<br />

expectations, and emotions, all of which<br />

are only effective because we tend not<br />

to ever call them into question. That is<br />

why efforts to change such standards are<br />

so ineffective if the approach is purely<br />

cognitive – in other words, if they focus<br />

on areas where people can draw on<br />

conscious experience. Because habits and<br />

idiosyncrasies go beyond any threshold<br />

of consciousness, it is often futile to<br />

appeal to a sense of <strong>under</strong>standing and<br />

reason. According to Kant, the world<br />

only functions in the tiny segment of<br />

reality that covers wakeful consciousness.<br />

Understanding rarely influences<br />

our behavior because behavior is rarely<br />

based on <strong>under</strong>standing.<br />

Reactance<br />

Significant socio-psychological events<br />

such as these generate a peculiar tension<br />

between bad news, such as the latest<br />

climate data, and the reality in which<br />

we live. Every date, every diagram, every<br />

passionate plea from climate scientists<br />

such as Mojib Latif and Hans Joachim<br />

Schellnhuber is interpreted as a threat<br />

to our way of life. The more seriously<br />

they are taken, the less indifferent their<br />

impact. Paradoxically, negative headlines<br />

from the scientific world have an effect<br />

that is the complete opposite of the one<br />

intended: Instead of encouraging us to<br />

change our lifestyles and cultural models,<br />

fear and an aversion to loss cause us to<br />

cling to them even more and attempt<br />

to extract every last drop. How else can<br />

we explain why cars have become larger<br />

and more resource-intensive, instead<br />

of smaller and more efficient, since<br />

the problem of climate change reared<br />

Understanding rarely<br />

influences our<br />

behavior because<br />

behavior is rarely<br />

based on<br />

<strong>under</strong>standing.<br />

Routines and habits – in other words,<br />

“mental infrastructure” – are further<br />

factors that guide our day-to-day actions.<br />

Very little of what we do is the result of<br />

our conscious decisions. In fact, our actions<br />

are predetermined by the material<br />

and cultural standards that make up<br />

the world in which we live. The world<br />

in which we grow up in is the world<br />

we perceive unquestioningly. It is given<br />

74 Global Goals Yearbook 2020


its head? The same applies to tourism,<br />

which has become more expansive and<br />

escapist than ever before, with everything<br />

from electric mountain biking to<br />

cruises through the Arctic. In psychological<br />

terms, when presented with data<br />

showing us that we must change our<br />

hyperconsumerist lifestyle, we react in<br />

the complete opposite way to how we<br />

are supposed to.<br />

This is something that only the members<br />

of society who are true believers<br />

in the science did not expect. After all,<br />

it is only the members of the scientific<br />

community who believe, owing to their<br />

detachment from the broader perspective,<br />

that knowledge guides our actions.<br />

Indeed, a brief glance at their own lives<br />

– as frequent flyers and, as higher earners,<br />

seasoned practitioners of resourceintensive<br />

lifestyles – is all it takes to<br />

disprove the theory.<br />

It is high time we stopped issuing pleas<br />

and warnings, not only because those<br />

who have been exposed to them repeatedly<br />

over the past few decades have long<br />

since taken them into account in their<br />

habits and personalities, without even<br />

the slightest change being implemented<br />

in the economic and social system in<br />

which they live, but also because the<br />

desire for global consumption actually<br />

increases with the intensity of pleas and<br />

warnings instead of decreasing.<br />

Conditions for the paradigm shift<br />

As long as this system – let us call it the<br />

expansive cultural model – continues<br />

to prevail as it does now, there cannot<br />

and will not be any paradigm shift<br />

toward sustainable, environmentally<br />

friendly economies and lifestyles. This<br />

is not about will and perception. It is<br />

about patterns of behavior, about making<br />

use of and shaping our world, and<br />

about guiding our <strong>under</strong>standing of it.<br />

In Marx’s terms, our social being determines<br />

our consciousness. A paradigm<br />

shift toward a reductive cultural model<br />

is essential if we are to accept and deal<br />

with the challenges stemming from the<br />

looming danger of climate change and<br />

It is high time we<br />

stopped issuing<br />

pleas and warnings,<br />

because the desire<br />

for global<br />

consumption<br />

actually increases<br />

with the intensity of<br />

pleas and warnings<br />

instead of<br />

decreasing.<br />

all the other urgent ecological crises<br />

on the road ahead. This cannot take<br />

place through the idealistic forming of<br />

consciousness; it must be the product<br />

of changing behaviors. It may sound<br />

tautologous, but research shows that<br />

this is exactly what is needed. When a<br />

new service is offered that is better than<br />

the original service, people will opt for<br />

the new service without the aspect of<br />

sustainability playing any kind of role<br />

in their decision. A prime example of<br />

this thinking is Swiss Railways, whose<br />

services are widely used by Swiss citizens,<br />

resulting in the lowest passenger car<br />

use in Europe in relative terms, simply<br />

because the trains offer the best mobility<br />

service when it comes to comfort,<br />

service quality, and reliability. The fact<br />

that trains are the most environmentally<br />

friendly form of transport is an added<br />

benefit for its users, which they can<br />

either appreciate or ignore completely.<br />

The sustainability transformation is a<br />

combination of practices of this nature<br />

that have proven successful in the past<br />

or are currently enjoying success. It is a<br />

heterotopic process, as we build on many<br />

elements that are enshrined in society<br />

and must not be changed or abandoned,<br />

such as the division of powers, suffrage,<br />

and the rule of law. The transformation<br />

is not one single process either. It is a<br />

modular project consisting of a multitude<br />

of smaller transformations that,<br />

in an ideal scenario, interact to form<br />

concrete utopias. The 20th century and<br />

techno-utopian ideals, such as the safe<br />

use of nuclear energy, have provided<br />

many a lesson that master plans to satisfy<br />

human desires usually have lethal<br />

consequences. Project Civilization is not<br />

over and remains ongoing. But neither<br />

does it have a finite goal or an ultimate<br />

solution. Society must be adaptable to<br />

changing conditions and requirements<br />

and deal with mistakes and collateral<br />

damage – and so be correctable.<br />

Unlike the old modern ideal, this cannot<br />

be a project just for the experts, with<br />

technical and scientific elites drawing<br />

up plans that are then imposed upon<br />

society by politicians. It must be developed<br />

and scrutinized in all areas of life.<br />

Never have there been more groups,<br />

initiatives, cooperatives, and collectives<br />

that embrace different economic values<br />

and lifestyles in the western world than<br />

right now. These unifying structures<br />

do not take the form of popular theories,<br />

manifestos, or iconography. They<br />

are instead expressed in local, practical<br />

behaviors. There are transition towns<br />

all over the world acting as petri dishes<br />

for alternative, local economic models,<br />

and urban gardening is also becoming<br />

ubiquitous. Both of these movements<br />

are methods of requisitioning public<br />

space for social and ecological purposes.<br />

Other examples include repair cafés,<br />

citizen cooperatives, zero-packaging<br />

shops, community-supported agriculture,<br />

economies for the common good,<br />

residential projects, and eco-villages, all<br />

of which are experiments in a concrete<br />

utopia. Their value is derived in the fact<br />

that they can be experienced and trialed,<br />

and not because they only exist on paper.<br />

The clarity offered by such experiments<br />

of alternative economics and lifestyles<br />

is one of their greatest virtues. As Erik<br />

Olin Wright said, it is about building<br />

“emancipatory alternatives in the spaces<br />

and cracks within capitalist economies”<br />

and fighting for their proliferation.<br />

Source: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 2019,<br />

No. 47-48, p. 16-20, CC-BY-NC-ND-3.0<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020<br />



Companies are listed in alphabetic order<br />

Arab African International Bank<br />

Audi<br />

BASF<br />

Bayer<br />

Beaulieu International Group<br />

Bosch Group<br />

Business Keeper<br />

CEMEX<br />

Clariant<br />

EDF Group<br />

Elomatic<br />

E.ON<br />

Green Delta Insurance Company<br />

Inditex<br />

iPoint-systems<br />

Solely responsible for the editorial contributions <strong>under</strong> the<br />

heading “Good Practice” are the companies themselves.<br />

Named articles do not reflect the opinions of the publisher.<br />

Knorr-Bremse<br />

K+S<br />


macondo foundation<br />

MAN<br />

Merck<br />

MTU Aero Engines<br />

Netafim<br />

Nomura Group<br />

pervormance international<br />

Philip Morris International<br />

Sakhalin Energy<br />

SAP<br />

Symrise<br />

Vonovia<br />

Wilo Group<br />

78<br />

80<br />

82<br />

Arab African International Bank<br />

Audi<br />

BASF<br />

76<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020


84<br />

Bayer<br />

86<br />

Beaulieu International Group<br />

88<br />

Bosch Group<br />

90<br />

Business Keeper<br />

92<br />

CEMEX<br />

94<br />

Clariant<br />

96<br />

EDF Group<br />

98<br />

Elomatic<br />

100<br />

E.ON<br />

102<br />

Green Delta Insurance Company<br />

104<br />

Inditex<br />

106<br />

iPoint-systems<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 77

AAIB’S COVID-19<br />


For more than 55 years, as one of Egypt’s largest banks, Arab African International Bank (AAIB)<br />

has not only grown financially but also developed a deeper commitment to support community<br />

needs. With the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the Bank has been working hard to uphold<br />

its commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We recognized the critical need<br />

to act with urgency to support our people and communities hit hardest by the impacts of the<br />

pandemic, where the Bank <strong>under</strong>took several procedures and precautions to contain the spread<br />

of the virus and manage its economic impacts.<br />

By Dalia Noureldin, AAIB<br />

Covid-19 has created an increasing<br />

number of challenges to individuals,<br />

communities, and businesses. As the<br />

health crisis has been affecting lives and<br />

rocking economies all over the world,<br />

AAIB quickly adapted and implemented<br />

an integrated strategy that considers<br />

the needs of its employees, clients and<br />

society to make the best of this situation.<br />

Supporting the Vulnerable and the<br />

Valuable<br />

With the rise of the pandemic, we wanted<br />

to ensure that we are not only supporting<br />

our customers but our communities<br />

as well. Accordingly, AAIB <strong>under</strong>took a<br />

comprehensive approach to face the repercussions<br />

of the outbreak and address<br />

the needs of all impacted community<br />

groups – from patients to medical professionals<br />

and vulnerable groups struggling<br />

to stay afloat – where the value of<br />

the Bank’s contribution amounted to 51<br />

million Egyptian pounds (EGP).<br />

Initially, AAIB collaborated with Ahl<br />

Masr Foundation to cover the needs<br />

of the health sector, prioritizing governorates<br />

with limited resources and<br />

capacities to help them withstand the<br />

pandemic. Both entities collaborated in<br />

three mega projects.<br />

The first project was to fully purchase<br />

and install four intensive care units<br />

featuring state-of-the-art equipment, including<br />

ventilators to support all patients<br />

and ensure they receive the medical care<br />

they need. The second project involved<br />

providing medical staff in nine hospitals<br />

with 6,480 units of medical gear (known<br />

as personal protection equipment, or<br />

PPE) to cherish their heroic role on the<br />

frontlines while standing up against<br />

the pandemic .The third initiative was<br />

to inaugurate a new, fully equipped<br />

quarantine hospital with the capacity<br />

of 150 beds to complement the initiatives<br />

and precautions <strong>under</strong>taken by<br />

the Government to manage this crisis.<br />

Moving forward, as we observe the socioeconomic<br />

landscape, we found out that<br />

the government <strong>under</strong>took several precautionary<br />

measures, among which were<br />

partial lockdowns and curfews to manage<br />

the spread of the virus. These measures,<br />

despite their importance, resulted in<br />

severe social and economic impacts on<br />

several groups, especially on daily-wage<br />

workers. Accordingly, in addition to our<br />

commitment to manage the health impact<br />

of this crisis, we continue to make<br />

a meaningful contribution to the society,<br />

where AAIB proudly participated in the<br />

Federation of Egyptian Banks’ initiative<br />

to support these vulnerable groups who<br />

have been affected by the pandemic.<br />

Uninterrupted Business with High<br />

Hygiene Standards<br />

It has been decades since the global<br />

economy and the financial industry<br />

have witnessed a crisis close to what we<br />

and our customers are currently facing.<br />

78<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

Having our customers are at the heart<br />

of everything we do, we are working<br />

tirelessly to ensure they are kept safe,<br />

supported, and satisfied as they face<br />

new and uncertain financial situations<br />

and to balance their needs with public<br />

health measures.<br />

All employees and clients entering the<br />

branches are required to wear facemasks<br />

and have their temperatures screened.<br />

Adding to this, Plexiglass shields were<br />

placed on all customer services desks in<br />

all branches to maintain social distancing<br />

and protect our colleagues and customers.<br />

We also installed sanitization towers<br />

at the entrances of our branches so that<br />

clients entering can sanitize both their<br />

hands and shoes.<br />

In addition, our Business Continuity<br />

Manual has been put into action to<br />

ensure that we provide seamless and<br />

uninterrupted services with no delays<br />

during the pandemic and thereafter.<br />

Additionally, acknowledging that it is not<br />

just a health crisis but a socioeconomic<br />

one as well, AAIB followed the comprehensive<br />

range of support initiatives<br />

introduced by the Central Bank of Egypt<br />

during the Covid-19 outbreak. AAIB<br />

postponed secured and unsecured loan<br />

installments and credit card minimum<br />

payments for six months automatically<br />

with no commission or late payment<br />

fees. In addition, to make transactions<br />

easier for clients, all ATM cash withdrawals<br />

and balance inquiry fees have<br />

been exempted and debit card limits for<br />

cash withdrawals and purchases have<br />

been raised. Adding to this, all Point of<br />

Sale fees have been waived among all<br />

merchant clients.<br />

The Bank also conducted awareness campaigns<br />

on its social media platforms to<br />

provide its clients with safety tips to<br />

follow not only in banking transactions,<br />

but also in their daily activities among<br />

which were using masks and disinfectants<br />

and promoting contactless payments.<br />

Supporting employees in and<br />

beyond the workplace<br />

Our employees are doing incredible work<br />

to serve our customers during this challenging<br />

time and we are committed to be<br />

there for them in this new and uncertain<br />

situation. We are working tirelessly to<br />

be there for our customers as they face<br />

new and uncertain financial situations<br />

and be there for our employees working<br />

to serve them as safely as possible while<br />

facing the same challenges. To this end,<br />

AAIB has put strict measures in place to<br />

prevent and slow the spread of COVID-19<br />

within the workplace. We conducted<br />

awareness campaigns among our people,<br />

put into practice high hygiene and sanitization<br />

measures, imposed social distancing<br />

and ensured that our employees get<br />

the full health care whenever needed.<br />

We have stepped up social distancing<br />

measures in our offices and limited the<br />

work capacity of employees in the office<br />

to a maximum of 50 percent. We also<br />

introduced work-from-home practices to<br />

limit our employees’ exposure without<br />

compromising their ability to remain<br />

connected and productive while working<br />

securely. For employees working on site,<br />

they are exposed to daily temperature<br />

screening prior to entering the building<br />

and are obliged to wear facemasks.<br />

For employees feeling unwell, there<br />

are clear instructions to not show up<br />

and quarantine. In addition, all employees<br />

suspected of being infected are not<br />

allowed to enter the premises until<br />

taking a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)<br />

test. If the results are positive, the whole department<br />

/ branch is closed and sanitized<br />

and all employees there must take the<br />

PCR test. Also, if an employee is well but<br />

has an infected family member, they<br />

have to stay home.<br />

In addition, to ensure employees receive<br />

the appropriate care if needed, the Bank<br />

has enabled access to several hospitals<br />

and was responsible for covering employees’<br />

tests and treatments fully. Also,<br />

a Covid-19 exceptional leave has been<br />

provided to all pregnant women and staff<br />

with critical or chronic health conditions.<br />

To guarantee that all these measures are<br />

known by employees, awareness campaigns<br />

are circulated continuously via<br />

email and SMS. Additionally, awareness<br />

signs have been placed in trafficked areas<br />

with all the measures to be considered<br />

in different situations.<br />

Leadership involvement:<br />

A caring culture<br />

The Bank has also established a dedicated<br />

Crisis Management Committee, which is<br />

composed of members from the highest<br />

managerial levels, to assess and quickly<br />

respond to current and future changes.<br />

Additionally, a new Head of Security,<br />

Health and Safety Matters was hired to<br />

ensure that the highest safety, stability<br />

and security standards are implemented.<br />

There is no doubt we are living in an<br />

unprecedented time in which Covid-19<br />

has taken over the global agenda. With<br />

the situation changing every hour, we<br />

are following the global situation very<br />

closely and are committed not only to<br />

responding effectively, as well as controlling<br />

the virus and its socioeconomic<br />

consequences, but also to accelerate our<br />

learning curve to enhance the business<br />

resilience in the future.<br />

While we can’t predict the speed or shape<br />

of this recovery and with much uncertainty<br />

ahead, one thing we are sure of is that<br />

through our collaboration, solidarity and<br />

support for one another, we will emerge<br />

from this pandemic even stronger.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 79




The transportation sector is one of the greatest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.<br />

Audi has therefore set itself the goal of reducing its carbon footprint by approximately<br />

30 percent by 2025 (compared with the reference year 2015 and over the entire product life<br />

cycle.). This entails significantly reducing CO 2<br />

emissions, which is why Audi is particularly<br />

committed to electric mobility. Since the aim is to reduce the environmental impact of each new<br />

model over that of its predecessor throughout the entire life cycle, the company is creating a life<br />

cycle analysis for vehicles and working to ensure a sustainable battery value chain as a member<br />

of the Global Battery Alliance (GBA).<br />

By Dr. Stefanie Augustine, Josef Schön, and Christoph Praun, Audi<br />

Do you drive to work or visit grandparents<br />

who live 200 kilometers away?<br />

Mobility is a basic human need, and<br />

the demand will continue to rise: The<br />

International Transport Forum anticipates<br />

that passenger transport on the<br />

whole will triple by 2050. Thus, we need<br />

sustainable solutions to counteract the<br />

impact this will have on the climate.<br />

Electric mobility is one way to make both<br />

private and public transportation more<br />

ecological. But how environmentally<br />

friendly are electric cars, really?<br />

Life cycle assessment: Electric cars vs.<br />

combustion-engine vehicles<br />

A life cycle assessment (LCA) can tell us<br />

how environmentally friendly an electric<br />

car is compared with a similar vehicle<br />

with a combustion engine, as well as<br />

where there is opportunity for improvement.<br />

This analysis maps the environmental<br />

impact of a vehicle throughout<br />

the entire product life cycle – from raw<br />

materials extraction and production,<br />

through the utilization phase, all the<br />

way to recycling. Among the important<br />

key figures included here is the amount<br />

of greenhouse gas emissions incurred,<br />

which is measured in the form of CO 2<br />

equivalents. Audi is currently preparing<br />

this type of LCA for the purely electrically<br />

powered Audi e-tron 55 quattro,<br />

which has been available from dealers<br />

since March 2019. The analysis of this<br />

car initially shows that CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

generated during the manufacture of an<br />

Audi e-tron are twice as high as during<br />

production of a comparable vehicle with<br />

an internal combustion engine (Audi Q5<br />

2.0 TFSI quattro S tronic): In the case of<br />

the Audi e-tron, emissions amount to<br />

around 20 metric tons of CO 2<br />

equivalents,<br />

whereas the production of the Audi Q5<br />

incurs just <strong>under</strong> 10 metric tons.<br />

However, CO 2<br />

emissions level out after<br />

about just half of the car’s total mileage.<br />

This is because the electric car’s utilization<br />

phase – even when it is being<br />

“refueled” with today’s EU electricity<br />

mix – emits significantly less CO 2<br />

than<br />

a comparable vehicle with an internal<br />

combustion engine in this segment. If the<br />

vehicle is powered purely with electricity<br />

from reusable sources, then almost<br />

no emissions are generated, since electric<br />

vehicles drive locally with zero CO 2<br />

emissions. At the end of its product life<br />

cycle (calculated as 200,000 km), and depending<br />

on the energy source, the Audi<br />

e-tron has then emitted about 20 to 35<br />

metric tons of CO 2<br />

into the atmosphere.<br />

However, this figure would be much<br />

higher for a comparable vehicle with<br />

an internal combustion engine.<br />

Two paths to optimization<br />

Two important recommended actions<br />

aimed at making electric cars more environmentally<br />

friendly can be derived<br />

from this LCA comparison. On the one<br />

hand, using “green” electricity to charge<br />

an electric vehicle during the utilization<br />

phase is recommended to keep CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

as low as possible. On the other<br />

80<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

hand, the manufacturing process must<br />

be optimized, because battery production<br />

in particular is very energy-intensive. In<br />

fact, it is regarded as the main cause of<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions during the production of<br />

an electric car. Audi is therefore committed<br />

to significantly reducing this<br />

particular piece of “CO 2<br />

baggage” and,<br />

for instance, requests that its cell suppliers<br />

use green electricity. In addition,<br />

the company is also looking at measures<br />

in the value chain that have an impact<br />

long before they reach the car.<br />

Responsible battery value chain<br />

That is why Audi is an active member<br />

of the GBA, a multistakeholder platform<br />

that currently consists of more than 70<br />

members from the public and private<br />

sectors. It was launched in 2017 <strong>under</strong><br />

the umbrella of the World Economic<br />

Forum. The goal of the GBA is to establish<br />

a sustainable and more environmentally<br />

friendly value chain for batteries.<br />

According to initial findings, this would<br />

save approximately 30 percent of greenhouse<br />

gas emissions within the transportation<br />

and energy sector by 2030. At the<br />

start of 2020, the GBA published 10 guiding<br />

principles for a sustainable battery<br />

value chain. Collaborating in this initiative<br />

is extremely important to Audi, as<br />

demonstrated by the following statement<br />

from Hildegard Wortmann, Member of<br />

the Board of Management, Sales and<br />

Marketing, Audi:<br />

“For Audi, batteries are key on<br />

our way to carbon-neutral<br />

mobility. To ensure that this<br />

technology is thoroughly<br />

sustainable, we welcome and support<br />

the GBA initiative and our<br />

common principles. We believe in<br />

the power of join the GBA<br />

as well. Audi is striving for a<br />

reliable “sustainability<br />

performance seal,” carried out<br />

by robust stakeholder engagement,<br />

which stands as a global<br />

reference for clean and<br />

ethical produced batteries.”<br />

Greenhouse gas potential [t CO2 eq.]<br />

50<br />

45<br />

40<br />

35<br />

30<br />

25<br />

20<br />

15<br />

10<br />

5<br />

Legend<br />

Production Utilization Recycling<br />

0 km<br />

Audi e-tron 55 quattro*<br />

efficiency 265 kW<br />

(MY2019)Electricity<br />

from renewable sources<br />

Audi Q5 2.0 TFSI*<br />

quattro S tronic<br />

185kW (MJ 2017)<br />

In addition to its general commitment to<br />

the GBA, Audi is also actively involved<br />

in the GBA’s initiative aimed at creating<br />

what is being referred to as a Battery<br />

Passport. The passport represents a<br />

digital image of a physical battery and is<br />

intended to serve as a quality seal for a<br />

sustainable battery value chain. Thus, it<br />

contains key information about relevant<br />

environmental criteria. When implementing<br />

the passport, consideration is<br />

given not just to CO 2<br />

emissions, but to all<br />

the sustainability aspects that are relevant<br />

within the value chain, including the<br />

responsible procurement of raw materials<br />

such as cobalt. The focus is especially on<br />

social and societal risks, such as respect<br />

for human rights and the prevention of<br />

child labor or occupational risks. In the<br />

end, the Battery Passport is intended to<br />

ensure that the entire battery value chain<br />

100,000 Km<br />

200,000 Km<br />

Audi e-tron 55<br />

quattro*efficiency<br />

265kW (MY2019) EU<br />

electricity mix<br />

Audi Q7 3.0 TDI*<br />

quattro tiptronic<br />

200 kW (MY2016)<br />

(NEDC)<br />

* Audi e-tron: Combined power consumption in kWh/100 km: 24.3–21.0 (NEDC); 26.6–22.4 (WLTP),<br />

combined CO2 emissions in g/km: 0. Audi Q5 2.0 TFSI (model year 2017 // NEDC) and Audi Q7 3.0<br />

TDI (model year 2016 // NEDC): Vehicles are no longer offered for sale. Fuel/electric power<br />

consumption and CO₂ emission figures for current models can be found on page 110<br />

is sustainable, verifiable, transparent, and<br />

plausible. However, there is a great deal<br />

to do on the path to achieving this quality<br />

seal: The measures were implemented<br />

recently and the GBA aims to publish<br />

the first version of the Battery Passport<br />

by the start of 2021.<br />

Commitment to the SDGs<br />

By participating in the GBA, Audi is not<br />

only contributing to upholding the Paris<br />

Agreement, but it is also doing its part to<br />

achieve the UN Sustainable Development<br />

Goals. This particularly applies to Goal<br />

8 (Decent work and economic growth),<br />

Goal 12 (Responsible consumption and<br />

production), and Goal 13 (Climate action).<br />

Audi has also expressly committed itself<br />

to the Sustainable Development Goals as<br />

part of its sustainability strategy.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 81



Electric mobility – powered by renewable energy and in combination with circular economy<br />

concepts – plays a decisive role in the transition to a climate-friendly society. Cathode active<br />

materials (CAM) are key to making e-mobility a practical reality for everyone. By 2025, BASF’s<br />

innovations in battery materials aim to double the driving range of midsize cars, from 300 to<br />

600 km, on a single charge and reduce the charging time to 15 minutes. At the same time,<br />

BASF is contributing to a circular value chain by providing efficient recycling technologies to<br />

regain valuable metals used in batteries for electric vehicles (EVs).<br />

By Daniel Schönfelder and Tim Ingle, BASF<br />

In 2018, BASF announced the construction<br />

of a battery materials precursor plant<br />

in Harjavalta, Finland. The plant is being<br />

constructed adjacent to the nickel and<br />

cobalt refinery owned by Norilsk Nickel<br />

(Nornickel), with whom BASF has a longterm<br />

supply agreement for nickel and<br />

cobalt feedstocks. It will utilize locally<br />

generated renewable energy sources, including<br />

hydro-, wind-, and biomass-based<br />

power. The precursors of the cathode active<br />

materials (PCAM) from the Harjavalta<br />

plant will be used in BASF’s new battery<br />

materials production site in Schwarzheide,<br />

Germany. The new plant is part<br />

of a multi-step investment plan to support<br />

the European EV value chain. This<br />

state-of-the-art plant will produce CAM<br />

82<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

with an initial capacity that enables the<br />

supply of around 400,000 full EVs per year<br />

with BASF battery materials stemming<br />

exclusively from European sources. The<br />

Schwarzheide plant’s modular design and<br />

infrastructure will allow for the rapid<br />

scale-up of manufacturing capacities, enabling<br />

BASF to meet increasing customer<br />

demand for the European EV market. The<br />

start-up dates for the two plants in Finland<br />

and Germany are planned for 2022. These<br />

European plants will complement existing<br />

facilities in Asia and North America,<br />

making BASF the first CAM producer with<br />

a local presence that serves customers in<br />

three key regions.<br />

BASF’s sustainability strategy and targeted<br />

investments are aligned with the objectives<br />

of the European Green Deal. We<br />

will contribute to a competitive circular<br />

value chain for e-mobility and, in particular,<br />

batteries. The New Circular Action<br />

Plan – with sound implementation of<br />

the “strategy for a sustainable and smart<br />

mobility,” including battery regulation –<br />

is key for a regulatory environment that<br />

fosters European economic growth and<br />

balances the environmental footprint.<br />

As a producer of CAM for electric vehicles,<br />

BASF is already looking into the use of<br />

recycled raw materials in its production,<br />

thereby closing the loop in the battery<br />

value chain. We provide proprietary<br />

recycling technology to significantly<br />

increase extraction efficiency, which<br />

complements our CAM portfolio for<br />

lithium-ion batteries. Our innovations in<br />

recycling processes enable high-efficiency<br />

lithium extraction. Due to the relatively<br />

high scrap rates in the manufacturing<br />

processes along the battery value chain<br />

for EVs, sizable quantities of recyclable<br />

materials are available even today. We expect<br />

a scale-up of the global EV market in<br />

the coming years when large amounts of<br />

batteries reach the end of their lifecycles,<br />

making recycling an important market<br />

requirement. In this context, one major<br />

advantage of battery materials recycling<br />

is that it complements the sourcing of<br />

virgin metals from mining. A closed loop<br />

for battery materials keeps them in the<br />

use phase for a longer period and reduces<br />

the waste of precious resources at the<br />

end of the battery’s life. What is most<br />

important in terms of climate protection:<br />

Recycled batteries have a lower carbon<br />

footprint compared to those made of<br />

primary raw materials.<br />

Together with its partners, BASF has taken<br />

concrete steps toward developing innovative<br />

and sustainable battery recycling. One<br />

step is the development of new lithiumion<br />

battery recycling capabilities. This<br />

will make it possible to respond to the<br />

strong growth in this global market over<br />

the coming years and to secure the supply<br />

of raw materials required for this energy<br />

transition. In early 2020, BASF signed a<br />

cooperation agreement with the partners<br />

Fortum and Nornickel to plan a battery<br />

recycling cluster in Harjavalta, Finland.<br />

This would enable a successful closed loop<br />

cycle to reuse the critical metals present in<br />

used batteries. BASF is focused on bringing<br />

solutions concerning high-efficiency<br />

lithium extraction for battery recycling<br />

within this cooperation. It intends to use<br />

recycled materials from the processes developed<br />

by the companies in its planned<br />

battery materials precursor plant in<br />

Harjavalta. Using metals from recycled<br />

batteries to produce battery materials<br />

offers significant reductions in CO 2<br />

during<br />

the production of EVs. Additional<br />

CO 2<br />

reductions can be achieved by using<br />

electricity from renewable sources in<br />

Finland for the recycling process. The<br />

establishment of a circular value chain<br />

further contributes to BASF’s ambitious<br />

sustainability target to achieve CO 2<br />

-neutral<br />

growth until 2030.<br />

In addition, BASF is partnering with<br />

Eramet and SUEZ in the “Recycling Li-ion<br />

batteries for electric Vehicles” (ReLieVe)<br />

project, which will receive substantial<br />

funding of €4.7 million from EIT Raw<br />

Materials (European Institute of Innovation<br />

and Technology), a consortium<br />

initiated and funded by the European<br />

Union, and the three members. The<br />

objective is to develop an innovative,<br />

closed-loop process to recycle lithiumion<br />

batteries from EVs and to enable the<br />

production of new lithium-ion batteries<br />

in Europe. As of January 2020, and over<br />

a two-year period, the ReLieVe project<br />

will carry out a series of activities for<br />

the large-scale development of this innovative<br />

process and the structuring of<br />

an integrated industrial sector: from the<br />

collection and dismantling of end-of-life<br />

batteries going into recycling, all the way<br />

to the manufacturing of new electrode<br />

materials. BASF will contribute to the<br />

project with expertise in cathode material<br />

production. The virtuous recycling<br />

process meets the essential challenges<br />

of sustainable performance through its<br />

savings on raw materials.<br />

BASF and its partners are preparing for<br />

the battery materials recycling market<br />

scale-up by increasing recycling yields<br />

and building an integrated value circle.<br />

BASF is also actively involved in the<br />

World Economic Forum’s Global Battery<br />

Alliance (GBA), which it cofounded in<br />

2017. The GBA has around 70 members,<br />

all of whom are committed to creating a<br />

socially responsible, ecological, economically<br />

sustainable, and innovative value<br />

chain for batteries. The GBA is committed<br />

to fostering a circular approach to batteries,<br />

including their design and the use of<br />

recycled materials to drive greenhouse<br />

gas reductions. This commitment would<br />

be based on a wide range of considerations,<br />

including performance safety, longevity,<br />

material efficiency, safe and easy<br />

disassembly, a design based on lifecycle<br />

analysis, and on state-of-the-art technologies.<br />

It also embraces the use of recycled<br />

materials to drive market support for<br />

economically viable circular material<br />

flows, when available and appropriate.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 83




For half a century, humanity has consumed more resources and generated more emissions than<br />

nature can cope with. This has led to climate change, water scarcities, and a loss of biodiversity.<br />

What’s more, the world’s population continues to grow and life expectancies are increasing.<br />

Although mankind has made tremendous progress in recent decades and livelihoods have<br />

improved on a global level, poverty, inequality, illness, and hunger remain the most urgent<br />

challenges of our time. Nonetheless, there is overwhelming scientific evidence that humanity<br />

cannot continue at the current level of resource consumption. The world must find a new<br />

balance between production and protection.<br />

By Matthias Berninger, Bayer<br />

Bayer’s leading businesses of health and<br />

nutrition represent a unique combination<br />

of two life science fields that are<br />

system-relevant for addressing these<br />

challenges. We have made bold commitments<br />

for inclusive growth and sustainable<br />

development in line with the<br />

UN Sustainable Development Goals and<br />

have anchored them in our strategy and<br />

operations. This <strong>under</strong>taking meshes<br />

perfectly with our vision “Health for all,<br />

Hunger for none.”<br />

The global population continues to rise.<br />

By 2050, it will grow by another two billion,<br />

reaching an estimated 9.7 billion<br />

people. Society must ensure that more<br />

people have access to nutritious food<br />

and healthcare, while at the same time<br />

conserving natural resources, protecting<br />

biodiversity, and reducing greenhouse<br />

gas emissions.<br />

This is precisely why we decided to anchor<br />

sustainability more firmly in our<br />

Group strategy. As a key player in the<br />

fields of healthcare and nutrition, we<br />

have a particular impact on “Zero hunger”<br />

(Goal 2) and “Good health and well-being”<br />

(Goal 3) and will also play our part in<br />

the fight against poverty (Goal 1). In<br />

addition, we are intensifying our focus<br />

on empowering women (Goal 5), redoubling<br />

our efforts to reduce greenhouse<br />

gases and tackle the impacts of climate<br />

change (Goal 13), and protecting life on<br />

land (Goal 15).<br />

Sustainable intensification of<br />

agriculture<br />

According to the UN, by 2050 food production<br />

needs to increase by 50 percent<br />

relative to 2012 in order to cope with the<br />

predicted population growth. With current<br />

production standards, this cannot<br />

be achieved; there is simply not enough<br />

arable land available.<br />

We need a social consensus that focuses<br />

on a science-based agricultural revolution<br />

rather than on a romanticized<br />

approach. We do not regard small and<br />

large producers as rival forces, and the<br />

same applies to ecological and conventional<br />

agriculture, and traditional and<br />

genetically optimized seeds. We firmly<br />

believe that a combination of all these<br />

approaches is needed.<br />

We are therefore innovating to sustainably<br />

increase crop yields on already<br />

existing acreages. For instance, our<br />

researchers are working on improving<br />

the climate resilience of crops, for example<br />

corn with shorter stalks that do not<br />

break in the event of a storm, thus pro-<br />

84<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

tecting the harvest. In another pioneering<br />

project, we are collaborating with<br />

partners to develop plants that produce<br />

the nitrogen they need themselves and<br />

no longer have to be fertilized artificially.<br />

Empowering smallholders<br />

Farmers harvesting rice in India:<br />

Bayer wants to provide increased<br />

support for smallholder farmers, who<br />

are the mainstay of food production<br />

in many developing and emerging<br />

countries.<br />

In low- and middle-income countries<br />

(LMICs), smallholder farmers are essential<br />

for local food supplies, but they often<br />

suffer from hunger, malnutrition, and<br />

poverty themselves. By 2030, we aim to<br />

support 100 million smallholder farmers<br />

by improving access to agronomic<br />

knowledge, products, and services. In<br />

doing so, we will increase their yields<br />

and incomes as well as contribute to<br />

fighting poverty in rural areas.<br />

Women are central to boosting<br />

socio-economic development<br />

Experts consider the lack of women’s<br />

empowerment as one of the main factors<br />

hindering successful socio-economic<br />

development in LMICs. Today, more than<br />

200 million women in developing countries<br />

have an unmet need for modern<br />

contraception, an essential component<br />

of family planning. This is not only central<br />

to women’s health, but also gives<br />

them greater autonomy over their lives,<br />

which can have a positive ripple effect on<br />

families and communities. As the leading<br />

women’s healthcare company, our<br />

goal is to provide 100 million women in<br />

LMICs with access to family planning by<br />

2030 by contributing to multistakeholder<br />

programs and ensuring the supply of<br />

affordable, modern contraceptives. In<br />

this way, we want to improve women’s<br />

health, rights, and economic status – a<br />

large step toward gender equality.<br />

Access to everyday healthcare<br />

More than half of the world’s population<br />

today has no access to adequate<br />

self-care products and services, and this<br />

figure could potentially rise to five billion<br />

people by 2030. Besides helping current<br />

patients avoid illness, expanding access<br />

to everyday healthcare also improves the<br />

health of younger generations, reduces<br />

costs, and offers the chance of a better<br />

future. As a leading Consumer Health<br />

company, we will expand access to everyday<br />

healthcare for 100 million people in<br />

<strong>under</strong>served communities around the<br />

world by 2030. Our proven consumer<br />

brands will drive this ambition.<br />

Carbon-neutral operations and<br />

reduction of GHG emissions along<br />

our value chains<br />

Bayer has set out to become carbon<br />

neutral by 2030 and reduce emissions,<br />

including in our value chain. With that<br />

in mind, we have joined Science Based<br />

Targets, an initiative that promotes increased<br />

energy efficiency and a switch<br />

to green energy.<br />

Agriculture currently accounts for about<br />

a quarter of the world’s GHG emissions.<br />

As such, the biggest contribution to<br />

reducing greenhouse gases can be made<br />

by our customers. We will help farmers<br />

cut GHG emissions from their fields<br />

by 30 percent per kilogram of yield by<br />

2030 through the use of eco-friendly<br />

products and technologies. This pledge<br />

is unprecedented in the industry, as is<br />

our endeavor to also reduce the environmental<br />

impact resulting from the<br />

use of our crop-protection products by<br />

30 percent.<br />

A special challenge lies in finding effective<br />

ways to offset unavoidable emissions.<br />

With our digital innovations, which enable<br />

us to determine exactly what is happening<br />

on and in the field, right down to<br />

the smallest furrow, we want to lay the<br />

groundwork for a new line of business for<br />

farmers across the globe. We furthermore<br />

intend to establish a private market for<br />

sequestering CO 2<br />

in the ground. Combining<br />

cultivation methods that retain a lot of<br />

CO 2<br />

in plants and soil will enable farmers<br />

in food production to benefit from an<br />

additional source of income.<br />

Economic success and sustainability<br />

go hand in hand<br />

We consider attaining these sustainability<br />

targets to be just as important<br />

as meeting financial goals. That is why<br />

they are anchored in the remuneration<br />

models for the Board of Management and<br />

other managerial staff, as well as in our<br />

company’s decision-making processes. In<br />

accordance with our purpose of “Science<br />

for a better life,” we want to help people<br />

thrive on a healthy planet. In our eyes,<br />

economic success and sustainability go<br />

hand in hand.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 85




Nonwoven textiles do not loom large in the consumer’s mind, but they are big in the industrial<br />

world. Their applications include industries such as healthcare, automotive, geo-engineering,<br />

construction, agriculture, filtration, dredging, disposable, as well as durable carpeting and more.<br />

As such, the average person is likely to encounter them in their day-to-day life more than they<br />

may think. Unfortunately, their manufacture is traditionally resource-intensive, but Beaulieu<br />

Fibres International’s UltraBond fibre can change this.<br />

By Maria Teresa Tomaselli and Valérie Bouckaert, Beaulieu International Group<br />

UltraBond is a bonding staple fibre that<br />

eliminates the need for latex or other<br />

chemical binders in nonwovens. The traditional<br />

downside of nonwoven fabrics<br />

that need latex is that they cannot be recycled<br />

without substantial downgrading<br />

and loss of performance, so nonwovens<br />

that bypass the need for latex in their<br />

manufacture now have a clear path to<br />

the circular economy.<br />

In industries such as event carpeting, this<br />

is a major advantage, considering that<br />

annually, 120 million square meters of<br />

event carpet ends up in incinerators or<br />

landfills. In addition, UltraBond-based,<br />

thermally bonded fabrics allow for cost<br />

savings due to their greater rest value<br />

after use, and they require lower energy<br />

and water consumption levels during the<br />

manufacturing process than chemically<br />

bonded fabrics. But how does UltraBond<br />

work?<br />

No latex needed<br />

Nonwoven carpets and needlepunched<br />

fabrics are typically produced by interconnecting<br />

man-made staple fibres into<br />

a felt. To achieve a strong enough bond<br />

of the fibres to withstand installation<br />

86<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

and usage, an extra component such<br />

as latex is added. The felt is submerged<br />

into a dispersion tank, after which the<br />

remaining water is evaporated using<br />

an energy-intensive thermal process.<br />

UltraBond does not work this way and<br />

only needs thermal treatment.<br />

The UltraBond fibre is specifically<br />

designed to have a lower melting temperature<br />

than normal polypropylene<br />

than normal polypropylene (PP) fibres:<br />

140°C for UltraBond versus 160°C for<br />

regular PP fibres. PP fibre can be blended<br />

into an existing nonwoven composition,<br />

and the bicomponent PP fibre guarantees<br />

additional strength and stiffness without<br />

requiring additional blends with other<br />

raw materials.<br />

Saving 20 million liters of water a year<br />

A traditional fibre application such as<br />

exhibition carpet uses 0.2 liters of water<br />

per square meter to make bonding<br />

agents such as latex work. By taking<br />

latex out of the equation, UltraBond also<br />

bypasses the need for water. Looking at<br />

the event carpet market in Europe alone,<br />

this could potentially save 20 million<br />

liters of water per year.<br />

UltraBond’s manufacturing process<br />

saves a whopping 93 percent of energy<br />

expenditure because no water needs to<br />

be evaporated. This obviously reduces<br />

energy costs and lowers the carbon footprint<br />

(by 35 percent).<br />

Flagship product on board<br />

UltraBond is already being used in products.<br />

One of them is the Rewind recyclable<br />

event carpet, which was launched by<br />

Beaulieu International Group at the end<br />

of 2019. Crucial to Rewind’s success was<br />

that the UltraBond-based carpet would<br />

match – or even exceed – traditional<br />

event carpet performance in terms of<br />

sturdiness, anti-piling, and color evenness.<br />

It passed its first test with flying<br />

colors: It was used at the COP 25 Climate<br />

Change Conference in Madrid from<br />

December 2 to 13.<br />



Blending of PP fibres + UltraBond<br />

oven<br />

PP Fibre<br />

UltraBond<br />

Bicomponent fibre UltraBond<br />

Low melt<br />

sheath<br />

oven<br />

High<br />

strength core<br />

Maria Teresa Tomaselli, General Manager<br />

“<br />

Beaulieu Fibres International, comments:<br />

Filtering the future<br />

We see textile flooring as just<br />

the beginning. We look forward<br />

to exploring the potential of this<br />

unique thermal bonding fibre in<br />

other nonwoven or textile<br />

applications, such as laminated<br />

nonwovens or as an alternative<br />

to dry powders.<br />

UltraBond-based fabrics have the potential<br />

to branch out in other markets. On<br />

top of the environmental benefits, the<br />

thermally consolidated UltraBond fibres<br />

in nonwovens are on a level with latexbonded<br />

nonwovens in terms of stiffness,<br />

without affecting porosity. UltraBond<br />

fibres can become attractive alternatives<br />

in technology sectors such as water and<br />

air filtration industries, life sciences,<br />

and geotextiles. All of them are looking<br />

for sustainable alternatives to current<br />

solutions.<br />

In the flooring world, further applications<br />

for contract flooring are also possible,<br />

for example in showrooms, office<br />

spaces, museums, and other areas that<br />

experience high-frequency foot traffic.<br />

The average person will not notice the<br />

difference with traditional PP fabrics,<br />

but the environment will.<br />





• Reduced energy consumption:<br />

Curing latex is energy-intensive, but<br />

because of the absence of latex,<br />

less heat is needed.<br />

• No water consumption: As a consequence<br />

of not needing water (traditionally<br />

one of the key agents in<br />

the latex bonding process), Ultra-<br />

Bond-based PP event carpets can<br />

save as much as 20 million liters of<br />

water a year.<br />

• Lower CO 2<br />

emissions: Using Ultra-<br />

Bond in the manufacturing process<br />

of nonwoven needlepunch fabrics<br />

lowers CO 2<br />

emissions by an average<br />

of 35 percent, potentially cutting<br />

back up to 10,000 tons of carbon<br />

emissions for the European event<br />

carpet market alone.<br />

• Contribution to the circular economy:<br />

Latex-bonded PP cannot be<br />

recycled, but UltraBond-based products<br />

can. Not only does this reintroduce<br />

pellets into the economy after<br />

recycling, it also removes waste<br />

from landfills and lowers carbon<br />

emissions from incinerators.<br />



GROUP?<br />

Beaulieu International Group was<br />

founded in 1959 in Belgium and is a<br />

global producer of flooring solutions,<br />

engineered fibres, yarns, and technical<br />

textiles as well as polymers. It<br />

employs nearly 5,000 people worldwide.<br />

Beaulieu International Group<br />

enjoyed a 2019 turnover of €2 billion.<br />

Beaulieu Fibres International, the<br />

brand that created the UltraBond<br />

fibre, has production facilities in<br />

Belgium and Italy.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 87




Bosch is dedicated to playing a pioneering role in climate action. In 2018, the board of<br />

management adopted an ambitious CO 2<br />

strategy: Bosch aims to be climate neutral worldwide as<br />

of 2020 in order to make a concrete contribution to the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United<br />

Nations, which seeks to limit global warming to 1.5°C. On top of its objective to make its more<br />

than 400 locations climate neutral as of 2020, Bosch is going a step further: The company has<br />

additionally set itself an ambitious target for lowering indirect emissions in order to reduce its<br />

carbon footprint – even beyond company boundaries.<br />

By Torsten Kallweit and Annette Wagner, Bosch Group<br />

Bosch knows that many changes, new<br />

approaches, and innovations are needed<br />

quickly to effectively support climate action.<br />

As the efforts to achieve energy efficiency<br />

also contribute toward becoming<br />

more cost-efficient, the company also sees<br />

major opportunities. The climate goal of<br />

being carbon neutral by 2020 refers to the<br />

energy generated by the company itself<br />

and the energy volume purchased for its<br />

more than 400 locations worldwide – this<br />

covers engineering, manufacturing, and<br />

administrative facilities (Scopes 1 and 2<br />

of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol). Here<br />

Bosch can directly influence the reduction<br />

of greenhouse gases and make a major<br />

impact in a short time. The company is<br />

also setting itself an emission reduction<br />

target for the upstream and downstream<br />

stages of the value chain (Scope 3) of 15<br />

percent by 2030, focusing on the categories<br />

of purchased goods, logistics, and the<br />

use of products sold. In addition to this<br />

specific goal, Bosch wants to make an active<br />

contribution to ensuring that its value<br />

chain will also be climate neutral by 2050.<br />

Climate neutrality as of 2020<br />

Despite the challenges from Covid-19,<br />

Bosch is maintaining its long-term strategic<br />

course and continuing with its<br />

systematic pursuit of becoming carbon<br />


Purchased goods and logistics<br />

Scope 3<br />

Own generation<br />

and purchased energy<br />

Scopes 1 and 2<br />

Use of products sold<br />

Scope 3<br />

Energy efficiency<br />

New clean power<br />

Green electricity<br />

Carbon offsets<br />

neutral. When it comes to achieving<br />

this target, Bosch is making progress:<br />

Already by the end of 2019, all German<br />

sites had become carbon neutral. To this<br />

date, Bosch has achieved 70 percent of<br />

its target on a global scale. By the end<br />

Climate neutrality as of 2020<br />

Science Based Targets<br />

initiative (SBTi)<br />

– 15%<br />

by 2030<br />

88<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

of 2020, 100 percent carbon neutrality<br />

will have been achieved, and Bosch’s<br />

worldwide development, manufacturing,<br />

and administration activities will no<br />

longer leave a carbon footprint.<br />

To make this a reality, the company is<br />

investing in energy efficiency, increasing<br />

the proportion of renewables in its<br />

energy supply, buying more green power,<br />

and offsetting unavoidable carbon emissions.<br />

Bosch is also making progress in<br />

improving the quality of its measures to<br />

maintain carbon neutrality until 2030.<br />

For instance, the share of carbon offsets<br />

in 2020 will be significantly lower than<br />

planned – just 25 percent.<br />

holistic supply chain network design<br />

is intended to strengthen the regional<br />

procurement and production of goods<br />

and avoid air transport. In addition, by<br />

increasingly combining freight, Bosch<br />

wants to reduce transport and optimize<br />

routes and capacity utilization. Product<br />

design geared to energy efficiency<br />

is already contributing to the reduction<br />

of emissions with regard to how<br />

products sold are used. In 2020, Bosch<br />

wants to identify additional potential<br />

for further reducing the CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

of its products. On top of that, Bosch<br />

has already decided on a measure for<br />

the category of associates’ transport:<br />

Starting in 2020, Bosch will make air<br />

travel of all associates carbon neutral<br />

by using carbon offsets. The costs will<br />

be included directly in the airfare.<br />

Torsten Kallweit and Annette Wagner lead the<br />

Bosch Group’s corporate EHS and sustainability<br />

departments. Torsten Kallweit is also CTO of<br />

the newly established Bosch Climate Solutions.<br />

For more information, please visit:<br />

sustainability.bosch.com<br />

Climate action along the value chain<br />

To ensure its own efforts have a multiplier<br />

effect on the economy, Bosch<br />

also set a target for reducing its Scope 3<br />

emissions – which means tackling emissions<br />

in the upstream and downstream<br />

activities along the value chain.<br />

Upstream emissions in the Bosch value<br />

chain concern categories such as purchased<br />

goods and services, logistics, associates’<br />

commutes, and business trips.<br />

Downstream emissions are mainly<br />

caused by the use and disposal of products.<br />

To calculate the carbon footprint,<br />

Bosch has analyzed all Scope 3 categories<br />

of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol and<br />

focused on those that account for the<br />

largest share of CO 2<br />

emissions. These<br />

are purchased goods, logistics, and the<br />

use of products sold. In order to live up<br />

to self-imposed standards, Bosch wants<br />

to reduce CO 2<br />

emissions by at least<br />

15 percent by 2030, or more than 50<br />

million metric tons per year. To this end,<br />

Bosch has agreed on a target with the<br />

Science Based Targets initiative, making<br />

Bosch the first automotive supplier to<br />

commit to a measurable target.<br />

To achieve this, Bosch will identify<br />

the supplier groups creating the largest<br />

volumes of CO 2<br />

emissions in order<br />

to work with them on mitigation<br />

measures. In the field of logistics, a<br />

Bosch intends to increase own power generation<br />

from renewable sources of energy such as<br />

photovoltaics and wind to 0.4 TWh in 2030.<br />


To make its experience available to other companies and to help them progress<br />

toward carbon neutrality, Bosch pools the knowledge of nearly 1,000 Bosch<br />

experts worldwide and offers access to the results of more than 1,000 energyefficiency<br />

projects of its own in a new advisory company called Bosch Climate<br />

Solutions. The newly established operating unit develops tailored solutions for<br />

customers and shows how to strike the right balance between economic and<br />

ecological considerations. “We want to make our experience available to other<br />

companies, to help them progress to carbon neutrality,” says Dr. Volkmar Denner,<br />

Chairman of the Board of Management of Robert Bosch GmbH. In doing so, Bosch<br />

enables companies to develop their own climate protection plan: from the<br />

analysis of the carbon footprint to the concept and throughout the implementation<br />

of a dedicated reduction plan.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 89



The field of compliance has <strong>under</strong>gone major developments over the last 20 years. Although<br />

in the beginning the importance of business ethics was not recognized, or even rejected, and<br />

compliance was only seen as a set of regulations, the <strong>under</strong>standing of a value-oriented<br />

corporate culture gradually grew. This was accompanied by the development of compliance<br />

software to support people who want to report misconduct without fear of retaliation, and thus<br />

to help build better ethics in businesses.<br />

By Kai Leisering, Business Keeper<br />

Twenty years ago, when it all started<br />

<strong>under</strong> the supervision of the UN, states<br />

and businesses shared a vision of making<br />

the world a better place. They agreed on<br />

goals that would enable – and promote<br />

– progress in people’s social and ecological<br />

conditions, and therefore would<br />

improve the quality of life for everyone.<br />

An integral part of the defined measures<br />

has been fighting corruption – an evil<br />

that challenges equal chances for all<br />

people regarding wealth, employment,<br />

and a healthy environment. Those who<br />

developed the early initiatives realized<br />

that defining common rules for ethical<br />

behavior and business ethics can be a<br />

strong foundation on which to build.<br />

Over time, this has led to global policies<br />

and legislation that have incorporated<br />

basic principles to fight corrupt practices.<br />

But what are these rules, which are just<br />

written down on paper, able to change?<br />

Missing awareness for corrupt<br />

actions<br />

Kenan Tur was an early pioneer. Being<br />

involved in the discussions about how<br />

to support global initiatives on fighting<br />

corruption, he became aware that these<br />

rules needed to include the possibility<br />

for people to speak up without having<br />

to fear retaliation and negative consequences,<br />

especially when pointing out<br />

misconduct. Motivated by his belief that<br />

even a single person can make a difference,<br />

he decided to develop the world’s<br />

first web-based whistleblowing software,<br />

and thus gave birth to Business Keeper.<br />

Business Keeper was founded with the<br />

goal of protecting the identities of people<br />

who have information about possibly<br />

corrupt actions within their organizations<br />

and want to report them without<br />

being publicly labeled as an informer.<br />

At the beginning, Tur’s idea was rejected,<br />

and he experienced resistance from<br />

nearly all the big players. This included<br />

the suggestion that no malpractice was<br />

occurring, and there was denial that a<br />

corruption problem even existed. But<br />

conviction and passion kept him going.<br />

Perhaps as a result of the numerous corruption<br />

scandals that have become public,<br />

an important positive development has<br />

been the common <strong>under</strong>standing of some<br />

of the leading companies worldwide,<br />

namely that committing to the fight<br />

against corruption requires organizational<br />

measures. These measures include,<br />

for example, appointing people at the top<br />

of the organization’s hierarchy to assume<br />

responsibility, to define guidelines and,<br />

in the end, to implement a Compliance<br />

Management System. This led to whistleblowing<br />

systems becoming standard and<br />

an accepted best practice instrument in<br />

the fight against corruption. Decades<br />

later, in 2020, this is considered normal,<br />

and some might have even forgotten that<br />

this was not always so.<br />

Business ethics require new<br />

compliance tools<br />

Over time, compliance has grown into<br />

something bigger. Whereas compliance<br />

focused only on fighting corruption in<br />

the early days, it has now become the<br />

central governance function in organizations<br />

and includes many other areas,<br />

ranging from competition law to data<br />

privacy, and from IT security to employees’<br />

90<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

www.business-keeper.com<br />

health and safety. At the same time,<br />

compliance continues to include new<br />

developments such as sexual harassment,<br />

#metoo, manipulation of technical<br />

processes, and many other topics.<br />

There has also been a change in scope:<br />

Whereas at the beginning, the focus was<br />

mainly to look at the internal organization<br />

and ensure the proper behavior of<br />

employees, compliance now extends to<br />

anyone related to an organization, be it<br />

persons within global supply chains or<br />

anyone acting on behalf of – and in the<br />

name of – the organization. Nowadays,<br />

all of these are part of the governance<br />

structure and should be covered through<br />

defined measures.<br />

This development has led to growing<br />

levels of compliance within organizations<br />

while raising awareness that<br />

the relationship between costs spent<br />

for compliance and achieving goals<br />

needs to be balanced. For compliance<br />

departments, this has required efficient<br />

processes and applications that allow<br />

processes to be implemented which<br />

cover large numbers of people in and<br />

around the organization. At the same<br />

time, the processes allow for managing<br />

people with a small number of compliance<br />

officers.<br />

Business Keeper has remained aware<br />

of these changing requirements and<br />

new challenges, and therefore it has<br />

continued to enhance the suite of software<br />

solutions to help organizations.<br />

This includes evolved case management<br />

and reporting solutions, software that<br />

allows for automating and supporting<br />

third-party due diligence processes, as<br />

well as an application that allows for the<br />

easy handling of benefits and gifts, and<br />

any other relevant approval processes in<br />

organizations on a local or global scale.<br />

After 20 years, compliance has become<br />

an extremely important element for<br />

companies of all sizes and in all industries.<br />

No one any longer questions<br />

that business ethics are important and<br />

relevant. Looking back over the last 20<br />

years, good progress has been made<br />

compared to when it all began – but<br />

there is still a long way to go.<br />


KEEPER<br />

As the first provider of electronic<br />

whistleblowing systems<br />

and the European market<br />

leader in compliance software,<br />

Business Keeper has developed<br />

integrity and compliance<br />

applications to help fight whitecollar<br />

crime such as corruption,<br />

money la<strong>under</strong>ing, and other<br />

crimes against society for<br />

more than 20 years.<br />

The company collaborates with<br />

leading experts and participates<br />

in numerous networks<br />

to help customers integrate<br />

various aspects of whistleblower<br />

protection in an optimal<br />

manner, and to support them<br />

in matters of ethics and compliance.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 91




At CEMEX, we live our purpose of building a better future, which is embedded in our strategy,<br />

operations, and our culture. CEMEX has a rich history of contributing to the well-being of those it<br />

serves through innovative building solutions, efficiency advancements, and efforts to promote<br />

a sustainable future.<br />

By Martha Herrera, CEMEX<br />

Our approach to the UN Sustainable<br />

Development Goals<br />

The SDGs represent business opportunities<br />

for CEMEX and contribute to the<br />

2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development<br />

of the United Nations (UN). Our<br />

sustainability goals are aligned to the<br />

five priority SDGs for our company. They<br />

are designed to enhance CEMEX’s economic,<br />

environmental, social, and governance<br />

pillars and contribute toward<br />

the achievement of a better and more<br />

sustainable future for all.<br />

As a leading building materials company,<br />

we recognize and embrace our responsibility<br />

in the development of sustainable<br />

cities and the generation of shared<br />

values among communities. As part of<br />

this purpose, we collaborate very closely<br />

with field experts, authorities, customers,<br />

suppliers, NGOs, and other stakeholders<br />

so that our products and solutions not<br />

only address all of our customers’ construction<br />

needs efficiently and effectively,<br />

but also accomplish those needs in the<br />

most sustainable way.<br />

Social entrepreneurs from our<br />

Social Innovation Award<br />

Global Goals Local Business<br />

regional event end of 2019<br />

92<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

Building upon our commitment to the<br />

SDGs, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary<br />

group within CEMEX, we connected<br />

stakeholders’ objectives, risks, and<br />

financial and non-financial indicators to<br />

set our five priority SDGs, upon which<br />

we can contribute even further toward<br />

achieving the UN’s established goals of<br />

Agenda 2030. Our five goals are focused<br />

on the promotion of decent employment<br />

and economic growth (Goal 8); innovation<br />

and infrastructure development<br />

(Goal 9); climate change mitigation (Goal<br />

13); environmental and ecosystem conservation<br />

(Goal 15); and the advancement<br />

of sustainable cities and communities<br />

(Goal 11). We devised internal output<br />

indicators in order to keep track of our<br />

contributions toward selected targets. In<br />

2019, we selected our main actions and<br />

programs, and we are currently working<br />

to unify them in order to further increase<br />

our SDG contributions.<br />

Collaborating and sharing best<br />

practices with UN initiatives<br />

CEMEX is a member of the United<br />

Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction.<br />

In 2019, we led the ARISE Mexico<br />

Forum: Resilience for All. During the<br />

forum, we promoted resiliency through<br />

disaster risk management within companies<br />

to generate value for society.<br />

We further protect integrity and wellbeing<br />

by integrating disaster prevention<br />

through appropriate training, policies,<br />

and infrastructure involving our<br />

employees, communities, national<br />

and local governments, academia, civil<br />

society organizations, and multilateral<br />

organizations.<br />

We continue to lead the UN Global<br />

Compact (UNGC) in Mexico, inspiring<br />

and motivating business leaders to join<br />

this initiative and promote inclusive<br />

prosperity and sustainable development.<br />

In 2019, through our role in the Global<br />

Compact Network in Mexico, we led<br />

the signing of a collaboration agreement<br />

between the government of Mexico,<br />

the private sector – represented by the<br />

Business Coordinating Council – and<br />

the local Global Compact Network in<br />

Mexico and led Making Global Goals<br />

Local Business – Mexico, where more<br />

than 800 participants shared best practices<br />

to collaborate and play a more active<br />

role in the achievement of the SDGs.<br />

We will continue pursuing our purpose<br />

of building a better future, ensuring a<br />

sustainable growth to further advance<br />

the SDGs and mitigate impacts and risks,<br />

by operating in a more agile way, seeking<br />

disruptive innovation and collaboration<br />

with organizations that also are guided<br />

by their purpose and are committed with<br />

the UN SDGs.<br />

Agreement signed by government, private<br />

sector, and the UNGC on Agenda 2030<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 93

Enabling a Circular<br />

Plastics Economy<br />

One of the biggest environmental threats of our time is plastic waste. Governments across<br />

the globe must take immediate action to reduce plastic waste and increase recycling levels.<br />

Industry partners along the value chain as well as consumers will need to change their<br />

behaviors and established paths, primarily concerning packaging. Clariant’s answer to these<br />

challenges is EcoCircle, a circular plastics economy initiative.<br />

By Dr. Bettina Siggelkow, Clariant<br />

There is no doubt that we enjoy the<br />

benefits of plastic every day – not only in<br />

packaging, for example for food preservation.<br />

However, we are constantly facing<br />

the consequences of improperly<br />

handled plastic waste, which is polluting<br />

our environment and damaging flora<br />

and fauna across the globe. It is therefore<br />

necessary to act now to dramatically<br />

reduce plastic waste and to start<br />

seeing it as a raw material source for<br />

new products. At Clariant, the circular<br />

economy is a central element of our<br />

sustainability strategy. We are convinced<br />

that only through the close collaboration<br />

of industry partners across the value<br />

chain can a circular plastics economy<br />

be realized. Sustainable results for a<br />

circular economy require that products<br />

are considered cost-efficient, not only<br />

for direct application, but also when it<br />

comes to their purpose along the circular<br />

value chain. This opens up a new dimension,<br />

offering potential for product and<br />

business model innovations.<br />

EcoCircle – A Circular Plastics<br />

Economy Initiative<br />

A key aspect of collaborating to achieve a<br />

circular plastics economy is the outreach<br />

of industry partners to all players along<br />

the value chain. This includes brand<br />

owners, polymer producers, designers,<br />

retailers, sorters, recyclers, and converters<br />

– partners that, so far, have only had<br />

limited direct interaction. These types of<br />

cooperation are more complex, not only<br />

due to the amount of project partners,<br />

but also due to the different positions<br />

within the value chains and there being<br />

significant differences in legal frameworks,<br />

specifications, and culture. This<br />

often makes communication across the<br />

new circular value chain challenging.<br />

For a successful transformation toward a<br />

circular value chain, it will be key to overcome<br />

the gap and create a framework<br />

to allow for joint project management.<br />

Clariant has developed competencies to<br />

effectively orchestrate the approach and<br />

foster projects along the value chain to<br />

drive successful product development<br />

for a new circular value chain.<br />

To help facilitate innovation and cocreation,<br />

Clariant is setting up Centers of<br />

Excellence. The integration of the knowl-<br />

That is why Clariant created the Eco-<br />

Circle initiative to address these challenges<br />

and support the development of<br />

a circular plastics economy. It combines<br />

four key elements: collaboration across<br />

the value chain, co-creation, technology,<br />

and distinction.<br />

94<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

edge on the main recycling pathways<br />

(mechanical/chemical recycling) will<br />

not only speed up product development,<br />

but also allow for predicting behavior<br />

within a circular value chain. Integrating<br />

these considerations right from the start<br />

during product development will, in the<br />

future, be a key aspect for the industry<br />

in successfully transforming the value<br />

chain toward a circular economy. The<br />

first center will be located in Pogliano,<br />

Italy, and will focus on product design<br />

and mechanical recycling for polyolefins<br />

in supporting circular product design.<br />

Plastic waste to be considered the<br />

new raw material<br />

Plastic packaging is by far the single<br />

largest challenge to be solved. On the<br />

one hand, it requires the largest amount<br />

of plastic; on the other hand, it has the<br />

shortest lifecycles in use. It accounts for<br />

about 57 percent of the 250 million tons<br />

of plastic waste produced globally every<br />

year, of which only 10–20 percent is recycled,<br />

and almost all of it is downcycled<br />

to lower-value applications. To increase<br />

the recycling rate, it is crucial to preserve<br />

the quality of the plastic resin to enable,<br />

for example, turning a plastic bottle into<br />

a new plastic bottle using recycled plastic.<br />

Many companies and organizations have<br />

already announced concrete targets in<br />

this direction, such as achieving 100<br />

percent recyclability of their packaging<br />

and using between 25–50 percent of<br />

recycled plastic in their packaging by<br />

2025. Achieving these targets will require<br />

a change in collaboration approaches<br />

among partners across the different value<br />

chains in order to create new products<br />

and establish new value chains that<br />

include consumer involvement.<br />

The role of consumers returning<br />

plastic for recycling<br />

On the path to a circular plastics economy,<br />

consumers play an important role.<br />

An extensive education of the global<br />

population is required in order to send<br />

the message that plastic waste is not<br />

garbage, but an important raw material<br />

source for future production. Independent<br />

of the way in which plastic waste is<br />

collected in different countries, the effective<br />

and improved execution of recycling<br />

efforts will be key. Consumers need to be<br />

encouraged to collect plastic waste. This<br />

can be done by creating an easy-to-use<br />

system to collect and dispose of plastic<br />

waste, enabling further economically<br />

viable and feasible processing. With<br />

no collection system in place, plastic<br />

waste ends up in landfills, consumer<br />

acceptance levels will remain low, and<br />

the leakage of plastic waste into the environment<br />

will take place. The success of<br />

establishing a circular plastic value chain<br />

is therefore based on congruent actions<br />

taken by industry, governments, and<br />

consumers. A joint education program<br />

run by the industry and local authorities<br />

will help to create the fundamental<br />

shift in perceptions and <strong>under</strong>standing<br />

within today’s society. This is one of the<br />

fundamentals of the Alliance to End<br />

Plastic Waste, which Clariant joined,<br />

together with more than 30 companies.<br />

These companies have pledged to invest<br />

more than $1.5 billion in projects<br />

to reduce plastic waste in the environment<br />

by focusing on rivers and oceans,<br />

expanding the recycling infrastructure,<br />

and ensuring the required mobilization<br />

of politicians and society.<br />

Harmonized quality system for<br />

recyclates<br />

One of the fundamental drawbacks of<br />

using recyclates in packaging today is<br />

the availability of high-quality recyclates,<br />

which are compatible with the processing<br />

and quality requirements of brand<br />

owners, converters, and consumers. Recyclates<br />

show reduced quality because of<br />

reduced polymer properties, color, and<br />

odor. Counteracting the quality issues<br />

concerning post-consumer recyclates<br />

(PCR) starts with the packaging design,<br />

for example avoiding different polymer<br />

types in one packaging. Including the<br />

impact on the recycling process in the<br />

packaging design is a new approach<br />

that can only be managed with a good<br />

<strong>under</strong>standing of the circular value chain.<br />

Value chain cooperations – one of the<br />

key elements of Clariant’s EcoCircle initiative<br />

– will play an important role in<br />

this transition. Additionally, Clariant<br />

is developing solutions for some of the<br />

functional and critical performance issues<br />

with PCR materials through additive<br />

solutions as well as using adsorbent and<br />

detergent technologies to help with the<br />

purification in the recycling process, resulting<br />

in higher-quality PCR. In addition<br />

to product innovation, a harmonized<br />

approach to defining recyclate quality<br />

– similar to how it was done in the<br />

paper industry some decades ago – will<br />

facilitate the purchasing and usage of<br />

recyclates. This will enhance the suitability<br />

of reclaimed plastics for consumer<br />

or industrial goods that are in popular<br />

demand.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 95





On May 7, 2020, during its Annual General Assembly, EDF passed its raison d'être or purpose<br />

through its by-laws. This purpose sums up the Group’s determination to take up the dual<br />

challenge of economic recovery especially in light of Covid-19 and France and Europe’s goal of<br />

achieving carbon neutrality.<br />

By EDF Group<br />

The CEO of EDF, Jean-Bernard Lévy, was<br />

invited to address the UN Global Compact<br />

on EDF’s actions during the Covid-19<br />

health crisis. He expressed two firm<br />

personal beliefs about what “the world<br />

after Covid-19” might look like: a world<br />

which shows more solidarity that – in<br />

France at least – will put public services<br />

back at the center of the model of society;<br />

and a world that will see a greater outcry<br />

from society to fight climate change with<br />

determination.<br />

The fight against climate change is<br />

quite rightly central to EDF’s recently<br />

announced purpose. This position is<br />

reinforced by EDF’s decision to join<br />

the 10 percent of companies that have<br />

written their purpose into their articles<br />

of association.<br />

“We believe that reducing<br />

our impact on<br />

biodiversity and fighting<br />

climate change go hand<br />

in hand. That’s the idea<br />

behind our purpose, to<br />

build a net zero energy<br />

future with electricity<br />

and innovative solutions<br />

and services, to help<br />

save the planet and drive<br />

well-being and economic<br />

development.”<br />

Jean-Bernard Lévy, CEO and Chairman,<br />

EDF Group<br />

This stance is backed up by concrete<br />

measures. EDF Group has upped its 2030<br />

(on the basis of its 2017 direct emissions)<br />

target for direct CO 2<br />

emission reductions<br />

from 40 percent to 50 percent, and it has<br />

committed to achieving carbon neutrality<br />

by 2050. It has also committed to<br />

reducing emissions relating to the energy<br />

use of its customers and suppliers by<br />

obtaining independent certification from<br />

the Science Based Targets initiative. On<br />

average, over the past decade, EDF has<br />

invested between €12 billion and €15<br />

billion a year in renewable and nuclear<br />

power generation, energy services, smart<br />

grids, and mobility (investments excluding<br />

Group acquisitions and disposals). In<br />

2019, 97 percent of these investments<br />

went towards helping decarbonize the<br />

electricity system, and 95 percent of<br />

96<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020


Target of 50 GW net installed capacity in 2050 in GW<br />

50<br />

50.0<br />

+1,2 GW / yr<br />

20<br />

18.0<br />

15<br />

+2.1 GW / yr<br />

10<br />

+0.7 GW / yr 9.6<br />

6.8<br />

5<br />

0<br />

2015<br />

2019<br />

2023<br />

2050<br />

EDF Group also formally set out its<br />

voluntary action plan on the “Entreprises<br />

Engagées pour la Nature – act4nature<br />

France” platform, created by the French<br />

government via the OFB, the country’s<br />

biodiversity agency. It is also engaged in<br />

the act4nature international initiative,<br />

which brings together French companies<br />

that have global operations. EDF Group’s<br />

commitments include:<br />

• Monitor – and ultimately limit – soil<br />

sealing when converting its former<br />

fossil-fired power plants in France;<br />

• In the nuclear sector in France and<br />

the United Kingdom, action plans to<br />

conserve and enhance biodiversity in<br />

outstanding environments in partnership<br />

with local actors;<br />

• Work with the IUCN to develop wind<br />

and solar power guidelines by 2021<br />

that favor biodiversity;<br />

• Reduce water and soil pollution by<br />

pursuing its program to halt the use<br />

of phytosanitary products at all of its<br />

industrial sites;<br />

• Continue to counter the proliferation<br />

of invasive alien species, with priority<br />

given to stepping up actions in Corsica<br />

and French overseas territories;<br />

• Work together with researchers to build<br />

its future R&D actions on the effects of<br />

water temperature on aquatic organisms;<br />

its R&D operating budget in France<br />

(€485 million) was dedicated to electricity<br />

system decarbonization and transition.<br />

Climate goals that go hand in hand<br />

with biodiversity conservation<br />

On June 15, 2020, EDF Group signed<br />

up to the call for collective action to reverse<br />

nature loss launched by the World<br />

Economic Forum, the International<br />

Chamber of Commerce, the World<br />

Business Council for Sustainable<br />

Development, the UN Global Compact,<br />

the International Union for Conservation<br />

of Nature (IUCN), and the Business<br />

for Nature coalition, <strong>under</strong> which CEOs<br />

from all over the world call for curbing<br />

biodiversity erosion and reversing the<br />

loss of the planet’s essential systems.<br />

• Review its biomass policy in 2020 to<br />

include new commitments in favor of<br />

biodiversity;<br />

• Extend the scope of its green-bond eligible<br />

investments for biodiversity (to a calendar<br />

depending on market conditions);<br />

• Raise awareness of biodiversity issues<br />

among the general public and EDF<br />

employees.<br />

EDF will report annually on the progress it<br />

has made on its CSR goal for biodiversity<br />

through its various publications.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 97


2050 IS THE VISION OF AN<br />


By Elias Penttinen, Elomatic<br />

In 2018, the Japanese shipping company<br />

NYK launched its challenge for attaining<br />

CO 2<br />

-neutral shipping by 2050. NYK<br />

referred to the International Maritime<br />

Organization (IMO) goals, which state<br />

that greenhouse gases from shipping<br />

must be reduced by at least 50 percent<br />

from 2008 levels. In 2012, although<br />

shipping is the most energy-efficient<br />

way of transporting goods, the share of<br />

its global CO 2<br />

emissions was 2.2 percent.<br />

Prior to the announcement by the IMO,<br />

NYK and its technology development<br />

arm, the Monohakobi Technology Institute,<br />

had already approached Elomatic<br />

for a development roadmap toward a<br />

more environmentally friendly operation.<br />

The showcase vessel for the study was a<br />

Pure Car and Truck Carrier (PCTC), which<br />

is known as the NYK Super Eco Ship 2050.<br />

Compared to current designs, energy<br />

savings of 70 percent were achieved. An<br />

emissions-free operation was reached<br />

using primary fuel produced with<br />

renewable energy.<br />

The challenge of an emissions-free<br />

operation<br />

In principle, an emissions-free operation<br />

requires a fuel with neutral or no<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions. The challenge is that<br />

such fuels are rare, expensive, and in<br />

most cases difficult to store. They also<br />

are energy inefficient when the entire<br />

footprint – from the primary energy<br />

source to the bunker fuel on board the<br />

ship – is considered. Therefore, the<br />

use of alternative fuels in shipping<br />

requires highly efficient ships and a<br />

highly efficient operation of the fleet<br />

and its logistical chain.<br />

Minimal resistance is the key to<br />

improvements<br />

For a typical merchant ship, the biggest<br />

power demand is for overcoming the<br />

resistance of the ship. Resistance originates<br />

from the need to move the ship<br />

through water and air, with the former<br />

being the dominating component.<br />

The hull’s (the main body of a ship)<br />

volume and shape are critical for reducing<br />

resistance. The hull has to provide<br />

buoyancy to carry the weight of the ship<br />

and its cargo. To minimize the volume<br />

of the hull, it is important to minimize<br />

the weight while maintaining the cargocarrying<br />

capacity. The weight without<br />

cargo of the NYK Super Eco Ship 2050<br />

was reduced by 30 percent using topology<br />

optimization, the potential of 3-D<br />

printing in manufacturing, and material<br />

developments.<br />

The other purpose of the hull is to provide<br />

sufficient stability for the vessel,<br />

which is especially critical for a PCTC.<br />

In our vision, ships will have active<br />

devices that provide sufficient stability<br />

in a similar manner as fighter jets. In<br />

the NYK Super Eco Ship 2050, this has<br />

been done with gyro stabilisers.<br />

The vessel is equipped with pontoons<br />

that can be deployed if required. This<br />

allows it to remain stable during emergencies<br />

and other abnormal situations.<br />

These developments will allow the hull<br />

shape to be optimized with a greater<br />

focus on resistance. Overall, the reduction<br />

in vessel resistance is 35 percent.<br />

Machinery and propulsion<br />

Efficiency is the most important aspect<br />

in prime movers, power distribution,<br />

and propulsion equipment.<br />

Hydrogen fuel cells were selected as the<br />

prime movers of the vessel. Due to the<br />

fuel cells and hydrogen fuel, a lot of<br />

auxiliary equipment can be removed,<br />

and therefore the maintenance requirement<br />

is reduced. The electricity from the<br />

fuel cells is fed into a highly efficient,<br />

low-voltage DC grid.<br />

Conventional propellers have been<br />

replaced by flapping foils that mimic the<br />

98<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

several ways. It can reduce the required<br />

power consumption on board when used<br />

for air conditioning and cold equipment<br />

in the kitchen. It can also improve the<br />

efficiency of power distribution through<br />

superconducting and reduce the surface<br />

temperature of solar panels.<br />

Outside view of the ship featuring solar panels and pontoons<br />

Other sources of waste originating from<br />

the ship’s operation are stored on board<br />

the vessel and unloaded at port. This<br />

improves the environmental footprint<br />

of the vessel and reduces the amount<br />

of equipment required onboard, such<br />

as incinerators.<br />

Operation<br />

An inside view from a cargo deck featuring innovative use of materials<br />

movement of fishtails to deliver greater<br />

efficiency than screw-type propellers. The<br />

flapping foils are driven with efficient,<br />

permanent, magnetic electric motors.<br />

Another important aspect is the creation<br />

of renewable energy on board the<br />

vessel. By 2050, solar power will be<br />

the most cost-efficient new source of<br />

energy at land-based as well as maritime<br />

installations. Therefore, the ship area is<br />

optimally utilized for solar panels that<br />

can rotate to follow the sun for the best<br />

possible efficiency. Fifteen percent of the<br />

vessel’s energy demand will be covered<br />

by solar panels.<br />

Zero waste<br />

One way to increase efficiency is to<br />

eliminate all sources of waste. Excess<br />

heat from machinery is already being<br />

utilized today to produce electricity, but<br />

the NYK Super Eco Ship 2050 will go one<br />

step further. As the need for heating the<br />

ship’s spaces decreases, there is no need<br />

to heat the bunker fuel, the exhaust fume<br />

temperature can be low, and therefore<br />

most of the excess heat can be used to<br />

create electricity.<br />

Waste cold that originates from liquid<br />

hydrogen bunker fuel can be utilized in<br />

Operational efficiency has a major impact<br />

on emissions from shipping. Already today,<br />

weather routing, just-in-time arrival,<br />

as well as advanced power and energy<br />

management are used to some extent<br />

and will be standard procedure by 2050.<br />

The optimization will be done across<br />

entire logistical chains. For example, port<br />

arrivals will be optimized between all<br />

vessels heading to port, and shore-based<br />

logistical chains will be aligned with the<br />

arrival of vessels. Also, cargo for feeder<br />

vessels will be moved directly from one<br />

vessel to another, reducing the duration<br />

of the port stay for vessels.<br />

Time between bunkering will be another<br />

important change in vessel operations.<br />

As most alternative fuels require more<br />

storage space compared to current fuels,<br />

bunkering will need to be more frequent.<br />

The vessel will require a capacity of<br />

21 days compared to several months for<br />

current vessels in order to keep costs and<br />

space demands reasonable.<br />

Conclusions<br />

The NYK Super Eco Vessel 2050 is a<br />

source of inspiration and an idea for<br />

further discussions. The vessel clearly<br />

demonstrates the importance of energy<br />

efficiency for the adoption of alternative<br />

fuels. To achieve the 2050 target, a development<br />

roadmap should be produced<br />

and followed – an example set by NYK.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 99




Digitization is integral to business and everyday life. The volume of data processed by data<br />

centers is growing continually, which increases electricity consumption as well as carbon<br />

emissions. But E.ON is showing how data centers can become more efficient and sustainable.<br />

Its innovative solutions help customers make their data centers greener.<br />

By Ilke Rangette, E.ON Business Solutions<br />

Digitization – from cloud services and cat<br />

content to streaming and cryptocurrencies<br />

– accounts for a big part of (business)<br />

life. But it has drawbacks: As data centers<br />

process more and more data, they require<br />

immense amounts of electricity. This leads<br />

to higher costs as well as higher carbon<br />

emissions, which contribute to global<br />

warming. The Berlin-based Borderstep<br />

Institute for Innovation and Sustainability<br />

calculates that data centers in Germany<br />

used almost 13 billion kilowatt-hours<br />

of electricity in 2017, about as much as<br />

a major city such as Berlin. No end is in<br />

sight. The Shift Project, a think tank in<br />

Paris, expects global energy consumption<br />

for digitization and related technologies<br />

to increase by 9 percent annually.<br />

Unlike a home or office computer, servers<br />

cannot simply be switched off. To ensure<br />

uninterrupted data flow, data centers<br />

operate 24/7. Nearly all the electricity<br />

they consume is converted into heat. This<br />

100<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

heat must be cooled, which itself is an<br />

energy-intensive process. But it is possible<br />

to make cooling more sustainable as well.<br />

Innovative systems from E.ON<br />

E.ON offers practicable, customized solutions<br />

that enable companies of all sizes<br />

to make their data centers more efficient.<br />

E.ON’s individually tailored microgrid<br />

systems optimize energy consumption<br />

and supply. Its energy-generation solutions<br />

are embedded, redundant, and<br />

scalable. This ensures that customers<br />

have a reliable and flexible power supply<br />

that can be adapted to their individual<br />

needs. Examples include sustainable<br />

storage and energy technologies such<br />

as solar and combined heat and power<br />

(CHP). The latter utilizes a data center’s<br />

waste heat, which can reduce energy<br />

costs by up to 20 percent.<br />

Fuel cells are another promising option.<br />

“E.ON is one of the few companies in the<br />

world that has experience building and<br />

operating utility-scale fuel cells, which<br />

are an important element in our portfolio<br />

of B2B solutions,” Anthony Ainsworth,<br />

CEO of E.ON Business Solutions says.<br />

“The industry is showing great interest<br />

in fuel cells, which not only make the<br />

power supply climate-friendlier but also<br />

almost entirely eliminate the emission of<br />

nitric oxide and particulate matter. We’re<br />

convinced that this clean technology can<br />

be used on a large scale.”<br />

Alongside efficient heating, ventilation,<br />

and air conditioning (HVAC), waste-heat<br />

utilization plays a key role in making<br />

data centers more sustainable. “E.ON<br />

has developed a state-of-the-art district<br />

heating technology called ectogrid tm ,<br />

which is ideal for data-center infrastructure,”<br />

explains Andrea Miserocchi,<br />

Head of Segment Sales for Data Centers,<br />

Telecoms & Media at E.ON Business<br />

Solutions. Data centers can export their<br />

waste heat to the local district heating<br />

network, providing good neighbor energy<br />

with no additional environmental<br />

impact.<br />

The Binero project: A green data<br />

center in Sweden<br />

A green data center is already in operation<br />

in Vallentuna, a town located about 20<br />

kilometers north of Stockholm, Sweden.<br />

It was developed jointly by E.ON and<br />

Binero Group AB, a Swedish supplier of<br />

digital infrastructure services. The objective<br />

was not just to make the internet<br />

greener but to deliver benefits to Binero<br />

and the community as well. Development<br />

therefore focused on energy-efficient<br />

technologies and cooling systems as<br />

well as energy recovery. E.ON provided<br />

the solutions.<br />

The new data center has a redundant<br />

design with two separate systems for<br />

both power and cooling. Each of the<br />

dual systems is individually capable<br />

of supporting full IT operations. This<br />

reduces the likelihood of outages and<br />

simplifies maintenance. The data center<br />

is connected to the regional electricity<br />

network and has its own on-site switching<br />

equipment to convert from high<br />

to low voltage, which facilitates large<br />

power draws. The electricity is 100 percent<br />

sustainable and comes from wind<br />

and other renewable sources. The data<br />

center is also equipped with a modular<br />

uninterruptible power supply (UPS).<br />

In addition, Binero Group recycles its<br />

data center’s waste heat, which is piped<br />

into E.ON’s district heating network.<br />

This enables Binero both to conserve<br />

energy and support the local community.<br />

When the facility is fully connected, its<br />

waste heat will meet the heating needs of<br />

about one-third of Vallentuna’s roughly<br />

30,000 residents.<br />

Sustainable solutions for cities and<br />

communities<br />

E.ON uses these technologies to design<br />

highly efficient solutions that reduce<br />

customers’ energy costs, increase the<br />

availability of their energy supply, and<br />

improve their sustainability performance.<br />

Cities and communities benefit<br />

as well. “We combine our infrastructure<br />

with other E.ON services – such as district<br />

heating, charging points for electric<br />

vehicles, solar panels, energy storage<br />

devices, and demand-side response –<br />

to develop sustainable solutions for<br />

city districts in large European cities,”<br />

Miserocchi adds.<br />

These activities also enable E.ON to<br />

make an important contribution to<br />

the achievement of the UN Sustainable<br />

Development Goals (SDGs), primarily<br />

Goal 7 (Affordable and clean energy), Goal<br />

11 (Sustainable cities and communities),<br />

and Goal 13 (Climate action). In addition,<br />

E.ON’s solutions for data centers help<br />

achieve Goal 9 (Industry, innovation, and<br />

infrastructure) and Goal 12 (Responsible<br />

consumption and production).<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 101



The last few months introduced a completely new world to us when the pandemic started. The<br />

novel coronavirus has wreaked havoc on society while putting the lives and livelihoods of millions<br />

into disarray. The toll that the coronavirus has taken on people is very painful. The actions taken<br />

to stop the vigorous spread of the pandemic has left a massive impact on the global economy and<br />

the prospects for sustainable development.<br />

By Md. Moniruzzaman Khan, Green Delta Insurance Company<br />

Bangladesh was not spared from this<br />

easily transmitted deadly virus. With<br />

the very first Covid-19 case, detected<br />

on March 8, 2020, Bangladesh started<br />

its journey as a country with steadily<br />

increasing cases. Since then, businesses<br />

and operations have come to a complete<br />

halt to reduce the number of deaths, and<br />

the economy started to drop drastically,<br />

jeopardizing economic forecasts and<br />

targets for 2020 and 2021.<br />

There is no doubt that the world economy<br />

has entered a stage where it will take<br />

years to recover – not only for developed<br />

economies but especially developing and<br />

least-developed countries. Countries such<br />

as Bangladesh have to be very proactive<br />

to rebuild themselves to overcome their<br />

internal crises. With the sudden closures<br />

of workplaces, people at all levels have<br />

been challenged to adapt to the rapid<br />

changes in industries.<br />

While following the footsteps of the<br />

global leaders and their examples, Green<br />

Delta also started to work toward building<br />

a better future and utilizing the crisis<br />

for opportunities. These timely initiatives<br />

were <strong>under</strong>taken to make the best of the<br />

sudden lockdowns and use the resources<br />

that Green Delta had created to build<br />

a resilient workforce. This ensured its<br />

contribution to the economy as well as<br />

minimize the impact of the pandemic<br />

at the company level.<br />

The following offers a glimpse of how<br />

Green Delta initiatives provide a framework<br />

for achieving resilience and will<br />

also help achieve the SDGs in a postpandemic<br />

era:<br />

Building a Resilient Workforce:<br />

Decent Work and Economic Growth<br />

(Goal 8)<br />

Most of the initiatives taken by Green<br />

Delta during the lockdown were centered<br />

on building a workforce that could serve<br />

even if the situation got worse. Starting<br />

with creating massive awareness regarding<br />

safety measures and good practices<br />

among the employees and community<br />

as well as clients and valued customers,<br />

Green Delta has enforced social distancing<br />

at its workplaces and informed<br />

personnel about taking care of their<br />

surroundings during the crisis.<br />

While ensuring a healthy work environment,<br />

Green Delta has offered unique<br />

approaches to ensure the health and<br />

safety of employees.<br />

Soon after workplaces were closed, employees<br />

were trained to carry out their<br />

duties for the company while working<br />

from home. There were a number of<br />

online training sessions, motivational<br />

sessions, and awareness-creation sessions<br />

to keep the spirits of the employees up<br />

and to increase employee engagement<br />

through various online platforms.<br />

Thus, Green Delta believes that building<br />

a resilient workforce can help to reduce<br />

the negative impacts on profits. It is<br />

also helping to strengthen the current<br />

workforce to cope with the prolonged<br />

aftermath following the crisis.<br />

Ensuring Good Health and Well-<br />

Being: Good Health and Well-Being<br />

(Goal 3)<br />

As the pandemic spread across the country,<br />

creating a health hazard throughout<br />

the entire population, the impact was<br />

much stronger on mental health, as<br />

everything started to shut down and<br />

human life became immobile <strong>under</strong><br />

strict lockdowns.<br />

Green Delta looked after the mental and<br />

physical well-being of its employees as<br />

well as the community at large so that<br />

102<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

they could cope with immobilization<br />

and the sudden changes in lifestyle due<br />

to the outbreak. Purchasing personal<br />

protective equipment for project managers,<br />

ensuring safety measures for client<br />

handling, as well as conducting online<br />

mental wellness and yoga sessions are<br />

a few of the measures that were initiated<br />

and regularly monitored during<br />

the initial closure of operations.<br />

Addressing the Community at Large:<br />

Reduced Inequalities<br />

(Goal 10) and Sustainable Cities and<br />

Community (Goal 11)<br />

Green Delta not only ensured good<br />

practices and mental health among its<br />

employees and communities, it also<br />

extended initiatives to support the communities<br />

that are in the most vulnerable<br />

positions due to the pandemic and the<br />

weakened economy. Green Delta has created<br />

a CSR fund to support 1,500 farmers<br />

through a project called “Amra Korbo Joy”<br />

and distributed gifts in the form of cash.<br />

The Green Delta family contributed one<br />

day of their salaries to stand with the<br />

farmers through this project.<br />

workforce, but it will also facilitate digitalizing<br />

the operations and service offerings.<br />

This helped us to open our first fully<br />

functional digital platform. This eases<br />

the process of payments by partnering<br />

with multi-financial service companies<br />

and will help Green Delta adapt to future<br />

crises in a post-pandemic world.<br />

Heading toward the unknowns of postpandemic<br />

uncertainties in the future,<br />

Green Delta has aimed to build a resilient<br />

workforce and partnerships to<br />

cope with the negative impacts of this<br />

pandemic while harnessing the power<br />

of togetherness and using insurance as<br />

a risk-mitigating tool to cushion against<br />

the financial losses faced by companies<br />

and households. Green Delta believes<br />

that together we can make it through<br />

these difficult times and learn from our<br />

experiences to create a better world.<br />

Green Delta believes that being in the<br />

position to help the most vulnerable<br />

provides an opportunity to make a contribution<br />

while keeping the system running.<br />

Partnerships for a Resilient Future:<br />

Partnerships for the Goals (Goal 17)<br />

As the people, institutes, and businesses<br />

look for ways to recover from the losses<br />

that the pandemic has already created,<br />

Green Delta kept their goals straight and<br />

decided within a short period of time<br />

to become operational while following<br />

the new norms of the workplace. This<br />

crisis pushed the company toward rapid<br />

adaptation and opened new doors to<br />

partnerships to create a better future<br />

while overcoming internal and external<br />

turmoil. During this crisis, Green Delta<br />

has partnered with digital service providers<br />

to ease the process of delivering<br />

efficient services. This not only helped<br />

during the initial lockdown period of the<br />

Together we can make<br />

bigdifference<br />

Farmers are the backbone of the nation.<br />

We have initiated a fund to help<br />

the farmers who are affected by<br />

the COVID-19 pandemic.<br />

Let's Come Forward<br />

log on to<br />

amrakorbojoy.net<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 103




Sustainability is a key aspect that is considered in all steps of our business model and product<br />

life cycles. This affects all stages of our global supply chain – design, raw material supply,<br />

manufacturing, quality control, logistics, and point of sale through physical stores and<br />

e-commerce.<br />

By Javier Losada, Inditex<br />

We are aware of the necessary global<br />

contribution to a sustainable society. For<br />

this reason, we collaborate with different<br />

stakeholders and maintain alliances<br />

with diverse international organizations<br />

to succeed in implementing our social<br />

and environmental sustainability strategies.<br />

This allows us to maximize our<br />

positive impact throughout the value<br />

chain. Furthermore, we believe that the<br />

future of sustainability must increasingly<br />

move toward an open approach whereby<br />

collaboration is the pillar on which the<br />

industry evolves – an approach that<br />

Inditex has been developing for years.<br />

In this sense, Inditex is a founding partner<br />

of the Organic Cotton Accelerator<br />

(OCA; www.organiccottonaccelerator.<br />

org.), which stands as “the only multistakeholder<br />

organization fully dedicated<br />

to organic cotton. As a global platform,<br />

we’re committed to bringing integrity,<br />

supply security, and measurable social<br />

and environmental impact to organic<br />

cotton.”<br />

Cotton plays a key role in Inditex’s sustainability<br />

strategy; it is the second-most<br />

used raw material in the world, the first<br />

with a natural base (26 million tons in<br />

2018/2019; Preferred Fibers & Materials<br />

Market Report 2019, Textile Exchange),<br />

and it is widely used in our products<br />

at Inditex.<br />

Organic cotton is highlighted as one of<br />

the best sustainable alternatives to conventional<br />

cotton; however, it represents<br />

only 0.7 percent of all cotton production<br />

in the world (Organic Cotton Market Report<br />

2019, Textile Exchange). There is still<br />

so much to be done to encourage and<br />

enable organic cotton farming to help<br />

meet the demand for this fiber.<br />

OCA’s Farmer Engagement and Development<br />

(FED) program allows for sourcing<br />

and capacity-building at the farm level.<br />

Brands, retailers, and implementing<br />

partners (IP) work together to change<br />

the organic cotton market and deliver<br />

prosperity, integrity, and best practices<br />

at the farm level.<br />

The FED program is currently focused on<br />

India, where 47 percent of the world’s<br />

organic cotton is produced. The program<br />

links brands to nominated farm groups,<br />

creating a secure market and premium<br />

payments for the farmers and facilitating<br />

third-party-validated impact data<br />

while making future investments in<br />

farmer training. IPs will be responsible<br />

for providing non-GMO (genetically<br />

modified organism) seeds to nominated<br />

farm groups, training them in organic<br />

practices and offering general management<br />

and support throughout the growing<br />

season.<br />

At Inditex, we participate in several FED<br />

projects in collaboration with more than<br />

5,900 small farmers. Their training in<br />

organic practices helps preserve local<br />

biodiversity, soil enrichment, the use<br />

of natural pesticides and fertilizers, and<br />

prevents the use of GMO seeds.<br />

The FED program puts organic farmers<br />

first, helping to make organic farming<br />

a viable choice for cotton growers in<br />

India – where most of the project farmers<br />

are small landholders – with a high<br />

dependence on cotton farming for their<br />

family incomes.<br />

Organic practices usually bring lower<br />

levels of crop productivity as well as<br />

increased pest risks, so incomes are lower<br />

than with conventional farming. While<br />

remaining aware of the challenges, the<br />

FED program’s primary goal is improving<br />

business for organic cotton farmers<br />

as well as promoting organic cotton in<br />

India. The FED program advocates the<br />

104<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

At Inditex, we focus on our clients and<br />

look toward the excellence of our products,<br />

which protect human rights and<br />

create social value, while ensuring that<br />

all of our items meet the strictest health,<br />

safety, and environmental sustainability<br />

standards. OCA’s FED program aligns<br />

with our goals and enables us to take<br />

steps forward in our sustainability journey.<br />

We are committed to the protection of<br />

biodiversity through the responsible<br />

and sustainable management of natural<br />

resources as we reflect on our Biodiversity<br />

Strategy, which is based on the principles<br />

of the United Nations Convention on<br />

Biological Diversity.<br />

payment of a premium over the market<br />

price, which, in combination with lower<br />

production costs, ensures that farmers<br />

receive a competitive and higher net<br />

annual income from organic cotton<br />

when compared to conventional<br />

cotton farming <strong>under</strong> similar conditions.<br />

Production costs can be reduced because<br />

farmers are trained to produce their<br />

own natural fertilizers and pesticides.<br />

This creates the possibility for farmers<br />

to generate extra income if they can<br />

sell their surplus production locally to<br />

other farmers. In due course, this could<br />

potentially reduce their credit dependency<br />

and help them achieve financial<br />

solvency as well as reduce their exposure<br />

on the open market.<br />

In summary, the FED program offers<br />

several benefits for organic cotton smallholder<br />

farmers and the environment.<br />

In terms of livelihoods, organic cotton<br />

improves farmers’ incomes, which are<br />

based on a premium and involve cost<br />

reductions; decreases credit dependency;<br />

and encourages capacity-building on the<br />

ground, thereby generating new local<br />

opportunities for farmers as producers<br />

of natural pesticides and fertilizers.<br />

Organic farming also produces benefits<br />

for the environment, enhancing the use<br />

of local seed diversity, which enables<br />

improved soil health and biodiversity.<br />

When organic farming principles are<br />

followed, the land has improved soil<br />

health, retaining more nutrients, which<br />

enables increased moisture retention.<br />

Organic farming can also help fight climate<br />

change due to using less energy<br />

and reducing greenhouse gas emissions<br />

associated with growth.<br />

Farmers in the FED program recognize<br />

that following organic farming principles<br />

improves the quality of the soil they<br />

cultivate and increases their incomes,<br />

meaning less dependency on financial<br />

institutions.<br />

By 2025, all cotton to be used in our<br />

products will come from sustainable<br />

sources (i.e., it will be organic, BCI cotton,<br />

or recycled).<br />

“<br />

Sustainability is a<br />

never-ending task<br />

in which everyone<br />

here at Inditex<br />

is involved and in<br />

which we are<br />

successfully<br />

engaging all of our<br />

suppliers; we aspire<br />

to playing a<br />

transformational<br />

role in the industry.<br />

Pablo Isla, Executive Chairman<br />

of Inditex, Annual General Meeting<br />

of Shareholders, July 2019<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 105




As a resource-saving economic model, the circular economy offers a sustainable alternative to<br />

previous economic strategies. But it also presents companies with major challenges. Digital<br />

technologies are very promising in this context. In the project DIBICHAIN, the software company<br />

iPoint, in cooperation with industrial partners, is researching how blockchain technology can be<br />

applied to the circular economy.<br />

By Dr. Katie Boehme, iPoint-systems<br />

In times of climate change and increasing<br />

scarcity of resources, sustainable<br />

management is becoming more and<br />

more important. This also means that<br />

companies, in particular, have to rethink<br />

their business approaches. The circular<br />

economy is considered to be particularly<br />

resource-saving, and therefore futureoriented.<br />

The central idea of a circular<br />

economy is the establishment of closed<br />

material cycles: Instead of disposing of<br />

materials or components of products<br />

at the end of their useful lives, they are<br />

returned to biological or technical cycles.<br />

Recycling, dismantling, and reusing are<br />

the main focus; ideally, there is no waste.<br />

This saves valuable resources.<br />

However, the necessary processes of a<br />

circular economy are highly complex and<br />

very challenging for companies. In order<br />

to implement them in a truly sustainable<br />

and efficient manner, it is necessary<br />

to factor in the complete life cycle of a<br />

product or substance. All physical material<br />

flows must be analyzed, evaluated,<br />

and finally interpreted across the entire<br />

product cycle. The collection of data<br />

along the supply chain is also complex<br />

and effortful. An example: A smartphone<br />

contains hundreds of individual parts.<br />

These, in turn, consist of more than<br />

60 different natural resources and materials.<br />

If you want to make the supply<br />

chain completely transparent, you have<br />

to trace every single one of them back<br />

to their point of origin. This is not only<br />

complicated and time-consuming, but<br />

also involves high costs. Another point:<br />

All data collected in the context of the<br />

circular economy and along the supply<br />

chain must be up-to-date, transparent,<br />

and tamper-proof.<br />

Blockchain as key technology<br />

For the software company iPoint-systems,<br />

digital technologies have great potential<br />

in this context. Blockchain is particularly<br />

promising, explains iPoint CEO Joerg<br />

Walden: “We are convinced that blockchain<br />

technology can be of great benefit<br />

for these challenges and for the development<br />

of circular economy systems.<br />

Because with blockchain, information<br />

can be made available to all users of the<br />

106<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

system in a controlled manner, virtually<br />

in real time. The intellectual property of<br />

each individual is still protected, and the<br />

user retains data sovereignty. Only by<br />

consensus can the rules regarding the<br />

visibility of the data be changed. In this<br />

way, virtually everything and everyone<br />

is connected with each other, which<br />

enables completely different innovation<br />

cycles and business models.”<br />

Blockchain not only simplifies the information<br />

flow within the company<br />

and with stakeholders. The data is also<br />

tamper-proof. Once verified, it cannot<br />

be changed or manipulated without the<br />

system noticing and the participants<br />

agreeing. The transaction can be cryptographically<br />

secured. In the blockchain,<br />

data is stored decentrally. This eliminates<br />

dependence on a single server, and several<br />

systems monitor the data flow.<br />

Project DIBICHAIN<br />

So far, however, not enough research<br />

has been conducted on how blockchain<br />

technology can be applied to the circular<br />

economy. In order to change this,<br />

iPoint is participating in the DIBICHAIN<br />

research project with the industrial partners<br />

Altran Deutschland, Blockchain<br />

Research Lab, CHAINSTEP, and Airbus.<br />

The main objective is to investigate the<br />

potential of blockchain for the digital<br />

representation of product cycles –<br />

especially with regard to decentralization,<br />

reliability, and counterfeit protection,<br />

but also carbon footprint, sustainable<br />

production, and recycling. As part of the<br />

German Federal Government’s blockchain<br />

strategy, which was adopted in<br />

September 2019, DIBICHAIN is funded<br />

within the framework of the measure<br />

“Resource-efficient recycling management<br />

– innovative product cycles” (ReziProK)<br />

of the German Federal Ministry of Education<br />

and Research (BMBF). The research<br />

project started in July 2019 and has a<br />

duration of 36 months.<br />

The first step of the DIBICHAIN project<br />

is the development of a software<br />

demonstrator based on blockchain technology<br />

using the example of a bionic<br />

component produced by Airbus. The<br />

project team will use it to evaluate the<br />

suitability of blockchain for the circular<br />

economy. “The evaluation of the developed<br />

demonstrator is intended on the<br />

one hand to develop a knowledge base<br />

for the application of a blockchain for<br />

the circular economy, and on the other<br />

hand to reveal starting points for further<br />

projects in order to tap the full potential<br />

of blockchain and other distributed<br />

ledger technologies in the context of<br />

the circular economy,” says Sebastian<br />

Galindo, Project Manager at iPoint.<br />

Many years of expertise from iPoint<br />

iPoint is supporting the project with important<br />

expertise: “With our constantly<br />

growing ecosystem of 55,000 companies,<br />

iPoint is contributing cutting-edge<br />

technology know-how to the research<br />

project as well as many years of experience<br />

with players, due diligence processes,<br />

and problem solutions in the<br />

downstream area,” says Walden. For the<br />

software company, DIBICHAIN is not the<br />

first research project centered around<br />

blockchain technology. In early 2018,<br />

iPoint launched “SustainBlock,”<br />

a blockchain project in<br />

the area of conflict<br />

materials that makes the supply<br />

chain digitally traceable, and thus<br />

more transparent. The SustainHub<br />

community platform also provides<br />

customers with a software solution for<br />

efficient and simple communication<br />

and data acquisition in the supply chain.<br />

The system can also be used to manage<br />

other compliance requirements in the<br />

environmental, social, and materials<br />

areas, such as the REACH Regulation<br />

(Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation<br />

and Restriction of Chemicals) and the<br />

Restriction of Hazardous Substances<br />

(RoHS) Directive.<br />

Not only customers and project partners<br />

benefit from iPoint’s many years of<br />

experience. With its software solutions<br />

and research projects, iPoint also makes<br />

an important contribution to the UN’s<br />

Sustainable Development Goals. iPoint’s<br />

business model and business portfolio<br />

pay particular attention to both Goal 8<br />

(Decent work and economic growth) and<br />

Goal 12 (Responsible consumption and<br />

production), whereby the DIBICHAIN<br />

project additionally addresses SDGs 13<br />

(Climate action) and 16 (Peace, justice,<br />

and strong institutions).<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 107


Companies are listed in alphabetic order<br />

Arab African International Bank<br />

Audi<br />

BASF<br />

Bayer<br />

Beaulieu International Group<br />

Bosch Group<br />

Business Keeper<br />

CEMEX<br />

Clariant<br />

EDF Group<br />

Elomatic<br />

E.ON<br />

Green Delta Insurance Company<br />

Inditex<br />

iPoint-systems<br />

Solely responsible for the editorial contributions <strong>under</strong> the<br />

heading “Good Practice” are the companies themselves.<br />

Named articles do not reflect the opinions of the publisher.<br />

Knorr-Bremse<br />

K+S<br />


macondo foundation<br />

MAN<br />

Merck<br />

MTU Aero Engines<br />

Netafim<br />

Nomura Group<br />

pervormance international<br />

Philip Morris International<br />

Sakhalin Energy<br />

SAP<br />

Symrise<br />

Vonovia<br />

Wilo Group<br />

110<br />

112<br />

116<br />

Knorr-Bremse<br />

K+S<br />


108<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020


118<br />

macondo foundation<br />

122<br />

MAN<br />

124<br />

Merck<br />

126<br />

MTU Aero Engines<br />

128<br />

Netafim<br />

130<br />

Nomura Group<br />

132<br />

pervormance international<br />

134<br />

Philip Morris International<br />

138<br />

Sakhalin Energy<br />

140<br />

SAP<br />

142<br />

Symrise<br />

144<br />

Vonovia<br />

146<br />

Wilo Group<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 109




Knorr-Bremse is committed to contributing to a more sustainable society. As the global market<br />

leader for braking and other systems for rail and commercial vehicles, we drive forward innovations<br />

for sustainable system solutions in the mobility sector. In doing so, we play a key role in<br />

enhancing safety, efficiency, and reliability on rail tracks and roads around the world – each and<br />

every day. In order to make a positive contribution to the economic, social, and environmental<br />

challenges of our time, we are putting a special focus on 5 of the 17 UN Sustainable Development<br />

Goals that can be influenced by our business. One example is our recently renewed climate<br />

strategy, which contributes to Goal 13 (Climate action).<br />

By Stefan Bräuherr, Knorr-Bremse<br />

For more than 115 years, Knorr-Bremse<br />

has been the industry visionary, driving<br />

innovation in mobility and transportation<br />

technologies with an edge in connected<br />

system solutions. As global market leader,<br />

we see ourselves as a role model and try to<br />

live up to that expectation – in the way<br />

that we do business, as well as with our<br />

products. This is where the UN Sustainable<br />

Development Goals come into play.<br />

In 2018, a two-phase process comprising<br />

“top-down” voting by the top 160 managers<br />

worldwide and a “bottom-up” ballot of<br />

the global workforce culminated in the<br />

selection of five SDGs. Knorr-Bremse sees<br />

Goals 5, 8, 9, 12, and 13 as the areas where<br />

we can make the biggest difference. For<br />

instance, our approach to tackling Goal<br />

13 (Climate action) is holistic: By implementing<br />

our renewed climate strategy<br />

(Scopes 1+2), we are trying to reduce the<br />

environmental footprint of the transportation<br />

industry, and we are continuing and<br />

supporting our own efforts. In the past,<br />

we contributed to emissions reductions<br />

through our energy-efficiency program<br />

and by shifting progressively to generating<br />


–<br />


F R O M 2 0 2 1<br />


CO 2<br />

EMISSIONS BY 2030<br />

Average reduction of Scopes 1<br />

and 2 emissions by 4.2 percent per<br />

annum in relation to the reference year 2018.<br />

Three levers to achieve a reduction:<br />

Energy efficiency<br />

Improvement of<br />

energy efficiency<br />

and switch to<br />

low-carbon fuels<br />

50.4 % CO 2<br />

B Y 2030<br />

– 4.2 %<br />

PER Y EAR 100<br />

%<br />

Renewables own<br />

generation<br />

Gradual increase of<br />

share of own-generated<br />

renewable energy<br />



By further increasing the<br />

proportion of renewable<br />

energy we use above the<br />

4.2 percent target<br />

and, as necessary,<br />

offsetting any<br />

remaining<br />

emissions<br />

Renewables purchase<br />

Expansion of renewable<br />

energy purchasing,<br />

making use of power<br />

purchase agreements,<br />

green energy products<br />

and certificates<br />

The new Climate Strategy 2030, which supersedes the<br />

climate protection objectives set in 2015, represents a true milestone for Knorr-Bremse.<br />

110<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

and procuring renewable energies at all of<br />

our locations. In Germany and Hungary,<br />

we are already at 100 percent. The SDGs<br />

provide valuable guidance for the strategic<br />

roadmap that will take us there.<br />

Commitment to carbon neutrality<br />

from 2021 onward<br />

Reducing the environmental impact of<br />

our production processes by using energy<br />

more efficiently is a key aspect of<br />

our approach. The new Climate Strategy<br />

2030, which supersedes the climate protection<br />

objectives set in 2015, represents<br />

a true milestone for Knorr-Bremse. In<br />

our climate strategy formulated in 2015,<br />

Knorr-Bremse committed itself to achieving<br />

climate-neutral, organic growth by<br />

2020 at its 43 most energy-intensive sites.<br />

With our new climate strategy, we have<br />

set the ambitious target of cutting our<br />

locations’ CO 2<br />

emissions by 50 percent<br />

by 2030 at the latest. In our view, we can<br />

achieve the most by focusing strongly on<br />

CO 2<br />

reduction – to contribute to more<br />

climate-friendly mobility.<br />

To achieve the goal of halving our CO 2<br />

emissions by 2030, we are working on<br />

the energy efficiency of our production,<br />

using more self-generated renewable<br />

energy, and expanding the purchasing<br />

of renewable energy as a whole. This<br />

goal is based on the Scopes 1 and 2<br />

requirements of the Science Based Targets<br />

initiative to follow a 1.5°C reduction<br />

pathway. We also want to go one step<br />

further: Knorr-Bremse has pledged to<br />

make all of its sites carbon neutral from<br />

2021 onward by maximizing the share<br />

of renewable energy and offsetting the<br />

remaining emissions. In fact, with this<br />

climate strategy, Knorr-Bremse wants to<br />

contribute to achieving the goals of the<br />

Paris Agreement.<br />

Contributing to the SDGs –<br />

an imperative for every global player<br />

Stefan Bräuherr,<br />

Head of Corporate<br />

Responsibility at<br />

Knorr-Bremse,<br />

signed the Climate<br />

Pact² in October<br />

2019.<br />

Knorr-Bremse can and will play an active<br />

part in making our environment more<br />

sustainable. Our products and systems<br />

are destined to become the mobility solutions<br />

of the future. Their competitive<br />

edge today is in part due to our customers’<br />

demands for more sophisticated solutions,<br />

focused on safety and customer benefit<br />

as well as on sustainability. Employees’<br />

and society’s expectations regarding sustainable<br />

industries are steadily increasing<br />

– and we always aim to surpass<br />

them. In fact, Knorr-Bremse already offers<br />

solutions to the challenges ahead of<br />

us, which puts the company in a strong<br />

competitive position and makes it attractive<br />

to investors and employees. We<br />

are making a large contribution to more<br />

environmentally friendly products and<br />

have structures and processes in place<br />

that are designed to optimize the way<br />

we use energy and materials, thus reducing<br />

potential negative effects for the<br />

environment and society. The action we<br />

are taking in this area is guided by Goal 9<br />

for sustainable industry, innovation, and<br />

infrastructure, and Goal 12 for sustainable<br />

consumption. We want to further<br />

develop sustainability and make it a decisive<br />

factor in our technological leadership<br />

and market position. Our products and<br />

systems for rail transportation form an<br />

intrinsic part of climate-friendly mobility<br />

solutions due to weight-reduction and<br />

energy-efficiency measures. This applies<br />

equally to commercial vehicle solutions,<br />

where we were early to realign all our<br />

product development activities toward<br />

efficiency and low-energy consumption.<br />

Always a step ahead – hybrid<br />

transformation for rail vehicles<br />

Rail transportation plays a key role in<br />

the mobility of the future. However, in<br />

some places it is hard to electrify stretches<br />

of track for rail vehicles. Kiepe Electric,<br />

a subsidiary of Knorr-Bremse, has been<br />

working on affordable and immediately<br />

available alternative drive systems for<br />

diesel multiple units. Kiepe has developed<br />

a modular concept for mild and full<br />

hybrids with a range of modules with<br />

which to supplement existing diesel propulsion<br />

systems – including batteries.<br />

Full-hybrid trains with diesel engines and<br />

transformers for operating in overhead<br />

mode can be upgraded using traction<br />

batteries with a capacity of 300 kWh or<br />

more. And diesel trains with hybrid capability<br />

can be upgraded to mild-hybrid<br />

units. In this respect, Kiepe provides integral<br />

modular systems expertise that can<br />

achieve energy savings of up to 25 percent.<br />

Conscious use of resources –<br />

remanufacturing helps to conserve<br />

raw materials<br />

The industrial reconditioning of old and<br />

used products is an important part of<br />

Knorr-Bremse’s business. What is known<br />

as “overhaul” in the rail division is called<br />

“remanufacturing” in the truck division.<br />

At Knorr-Bremse’s truck site in Liberec,<br />

Czech Republic, the benefits of this procedure<br />

can be seen in huge numbers on<br />

the board at the factory gate: 1.9 million<br />

kg of CO 2<br />

, 7.9 million kWh of energy, and<br />

more than half a million kilos of material<br />

were saved through remanufacturing last<br />

year. The raw materials used in the electronic<br />

components of commercial vehicle<br />

brakes – rare earths, gold, and silver –<br />

get a new lease of life. Remanufacturing<br />

is a huge factor in making our company<br />

more sustainable. Simultaneously, it provides<br />

our development engineers with<br />

valuable information about real-world<br />

wear and tear and the damage sustained<br />

by various parts. It is therefore just one<br />

more example of how Knorr-Bremse aims<br />

to make tomorrow’s mobility safe and<br />

sustainable at the same time.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 111




Minimizing the impact on nature of activities associated with the extraction and processing of<br />

raw materials is a group-wide goal at K+S. We act by reducing the piling of solid waste from<br />

potash mining and the related formation of brine solution. Our long history of developing<br />

solutions to deal with the formation of brine solution from potash tailings piles has made us an<br />

expert in this field. By combining our expertise with an innovative crowdsourcing initiative, K+S<br />

collaborated with the public and searched for new approaches. We called this initiative the K+S<br />

Brine Challenge.<br />

By Dr. Arne Schmeisky and Janina Beduhn, K+S<br />

By using modern technology and crowd<br />

intelligence, new approaches and better<br />

solutions for overcoming different problems<br />

can be found. In the case of the “K+S<br />

Brine Challenge,” it was all about finding<br />

ways to address inevitable tailings from<br />

mining potash. In line with Sustainable<br />

Development Goal 17 (“Strengthen the<br />

means of implementation and revitalize<br />

the global partnership for sustainable<br />

development”), people from all over the<br />

world took part in a contest to find solutions<br />

to protect bodies of water. The approach<br />

led to a more innovative way of<br />

working together and used the “wisdom of<br />

many” to improve K+S’s tailings covering<br />

systems. K+S offered global partnerships<br />

to improve the impact on bodies of water<br />

and ensure a transfer of knowledge<br />

between multiple stakeholders.<br />

Reducing the impact on water caused<br />

by potash mining<br />

Mining is known to have a high impact<br />

on water by either consuming a lot of<br />

water or by using bodies of water to<br />

discharge wastewater. Potash mining is<br />

no exception concerning water consumption,<br />

since all potash mining companies<br />

have to cope with solid and liquid tailings<br />

that accumulate during mining and<br />

production processes. The best available<br />

technique to dispose of large amounts<br />

of solid tailings in the potash mining<br />

sector is to dump it onto tailings piles,<br />

which consist mainly of sodium chloride.<br />

Since these tailings are out in the open,<br />

rainfall, combined with the salt tailings,<br />

results in a brine solution that needs<br />

to be disposed of. This brine solution,<br />

together with other liquid wastes from<br />

production processes, is usually disposed<br />

of in one of two different ways, through<br />

deep-well injections or discharged into<br />

surface waters such as rivers and oceans.<br />

Depending on the size of the river and<br />

the amount of wastewater that needs to<br />

be disposed of, this technique might affect<br />

the total concentration of salt within<br />

the river. To keep the effect on aquatic<br />

life as well as the ecosystem of the river<br />

to a minimum, K+S is developing new<br />

techniques to minimize the buildup<br />

of wastewater during the production<br />

processes as well as at the sites of the<br />

tailings piles.<br />

To make a measurable contribution toward<br />

achieving the Sustainable Development<br />

Goals (SDGs), K+S wants to keep the<br />

amount of its solid residue from potash<br />

mining to a minimum and further limit<br />

the formation of salt water by covering<br />

the tailings. We promote the efficient<br />

use of natural resources and the avoidance<br />

of waste (Targets 12.2 and 12.5), as<br />

well as the sustainable use of land and<br />

inland freshwater ecosystems (Target<br />

15.1). We have also set ourselves the<br />

following targets:<br />

• From 2030 onward, it will be possible<br />

for up to 3 million metric tons of residues<br />

to be used for purposes other than<br />

112<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

ainfall<br />

collected brine<br />

solution<br />

collected brine<br />

solution<br />

tailings pile<br />

tailings pile<br />

collecting ditch<br />

collecting ditch<br />

being deposited onto tailings piles. In<br />

this regard, there are plans for finding<br />

alternative uses for tailings pile material<br />

and preventing residues.<br />

• By 2030, an additional 155 hectares of<br />

tailings piles will be covered to further<br />

reduce or prevent tailings pile runoff.<br />

Covering of tailings piles as a viable<br />

solution<br />

The central aspect of reducing the formation<br />

of brine is to use different methods<br />

to cover the piles and prevent rainfall<br />

from coming into contact with the salt<br />

tailings. Over the past few decades, K+S<br />

has developed several techniques to<br />

cover the tailings piles and prevent most<br />

of the rainfall from dissolving the salt<br />

tailings. The idea is that water is stored<br />

within a covering layer and evaporates<br />

over time. Different methods for covering<br />

with and without vegetation have<br />

been tested and implemented, depending<br />

on the properties of the respective<br />

site, such as size, height, geological conditions,<br />

location of the piles, and so on.<br />

Using covering techniques to minimize<br />

the environmental impact is state of<br />

the art in the management of waste<br />

dumps and landfills; however, it is not<br />

common in the field of potash mining.<br />

These techniques cannot simply<br />

be transferred to tailings piles due to<br />

the size and the properties of these salt<br />

deposits. Years of experience as well<br />

as many research and development<br />

projects have made K+S the leading<br />

expert in the field of covering potash<br />

tailings piles. The expertise has been<br />

gathered through collaboration with<br />

many experts working in the fields<br />

of statics, construction, geology, and<br />

biology, among others.<br />

To get new inspiration, to raise awareness,<br />

and to include a broader spectrum<br />

of experts, K+S chose to pursue an innovative<br />

crowdsourcing approach. >><br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 113


In the context of its strategic sustainability program, the K+S Group also takes the SDGs into account. In principle, the<br />

SDGs are on an equal footing. However, because of our focus as a producer of raw mineral materials, we exert a<br />

stronger influence on some SDGs than on others. Impacts occur within the K+S value chain and on a product level.<br />

Reducing water impacts from extraction and production: The extraction and production of our potash and raw salt<br />

materials are associated with high levels of water usage. Therefore, K+S has set itself ambitious environmental goals<br />

and closely monitors its progress to achieving these goals. We promote the efficient use of natural resources and the<br />

avoidance of waste (Targets 12.2 and 12.5) as well as the sustainable use of land and inland freshwater ecosystems<br />

(Target 15.1).<br />

Fostering employee engagement on water management: In addition to the strategic activities of the company, we<br />

value the commitment of all employees and encourage them to act responsibly. At our European sites, we strongly<br />

support the “TuDu’s” campaign and its English equivalent, the “Good Life Goals,” which is named with regard to the<br />

SDGs. We call on all employees to submit ideas that promote the sustainability of K+S via our online ideas management.<br />

Naturally, this includes ideas on sustainable water management.<br />

Collaborating for water protection: In line with<br />

Goal 17, we enter into global partnerships<br />

at the project level to improve our<br />

impact on water protection.<br />

A prominent example is our<br />

recent crowdsourcing<br />

challenge to reduce saline<br />

wastewater from<br />

tailings: the “K+S Brine<br />

Challenge.”<br />

Saving water<br />

through the use<br />

of products:<br />

With our range<br />

of mineral<br />

fertilizers and<br />

the development<br />

of<br />

systemic<br />

solutions, K+S<br />

makes a<br />

significant<br />

contribution to<br />

fertile soils and<br />

the nutrition of a<br />

growing world<br />

population: Goal 2 (No<br />

hunger). Additionally,<br />

our fertigation products<br />

enable a precise application<br />

of the water-soluble fertilizers<br />

through an irrigation system.<br />

Business Ethics<br />

Health &<br />

Safety<br />

Compliance &<br />

Anti-Corruption<br />

Sustainable<br />

Supply Chains<br />

Energy &<br />

Climate<br />

People<br />

Diversity &<br />

Inclusion<br />

Waste<br />

Human<br />

Rights<br />

Water<br />

Environment<br />

114<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

Crowdsourcing discovers the<br />

“wisdom of many”<br />

Crowdsourcing is an innovative way to<br />

create solutions to problems by asking<br />

participants from all over the world for<br />

their input in an idea competition. This<br />

is done with an internet platform where<br />

people can register as problem-solvers.<br />

The problems are described by the respective<br />

companies and the requirements and<br />

limitations for valid solutions are stated<br />

in a so-called challenge. The problemsolver<br />

can hand in their ideas, which are<br />

then evaluated by the platform provider<br />

and the company looking for a solution.<br />

The best ideas are awarded a prize.<br />

The advantage of using an established<br />

crowdsourcing platform is that the community<br />

of registered problem-solvers of<br />

the platform is addressed, and anyone in<br />

the world with internet access can join<br />

the challenge as well. Registered users log<br />

in as experts for a certain field, allowing<br />

the crowdsourcing provider to forward<br />

their challenges to the relevant users.<br />

However, addressing non-experts via<br />

social media is also an option and opens<br />

the challenge up to an even broader<br />

audience.<br />

The K+S Brine Challenge as an enabler<br />

for sustainable innovation<br />

Usually, crowdsourcing covers a broad<br />

variety of technical problems. The idea<br />

is to find solutions for defined problems.<br />

Today, crowdsourcing is used more and<br />

more to address environmental and sustainability<br />

issues in addition to technical<br />

questions. To approach the issue of<br />

minimizing brine formation from the<br />


9<br />

months<br />

18<br />

K+S departments<br />

2<br />

external jurors<br />

tailings piles, K+S combined a technical<br />

with an environmental question in the<br />

Brine Challenge crowdsourcing project.<br />

The challenge went as follows:<br />

1. Raising the question: The K+S Brine<br />

Challenge crowdsourcing project focused<br />

on “How can K+S reduce the<br />

brine formation at the tailings piles?”<br />

2. Defining the challenge: The challenge<br />

had to be defined with a short and<br />

clear description of the background<br />

that covered technical facts such as<br />

the height, composition, and location<br />

of the tailings piles. Apart from<br />

the technical facts, the problem itself<br />

– rainfall leading to the solution of<br />

salt, creating brine that needs to be<br />

disposed of – had to be an essential<br />

part of the challenge description.<br />

3. Informing on the state of science:<br />

Since several technical solutions for<br />

covering tailings piles already existed<br />

and the aim of the Brine Challenge<br />

was to create new solutions, these<br />

current methods were added to the<br />

background information of the challenge.<br />

Solutions for the problem that<br />

had been tested before, but had failed,<br />

were described in the background<br />

information to prevent solution providers<br />

from turning in similar ideas.<br />

The contents for the challenge were<br />

developed together with different<br />

teams of K+S and the crowdsourcing<br />

provider.<br />

4. Setting up an online platform: The<br />

challenge was set up on a microsite<br />

on the crowdsourcing platform and<br />

made accessible to the public over a<br />

44<br />

ideas<br />

12<br />

countries<br />

2<br />

winners<br />

period of three months. The participants<br />

had access to the background<br />

information and were able to create<br />

a draft for their solution. A midterm<br />

Q&A session with K+S experts gave the<br />

participants the chance to ask specific<br />

questions for additional background<br />

information.<br />

5. Evaluating the ideas: After the challenge<br />

was closed, the submitted solutions<br />

first went through a compliance<br />

check by the crowdsourcing provider.<br />

The ideas were then evaluated by K+S<br />

experts and finally by a jury of K+S<br />

experts and two university professors.<br />

44 ideas and two promising<br />

solutions<br />

A total of 44 ideas were submitted for<br />

the Brine Challenge, offering a wide variety<br />

of solutions. Covering tailings piles<br />

is a topic that requires a lot of insight<br />

into topics such as geology, construction,<br />

materials, processes, and biology,<br />

so finding a solution is quite difficult.<br />

Because of the complexity, none of the<br />

submitted ideas proposed a totally new<br />

and viable covering system, mainly due<br />

to technical limitations.<br />

However, two ideas were identified as<br />

having the potential to improve the<br />

already existing covering systems. So<br />

the Brine Challenge was able to verify<br />

that the current systems in place are<br />

state of the art. The two winning ideas<br />

will continue to be tested to see if the<br />

incorporation into any of the existing<br />

covering systems is technically and economically<br />

feasible.<br />

This project showed that by combining<br />

company knowledge with crowd intelligence,<br />

new ideas that might improve<br />

existing processes are generated. By using<br />

a crowdsourcing approach for environmental<br />

issues, companies are able to<br />

raise awareness of different challenges,<br />

thereby creating support for existing<br />

solutions to problems and, in the best<br />

case, being able to create new technologies<br />

for a better future.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 115




Sustainability and climate protection are the central challenges of our time. KYOCERA is<br />

working on making document management processes more digital, ecological, and economical.<br />

By Annette Neth, KYOCERA<br />

Since the company was founded in 1959,<br />

the sustainable use of resources has<br />

been firmly anchored in the company<br />

and product philosophy. The foundation<br />

stone for this was laid by Group fo<strong>under</strong><br />

Dr. Kazuo Inamori, who sees respectful<br />

treatment of nature and love for people<br />

as the basis for entrepreneurial action:<br />

Respect the divine and love people.<br />

According to Dr. Inamori, a company<br />

must not only act in a social but also in<br />

an environmentally friendly manner.<br />

Technology and responsibility for people<br />

and the environment are inseparable.<br />

Accordingly, the entire KYOCERA Group<br />

is committed to the goals of sustainable<br />

corporate development and climate<br />

protection.<br />

KYOCERA has been named a “Supplier<br />

Engagement Leader” by CDP, an international<br />

non-profit organization. The<br />

reason for the award is the company’s<br />

initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions<br />

throughout its supply chain. The<br />

Kyocera Group has set itself the goal of<br />

reducing greenhouse gas emissions – including<br />

internal emissions and emissions<br />

116<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

from its supply chain – by 30 percent<br />

by March 31, 2030, compared to levels<br />

from fiscal year 2013.<br />

In Germany and Austria, the company’s<br />

climate protection strategy also includes<br />

the climate-neutralization of products<br />

through “Product Carbon Footprints.”<br />

Kyocera Germany has been the only<br />

manufacturer to offer all customers only<br />

climate-neutral original toner since 2013.<br />

The hardware has also long since been<br />

made CO 2<br />

-neutral by compensating for<br />

all CO 2<br />

emissions that arise from the<br />

extraction of raw materials, production,<br />

transport, and recycling. In total,<br />

Kyocera has saved well over 260,000<br />

metric tons of CO 2<br />

.<br />

Kyocera offsets this amount by investing<br />

in three international climate protection<br />

projects. All projects have been awarded<br />

the Gold Standard. This guarantees<br />

that not only is a contribution made to<br />

climate protection, but that the living<br />

conditions of people in the regions are<br />

also improved in the long term.<br />

In addition to the cooker project in Kenya,<br />

the Kyocera Print Green program also<br />

promotes the installation of biogas plants<br />

in Nepal, which allow for cooking with<br />

biogas instead of firewood, and the construction<br />

and sale of climate-friendly<br />

solar cookers in Madagascar to counteract<br />

deforestation on the ground.<br />

With ECOSYS technology, Kyocera printers<br />

use toner as their only consumable<br />

– unlike the competition. This is<br />

achieved by using particularly durable<br />

components that remain in the system<br />

throughout the product’s life. The result:<br />

up to 75 percent less waste compared to<br />

other manufacturers.<br />

Our participation in the Alliance for Development and Climate<br />

makes us proud and is an important incentive to continue our<br />

commitment to sustainability.<br />

With our philosophy, we are working to promote our social<br />

commitment, build relationships of mutual trust, and strive for<br />

sustainable growth. At the same time, KYOCERA strives to contribute<br />

to the healthy development of society.<br />

We have been successful with our PRINT GREEN program since 2013.<br />

We are pleased that we have been supporting great climate protection<br />

projects since then and, of course, that our climate-neutral products<br />

are so well received by customers and partners.<br />

Daniela Matysiak, Environmental and CSR Manager<br />

“at KYOCERA Document Solutions Germany<br />

As part of its commitment to climate<br />

protection, Kyocera has made the Corporate<br />

Carbon Footprint 2020 climate<br />

neutral for the German sales company.<br />

To this end, the CO 2<br />

footprint of Kyocera<br />

Document Solutions Deutschland GmbH<br />

was first calculated using the official<br />

guidelines of the “Greenhouse Gas Protocol,”<br />

according to which both direct<br />

and indirect emissions are considered.<br />

In addition to the strategic expansion of<br />

its own commitment to climate protection,<br />

Kyocera is working with other companies,<br />

NGOs, and ministries on various<br />

initiatives to anchor the topic of climate<br />

protection more firmly in German business<br />

and to promote it, for example<br />

in “Business does climate protection”<br />

and in the Alliance for Development<br />

and Climate, which was initiated by the<br />

German Federal Ministry for Economic<br />

Cooperation and Development and focuses<br />

on avoidance, reduction, and compensation.<br />

In the “Business does climate<br />

protection” dialogue forum, Kyocera is<br />

working with other German companies<br />

to develop solutions and guidelines as<br />

well as offer support to further promote<br />

climate awareness and sustainability in<br />

German companies.<br />

Kyocera is also involved in environmental<br />

and species protection. To this end,<br />

the document management provider<br />

is cooperating with the Beefuture bee<br />

initiative and is giving three colonies at<br />

its Meerbusch site a new home. This is<br />

because about half of the bee species that<br />

live in Germany are threatened. More<br />

than 80 percent of the native flowering<br />

plants depend on the pollination of bees.<br />

The consequences for the ecosystem<br />

would be devastating. Sustainability<br />

has always played a major role in the<br />

Kyocera Group.<br />

For more than 30 years, the company has<br />

been a partner of Deutsche Umwelthilfe<br />

and has received several awards for its<br />

commitment. The settlement of the bee<br />

colonies makes a valuable contribution<br />

to the protection of species. Kyocera<br />

is thus sending out a clear signal and<br />

making its contribution to the preservation<br />

of biological diversity. Over the<br />

year, Kyocera bees produce around 45<br />

kilograms of honey, which is given to<br />

the employees as a gift.<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 117



The ESG Stress Test helps regions to <strong>under</strong>stand the full spectrum of environmental-, social-,<br />

and governance-related risks and to manage and disclose them effectively.<br />

By Dr. Elmer Lenzen, macondo foundation<br />

What?<br />

The ESG Stress Test is a public–private<br />

partnership (PPP) initiative to promote<br />

both technological innovation and<br />

sustainable development. We support<br />

regional governments and their local<br />

industries in testing their highly complex<br />

supply chains against ESG criteria,<br />

thereby making them more resilient. In<br />

addition to digital data collection and<br />

evaluation (including AI technologies),<br />

capacity-building and trainings improve<br />

the quality of cooperation between social<br />

and business partners. The direct usability<br />

of the results is an essential goal:<br />

The ESG Stress Test is a practical answer<br />

to the needs of the Paris Climate Accord<br />

and the UN Sustainable Development<br />

Goals (SDGs).<br />

The technological architecture is<br />

based on the award-winning software<br />

CSRmanager – a comprehensive webbased<br />

solution for sustainability, climate,<br />

and risk management. Automated data<br />

collection, consolidation, reporting, and<br />

management capabilities make disclosure<br />

and controlling efficient, accurate,<br />

and intuitive.<br />

Why?<br />

Extreme weather events, intolerable<br />

working conditions, risks of human<br />

rights violations, the use of hazardous<br />

substances, etc. – sustainability is no<br />

longer a niche issue but an important<br />

reality in everyday business (see the WEF<br />

Global Risks Report 2019). It names central<br />

risks, but also opportunities in the<br />

value- creation process. No wonder that<br />

legislators, investors, consumers, and<br />

procurers of larger companies are paying<br />

more attention to compliance with<br />

environmental, human, and labor rights<br />

118<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

as well as questions of good corporate<br />

governance. Experts use the expression<br />

of so-called ESG (environmental, social<br />

and governance) criteria.<br />

In a globalized world with highly complex<br />

levels of production, compliance<br />

with these ESG criteria is becoming increasingly<br />

challenging and, at the same<br />

time, more critical for each company:<br />

The more that production steps and processes<br />

are relocated to the supply chains,<br />

the more that risks are outsourced. Digitalization<br />

and political uncertainties<br />

aggravate this development.<br />

for such reports is increasing both in<br />

terms of quality and scope: In a recent<br />

statement, European Commission Executive<br />

Vice-President Valdis Dombrovskis<br />

provided details on the implementation<br />

of the Green Deal Investment Plan –<br />

including strengthening sustainability<br />

reporting by companies. He set out<br />

that the EU’s Non-Financial Reporting<br />

Directive is to be reviewed, and the EU<br />

will establish “clear reporting standards”<br />

to “scale up sustainable finance at the<br />

level that the world needs”. >><br />

Entities – including businesses, governments,<br />

and nonprofits – therefore face a<br />

rapidly evolving landscape of ESG-related<br />

risks that can impact their profitability,<br />

success, and even survival. Given the<br />

unique impacts and dependencies of<br />

ESG-related risks, sustainability expert<br />

macondo publishing has launched a<br />

public–private partnership initiative<br />

to develop digital platforms that help<br />

organizations better <strong>under</strong>- stand the full<br />

spectrum of these risks and to manage<br />

and disclose them effectively.<br />

Drivers<br />

To measure corporate sustainability and<br />

make it transparent, companies prepare<br />

appropriate reports. The legal obligation<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020 119

Reporting at regional level is becoming<br />

more difficult: The OECD is helping<br />

to guide local and regional leaders in<br />

developing policy approaches and action<br />

plans to localise the SDGs. What<br />

is lacking is a concrete instrument to<br />

address these drivers on the part of<br />

policymakers (e.g. the EU) and regional<br />

actors (e.g. the OECD). Our project approach<br />

comes into play at exactly this<br />

point.<br />

How?<br />

1. You are a city, a regional government,<br />

a business association or a large<br />

company with international supply<br />

chains.<br />

2. You want to test crucial parts of your<br />

business/your economic area for their<br />

resilience in the light of different<br />

crisis scenarios.<br />

3. You work together with us on the<br />

implementation of the ESG stress<br />

test. Results and findings must made<br />

available to the general public and<br />

academic purposes.<br />

1.<br />

Risk-management<br />

2.<br />

framework 1<br />

Data mining and<br />

referent standards 2<br />

Governance and<br />

culture for<br />

ESG-related risks<br />

Strategy and<br />

objective-setting for<br />

ESG-related risks<br />

Information, communication,<br />

and<br />

reporting for ESGrelated<br />

risks<br />

Performance for<br />

ESG-related risks<br />

Review and<br />

revision for ESGrelated<br />

risks<br />

Connecting the business context and strategy to risk identification<br />

means <strong>under</strong>standing of internal and external challenges<br />

like climate change and other megatrends, SWOT analysis<br />

and impact and dependency mapping among others.<br />

Risk identification by working with KPIs and international<br />

reporting standards – this is the starting point for threats or<br />

opportunities to achieving strategy and business objectives.<br />

1<br />

COSO/WBCSD: Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) framework,<br />

Oct. 2018<br />

2<br />

Global Reporting Initiative Standards S2016, ISO 14001:2015-11, ISO<br />

50001:2011, EMAS III, ISO/DIS 45001.2:2017, UNGC Organisational Capacity<br />

Assessment Instrument (OCAI), HR Reporting and Assurance Framework<br />

Initiative (RAFI), SA8000:2014, EN ISO 9001:2015, ISO 26000 CR, EFFAS/<br />

DVFA ESG-KPI Scope1, Greenhouse Gas Protocol: SCOPE 1 & 2<br />

120<br />

Global Goals Yearbook 2020

4. You are responsible for<br />

a) ESG training with local partners,<br />

b) translation into local languages where<br />

necessary,<br />

c) obtaining a sufficient number<br />

of firms to generate meaningful data.<br />

5. The participating companies<br />

a) get full access to the benchmark<br />

data generated in the project<br />

b) receive a detailed written analysis<br />

of their test results<br />

c) pay a small one-time fee<br />


macondo foundation<br />

Dr. Elmer Lenzen, Chair<br />

mail@macondo-foundation.org<br />

Dahlweg 87<br />

D - 48153 Münster, Germany<br />

3.<br />

Projection of<br />

4.<br />

scenarios 3 Scenarios 4<br />

Community<br />

involvement<br />

Discrimination<br />

Human Rights<br />

Employee Rights<br />

Human health and safety<br />

3<br />

Climate Action<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

Wages, benefits,<br />

pensions<br />

Affordable and<br />