issue 01/2022

Highlights: Automotive Foam Basics: Biodegradation

Basics: Biodegradation


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Bioplastics - CO 2<br />

-based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

Vol. 17<br />

Cover Story<br />

The Bioconcept-Car<br />

of 2007 has now three<br />

new siblings | 30<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Jan/Feb <strong>01</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />

2007<br />

Highlights<br />

Automotive | 18<br />

Foam | 36<br />

Basics<br />

Biodegradation | 50<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

ISSN 1862-5258




With its new “BIO variant” PUSTEFIX offers a sustainable alternative<br />

to its traditional bubble bottle. PUSTEFIX trusts on closures made of<br />

bio-based I’m green Polyethylene in combination with a bottle made<br />

Bio-Flex ® . The injection-moldable Bio-Flex ® used for the bottle is characterized<br />

by a balanced ratio of stiffness and toughness combined with a good<br />

flow-ability and processability. In terms of strength, stability and weight,<br />

the Pustefix “BIO variant” can easily compete with those made from<br />

fossil plastics. An all-round successful "green message in a bottle" for<br />

dazzling soap bubbles that simply last longer. Let us show you how<br />

FKuR bioplastics and recyclates support you on your way to a<br />

circular economy.

dear<br />

Editorial<br />

readers<br />

Alex Thielen, Michael Thielen<br />

With the current cover, we are taking a small trip down memory lane –<br />

15 years ago we had our first <strong>issue</strong> featuring automotive applications and<br />

have since made it a tradition to kick off the new year with everything new<br />

and innovative in and around bioplastics in cars. Looking back at the first<br />

Bioconcept-Car from 2007 makes me realize how much has changed.<br />

Back then they were just like us, “crazy dreamers” thinking this whole<br />

bio-thing has a shot in our all too often “bottom-line driven” world. Now,<br />

15 years later they have three Bioconcept-Cars proving on the track how<br />

competitive bio-materials really are. However, they are not alone anymore<br />

as more and more big car brands are including biobased materials.<br />

One of them is Mercedes-Benz with their ambitious VISION EQXX an<br />

electrical vehicle that uses bioplastics for both interior design as well as<br />

technically demanding parts. Turns out, the crazy dreamers were right<br />

“going bio” – or better “going renewable” – has become a normal, even<br />

desirable choice for many in and outside the automotive industry.<br />

Bioplastics - CO 2<br />

-based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

Jan/Feb <strong>01</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />

Our second focus point is almost as much a tradition as the first,<br />

Foam. Here we have new developments in both the fields of bioplastics<br />

and chemical recycling. But that is not all, we have an interesting<br />

look at Biodegradability in our Basics section as it is (sadly) a topic<br />

often misunderstood or misrepresented. Last but not least we talk<br />

about a topic that is important for everybody doing anything with<br />

bioplastics – LCAs. Those of you that were at the European Bioplastics<br />

Conference last year will know about the current debate about the LCA<br />

methodology the Joint Research Centre (JRC) developed for the European<br />

Commission – and the controversy around it. If you haven’t heard of it and<br />

are wondering what this is all about, the answer is 42.<br />

Vol. 17<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

2007<br />

Highlights<br />

Automotive | 18<br />

Foam | 36<br />

Basics<br />

Biodegradation | 50<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Even if our conference season starts with a purely digital bio!PAC on<br />

March 15 + 16, we desperately hope to meet you in person at our<br />

7 th PLA World Congress on May 24 + 25 in Munich, Germany. And for<br />

October we are already getting excited about the upcoming K-show and our<br />

Bioplastics Business Breakfast.<br />

Follow us on twitter!<br />

www.twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Until then, we hope you all got good into the new year, let’s hope it will be<br />

better than the last. Stay healthy, stay crazy, keep dreaming.<br />

Yours sincerely<br />

Like us on Facebook!<br />

www.facebook.com/bioplasticsmagazine<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 3

Imprint<br />

Content<br />

34 Porsche launches cars with biocomposites<br />

32 Bacteriostatic PLA compound for 3D printingz<br />

Jan/Feb <strong>01</strong>|<strong>2022</strong><br />

3 Editorial<br />

5 News<br />

45 Application News<br />

30 Cover Story<br />

50 Basics<br />

53 10 years ago<br />

54 Suppliers Guide<br />

58 Companies in this <strong>issue</strong><br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr. Michael Thielen (MT)<br />

Alex Thielen (AT)<br />

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Samsales (German language)<br />

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467<br />

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468<br />

sb@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Michael Thielen (English Language)<br />

(see head office)<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Kerstin Neumeister<br />

Print<br />

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.<br />

1004 Riga, Latvia<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

bioplastics magazine<br />

Volume 17 - <strong>2022</strong><br />

Events<br />

9 European Bioplastics Conferene 2021<br />

14 bio!PAC <strong>2022</strong><br />

16 Chinaplas <strong>2022</strong><br />

17 7 th PLA World Congress<br />

Automotive<br />

18 Bio-PA composites<br />

20 Lightweight biobased cellulose<br />

reinforcement for automotive applications<br />

22 Tyre News<br />

23 BIOMOTIVE<br />

24 Automotive Bioplastics Market<br />

26 Why cycle when you could travel in style?<br />

28 Sustainable materials in high-end luxury car<br />

34 Car headliner from plastic waste and old tyres<br />

Cover Story<br />

30 The Bioconcept Car has 3 new siblings<br />

Award<br />

12 And the winner is ...<br />

Foam<br />

36 Mattress recycling now a reality<br />

38 PHBH foam products<br />

Materials<br />

39 New 3D printing powder for<br />

the food industry<br />

Processing<br />

40 Extrusion lines for natural<br />

fibre waste<br />

41 PLA crystallisation and drying<br />

Opinion<br />

42 The new JRC’s “Plastics LCA<br />

method” already needs an update<br />

Basics<br />

50 Biodegradation<br />

One concept - many nuances<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bM is published 6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified subscribers<br />

(169 Euro for 6 <strong>issue</strong>s).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in<br />

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published, but Polymedia Publisher<br />

cannot accept responsibility for any errors<br />

or omissions or for any losses that may<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE, or on the website<br />

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covered by copyright. No part of this<br />

publication may be reproduced, copied,<br />

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Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions<br />

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accepted on the basis of full assignment<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

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information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Envelopes<br />

A part of this print run is mailed to the<br />

readers wrapped bioplastic envelopes<br />

sponsored by Sidaplax/Plastic Suppliers<br />

(Belgium/USA)<br />

Cover<br />

Michael Thielen, from cover shooting for<br />

<strong>issue</strong> <strong>01</strong>/2007<br />

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Bio-based acrylonitrile<br />

for carbon fibers<br />

Solvay (Brussels, Belgium) and Trillium<br />

Renewable Chemicals (Knoxville, Tennesse, USA)<br />

have signed a letter of intent to develop the supply<br />

chain for biobased acrylonitrile (bio-ACN). Trillium<br />

will supply Solvay with bio-ACN from Trillium’s<br />

planned commercial asset, and Solvay will evaluate<br />

bio-ACN for carbon fibre manufacturing as part of its<br />

long-term commitment to developing sustainable<br />

solutions from biobased or recycled sources. The<br />

aim of this partnership is to produce carbon fibre<br />

for use in various applications such as aerospace,<br />

automotive, energy, and consumer goods.<br />

Acrylonitrile is a chemical intermediate typically<br />

made from petroleum-based feedstocks like<br />

propylene and is the primary raw material used<br />

in the production of carbon fibre. Trillium’s Bio-<br />

ACN process delivers acrylonitrile from plantbased<br />

feedstocks like glycerol with a lower carbon<br />

footprint.<br />

“We are thrilled to be partnering with Trillium<br />

which aligns well with our Solvay One Planet<br />

commitment to more than double our revenue<br />

based on renewable or recycled materials by 2030,”<br />

comments Stephen Heinz, head of composite<br />

research & innovation, Solvay. “Innovation<br />

partnerships such as this are driven by a desire to<br />

make a real-world sustainability impact. Biobased<br />

feedstocks are a key part of Solvay’s sustainability<br />

strategy, and we look forward to being a consumer of<br />

bio-ACN from Trillium’s first biobased acrylonitrile<br />

plant.”<br />

“Trillium’s bio-ACN process technology enables<br />

bio-carbon fibre,” explains Corey Tyree, CEO of<br />

Trillium. “We are excited to continue our partnership<br />

with Solvay, who have supported the bio-ACN<br />

process technology development since 2<strong>01</strong>4. Solvay<br />

is a leader in the most rapidly-growing acrylonitrile<br />

segment (carbon fibre) and is market leader in biocarbon<br />

fibre and sustainable development.”MT<br />

www.trilliumchemicals.com | www.solvay.com<br />

NatureWorks: New headquarter<br />

and R&D facilities<br />

In response to rapid growth in the market for sustainable<br />

biomaterials, NatureWorks (Minnetonka, Minnesota, USA)<br />

recently announced their intent to open a new headquarters and<br />

advanced biopolymer research facility in Plymouth, Minnesota.<br />

Expanded laboratory capabilities will support research into the<br />

full circular lifecycle of Ingeo PLA biopolymers from nextgeneration<br />

fermentation technology to new applications, to<br />

increased functionality.<br />

The expanded R&D capabilities will also support the<br />

construction and operation of NatureWorks’ new fully integrated<br />

Ingeo PLA manufacturing complex located in Thailand. With<br />

an expected opening in 2024, the facility will have an annual<br />

capacity of 75,000 tonnes of Ingeo biopolymer and produce the<br />

full portfolio of Ingeo grades.<br />

“In the face of these challenging times, we’ve designed a<br />

space that will enable research, invention, and collaboration<br />

between us, our partners, and the market, no matter where<br />

we are located in the world,” said Rich Altice, President & CEO<br />

of NatureWorks. “These new facilities will help accelerate the<br />

pace of research and innovation as the urgent need for real,<br />

safe solutions that help address climate and environmental<br />

challenges from plastics and chemicals continues to grow.”<br />

The new space is designed to embody NatureWorks’s<br />

mission to create sustainable, high-performance materials by<br />

incorporating low environmental impact materials including<br />

lighting, flooring, and art made with Ingeo as well as systems for<br />

reducing water and energy usage. A robust organics recycling<br />

collection system will divert food waste away from landfills to<br />

compost with compostable food serviceware, coffee pods, and<br />

tea bags all available to visitors and employees.<br />

Whether participating in trials in NatureWorks’ applications<br />

lab or meeting with employees, visitors will find a redesigned<br />

experience that facilitates collaboration and showcases<br />

examples of Ingeo in applications from appliances to 3D printing,<br />

to compostable and recyclable paper coatings.<br />

The move to the new headquarters and R&D facility will begin<br />

in February <strong>2022</strong>. MT<br />

www.natureworksllc.com<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Picks & clicks<br />

Most frequently clicked news<br />

Here’s a look at our most popular online content of the past two months.<br />

The story that got the most clicks from the visitors to bioplasticsmagazine.com was:<br />

tinyurl.com/news-202112<strong>01</strong><br />

Global bioplastics production will more than triple<br />

within the next five years<br />

(<strong>01</strong> December 2021)<br />

At the 16 th EUBP Conference, taking place on 30 November and 1 December<br />

in Berlin, European Bioplastics presented a very positive outlook for the<br />

global bioplastics industry. Production is set to more than triple over the next<br />

five years according to market data which was compiled in cooperation with<br />

the nova-Institute (Hürth, Germany); (see also p. 11).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 5

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Helian's PHA alliances<br />

Bluepha (Beijing, China) and Dutch company<br />

Helian Polymers (Belfeld) recently announced their<br />

cooperation. The aim of the cooperation is to bring a<br />

new PHA based building block to the market, targeting<br />

various applications as a replacement for existing<br />

petrochemically based plastics. This addition will enable<br />

Helian Polymers to create and offer an even broader<br />

range of PHA based material formulations.<br />

Helian Polymers has been active in bioplastics ever<br />

since 2007, as well as trading in colour concentrates<br />

and additives on an international scale. With increased<br />

regulatory pressure and social concerns regarding<br />

petrochemically based plastics, Helian is stepping up<br />

its efforts to supply both biobased and biodegradable<br />

materials and develop bespoke applications with its<br />

customers.<br />

Founded by scientists with interdisciplinary<br />

backgrounds in 2<strong>01</strong>6, Bluepha has strong research and<br />

engineering expertise in the area of cellular agriculture<br />

for molecule and material innovations. On Jan 1 st , <strong>2022</strong>,<br />

Bluepha's first industrial PHA project with 25,000 tonnes<br />

capacity per annum broke ground.<br />

Helian Polymers, who culminated in their own brand<br />

PHAradox last year, will start importing and using<br />

Bluepha's unique PHBH based building blocks for<br />

developing specific PHA based compounds. Under the<br />

PHAradox umbrella, multiple PHA based materials have<br />

been developed with the aim of offering more sustainable<br />

alternatives compared to existing materials.<br />

By using various PHA grades like P3HB, PHBV, and<br />

P3HB4HB, Helian Polymers is uniquely suited in the<br />

world to combine these grades with Bluepha's PHBH<br />

material to compound custom-made materials for<br />

various applications. By utilizing these natural building<br />

blocks Helian Polymers is able to mimic properties of<br />

more traditional plastics like PP and ABS. By copying,<br />

or at least approaching, the properties and thus the<br />

functionality of these materials the transition is easier<br />

to make and to communicate with converters and<br />

customers alike.<br />

Earlier in January, Helian already announced a<br />

cooperation with Genecis Bioindustries. (headquartered<br />

in Toronto, Canada). Together both companies will<br />

develop various resin formulations that include Genecis’<br />

PHAs for high-value applications, such as 3D printing<br />

filaments and biomedical applications. By combining<br />

both companies’ strengths, converting food waste into<br />

biodegradable plastics for Genecis and creating unique<br />

PHA based materials from various building blocks for<br />

Helian Polymers, the possibilities of unique materials<br />

arise.<br />

Genecis is a high growth biotechnology company that<br />

upcycles organic waste into compostable plastics. Their<br />

rapid scaling model makes high throughput production<br />

capacities possible by adding adding their technology<br />

onto biogas plants. MT<br />

www.pharadox.com |<br />

www.bluepha.com | www.genecis.co<br />

Green light for<br />

Avantium's FDCA<br />

flagship plant<br />

Avantium (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), a leading<br />

technology company in renewable chemistry, announced<br />

that on January 25 the shareholders have granted the<br />

requested approvals for all items on the agenda of the<br />

Extraordinary General Meeting (EGM).<br />

This includes the green light for Avantium's FDCA<br />

Flagship Plant. The company can begin the execution of<br />

all relevant documentation to complete the transaction<br />

(“Financial Close”), which is expected in the first quarter<br />

of <strong>2022</strong>. Construction of the FDCA Flagship Plant is<br />

planned to start after Financial Close and to be completed<br />

by the end of 2023. Avantium expects that the FDCA<br />

Flagship Plant will be operational in 2024, enabling the<br />

commercial launch of PEF from 2024 onwards. MT<br />

www.avantium.com<br />

Total Corbion PLA<br />

transitions to<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion<br />

Total Corbion PLA will transition to TotalEnergies<br />

Corbion, launching a new company name and logo over<br />

the coming months. TotalEnergies Corbion is a 50/50<br />

joint venture between TotalEnergies and Corbion.<br />

The name change follows the recent rebranding of<br />

TotalEnergies earlier last year, anchoring its strategic<br />

transformation into a broad energy company.<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion expects to launch its updated<br />

brand identity in a phased approach from this January.<br />

Earlier last summer TotalEnergies Corbion celebrated<br />

the cumulative production volume milestone of 100kT<br />

of Luminy ® PLA at its production plant in Thailand. The<br />

company has also entered the engineering stage for a<br />

second facility in Grandpuits (France) in order to respond<br />

to the growing PLA market demand.<br />

Luminy PLA resins from TotalEnergies Corbion are<br />

biobased and made from annually renewable resources,<br />

offering a reduced carbon footprint versus many<br />

traditional plastics. At the end of their useful life, PLA<br />

products can be mechanically or chemically recycled.<br />

The biodegradable and compostable functionalities of<br />

PLA make it the material of choice for a wide range<br />

of markets and applications including fresh fruit<br />

packaging, food service ware, durable consumer goods,<br />

toys, and 3D printing. TotalEnergies Corbion recently<br />

announced the launch of Luminy rPLA: the world’s first<br />

commercially available chemically recycled bioplastics<br />

product. MT<br />

www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

WWF released new position:<br />

Chemical Recycling Implementation Principles<br />

On January 26, as part of the No Plastic in Nature vision, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Gland, Switzerland, released "Chemical<br />

Recycling Implementation Principles" (see link below). These principles aim to help decision-makers determine if and how<br />

chemical recycling – an emerging technology with unknown environmental and social outcomes – should be pursued as a<br />

plastic waste mitigation tactic. Alix Grabowski, director of plastic and material science at WWF said:<br />

“Even as technologies advance, we can’t recycle our way out of the growing plastic waste crisis. Instead of just focusing on<br />

recycling, we should prioritize strategies like reducing our overall single-use plastic consumption and scaling up reuse, which<br />

offer the best opportunity to achieve the widescale change we need.<br />

“For a technology like chemical recycling to be part of a sustainable material management system, we must carefully look at<br />

how it is designed and implemented and whether or not it offers environmental benefits over the status quo, adheres to strong<br />

social safeguards, and truly contributes to advancing our circular economy. These principles are designed to do exactly that.”<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

The paper lays out considerations for plastic-to-plastic recycling, not plastic-to-fuel applications. Plastic-to-fuel activities<br />

should not be considered recycling, nor a part of the circular economy.<br />

The paper also states that "Based on currently available evidence, there are significant concerns that these technologies<br />

are energy-intensive, pose risks to human health, and/or will not be able to practically recycle plastic beyond what mechanical<br />

recycling already achieves."<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE strongly encourages its readers,<br />

especially those involved in chemical recycling, to read and<br />

comment on the WWF paper. MT<br />

Info:<br />

1: The Chemical Recycling Implementation Principles can be<br />

downloaded form https://tinyurl.com/WWF-Principles<br />

tinyurl.com/WWF-Principles<br />

Arkema increases Pebax elastomer production<br />

Arkema (headquartered in Colombes, France) announced<br />

a 25 % increase in its global Pebax ® elastomer production<br />

capacity by investing in Serquigny in France. This investment<br />

will notably enable increased production of the bio-circular<br />

Pebax Rnew ® and traditional Pebax ranges.<br />

This new capacity will produce a variety of highly<br />

specialized grades to meet growing demand in numerous<br />

demanding applications thanks to the lightweight,<br />

flexibility, and excellent energy return of these materials.<br />

These properties are particularly appreciated in sports<br />

equipment, such as soles for running shoes, ski boots, or<br />

technical textile, in consumer goods such as smartphones<br />

and flexible screens, as well as in other markets such as<br />

medical equipment.<br />

delighted to add this new capacity to support our customers’<br />

growing demand for high-performance sustainable<br />

materials," said Erwoan Pezron, Senior Vice-President of<br />

Arkema’s High Performance Polymers Business Line. "We<br />

will also continue to produce many of these materials at our<br />

Birdsboro plant in Pennsylvania”. MT<br />

www.arkema.com<br />

Derived from renewable castor seeds, Pebax Rnew<br />

advanced bio-circular materials offer sustainables solution<br />

that have a carbon footprint that is up to 50 % lower, compared<br />

to other elastomers on the market, and can be fully recycled.<br />

In addition, this investment, which is scheduled to come on<br />

stream mid-2023, will lower the water consumption of the<br />

site by 25 % thanks to process optimization.<br />

“The Serquigny plant has a long proven legacy in the<br />

production of these advanced materials, and we are<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 7

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

United Nations recommends bioplastics as a<br />

sustainable alternative to conventional plastics<br />

In mid-December, the Food and Agriculture Organisation<br />

of the United Nations (FAO) published a report assessing the<br />

sustainability of agricultural plastic products recommending<br />

the replacement of non-biodegradable, conventional<br />

polymers with biodegradable, biobased polymers (see link<br />

below) . “We welcome this recognition of the environmental<br />

benefits of these bioplastic products,” commented François<br />

de Bie, Chairman of European Bioplastics (EUBP). “Biobased<br />

and soil-biodegradable mulch films help both in reducing<br />

dependence on fossil carbon sources, by using renewable<br />

carbon instead, and by playing a valuable role in reducing<br />

residual plastic pollution in soil, which can significantly<br />

impact agricultural productivity.”<br />

The FAO study focuses on agricultural plastic products<br />

used in a range of different value chains. A qualitative risk<br />

assessment, which accompanies the study, analyses 13<br />

specific agricultural products. “Significantly, for six out of<br />

13 assessed products, biodegradable, biobased plastics are<br />

recommended as preferable substitutes for conventional<br />

plastic material,” said de Bie. The list of recommended<br />

products included mulch films, fishing gear, polymer-coated<br />

fertilizers, tree guards and shelters, plant support twines, and<br />

pesticide impregnated fruit protection bags.<br />

Mulch films represent the second largest share of plastic<br />

films used in agriculture. “These films, made from soilbiodegradable<br />

plastics, provide significant benefits where<br />

retrieval, recycling, and reuse of conventional plastics pose<br />

significant problems. They are specifically designed to<br />

biodegrade effectively in situ and can therefore be incorporated<br />

into the soil post-harvest," explained François de Bie. In<br />

contrast, especially thin, non- biodegradable mulching films<br />

display an insufficient collection, management, and retrieval,<br />

which can lead to a significant level of plastic pollution in<br />

the fields in which they are used. Even where conventional<br />

mulch films are removed from the field, they are often heavily<br />

contaminated with soils and plant residues, which inhibits the<br />

recycling process.<br />

The FAO report also emphasises the need to develop<br />

polymers that are biodegradable in the marine environment.<br />

“Although any kind of littering, should be avoided, a certain<br />

level of unavoidable loss of fishing gear will always take place.<br />

Therefore, it is important to foster the adoption of marinebiodegradable<br />

solutions,” stated the Chairman of EUBP. In<br />

the case of used products contaminated with fish residues,<br />

such as fish collection boxes, biopolymers, according to FAO,<br />

may ease the organic recycling process.<br />

Commenting on the study, Hasso von Pogrell, Managing<br />

Director of EUBP said: “EUBP welcomes all studies, such as<br />

this one, that contribute towards improving knowledge of the<br />

current data situation. This can’t be done by the bioplastics<br />

industry alone, and in order to establish a proper data pool,<br />

we also need stronger political support. For the European<br />

market, the European Commission should lead efforts to<br />

facilitate and coordinate data pooling in order to develop a<br />

more accurate picture of where the use of bioplastics brings<br />

real benefits in reducing conventional plastic pollution.” The<br />

report also highlights the role of research and innovation<br />

grants as means of pump-priming new ideas which lead to<br />

the development of new products. “However, the funding of<br />

research alone is not enough. An appropriate policy framework<br />

for biobased, biodegradable, and compostable plastics is also<br />

needed, to capture potential for innovation and the economic,<br />

environmental, and societal sustainable benefits of these<br />

products for the European Union,” concluded von Pogrell. MT<br />

https://tinyurl.com/FAO-recommendation<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

Danimer Scientific and TotalEnergies Corbion cooperate<br />

Danimer Scientific (Bainbridge, Georgia, USA) and TotalEnergies Corbion (Gorinchem, The Netherlands) have entered a<br />

long-term collaborative arrangement for the supply of Luminy ® PLA, a biobased polymer used to manufacture compostable<br />

products. The strategic collaboration is meant to support long-term growth of biopolymer production requiring a blend of<br />

polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and polylactic pcid (PLA) inputs.<br />

As Danimer continues to scale up the commercial production of Nodax ® , its signature PHA, this agreement enhances<br />

Danimer’s ability to fulfil customer needs for resins that require a blend of PLA- and PHA-based inputs.<br />

Stephen E. Croskrey, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Danimer, said, “While growing commercial production of<br />

PHA remains the focus of our business, PLA is a part of some compounds that we formulate to meet specific customers’<br />

functionality needs for different applications. Teaming with TotalEnergies Corbion provides an ideal solution to support our<br />

long-term growth strategy while ensuring our short-term customer needs remain fulfilled.”<br />

Thomas Philipon, Chief Executive Officer of TotalEnergies Corbion, said, "The biopolymers market is experiencing strong<br />

growth and customers are requesting innovative solutions tailor-made to their market needs. In today’s dynamic market,<br />

strategic arrangements throughout the value chain are key to ensuring security of supply in both product and technology that<br />

will allow brand owners and ultimately consumers to be comfortable with selecting bioplastics as a sustainable alternative to<br />

traditional plastics." MT<br />

www.danimerscientific.com | www.totalenergies-corbion.com<br />

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Engineering tomorrow’s materials<br />

Your benefits<br />

International Congress<br />

March 30-31, <strong>2022</strong>, Mannheim, Germany<br />

News<br />

daily updated News at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

• International industry meeting-point with over 60 exhibitors<br />

• 42 hand-picked keynotes & lectures<br />

• Auto show<br />

• PIAE Afterparty<br />

Focus:<br />

Sustainable use<br />

of plastics!<br />

Sign up!<br />

www.piae-europe.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 9

Events<br />

European Bioplastics Conference<br />

At the 16 th annual European Bioplastics (EUBP) Conference, which<br />

took place from 30 November to 1 December in Berlin, industry<br />

experts discussed the role of bioplastics within the European<br />

Green Deal. The conference discussions confirmed that bioplastics<br />

make significant contributions to help with achieving the European<br />

Union’s ambitious climate goals described in the EU strategy.<br />

In his opening remarks, François de Bie, Chairman of European<br />

Bioplastics (EUBP), began by giving a clear answer to the overarching<br />

conference question about the role of bioplastics within the European<br />

Green Deal. “There are many fields of interaction between the European<br />

Commission’s Green Deal and bioplastics where our industry can<br />

make significant contributions towards helping achieve the European<br />

Union’s ambitious climate goals,” said de Bie. “Bioplastics are part of<br />

the solution needed to fix the <strong>issue</strong> that we have with plastics today,” he<br />

continued, referring to the challenges caused by plastic waste. The varied<br />

two-day conference programme, which examined key <strong>issue</strong>s along the<br />

bioplastics value chain, strongly reinforced his statement. In ten different<br />

sessions, which included an exciting keynote and presentations as well<br />

as lively panel discussions, over 40 speakers and moderators focused on<br />

the contribution that biobased, biodegradable, and compostable plastics<br />

can make to achieve a circular economy.<br />

In a pre-recorded address, Kestutis Sadauskas, Director for Circular<br />

Economy and Green Growth at the European Commission’s DG<br />

Environment, said “While biobased and biodegradable and compostable<br />

plastics can be part of the solution, they also present certain challenges.<br />

The feedback received tells us a policy framework is needed.” The<br />

subsequent policy session went on to discuss bioplastics’ role in<br />

achieving Europe’s Green Deal objectives by focussing on key processes,<br />

such as the framework for bioplastics and the Packaging and Packaging<br />

Waste Directive.<br />

Further conference sessions highlighted new opportunities for<br />

compostable plastics and discussed their performance in different<br />

open environments. New European Bioplastics market data, based<br />

on research from the nova-institute, gave a very positive outlook for<br />

bioplastics production, which is expected to more than triple within the<br />

next five years with a growth rate of over 200 % (see next page). The<br />

results correspond to the industry leaders’ perspectives on bioplastics<br />

shared during the conference as well as to the latest insights that were<br />

provided from emerging markets, such as textiles, packaging, and<br />

automotive.<br />

During the session on communicating sustainability of biobased<br />

plastics, participants followed a lively discussion on sustainability,<br />

including the results of a study developed by the Joint Research Centre<br />

(JRC) assessing the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of alternative feedstock for<br />

plastics. This coincided with the publication of a position by the European<br />

Bioeconomy Alliance criticising the methodology for favouring fossilbased<br />

over biobased plastics (see p. 42).<br />

This year, bioplastics’ leading business and networking platform was<br />

held in a hybrid format attracting over 320 participants. Around 140<br />

participants attended in person, while the other attendees were able to<br />

follow and actively engage online. At the conference exhibition, around<br />

20 companies and institutions showcased the high diversity of new<br />

products, materials, and applications. Innovation also requires research<br />

– thus the conference also included a poster exhibition with fifteen<br />

different universities and research institutes presenting bioplasticsrelated<br />

projects. MT<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

and market development update<br />

Market<br />

Bioplastics currently represent still less than 1 % of<br />

the more than 367 million tonnes of plastic produced<br />

annually1. However, contrary to a slight decrease in the<br />

overall global plastic production, the market for bioplastics<br />

has continuously grown. This development is driven by a rising<br />

demand combined with the emergence of more sophisticated<br />

applications and products. Global bioplastics production<br />

capacity is set to increase significantly from around 2.41 million<br />

tonnes in 2021 to approximately 7.59 million tonnes in 2026.<br />

Hence, the share of bioplastics in global plastic production will<br />

pass the two % mark for the first time.<br />

Applications and market segments<br />

Bioplastics are used for an increasing variety of applications,<br />

ranging from packaging and consumer products to<br />

electronics, automotive, and textiles. Packaging remains the<br />

largest market segment for bioplastics with 48 % (1.15 million<br />

tonnes) of the total bioplastics market in 2021.<br />

Global production capacities of bioplastics by market segment (2021)<br />

Global production capacities of bioplastics<br />

Material development and diversification<br />

Bioplastic alternatives exist for almost every conventional<br />

plastic material and corresponding application. Due to a<br />

strong development of polymers, such as PBAT (polybutylene<br />

adipate terephthalate) but also PBS (polybutylene succinate)<br />

and PAs (polyamides) as well as a steady growth of polylactic<br />

acids (PLAs), the production capacities will continue to<br />

increase significantly and diversify within the next 5 years.<br />

Global production capacities of bioplastics by material type<br />

top: 2021, bottom: 2026<br />

Land use share for bioplastics estimated to be at<br />

0.<strong>01</strong> % of the global agricultural area<br />

The land used to grow the renewable feedstock needed to<br />

produce bioplastics is estimated to remain at approximately<br />

0.70 million hectares in 2021. This accounts for just only<br />

over 0.<strong>01</strong> % of the global agricultural area of 5.0 billion<br />

hectares. Along with the projected increase of bioplastics<br />

production in 2026, the land use share is expected to be still<br />

below 0.06 %. In relation to the available agricultural area,<br />

this share is minimal. Thus, there is no competition between<br />

the renewable feedstock for food and feed and the production<br />

of bioplastics.<br />

Land use estimation for bioplastics 2021 to 2026<br />

About this market data update<br />

The market data update 2021 has been compiled in<br />

cooperation with the market experts of the nova-Institute<br />

(Hürth, Germany). The market data graphs are available for<br />

download (see link below). MT<br />

tinyurl.com/EUPB-market<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 11

Award<br />

And the winner is ...<br />

The 15 th Global Bioplastics Award 2021<br />

was given to Gruppo Fabbri Vignola<br />

for their Home Compostable Cling Film<br />

This year the prestigious annual Global Bioplastics<br />

Award, presented by bioplastics MAGAZINE, was given to<br />

Gruppo Fabbri Vignola (Vignola, Italy) for their Home<br />

Compostable Cling Film.<br />

Other than in previous years, the winner was not chosen<br />

by a jury. This year for the first time, the attendees of the<br />

16 th European Bioplastics Conference, which was held in<br />

a hybrid format in Berlin, Germany on November 30 th and<br />

December 1 st , voted for the winner, both on-site in Berlin<br />

and online.<br />

Nature Fresh is the first cling film worldwide suitable for<br />

both manual and automatic food packaging and certified<br />

as Home Compostable and Industrial Compostable (EN<br />

13432).<br />

The formulation of Nature Fresh is based on the BASF<br />

certified compostable polymers ecoflex ® and ecovio ® .<br />

It is also the first of its range to combine optimal<br />

breathability for an extended shelf life of fresh food with<br />

high transparency and excellent mechanical properties<br />

for automatic packaging: its tensile strength, elongation<br />

at break, breathability, transparency, gloss, extensibility,<br />

and anti-fogging are comparable to those of traditional<br />

films. Furthermore, Nature Fresh shows a better water<br />

vapour transmission rate, which is essential for optimal<br />

packaging. It preserves the freshness, and the nutritional<br />

and organoleptic properties of food, avoiding food waste.<br />

The shelf-life of mushrooms, for instance, can be extended<br />

to 5-fold, for lettuce even up to 7-fold.<br />

Nature Fresh can be used in minimal thickness and is<br />

also printable with compostable inks.<br />

It is food-contact approved according to the US and<br />

European standards and since no plasticisers are used,<br />

it can pack any kind of fresh foods, even those with high<br />

fat content.<br />

“It took us five years to develop this product,” said Stefano<br />

Mele, CEO of Gruppo Fabbri Vignola in his short statement,<br />

“and I am grateful for the support of our partners.” He<br />

also added that “Nature Fresh has already been produced<br />

in hundreds of tonnes and tens of thousands of reels with<br />

millions of packages already released onto the market.”<br />

Michael Thielen presenting the Award to Stefano Mele<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

COMPEO<br />

Leading compounding technology<br />

for heat- and shear-sensitive plastics<br />

The runner up was Refork from the Czech Republic.<br />

The company has developed a new material based on<br />

sawdust, waste from wood processing combined with<br />

natural polymers PHB(V). Their first iconic product is a<br />

fork, but the company is already developing a toothbrush<br />

for the dental market to launch early next year.<br />

Last but not least, third place went to the bio!TOY<br />

conference (which was anonymously nominated).<br />

The 3D-printed award itself is of course also made from<br />

bioplastics. The two different PHA/PLA blends are filled<br />

with wood or stone flour, respectively. The trophy was<br />

provided by colorFabb from Belfeld, The Netherlands. MT<br />

www.gruppofabbri.com<br />

Uniquely efficient. Incredibly versatile. Amazingly flexible.<br />

With its new COMPEO Kneader series, BUSS continues<br />

to offer continuous compounding solutions that set the<br />

standard for heat- and shear-sensitive applications, in all<br />

industries, including for biopolymers.<br />

• Moderate, uniform shear rates<br />

• Extremely low temperature profile<br />

• Efficient injection of liquid components<br />

• Precise temperature control<br />

• High filler loadings<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 13

Events<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE presents:<br />

The 4 th bio!PAC conference on Biplastics & Packaging, a co-production of bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE and Green Serendipity, will now be held strictly virtual, due to the latest<br />

developments of the Corona pandemic. The conference fee has been reduced.<br />

Experts from all areas of bioplastics & packaging will present their latest<br />

developments or research. The conference will also cover discussions like endof-life<br />

options, consumer behaviour <strong>issue</strong>s, availability of agricultural land for<br />

material use versus food and feed etc.<br />

bio!PAC uses the WHOVA app and web-platform to offer excellent opportunities for<br />

attendees to connect and network with other professionals in the field.<br />

All presentations will be recorded for a convenient “video-on-demand“ experience<br />

in your time zone. A local meet-up will be organized if covid measures allow!<br />

bio PAC<br />

www.bio-pac.info<br />

International<br />

Bioplastics & Packaging<br />

Conference<br />

15 - 16 March <strong>2022</strong><br />

Online Event<br />

Tuesday, March 15, <strong>2022</strong><br />

08:00 - 08:40 Welcome, solve technical <strong>issue</strong>s, if necessary<br />

08:45 - 09:00 Michael Thielen Welcome remarks<br />

09:00 - 09:20 Gert-Jan Gruter, University of Amsterdam Future of bioplastics & packaging<br />

09:20 - 09:40 Constance Ißbrücker, European Bioplastics European bioplastics pespective for bioplastics (t.b.c.)<br />

09:40 - 10:00 Christopher vom Berg, nova-Institute Packaging from Renewable Carbon Plastics (t.b.c.)<br />

10:00 - 10:15 Q&A<br />

10:15 - 10:40 Coffee– and Networking Break<br />

10:40 - 11:00 Heidi Koljonen, Sulapac Microplastics & Packaging<br />

11:00 - 11:20 Thijs Rodenburg, Rodenburg Biopolymers Starch-based compounds for packaging applications<br />

11:20 - 11:40 Patrick Zimmermann, FKUR From linear to circular - how bioplastics provide solutions for packaging<br />

11:40 - 12:00 Ella Yao, PureGreen PLA coated paper-based packaging<br />

12:00 - 12:15 Q&A<br />

12:15 - 13:15 Lunch- and Networking Break<br />

13:15 - 13:35 Bineke Posthumus, Avantium Plant-based solutions to realize a fossil-free & circular economy<br />

13:35 - 13:55 Martin Bussmann, Neste Renewable carbon solutions for packaging<br />

13:55 - 14:15 Allegra Muscatello, Taghleef Industries New developments in biobased and biodegradable packaging solutions<br />

15:15 - 14:35 Jan Pels, TNO Torwash: a new system for bioplastics recycling<br />

14:35 - 14:50 Q&A<br />

14:50 - 15:15 Coffee– and Networking Break<br />

15:15 - 15:35 Patrick Gerritsen, Bio4pack Bio4Pack moves the earth<br />

15:35 - 15:55 Blake Lindsey, RWDC Moving Past Recycling: Can We Stem the Microplastics Crisis?<br />

15:55 - 16:15 Jane Franch, Numi Organic Tea Practical application of bioplastics in packaging: Brand perspective<br />

16:15 - 16:30 Q&A<br />

Wednesday, March 16, <strong>2022</strong><br />

08:45 - 09:00 Michael Thielen Welcome remarks<br />

09:00 - 09:20 Lise Magnier, TU Delft Insights in consumer behaviour in relation to sustainable packaging<br />

09:20 - 09:40 Bruno de Wilde, OWS Environmental Benefits of biodegradable packaging?<br />

09:40 - 10:00 Johann Zimmermann, NaKu PLA packaging: returnable, recyclable, re...<br />

10:00 - 10:20 Erwin Vink, NatureWorks The Compostables Project<br />

10:20 - 10:35 Q&A<br />

10:35 - 11:00 Coffee- and Networking Break<br />

11:00 - 11:20 Jenifer Mitjà, Total Corbion Expanding end-of-life options for PLA bioplastics<br />

11:20 - 11:40 Remy Jongboom, Biotec The added value of compostable materials in packaging applications<br />

11:40 - 12:00 Julia Schifter, TIPA Creating a circular bio-economy through compostable packaging<br />

12:00 - 12:20 Philippe Wolff, Ricoh Europe (t.b.c.) PLAIR – a new material made from plants and air<br />

12:20 - 12:35 Q&A<br />

12:35 - 13:35 Lunch- and Networking Break<br />

13:35 - 13:55 Tom Bowden, Sidaplax Evolutions of Biopolymer Film Performance and Environmental Degradability<br />

13:55 - 14:15 Jojanneke Leistra, Superfoodguru PLA bottles from a brand owners perspective<br />

14:15 - 14:35 Alberto Castellanza, Novamont Mater-Bi ® : Novel Developments in Food Packaging Applications<br />

14:35 - 14:55 Caroli Buitenhuis, Green Serendipity Bioplastics in Packaging - Review and outlook<br />

14:55 - 15:10 Q&A<br />

15:10 - 15:30 Caroli Buitenhuis, Michael Thielen Closing remarks<br />

Subject to changes<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

io PAC<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE presents:<br />

ONLINE<br />

#biopac<br />

www.bio-pac.info<br />

International Conference on Bioplastics & Packaging<br />

15 - 16 March <strong>2022</strong> - ONLINE<br />

Bioplastics packaging<br />

• can be recyclable, biodegradable and/or compostable<br />

• can be made from renewable resources or waste streams<br />

• can offer innovative features and beneficial barrier properties<br />

• can offer multiple environmental benefits in the end-of-life phase<br />

• helps to reduce the depletion of finite fossil resources and CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

At the bio!PAC the focus will be on packaging based on biobased feedstock that leads to genuine environmental benefits in the<br />

future. Specific and considerable attention will also be paid to the criteria for these applications.<br />

Silver Sponsors<br />

Bronze Sponsors<br />

Coorganized by<br />

supported by<br />

Media Partner

Events<br />

Green, the theme Colour<br />

of Chinaplas <strong>2022</strong><br />

The advent of the dual-carbon era has triggered further<br />

efforts in reducing carbon emissions. Many countries,<br />

regions and chemical enterprises have set the goal of<br />

net-zero emissions and carbon neutrality. Green and low<br />

carbon have become hot topics in the plastics and rubber<br />

industries. Chinaplas <strong>2022</strong>, to be held from April 25 to 28,<br />

will bring together more than 4,000 prominent exhibitors<br />

from all over the world to launch innovative green solutions.<br />

A lot of can’t-miss concurrent events will be organized<br />

during Chinaplas <strong>2022</strong>, focusing on green topics such as<br />

carbon neutrality and sustainable development.<br />

Plastics Recycling & Circular Economy<br />

Conference: Inspiring green ideas<br />

What are the macro trends in the global circular economy?<br />

What are the hot topics and technologies? By attending<br />

the 3 rd Chinaplas x CPRJ Plastics Recycling and Circular<br />

Economy Conference and Showcase, to be held one day<br />

prior to Chinaplas <strong>2022</strong> in Shanghai, attendees can get the<br />

answers from renowned speakers, who are to share their<br />

insights on relevant policies and industry trends, as well as<br />

the showcase of innovative solutions.<br />

Government officials, representatives from industry<br />

organizations, brands, machinery and material suppliers<br />

from different countries and regions are invited. They<br />

will deliver more than 50 speeches online and offline to<br />

400+ industry elites, of which over 60 % are end-product<br />

/ targeted manufacturers. The conference will outline the<br />

landscape and prospect of the plastics recycling industry<br />

in Asia and worldwide at large, by focusing on topics such<br />

as international trends and latest policies for plastics<br />

recycling, successful cases and achievements in recycling<br />

experiences, and innovative ideas.<br />

Thematic seminars will be held at the conference to<br />

facilitate the discussions on carbon neutrality, PCR/<br />

PIR, renewable plastics, recycled ocean plastics, monomaterials,<br />

eco-design/design for recycling, chemical<br />

recycling, innovative solutions for plastics recycling, and<br />

new technologies for recycled materials. At the same time,<br />

world-leading enterprises in the scope of plastics recycling<br />

will showcase their latest solutions for new materials,<br />

technologies, and automation. Experts will also introduce<br />

their latest technological achievements and interact with<br />

the participants.<br />

Tech Talk: a showcase for green technologies<br />

Green will be seen as a focus of Chinaplas <strong>2022</strong> from the<br />

topics of Tech Talk. This concurrent event is a series of open<br />

forums under 8 themes, including antibacterial solutions,<br />

surface treatment solutions, in-mould electronic solutions,<br />

5G applications, eco-friendly solutions, lightweight<br />

solutions, innovative materials, of which the last three are<br />

more relevant to the green technologies and development.<br />

Leading enterprises from the plastics and rubber<br />

industries will participate in the event. Among others, Cathay<br />

Biotech will show its thermoplastic high-temperatureresistant<br />

biobased polyamide engineering plastic products<br />

and green lightweight materials (see also p. 18).<br />

Chinaplas has become a product debut platform for the<br />

plastics and rubber industries, where exhibitors launch a<br />

wide range of new products. Tech Talk is the annual stage<br />

for the plastics and rubber industries, to bring the spotlight<br />

to the new and edge-cutting products, helping new<br />

technological products to gain more exposure while visitors<br />

can get quick access to the resources of quality suppliers.<br />

Under the theme of “New Era · New Potential · Innovation<br />

for Sustainability”, Chinaplas <strong>2022</strong> will proudly return to the<br />

National Exhibition and Convention Center in Hongqiao,<br />

Shanghai, from April 25 - 28, <strong>2022</strong>. MT<br />

www.chinaplasonline.com<br />

National Exhibition and Convention Center in Hongqiao, Shanghai<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

7 th PLA World Congress<br />

24 + 25 MAY <strong>2022</strong> > MUNICH› GERMANY<br />


Automotive<br />

organized by<br />

Call for papers still open<br />

www.pla-world-congress.com<br />

PLA is a versatile bioplastics raw material from renewable<br />

resources. It is being used for films and rigid packaging, for<br />

fibres in woven and non-woven applications. Automotive,<br />

consumer electronics and other industries are thoroughly<br />

investigating and even already applying PLA. New methods<br />

of polymerizing, compounding or blending of PLA have<br />

broadened the range of properties and thus the range of<br />

possible applications. That‘s why bioplastics MAGAZINE is<br />

now organizing the 7 th PLA World Congress on:<br />

24 + 25 May <strong>2022</strong> in Munich / Germany<br />

Hybrid event<br />

Experts from all involved fields will share their knowledge<br />

and contribute to a comprehensive overview of today‘s<br />

opportunities and challenges and discuss the possibilities,<br />

limitations and future prospects of PLA for all kind<br />

of applications. Like the six previous congresses the<br />

7 th PLA World Congress will also offer excellent networking<br />

opportunities for all delegates and speakers as well as<br />

exhibitors of the table-top exhibition. Based on the good<br />

experices with the hybrid format (bio!TOY and PHA World<br />

Congress 2021) we will offer this format also for future<br />

conferences, hoping the pandemic does no longer force us<br />

to. So the participation at the 7 th PLA World Congress will<br />

be possible on-site as well as online.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 17

Automotive<br />

Bio-PA<br />

composites<br />

Renewable 1,5 pentanediamine<br />

based polyamide composites for<br />

automotive applications<br />

250 —<br />

200 —<br />

150 —<br />

100 —<br />

50 —<br />

Comparison of basic physical properities of different materials<br />

Cathay Biotech, Shanghai, China, is a leader in<br />

synthetic biology specializing in the production of<br />

biobased polyamides that are based on its 100 %<br />

renewable 1,5-pentanediamine (DN5). The option of using<br />

either fossil-based or renewable diacids enables the biocontent<br />

level of PA5X to be as high as 100 %. Cathay has<br />

been engaged in the application and development of<br />

biobased PA5X and marketed these engineering polyamides<br />

under the tradename ECOPENT ® . The melting point of its<br />

Ecopent engineering materials can be varied from 197 ºC<br />

of Ecopent 3300 (E-3300) to 300 ºC of Ecopent 6300, which<br />

fulfils a plethora of different application requirements of<br />

polyamides.<br />

Recently, Cathay focused on the investigation and<br />

production of fibre-reinforced PA5X composite such as<br />

prepreg tape, which is an alternative solution for metal<br />

replacement. The continuous glass/carbon fibre-reinforced<br />

biobased PA5X (CFRT-PA5X) shows excellent mechanical<br />

properties, high specific strength, and specific modulus,<br />

among others. By modifying the manufacturing process,<br />

the fibre content of such CFRT-PA5X could be tuned flexibly<br />

from 50 % to 70 %, by weight, which provides for a high<br />

design flexibility of these products and would contribute to<br />

a significant weight reduction for automobile applications<br />

(among others).<br />

Using Ecopent 2260 (E-2260) as the matrix and glass/<br />

carbon fibre as reinforcement, composites with different<br />

mechanical properties could be easily produced by<br />

employing proper processing technology. The produced<br />

composite exhibits increased tensile strength and tensile<br />

modulus with increasing fibre retention length. For<br />

example, the CFRT of E-2260 70 % GF possesses tensile<br />

strength higher than 1,000 MPa, while its density is onefourth<br />

that of steel. More importantly, its specific strength is<br />

three times that of super-steel.<br />

Moreover, CFRT-PA5X composites with higher mechanical<br />

properties could be produced by using continuous carbon<br />

fibre instead of glass. For instance, the CFRT of E-2260<br />

50 % CF has only one-third the density of super-steel but<br />

exhibits 10 % higher tensile strength than it. In addition, the<br />

specific strength and specific modulus of CFRT of E-2260<br />

50 % CF are six times and two times that of super-steel,<br />

respectively.<br />

Continuous fibre reinforced unidirectional<br />

prepreg tape<br />

Basically, the thickness of CFRT-PA5X unidirectional<br />

prepreg tape is between 0.25 mm and 0.30 mm. Their<br />

tensile strength is usually higher than 1,000 MPa, which is<br />

0 —<br />

1600 —<br />

1400 —<br />

1200 —<br />

1000 —<br />

800 —<br />

600 —<br />

400 —<br />

200 —<br />

Steel Super steel Aluminium E-2260-<br />

70%GF (CFRT)<br />

Tensile modulus (GPa)<br />

E-2260-70GF tape<br />

Tensile modulus (MPa)<br />

E-2260-<br />

50%CF (CFRT)<br />

Specific modulus (GPa-cm3/g)<br />

Properities of different unidirectional prepreg tape<br />

0 —<br />

E-3300-70GF tape<br />

1200 —<br />

1000 —<br />

800 —<br />

600 —<br />

400 —<br />

200 —<br />

700 —<br />

600 —<br />

500 —<br />

400 —<br />

300 —<br />

200 —<br />

100 —<br />

Comparison of different composite board<br />

0°C/90°C Bending strength (Mpa)<br />

E-2260-50CF<br />

0 —<br />

E3300-70%GF board E-2260-70%GF board PP-composite board<br />

0 —<br />

E-2260-50CF tape<br />

0°C Bending strength (Mpa)<br />

0°C Interlaminar shear strength (Mpa) 90°C Bending strength (MPa)<br />

Comparison of bending strength of PA5X-70%GF at 23°C and 70°C for 2h<br />

546,26<br />

E3300<br />

603,20<br />

631,02<br />

23°C<br />

E-2260<br />

666,76<br />

70°C<br />

434,52<br />

PP<br />

382,06<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

1800 —<br />

1600 —<br />

1400 —<br />

1200 —<br />

1000 —<br />

800 —<br />

600 —<br />

400 —<br />

200 —<br />

0 —<br />

Comparison of basic physical properities of different materials<br />

Steel Super steel Aluminium E-2260-<br />

70%GF (CFRT)<br />

Tensile strength (MPa)<br />

E-2260-70GF tape<br />

Tensile modulus (MPa)<br />

E-2260-<br />

50%CF (CFRT)<br />

Specific strength (MPa-cm3/g)<br />

Properities of different unidirectional prepreg tape<br />

90 —<br />

80 —<br />

70 —<br />

60 —<br />

50 —<br />

40 —<br />

30 —<br />

20 —<br />

10 —<br />

0 —<br />

E-3300-70GF tape<br />

70 —<br />

60 —<br />

50 —<br />

40 —<br />

30 —<br />

20 —<br />

10 —<br />

0 —<br />

Comparison of different composite board<br />

E3300-<br />

70%GF board<br />

E-2260-<br />

70%GF board<br />

0°C/90°C Bending modulus (Gpa)<br />

90°C Bending modulus (Gpa)<br />

PPcomposite<br />

board<br />

E-2260-50CF<br />

E-2260-<br />

55%CF board<br />

0°C Bending modulus (Gpa)<br />

Comparison of bending modulus of PA5X-70%GF at 23°C and 70°C for 2h<br />

25 —<br />

23,83<br />

21,80<br />

By:<br />

Yuanpin Li, Qilei Song<br />

Engineering Plastics Application Development Engineer<br />

Cathay Biotech Inc.<br />

Shanghai, China<br />

affected by the fibre content and fibre type. Furthermore,<br />

through winding or moulding process technology, these<br />

prepreg tapes could be further applied in automobiles such<br />

as fender, front cover, and battery pack etc.<br />

Biobased PA5X composite board<br />

In terms of 70 % continuous glass fibre reinforced E-2260<br />

composite, its 0° bending strength could be up to 1,033 MPa,<br />

twice as strong as a PP composite with the same glass fibre<br />

content. Its 0° bending modulus also reaches 38 MPa, which<br />

is 30 % higher than that of a 70 % glass fibre reinforced<br />

PP composite. Furthermore, the 90° bending strength<br />

and 0° interlaminar shear strength of such biobased PA5X<br />

composite are 1.5 times that of PP composites with the<br />

same glass fibre content.<br />

When CFRT of E-2260 70 % GF, CFRT of E-3300 70 % GF,<br />

and PP composite are baked at 70 ºC for 2 h, the bending<br />

strength of E-3300 70 % GF and CFRT of E-2260 70 % GF is<br />

increased by 5 %, while PP ones are reduced by 12 %. The<br />

bending modulus of CFRT of E-2260 70 % GF is higher 40 %<br />

than that of PP composite at 70 °C.<br />

Application<br />

CFRT of PA5X, due to their extremely high strength-toweight<br />

and stiffness-to-weight ratios, can be a sustainable<br />

lightweight solution to meet increasingly challenging<br />

requirements from different industries, e.g., automotive,<br />

construction, or shipping. In addition, CFRT of PA5X have<br />

shown excellent chemical resistance, anti-fatigue and antimar<br />

performance depending on the biobased polyamide<br />

selected. The increase in temperature will lead to a decrease<br />

in the rigidity of composites. CFRT of biobased polyamides<br />

(E-3300 and 2260) have proven its advantage of mechanical<br />

performance at 70 °C, when compared with general plastic,<br />

like PP. This can make CFRT of biobased polyamides strong<br />

candidates for new vehicles, compressed gas tanks, or<br />

shipping containers, which needs much lighter, safer, and<br />

more efficient materials.<br />

www.cathaybiotech.com<br />

Automotive<br />

20 —<br />

15 —<br />

16,74 17,07<br />

16,84<br />

15,80<br />

10 —<br />

5 —<br />

0 —<br />

E3300<br />

E-2260<br />

PP<br />

23°C<br />

70°C<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 19

Automotive<br />

Lightweight<br />

biobased<br />

cellulose<br />

reinforcement<br />

for automotive<br />

applications<br />

The automotive industry continuously strives to<br />

improve the driving range of cars. Whether being per<br />

litre of petrol for a combustion engine or in kilowatthour<br />

(kWh) for electrically powered vehicles. Car owners<br />

thereby receive a better mileage at lower cost, while CO 2<br />

emissions per kilometre driven are reduced as well. One<br />

way of achieving this is by reducing the overall weight of<br />

the car, which is becoming increasingly important for the<br />

comparatively heavier battery-powered electric vehicles.<br />

Cellulose fibre is one of the answers to address this<br />

need for weight reduction. Sappi Symbio is a lightweight<br />

cellulose solution to reinforce conventional thermoplastic<br />

and biobased plastics. Symbio provides a double advantage,<br />

it’s not only a lightweight material filler, but it also answers<br />

the increasingly important demand for more renewable and<br />

non-fossil based carbon materials.<br />

Symbio is a bio-renewable wood-based cellulose fibre<br />

that is an alternative to incumbent mineral materials like<br />

talc and (short) glass fibre. Due to its relatively low density<br />

of about 1.5 g/cm 3 , it decreases the overall material weight<br />

when added to a thermoplastic, in comparison to talc or<br />

glass. These are commonly used fillers to give a material<br />

more stiffness and strength. Figure 1 shows an example<br />

for a 20 % loaded polypropylene and its influence on the<br />

resulting material property in terms of weight. This weight<br />

saving opportunity, which can go up to 15 % (at 40 % cellulose<br />

load) has drawn the attention of several automotive OEMs<br />

who are already manufacturing car components with<br />

Symbio today.<br />

Symbio cellulose fibre reinforced compounds easily meet<br />

industry requirements of mechanical performance and can<br />

be a renewable alternative to typical mineral fillers. Table 1<br />

shows how the stiffness, in terms of flexural modulus, of<br />

polypropylene can be enhanced by Symbio in comparison<br />

to talc and short glass fibre (SGF). It also shows the heat<br />

deflection temperature for the various solutions which is<br />

increased compared to unfilled polypropylene but also to a<br />

talc-filled compound.<br />

As mentioned already, Symbio consists of wood-based<br />

cellulose. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer<br />

on earth and can be found in any plant-like material.<br />

There are many different sources today for cellulose fibre,<br />

like grass or bamboo, and likewise as many variations in<br />

quality and performance. Symbio is a premium quality<br />

cellulose fibre that is also used within Sappi for producing<br />

high-quality speciality paper or high-end paperboard. The<br />

fibre consistency, as well as the very high purity, is why<br />

car manufacturers and brand owners select Symbio as a<br />

material to use for interior car components. Where other<br />

natural fibres can have <strong>issue</strong>s with odour or emission of<br />

volatile components, Symbio passes the most stringent<br />

requirements measured by internationally accepted<br />

standards. In the VDA 270 odour test, Sappi Symbio,<br />

measured on a plaque produced with Symbio PP40<br />

(containing 40 % cellulose) by a German OEM, receives a<br />

rating 2 classified as “perceptible, non-disturbing” (the<br />

scale ranges from 1 “imperceptible” to 6 “unbearable”). This<br />

rating allows the parts to be used in automotive interiors.<br />

Fig. 1<br />

Glass fibre<br />

Talc<br />

Symbio<br />

Cellulpse<br />

Density of 20 % filled polypropylene<br />

0,94 0,96 0,98 1 1,02 1,04 1,06<br />

Specific gravity g/cm 3<br />

Table 1<br />

Property<br />

Test method<br />

Symbio<br />

PP20<br />

Symbio<br />

PP20MI<br />

Symbio<br />

PP20HI<br />

PP + 20% talc PP + 20% SGF Units<br />

Reinforcement<br />

content<br />

- 20 20 20 20 20 Weight %<br />

Density ISO 1183 0.98 0.99 0.98 1.05 1.04 g/cm³<br />

Tensile strength ISO 527-2/1A 49 34 23 28 85 MPa<br />

Flexural modulus ISO 178, 23°C 3,080 2,545 1,678 2,400 4,200 MPa<br />

Impact, Charpy<br />

notched (23°C)<br />

ISO 179-1 4.2 4.3 10 6 11 KJ/m²<br />

HDT-B at 0.45 MPa ISO 75 141 136 123 100 155 °C<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Symbio has also been selected for other fields of<br />

application besides interior car components. Manufacturers<br />

of home appliances and lifestyle & furniture are interested<br />

in Symbio due to its haptic response and the warmer<br />

touch which provides a part with a natural touch and feel.<br />

The examples given above were based on polypropylene<br />

By:<br />

Juul Cuijpers, Product Manager Symbio<br />

Sappi Europe | Sappi Netherlands Services BV<br />

Maastricht, The Netherlands<br />

but of course, Symbio is not limited to this thermoplastic.<br />

Applications made from biobased and/or biodegradable<br />

filled polymers like PLA and PHA are also possible and<br />

are receiving increased interest. The aim is to expand the<br />

current portfolio of Symbio products in the coming period.<br />

www.sappi.com<br />

Automotive<br />

Instrument panel<br />

Interior trims<br />

Air ducts<br />

Luggage board<br />

Centre console and armrest<br />

Cable tray<br />

23 – 24 March • Hybrid Event<br />

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dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de<br />

Tel.: +49 2233 / 481449<br />

co2-chemistry.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 21

Tyre News<br />

How plastic bottles end up in tyres<br />

Tyres can’t last forever. However, the life cycle of the<br />

materials used in one tyre can be much longer than that<br />

of the tyre itself. Continental just got one<br />

step closer to the goal of tyres made<br />

from 100 % recycled or sustainable<br />

materials. “We are at the vanguard<br />

of a more eco-friendly automotive<br />

industry and are already committed<br />

to using new technologies that utilize<br />

recycled materials. From <strong>2022</strong>, we will<br />

be able to use reprocessed polyethylene<br />

terephthalate (PET) in the construction<br />

of Continental tyre carcasses, completely<br />

replacing the use of conventional<br />

virgin PET,“ as a press release stated<br />

To re-use recycled PET bottles in tyres,<br />

Continental teamed up with OTIZ, a fibre<br />

specialist and textile manufacturer, to develop a specialized<br />

technology that produces high-quality polyester yarn from<br />

recycled PET without the chemical steps<br />

previously required in the recycling<br />

process. Polyester may not be the first<br />

material you think of when you see a car<br />

tyre, PET yarn is actually an essential<br />

ingredient that makes up the tyre carcass<br />

in the form of textile cords that run from<br />

bead to bead (the inner circle of the<br />

tyre). The horseshoe-shaped layer sits<br />

just above the inner liner, affecting tyre<br />

durability, load carriage, and comfort.<br />

It’s the backbone of the tyre, sustains<br />

loads, and absorbs shock. It maintains its<br />

Picture: Continental<br />

shape even at very high temperatures, so<br />

thermal stability is crucial. MT<br />

www.continental-tires.com<br />

Biobased itaconate butadiene rubber<br />

Last year the the Beijing University of Chemical Technology introduced biobased itaconate butadiene rubber. This project, led<br />

by professor Liqun Zhang started the research in 2008. After 13 years a new generation of high performance and biobased<br />

itaconate butadiene rubber has been successfully developed by professor Zhang’s team. The first class of macromolecular<br />

chain structures based on an itaconic acid resource is epoxy group functionalized poly(dibutyl itaconate-co-butadieneglycidyl<br />

methacrylate) (PDBIBG). It can realize the high value-added utilization of biomass resources and promote green and<br />

sustainable development within the rubber industry.<br />

Itaconic acid is a promising organic acid that has been categorized as one of the top 12 building block molecules in advanced<br />

biorefineries. The specific steps for constructing high molecular weight, crosslinkable biobased rubber with itaconic acid as<br />

the main raw material are as follows (see graph):<br />

• Step 1: Fermentation of biomass resources such as corn and sugar cane to obtain itaconic acid.<br />

• Step 2: In order to obtain high molecular weight polymers, itaconate monomer is obtained by<br />

esterification of biobased alcohol.<br />

• Step 3: Preparation of itaconate/butadiene/glycidyl methacrylate copolymer by low-temperature<br />

redox emulsion polymerization.<br />

The comprehensive properties of the functionalized biobased itaconate butadiene rubber finally obtained are comparable<br />

or even superior to traditional rubbers. By calculation, the production of biobased itaconate butadiene rubber per tonne can<br />

reduce carbon emissions by 1.44 tonnes compared with traditional petroleum-based rubber, which can provide positive support<br />

for the world’s carbon peak and carbon neutral strategy.<br />

By combining a molecular structural design with non-petroleum based silica and an in situ process to tune the viscoelastic<br />

properties of the elastomer composites, silica/PDBIBG nanocomposite based green tyres that have low rolling resistance,<br />

excellent wet skid resistance, and good wear resistance were successfully manufactured, which can promote fuel efficiency<br />

and reduce dependence on petrochemical resources.<br />

With the joint efforts of the Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Shandong Chambroad Sinopoly New Material, Shandong<br />

Linglong Tire and The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, the world’s first one-tonne production line of PDBIBG materials<br />

was successfully established<br />

in China, and PDBIBG tyres<br />

were manufactured and tested.<br />

The rolling resistance and<br />

wet skid resistance are rated<br />

at the B level by the EU Tyre<br />

Labeling Regulation 1222/2009,<br />

which includes the first batch<br />

of functionalized biobased<br />

itaconate butadiene rubber<br />

radial tyres in the world. MT<br />

https://english.buct.edu.cn/<br />

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17


The amount of plastics used in the production of a car is<br />

over 20 % of its weight, excluding car tyres. The automotive<br />

sector production, despite the increasing use of advanced<br />

technologies and the implementation of further restrictions on<br />

the emission of harmful substances, still generates significant<br />

environmental costs. Shrinking crude oil resources and higher<br />

costs of its acquisition, as well as the production and recycling<br />

of plastics, are essential drivers of change throughout<br />

the production chain. Polyurethane foams and materials,<br />

synthetic components for vehicles in the automotive market,<br />

all these products are petroleum-based and force the market<br />

to look for sustainable alternatives.<br />

The Biomotive project, which is part of the European<br />

program Horizon 2020 and Bio-Based Industries Joint<br />

Undertaking, is a project dedicated primarily to the automotive<br />

sector, innovative technologies in the field of polyurethane<br />

production and presentation of their advantages over the<br />

previously used polyurethanes of petrochemical origin.<br />

The European Union declares to achieve climate neutrality<br />

by 2050, the solutions developed by the Biomotive Project offer<br />

an opportunity for manufacturers to meet new challenges<br />

and expectations of increasingly environmentally conscious<br />

customers and new legislations.<br />

The main objectives of the project are to demonstrate on<br />

an industrial scale the production of innovative polymeric<br />

materials of natural origin: thermoplastic polyurethanes,<br />

2-component polyurethane foams and regenerated cellulose<br />

fibres.<br />

The raw materials on which the production of Biomotive<br />

polymers is based are mainly wood pulp, sugars, and vegetable<br />

oils, they are fully renewable and do not interfere with food<br />

production. Another advantage is also that it can be grown on<br />

marginal lands, with low water demand and no special care<br />

related to its cultivation.<br />

Other materials were also tested: flexible car seat foams<br />

with 60 % biobased carbon content have been developed,<br />

offering the same level of comfort as current car seat foams.<br />

Also, upholstery fabrics that covered biofoams, i.e. seats in the<br />

broadly understood automotive industry (although they can<br />

also be used in the furniture industry), were made of almost<br />

100 % materials of biological origin. The use of natural fabrics<br />

increases the overall biological content to nearly 70 %.<br />

The Biomotive project brings together scientific and<br />

research institutes, producers of biomass raw materials,<br />

manufacturers of car parts as well as certification companies<br />

in a European consortium. The result of this cooperation is a<br />

complete, fully researched, and documented production chain,<br />

from the acquisition of bio-raw materials to the subsequent<br />

recycling of specific elements of car, coach, bus, and special<br />

vehicle equipment, as well as the above-mentioned furniture<br />

or vertical garden structures.<br />

Bio-polyurethane production technologies developed under<br />

the Biomotive project are also used in other industries in terms<br />

of ready products and recycled raw materials. For example,<br />

TPU and polyurethane foams will be used as additives for<br />

asphalts, second-component adhesives, and the production<br />

of soles.<br />

The implementation of the Biomotive project will not only<br />

significantly reduce the consumption of fossil resources in the<br />

production process of polyurethane foam or TPU but could also<br />

create new jobs in the sectors of bioproduction, green chemistry<br />

and agriculture.<br />

This project has received funding from the Bio-Based Industries<br />

Joint Undertaking under the European Union’s Horizon 2020<br />

research and innovation programme under grant agreement No<br />

745766. MT<br />

https://biomotive.info<br />

Low-carbon PLA Film for Various Applications<br />

BiONLY TM , a novel PLA (polylactic acid)<br />

film, developed by Xiamen Changsu<br />

Industrial Co., Ltd.. This biodegradable<br />

material can be degraded into carbon<br />

dioxide and water under certain<br />

conditions, which can effectively<br />

reduce the carbon footprint. It’s an<br />

ideal eco-friendly packaging material.<br />

Biaxially oriented process greatly improves the mechanical properties<br />

of PLA film and further expands its application field, which is of great<br />

significance to packaging reduction, environmental protection and<br />

carbon reduction.<br />

Automotive<br />

www.changsufilm.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 23

Automotive<br />

Automotive Bioplastics Market<br />

Future Market Insights (FMI), Dubai, United Arab<br />

Emirates, has forecasted the Automotive Bioplastics<br />

Market to grow with a year on year growth of 10.3 % in<br />

<strong>2022</strong> reaching a value of about USD 687.5 Mn by <strong>2022</strong> end.<br />

The new research study on the automotive bioplastic<br />

market contains global industry analysis for 2<strong>01</strong>4-2<strong>01</strong>8 and<br />

opportunity assessment for <strong>2022</strong>–2029.<br />

Automotive Bioplastics Market Base Year Value (2021A) USD 623.3 M<br />

Automotive Bioplastics Market Estimated Year Value (<strong>2022</strong>E) USD 687.5 M<br />

Automotive Bioplastics Market Projected Year Value (2029F) USD 1,442.2 M<br />

Value CAGR (<strong>2022</strong>–2029) 10.7%<br />

Collective Value Share: Top 3 Countries (<strong>2022</strong>E) 49.4%<br />

The research study covers the latest trends, market<br />

influencing factors, key success factors, forecasting factors,<br />

macroeconomics factors, key information, and past market<br />

scenario. The report examines the automotive bioplastic<br />

market and delivers critical insights for the forecast period<br />

of <strong>2022</strong>–2029.<br />

The global automotive bioplastic market is estimated<br />

to be valued at ~USD 687.5 Mn in <strong>2022</strong> and is expected to<br />

increase at a CAGR of ~11 % during the forecast period. As<br />

per the comprehensive analysis provided in the report, the<br />

global automotive bioplastic market is anticipated to witness<br />

considerable growth in the coming years owing to the steady<br />

increase in the adoption of bioplastic materials for various car<br />

components.<br />

Application-wise, the interior segment is expected to hold<br />

a prominent value share of the global automotive bioplastic<br />

market. This segment includes seats, dashboard, air-duct,<br />

HVAC, and other related interior components.<br />

Automotive bioplastic materials tend to reduce dependency<br />

on fossil resources, according to FMI’s analysis. They<br />

materials are not as affected by oil price instability the way<br />

petroleum-based materials are. Automotive bioplastics help<br />

reduce the dependency on limited fossil resources, which is a<br />

key growth driver for the market, with fuel prices projected to<br />

surge significantly over the coming years.<br />

Rising Demand for Electric Vehicles to Create<br />

High Growth Opportunities<br />

Increasing environmental awareness and inconsistent<br />

fuel prices have influenced consumers, particularly in<br />

developed countries of North America and Europe, to opt<br />

for electric car models, such as plug-in hybrid electric<br />

vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV).<br />

Growing urban population, incentives for use of<br />

electric vehicles, reducing battery prices, strengthening<br />

transportation infrastructure in developed and emerging<br />

countries, and inter-governmental steps for electric<br />

vehicles are further driving the adoption of electric cars.<br />

This, in turn, is anticipated to contribute to the demand for<br />

automotive bioplastic materials during the forecast period.<br />

Governments have put immense pressure on automotive<br />

manufacturers to reduce vehicle weight to achieve fuel<br />

economy. Nowadays, weights of vehicle modules in newer<br />

vehicles are much lighter than conventional ones, which<br />

had metal bodywork. It has been observed that these were<br />

nearly 20 % heavier than today’s modules.<br />

Companies are heavily investing in research &<br />

development and manufacturing strategies to reduce the<br />

weight of several body components. OEMs prefer bioplasticbased<br />

materials over conventional raw materials (steel)<br />

for specific applications as these help reduce the weight<br />

of the vehicle significantly and have other technological<br />

advancements over other materials.<br />

The report highlights some of the prominent market<br />

players, who have established themselves as leaders in the<br />

global automotive bioplastic market. A few examples of key<br />

players in the automotive bioplastic market are Mitsubishi<br />

Chemical Corporation, Total Corbion PLA, NatureWorks<br />

LLC, Solvay Group, Eastman Chemical, Arkema Group,<br />

Braskem, Evonik Industries AG, BASF SE, and Dow<br />

Chemical Company, among others.<br />

The complete report can be purchased from USD 5,000<br />

at Future Market Insights (see website). MT<br />

www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/automotive-bioplastic-market<br />

Magnetic<br />

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• Job Market<br />

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24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

fossil<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

Refining<br />

Polymerisation<br />

Formulation<br />

Processing<br />

Use<br />

renewable<br />

Depolymerisation<br />

Solvolysis<br />

Thermal depolymerisation<br />

Enzymolysis<br />

Purification<br />

Dissolution<br />

Recycling<br />

Conversion<br />

Pyrolysis<br />

Gasification<br />

allocated<br />

Recovery<br />

Recovery<br />

Recovery<br />

conventional<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2021<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2020<br />

PVC<br />

EPDM<br />

PMMA<br />

PP<br />

PE<br />

Vinyl chloride<br />

Propylene<br />

Unsaturated polyester resins<br />

Methyl methacrylate<br />

PEF<br />

Polyurethanes<br />

MEG<br />

Building blocks<br />

Natural rubber<br />

Aniline Ethylene<br />

for UPR<br />

Cellulose-based<br />

2,5-FDCA<br />

polymers<br />

Building blocks<br />

for polyurethanes<br />

Levulinic<br />

acid<br />

Lignin-based polymers<br />

Naphtha<br />

Ethanol<br />

PET<br />

PFA<br />

5-HMF/5-CMF FDME<br />

Furfuryl alcohol<br />

Waste oils<br />

Casein polymers<br />

Furfural<br />

Natural rubber<br />

Saccharose<br />

PTF<br />

Starch-containing<br />

Hemicellulose<br />

Lignocellulose<br />

1,3 Propanediol<br />

polymer compounds<br />

Casein<br />

Fructose<br />

PTT<br />

Terephthalic<br />

Non-edible milk<br />

acid<br />

MPG NOPs<br />

Starch<br />

ECH<br />

Glycerol<br />

p-Xylene<br />

SBR<br />

Plant oils<br />

Fatty acids<br />

Castor oil<br />

11-AA<br />

Glucose Isobutanol<br />

THF<br />

Sebacic<br />

Lysine<br />

PBT<br />

acid<br />

1,4-Butanediol<br />

Succinic<br />

acid<br />

DDDA<br />

PBAT<br />

Caprolactame<br />

Adipic<br />

acid<br />

HMDA DN5<br />

Sorbitol<br />

3-HP<br />

Lactic<br />

acid<br />

Itaconic<br />

Acrylic<br />

PBS(x)<br />

acid<br />

acid<br />

Isosorbide<br />

PA<br />

Lactide<br />

Superabsorbent polymers<br />

Epoxy resins<br />

ABS<br />

PHA<br />

APC<br />

PLA<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/graphics<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

■<br />

HO<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2021<br />

All figures available at www.bio-based.eu/markets<br />

Adipic acid (AA)<br />

11-Aminoundecanoic acid (11-AA)<br />

1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BDO)<br />

Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA)<br />

Epichlorohydrin (ECH)<br />

Ethylene<br />

Furan derivatives<br />

D-lactic acid (D-LA)<br />

L-lactic acid (L-LA)<br />

Lactide<br />

Monoethylene glycol (MEG)<br />

Monopropylene glycol (MPG)<br />

Naphtha<br />

1,5-Pentametylenediamine (DN5)<br />

1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO)<br />

Sebacic acid<br />

Succinic acid (SA)<br />

© -Institute.eu | 2020<br />

nova Market and Trend Reports<br />

on Renewable Carbon<br />

The Best Available on Bio- and CO2-based Polymers<br />

& Building Blocks and Chemical Recycling<br />

Automotive<br />

Bio-based Naphtha<br />

and Mass Balance Approach<br />

Status & Outlook, Standards &<br />

Certification Schemes<br />

Bio-based Building Blocks and<br />

Polymers – Global Capacities,<br />

Production and Trends 2020 – 2025<br />

Polymers<br />

Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) as Chemical<br />

Feedstock for Polymers<br />

Technologies, Polymers, Developers and Producers<br />

Principle of Mass Balance Approach<br />

Building Blocks<br />

Feedstock<br />

Process<br />

Products<br />

Intermediates<br />

Use of renewable feedstock<br />

in very first steps of<br />

chemical production<br />

(e.g. steam cracker)<br />

Utilisation of existing<br />

integrated production for<br />

all production steps<br />

Allocation of the<br />

renewable share to<br />

selected products<br />

Feedstocks<br />

Authors: Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman and Harald Käb<br />

March 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Michael Carus, Doris de Guzman,<br />

Harald Käb, Raj Chinthapalli, Jan Ravenstijn, Wolfgang Baltus<br />

and Achim Raschka<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Pauline Ruiz, Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Jan Ravenstijn and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Chemical recycling – Status, Trends<br />

and Challenges<br />

Technologies, Sustainability, Policy and Key Players<br />

Production of Cannabinoids via<br />

Extraction, Chemical Synthesis<br />

and Especially Biotechnology<br />

Current Technologies, Potential & Drawbacks and<br />

Future Development<br />

Commercialisation updates on<br />

bio-based building blocks<br />

Plastic recycling and recovery routes<br />

Bio-based building blocks<br />

Evolution of worldwide production capacities from 2<strong>01</strong>1 to 2024<br />

Primary recycling<br />

(mechanical)<br />

Virgin Feedstock Renewable Feedstock<br />

Monomer<br />

Polymer<br />

Plastic<br />

Product<br />

Secondary recycling<br />

(mechanical)<br />

Tertiary recycling<br />

(chemical)<br />

Secondary<br />

valuable<br />

materials<br />

CO 2 capture<br />

Chemicals<br />

Fuels<br />

Others<br />

Plant extraction<br />

Chemical synthesis<br />

Cannabinoids<br />

Plant extraction<br />

Genetic engineering<br />

Biotechnological production<br />

Production capacities (million tonnes)<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

2<strong>01</strong>1 2<strong>01</strong>2 2<strong>01</strong>3 2<strong>01</strong>4 2<strong>01</strong>5 2<strong>01</strong>6 2<strong>01</strong>7 2<strong>01</strong>8 2<strong>01</strong>9 2024<br />

Product (end-of-use)<br />

Quaternary recycling<br />

(energy recovery)<br />

Energy<br />

Landfill<br />

Author: Lars Krause, Florian Dietrich, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Michael Carus, Pauline Ruiz, Lara Dammer, Achim Raschka,<br />

nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

November 2020<br />

This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are<br />

available at www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Authors: Pia Skoczinski, Franjo Grotenhermen, Bernhard Beitzke,<br />

Michael Carus and Achim Raschka<br />

January 2021<br />

This and other reports on renewable carbon are available at<br />

www.renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

Author:<br />

Doris de Guzman, Tecnon OrbiChem, United Kingdom<br />

Updated Executive Summary and Market Review May 2020 –<br />

Originally published February 2020<br />

This and other reports on the bio- and CO 2-based economy are<br />

available at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Levulinic acid – A versatile platform<br />

chemical for a variety of market applications<br />

Global market dynamics, demand/supply, trends and<br />

market potential<br />

HO<br />

O<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

diphenolic acid<br />

O<br />

O<br />

H 2N<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

levulinate ketal<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

5-aminolevulinic acid<br />

O<br />

O<br />

O<br />

O<br />

levulinic acid<br />

OR<br />

levulinic ester<br />

O<br />

O<br />

ɣ-valerolactone<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

H<br />

N<br />

O<br />

O<br />

O<br />

succinic acid<br />

5-methyl-2-pyrrolidone<br />

OH<br />

Succinic acid – From a promising<br />

building block to a slow seller<br />

What will a realistic future market look like?<br />

Pharmaceutical/Cosmetic<br />

Acidic ingredient for denture cleaner/toothpaste<br />

Antidote<br />

Calcium-succinate is anticarcinogenic<br />

Efferescent tablets<br />

Intermediate for perfumes<br />

Pharmaceutical intermediates (sedatives,<br />

antiphlegm/-phogistics, antibacterial, disinfectant)<br />

Preservative for toiletries<br />

Removes fish odour<br />

Used in the preparation of vitamin A<br />

Food<br />

Bread-softening agent<br />

Flavour-enhancer<br />

Flavouring agent and acidic seasoning<br />

in beverages/food<br />

Microencapsulation of flavouring oils<br />

Preservative (chicken, dog food)<br />

Protein gelatinisation and in dry gelatine<br />

desserts/cake flavourings<br />

Used in synthesis of modified starch<br />

Succinic<br />

Acid<br />

Industrial<br />

De-icer<br />

Engineering plastics and epoxy curing<br />

agents/hardeners<br />

Herbicides, fungicides, regulators of plantgrowth<br />

Intermediate for lacquers + photographic chemicals<br />

Plasticizer (replaces phtalates, adipic acid)<br />

Polymers<br />

Solvents, lubricants<br />

Surface cleaning agent<br />

(metal-/electronic-/semiconductor-industry)<br />

Other<br />

Anodizing Aluminium<br />

Chemical metal plating, electroplating baths<br />

Coatings, inks, pigments (powder/radiation-curable<br />

coating, resins for water-based paint,<br />

dye intermediate, photocurable ink, toners)<br />

Fabric finish, dyeing aid for fibres<br />

Part of antismut-treatment for barley seeds<br />

Preservative for cut flowers<br />

Soil-chelating agent<br />

Standards and labels for<br />

bio-based products<br />

Authors: Achim Raschka, Pia Skoczinski, Raj Chinthapalli,<br />

Ángel Puente and Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

October 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Raj Chinthapalli, Ángel Puente, Pia Skoczinski,<br />

Achim Raschka, Michael Carus, nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

October 2<strong>01</strong>9<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Authors: Lara Dammer, Michael Carus and Dr. Asta Partanen<br />

nova-Institut GmbH, Germany<br />

May 2<strong>01</strong>7<br />

This and other reports on the bio-based economy are available at<br />

www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

renewable-carbon.eu/publications<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 25

Automotive<br />

Why cycle<br />

when you could travel in style?<br />

By Alex Thielen<br />

The Finnish entrepreneur and guitar maker Ari-Jukka<br />

Luomaranta introduces a new way to travel in style – the<br />

Kinner-car, a modern retro-style velomobile. The Kinner is a<br />

two-seat four-wheel muscle-powered pedalcar – a humanpowered<br />

sportscar if you will. It has an electrical engine<br />

comparable to e-bikes with an assisted top speed of 25 km/h<br />

– you can go faster, on pure muscle power. The electrical<br />

assist can be turned off for the really ambitious drivers, but if<br />

active it makes low speed driving easy and comfortable.<br />

It has narrow and light road bike wheels, but tyres can be<br />

changed bigger for gravel roads. All composite parts can<br />

be made of fibreglass, carbon fibre, or a green biobased<br />

composite material making it overall very light. The Kinnercar<br />

won’t get a roof, but rather some kind of cover to protect<br />

the cockpit from the elements when left outside.<br />

However, at this point it is still a working prototype, so we<br />

do not have any information on the exact weight just yet. The<br />

first prototype is made of composites using fibreglass and<br />

carbon fibre. So there is no green prototype yet, but Ari-Jukka<br />

told bioplastics MAGAZINE that he plans to experiment with<br />

composite parts infused with greenpoxy and flax fibre. “Here<br />

in my area, west coast of Finland, we have a lot of knowhow<br />

in composites as we have many boat factories. (They are)<br />

making various kinds of motorboats, as well as sailboats also<br />

for competition, with a range of extreme requirements. We got<br />

the idea from Finnish boatmakers like Swan and Baltic-yacht.<br />

Baltic, for example, is making their Cafe racer by using the<br />

same principle to substitute as much carbon fibre as possible<br />

with flax.”<br />

What we do know are the general specs of the Kinner-car,<br />

it’s (currently) 285 cm long, 100 cm wide and has a wheelbase<br />

of 220 cm. Furthermore, it is registered as a power-assisted<br />

bicycle – no driving license is needed (in the EU). It is great for<br />

both shopping and travel as it has a large space for luggage<br />

under the hood. An integrated PIN-code-activated anti-theft<br />

system is planned as well.<br />

There will be various customizable options for the Kinnercar.<br />

Beyond the choice of various colours, there are also<br />

nice extras like side windscreen, mirrors, lights & blinkers<br />

integrated into the electric system which can be used like a<br />

sport watch.<br />

The stylish velomobile is a local production to make it as<br />

eco-friendly as possible, no overseas production is used for<br />

cheap labour or to get rid of environmental regulations. The<br />

individual parts don’t have to travel far either – everything is<br />

based around the town of Kokkola, Finland.<br />

The Kinner-car certainly is a luxury means of transportation<br />

with a price tag of 15,000 EUR (~12,000 EUR tax-free outside<br />

of the EU). There is a reservation option of 500 EUR that will<br />

help with getting the things rolling, which will be paid back<br />

with a 20 % bonus (so 600 EUR) after delivery – starting in<br />

April <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

www.kinner-car.com | https://greenpoxy.org<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Automotive<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 27

Automotive<br />

Sustainable materials in<br />

high-end luxury car<br />

Pictures courtesy Daimler<br />

The VISION EQXX is the result of a mission Mercedes-<br />

Benz (Stuttgart, Germany) set themselves to break<br />

through technological barriers across the board and<br />

to lift energy efficiency to new heights. It demonstrates<br />

the gains that are possible through rethinking the<br />

fundamentals from the ground up. This includes advances<br />

across all elements of its cutting-edge electric drivetrain as<br />

well as the use of lightweight engineering and sustainable<br />

materials.<br />

While Vision EQXX offers many innovations that are<br />

worthwhile to talk about this article will focus mainly on the<br />

sustainable materials used.<br />

Marking the launch of a new, super-purist design style,<br />

the Vision EQXX represents a new expression of efficiency in<br />

interior design. In a departure from the conventional design<br />

approach, the interior layout focuses on just a few modules<br />

and the beautiful simplicity of lightweight design. This is<br />

expressed through the absence of complex shapes and<br />

the integration of lightweight structures into the interior<br />

aesthetic in a wholly organic way, making traditional trim<br />

elements superfluous.<br />

The interior features many innovative materials sourced<br />

from start-ups around the world. For example, the<br />

door pulls are made from AMsilk’s (Planegg, Germany)<br />

Biosteel® fibre. This high-strength, certified-vegan, silklike<br />

fabric is made using AMSilk’s proprietary biotechnology<br />

expertise. AMSilk is the world’s first industrial supplier<br />

of vegan silk biopolymers which are biodegradable,<br />

recyclable, renewable, and zero-waste. Marking a first<br />

in the automotive sector, Biosteel provides a solution to<br />

the car industry whose need to replace petroleum-based<br />

content with natural, biobased materials is increasingly<br />

growing. (For some more info on Biosteel see bM 04/17)<br />

Another sustainable material gracing the interior of the<br />

Vision EQXX is Mylo TM (Emeryville, California, USA), a verified<br />

vegan leather alternative made from mycelium, which is the<br />

underground rootlike structure of mushrooms. It is certified<br />

biobased, which means it is made predominantly from<br />

renewable ingredients found in nature. This completely new<br />

material category created by the power of biotechnology is<br />

designed to be less harmful to the environment and is used<br />

for details of the seat cushions in the Vision EQXX.<br />

The animal-free leather alternative called Deserttex ® ,<br />

made by Desserto’s (Guadalajara, Mexico), is a sustainable<br />

cactus-based biomaterial made from pulverised cactus<br />

fibres combined with a sustainable biobased polyurethane<br />

matrix. In this combination, the leather alternative has<br />

an exceptionally supple finish that is extremely soft to the<br />

touch. Forthcoming versions have a higher cactus content,<br />

giving this material the potential to halve the ecological<br />

footprint associated with conventional artificial leathers.<br />

On the floor, the carpets in the Vision EQXX are made<br />

from 100 % bamboo fibre. In addition to being fastgrowing<br />

and renewable, this natural raw material offers an<br />

extremely luxurious look and feel. Mercedes-Benz chose<br />

these sustainable, innovative, high-performance materials<br />

because they, and others like them, have the potential to<br />

replace all sorts of petroleum- and animal-based products<br />

currently used in automotive applications. Together, they<br />

show a way forward for luxury design that conserves<br />

resources and is in balance with nature.<br />

Elsewhere, the Vision EQXX makes extensive use of<br />

recycled waste materials, such as the recycled PET bottles<br />

used in a shimmering textile to enhance the floor area<br />

and door trim. Higher up in the interior, the designers<br />

used DINAMICA®, from Vyva Fabrics (Amsterdam, The<br />

Netherlands) made from 38 % recycled PET to create a<br />

wrap-around effect linking the upper edge of the onepiece<br />

screen with the doors and headliner. The interior also<br />

features UBQ material, a sustainable plastic substitute<br />

made from household and municipal landfill waste.<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Automotive<br />

UBQ is also used in the largest aluminium structural<br />

casting at Mercedes-Benz, BIONEQXX is the major<br />

structural component at the rear end of the VISION EQXX<br />

– the rear floor.<br />

The most important of the structural criteria here<br />

is the need for very high stiffness and excellent crash<br />

performance. The beauty of the one-part BIONEQXX casting<br />

is the ability to pair this with functional integration within<br />

an extremely lightweight single component rather than an<br />

assembly of multiple parts joined together.<br />

The one-part casting has a web-like appearance with gaps<br />

where there is no need for structural elements. However,<br />

the rear floor of a vehicle is subject to more than just<br />

physical loads in everyday use. It has to withstand attempts<br />

by nature to get inside the car in the form of water and dirt.<br />

To address this, Mercedes-Benz engineers turned once<br />

more to external partner UBQ Materials. The sustainable<br />

plastic substitute developed by the Israel-based (Tel Aviv)<br />

start-up is made from the kind of waste that typically ends<br />

up in landfill. The cooperation between Mercedes and UBQ<br />

won the Sustainability Award in Automotive 2021 in the “best<br />

start-up” category. UBQ is not just suitable for prototype<br />

applications, it also offers very strong potential for transfer<br />

into series production in the near future.<br />

The openings in the BIONEQXX rear-floor casting were<br />

closed using patches made from UBQ produced on a 3D<br />

printer. A total of 42 UBQ patches were designed using<br />

shape optimisation to achieve extremely high stiffness<br />

and good sound-dampening qualities. Once inserted into<br />

the BIONEQXX casting using a special bonding process,<br />

the final unit is fully sealed against the ravages of water<br />

and dirt. The resulting part indicates that this innovative<br />

engineering approach has the potential to achieve weight<br />

savings of 15–20 % compared to a conventionally produced<br />

component. It marks a milestone in lightweight design that<br />

meets the exacting Mercedes-Benz quality requirements<br />

Jack “Tato” Bigio, Co-CEO and Co-Founder at UBQ-<br />

Materials, talked about their collaboration with Mercedes-<br />

Benz. “UBQ is used for a large number of plastic parts (in<br />

the Vision EQXX), it’s inside the rear of the car, it’s in the car,<br />

it’s in the motor – it was a very fruitful collaboration. (…)<br />

Mercedes-Benz is among the leading luxury car companies<br />

in the world and working together with them has just been<br />

really rewarding. They have very demanding requirements,<br />

certifications, and validating processes. Crossing all those<br />

barriers and becoming part of a Mercedes car is a dream<br />

come true,” Tato told bioplastics MAGAZINE. Due to time and<br />

space constraints we decided to publish the remainder of<br />

this interview in a later <strong>issue</strong> focusing on UBQ materials<br />

as a whole.<br />

In any case, it is great to see so many renewable materials<br />

used in high-end luxury cars, showing not only that they are<br />

viable design choices, but can compete with conventional<br />

plastic materials for technical applications as well. AT<br />

www.daimler.com | www.biosteel-fiber.com | www.mylo-unleather.com<br />

www.deserttex.com | www.vyvafabrics.com | www.ubqmaterials.com<br />

VISION EQXX: key technical data at a glance*<br />

Battery energy<br />

content, usable<br />

kWh 900<br />

Energy consumption<br />

kWh/100 km<br />

6)<br />

cd value 0.17**<br />

Max. power output kW ~150<br />

Wheelbase cm 280<br />

Gross vehicle weight kg ~1,750<br />

*: Range figures preliminary and based on digital simulations in<br />

real-life traffic conditions. The VISION EQXX has not undergone<br />

type approval or homologation<br />

** cd figure measured in the Daimler aero-acoustic wind tunnel at<br />

a wind speed of 140 km/h<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 29

Automotive<br />

Bioconcept-Car has 3 new siblings<br />

The development goes on with a lot of natural fibre composites, and more…<br />

Photo: Four Motors, Johannes Nollmeyer<br />

L<br />

ongtime readers of bioplastics MAGAZINE know that the<br />

Bioconcept-Car, created by Four Motors (Reutlingen,<br />

Germany) has always been one of our favourite subjects.<br />

When we visited the first edition (a biodiesel Ford Mustang) at<br />

the famous Nürburgring racetrack in Germany for our <strong>01</strong>/2007<br />

cover story, Alex, still a teenager then, was already on board. A<br />

Renault Mégane, a Volkswagen Scirocco and several Porsches<br />

followed. Some editions were even presented live at our bio!CAR<br />

conferences.<br />

For many, sustainability and racing sounds like a contradiction<br />

in terms. But it is not: “Especially in view of today’s diesel and<br />

particulate matter debates, environmentally-friendly mobility is<br />

becoming increasingly important. A switch to electric mobility<br />

is not possible from one day to the next. Alternatives must be<br />

created for a continuous transition to conserve finite resources<br />

and make them available to future generations for as long<br />

as possible,” explained Thomas (Tom) von Löwis of Menar,<br />

Managing Director of Four Motors.<br />

Driven by this pioneering spirit, every two to three years<br />

since 2006 unique prototypes have been created which serve<br />

as a platform for environmentally-friendly technologies, set<br />

standards and have had to prove themselves many times under<br />

the extreme competitive conditions of motorsports. As the<br />

“fastest test laboratory in the world,” Four Motors is competing<br />

with the Bioconcept-Car in the Nürburgring Endurance Series<br />

(NLS) and the international 24-hour race at the Nürburgring<br />

to test the sustainable concepts under the toughest real-life<br />

conditions and to make the abstract topic of renewables tangible.<br />

“In our beloved Green Hell, we show that sustainable mobility and<br />

driving pleasure are not mutually exclusive,” said driver Smudo,<br />

who is – by the way – the frontman of the famous and successful<br />

German Hip-hop band Die Fantastischen Vier (The Fantastic<br />

Four – not to be confused with the Marvel superheroes). After<br />

all, the aim of the project is not only to make effective use of<br />

renewable resources and promote the development of a climatefriendly<br />

car. Together with its various partners, Four Motors is<br />

also providing food for thought to draw public attention to the<br />

new possibilities and performance of these promising materials.<br />

The Bio-Trio<br />

Now the racing team around Tom owns and races three<br />

Porsche Bioconcept-Cars at the same time. The Bio-Trio<br />

consists of:<br />

1) a Porsche 911 GT3 Cup<br />

2) a Porsche 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport<br />

3) a Porsche Cayman GT4 Clubsport 981<br />

The green pioneers take their responsibility seriously without<br />

losing the fun of racing. In these three vehicles, the Bioconcept-<br />

Car team combines three pillars of sustainability:<br />

These are, of course, biobased materials which we will touch<br />

on in more detail below. In addition, the team looks into reducing<br />

CO 2<br />

through re-refined engine and gearbox oil and advanced<br />

fuels.<br />

The Bio-Trio is driving with re-refined engine and gearbox<br />

oil from sponsor duo Wolf Oil Corporation and Teco2il. Using<br />

patented high-tech processes, the Finnish refinery Teco2il<br />

processes used oils up to high-quality base oils, which are<br />

even purer than freshly produced base oils originating from<br />

crude oil. The Belgian lubricants company Wolf Oil Corporation<br />

formulates the base oils into high-performance oils so that they<br />

can be used in the engine and transmission sector. The use of<br />

these sustainable oils significantly reduces the CO 2<br />

footprint.<br />

Consistently implemented, this means a crude oil saving of more<br />

than two thirds and a corresponding reduction in CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

up to 80 % in the manufacturing process.<br />

The second pillar is the fuel. The E20 high-performance fuel<br />

from CropEnergies also ensures a significantly improved energy<br />

balance of the three Porsche race cars. E20 is a blend of 80 %<br />

petrol and 20 % sustainably produced bioethanol, which reduces<br />

CO 2<br />

emissions by approximately 70 % compared to a conventional<br />

super petrol. During the production of bioethanol, the CO 2<br />

emission is completely captured during the entire process chain,<br />

annually examined and certified by independent institutions. The<br />

production of domestic agricultural raw materials requires only<br />

1 % of the agricultural land for the entire European bioethanol<br />

industry. “And the development in terms of fuels goes on,” as<br />

Tom von Löwis told bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

And last but not at all least, lightweight components from<br />

bio-fibre composites. Since the beginning, in 2006, Four Motors<br />

has been using resource-conserving biomaterials in their<br />

Bioconcept-Cars, which are also particularly light to reduce the<br />

vehicle’s fuel consumption. They have been working together<br />

with the Fraunhofer WKI application centre in Hannover,<br />

Germany for nine years. In 2<strong>01</strong>7, the partners were strengthened<br />

for the first time by innovative German car manufacturer<br />

Porsche. The development cooperation is funded by the German<br />

Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL). Together with<br />

the natural fibre specialists from Bcomp (Fribourg, Switzerland),<br />

pioneering lightweight components made of natural fibre<br />

composites are being developed, designed, produced, and tested<br />

for suitability for series production in the Bioconcept-Car. By<br />

using lightweight components based on flax fibres, the weight<br />

of the bio-components has been almost matched to that of<br />

lightweight carbon versions.<br />

As part of the project, Bcomp conducted a full sustainability<br />

analysis comparing the natural fibre composites to the<br />

conventional carbon fibre parts. The Bcomp solution offered a<br />

94 % reduction in material emissions and a 90 % reduction in<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/21] Vol. 16

cradle-to-gate emissions. While carbon fibre parts are often<br />

discarded in landfills, Bcomp’s alternative brings a number of<br />

sustainable end-of-life options to help further minimise the<br />

cradle-to-grave impact. Thanks to highly efficient<br />

thermal energy recovery, components that are no<br />

longer in use or broken can be used to supply the<br />

production of new parts with renewable energy and<br />

form a sustainable process without residual waste.<br />

Porsche 911 GT3 Cup<br />

Vol. 2 ISSN 1862-5258<br />

The Porsche 911 GT3 Cup II is the first car to<br />

feature bio-fibre-doors produced using an RTM (Resin<br />

Transfer Moulding) process that enables the lightweight<br />

components to be mass-produced. In our interview,<br />

Tom told bioplastics MAGAZINE that the 911 had a severe<br />

accident in 2021, and “the whole car was destroyed, but<br />

NOT the doors,” as he pointed out.<br />

Porsche 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport<br />

The 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport is the first series-produced<br />

racing car to rely on sustainably manufactured body parts: The<br />

doors, rear wing, and front lip are made of the biocomposite<br />

materials that were previously successfully tested by Smudo<br />

on the Nürburgring Nordschleife. In 2020 Four Motors, Bcomp,<br />

Porsche Motorsport, and Manthey-Racing also constructed<br />

and produced a lightweight kit with the natural fibre materials.<br />

Front and rear bumper, as well as rear and front hood,<br />

performed perfectly during the 24h race endurance test in the<br />

Four Motors’ 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport.<br />

In addition, the 718 has been equipped with a sustainable<br />

interior since September 2021. Together with Porsche,<br />

the Swiss sustainable lightweighting company Bcomp has<br />

developed a high-performance natural fibre interior for this<br />

car. Nine parts were subjected to reverse engineering by<br />

Bcomp, including the air ducts, consoles, instrument cluster,<br />

glove compartment, and roof module. All optical components<br />

have been given a semi-transparent matt finish to match the<br />

finish of the GT4 CS series rear wing, which also features<br />

ampliTex and powerRibs from Bcomp. The powerRibs<br />

reinforcement grid uses the high specific bending stiffness<br />

of flax to build up height very efficiently, boosting the flexural<br />

stiffness of thin-walled shell elements significantly (cf. bM<br />

03/15, 06/17, 04/18, <strong>01</strong>/19, <strong>01</strong>/21).<br />

The sustainable flax-fibre composite components also offer<br />

250 % better vibration damping than carbon fibre, which leads<br />

to less noise, less vibration, and harshness (NVH) advantages.<br />

At the end of 2021, Porsche presented the successor to<br />

the 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport – the new GT4 RS. While the<br />

previous 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport was the first-ever series<br />

production race car to use body parts made of renewable<br />

natural-fibre composite material. In the case of the new GT4 RS<br />

Clubsport, even more extensive use of this material is made in<br />

the vehicle as a whole. In addition to the doors and the rear wing,<br />

the bonnet, the wings, the aerodynamic components at the front<br />

end, and the steering wheel are now made of this material.<br />

Porsche Cayman GT4 Clubsport 981<br />

And finally, “the 981 is our rolling test-lab,” as Tom von<br />

Löwis explained. This car had an accident in 2021 as well.<br />

In this case, the doors were damaged too. “But the doors<br />

broke without splintering,” Tom said. “This is a big advantage,<br />

especially in a race, as there are no sharp-edged splinters on<br />

the road that could damage the tyres of the following cars.”<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

<strong>01</strong>/2007<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 5 ISSN 1862-5258<br />

<strong>01</strong> | 2007<br />

Biodiesel racing car<br />

made of linseed oil acrylate | 10<br />

Basics<br />

Cellulosics | 44<br />

Highlights:<br />

Automotive | 10<br />

Foam | 22<br />

Bioplastics in<br />

Automotive Applications | 10<br />

How much „bio“ is in there? | 15<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 7 ISSN 1862-5258<br />

<strong>01</strong> | 2<strong>01</strong>0<br />

. is read in 85 countries<br />

<strong>01</strong>/2<strong>01</strong>0<strong>01</strong>/2<strong>01</strong>2<br />

January/February <strong>01</strong> | 2<strong>01</strong>2<br />

Highlights<br />

Automotive | 10<br />

Basics<br />

Basics of PLA | 54<br />

Highlights<br />

Automotive | 10<br />

Foam | 26<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 8 ISSN 1862-5258<br />

. is read in 91 countries<br />

Porsche 911 GT3 Cup<br />

(Photo: Four Motors / Gruppe C Photography)<br />

Porsche 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport<br />

(Photo: Four Motors / Gruppe C Photography)<br />

Basics<br />

PTT | 44<br />

Cayman GT4 Clubsport 981<br />

(Photo: Four Motors / ElfImages Motorsport)<br />

<strong>01</strong>/2<strong>01</strong>3<br />

By Michael Thielen<br />

January / February<br />

Cover-Story<br />

Bioconcept Car | 10<br />

. is read in 91 countries<br />

<strong>01</strong> | 2<strong>01</strong>3<br />

Automotive<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [04/21] Vol. 16 31

Conference Automotive Review<br />

Porsche 718 GT4 CS Interieur (Photo: Four Motors)<br />

Biocomposite rear wing and bumper<br />

(Photo: Four Motors / ElfImages Motorsport)<br />

Even the wheel rims (RONAL) are made of mostly recycled<br />

aluminium and manufactured with 100 % green electricity.<br />

The more durable tyres from Michelin, as well as the<br />

planned development of low-abrasion and environmentally<br />

friendly brake pads from PAGID Racing round off the<br />

sustainable wheels<br />

(Photo: Four Motors / ElfImages Motorsport)<br />

In 2<strong>01</strong>1, Michael Thielen took a round through the<br />

Nürburgring Nordschleife himself in the Volkswagen<br />

Scirocco Bioconcept-Car (Photo: Hans-Josef Endres)<br />

Voices<br />

“On the race track the evidence is shown: A racing car<br />

with components made of plant fibres and other biogenic<br />

raw materials is just as powerful as a conventional racing<br />

car. And what works under high performance and extreme<br />

conditions is even more reliable in everyday life. This once<br />

again shows just how much potential the bio-economy<br />

has to offer. It is all about sustainability and finding<br />

environmentally-friendly mobility solutions. My goal is to<br />

ensure that alternative raw materials, i.e. raw materials<br />

that are not dependent on crude oil, are used to a much<br />

greater extent in everyday products. In this way, we are<br />

also making a contribution to climate protection and the<br />

protection of our resources,” said the former German<br />

Minister of Agriculture, Julia Klöckner.<br />

Smudo added: “Bio in automotive engineering is hightech.<br />

Biotechnologies make the car even more competitive.<br />

For the first time, we have succeeded in winning an<br />

automobile manufacturer in Porsche with whom we can<br />

bring bio-lightweight components into series production.”<br />

“Given the popularity of race-to-road technology transfer<br />

– and the similarity between GT4 and road-going sportscars<br />

– this proves the possibility of volume road applications<br />

for our technology,” said Christian Fischer, CEO and Co-<br />

Founder of Bcomp. “We look forward to continuing our work<br />

with Porsche Motorsport and exploring new possibilities<br />

and applications for sustainable composites in racing and<br />

beyond.”<br />

Eduard Ene, Specialist Interior GT-Road Cars, Porsche<br />

Motorsport, commented: “We must all ensure that natural<br />

fibre composites are used more and more in the world of<br />

automotive components.”<br />

Kay-Alexander Breitbach, project leader GT racecars,<br />

adds: “Porsche has proven in the GT4 RS that natural fibrebased<br />

plastics are competitive and believes in the potential<br />

of sustainable racing.”<br />

And finally, Tom von Löwis said: “Thanks to the<br />

collaboration between the Porsche engineers and the<br />

natural fibre specialists at Bcomp, the quality of natural<br />

fibre components has been raised to a new level in recent<br />

years and beats carbon fibre components particularly in<br />

terms of the carbon footprint. We are pleased that with the<br />

bio-interior we can now gradually replace all carbon fibre<br />

parts in our 718 Cayman GT4 CS with natural-fibre parts.”<br />

Outlook<br />

Four Motors and the Bioconcept-Car team are<br />

enthusiastic about future developments. In <strong>2022</strong> they are<br />

planning to investigate 100 % biobased composites. “We<br />

call that B100, or Bio100,” as Tom von Löwis pointed out.<br />

“We are thinking of combining the natural fibres with 100<br />

% biobased resins in so-called prepregs.” The second<br />

approach, while not exactly a bioplastics topic, is no less<br />

important: “As electromobility is not an <strong>issue</strong> for us – at<br />

least not yet – we are looking into more sustainable fuel<br />

mixtures.” More details, however, could not be disclosed<br />

so far. So, stay tuned. bioplastics MAGAZINE will continue<br />

its now 15-year lasting observation of the Bioconcept-Car<br />

development.<br />

www.fourmotors.com | www.bcomp.ch<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 33

Automotive<br />

Car headliner from<br />

plastic waste and old tyres<br />

Grupo Antolin, (Burgos, Spain), a global supplier of<br />

technological solutions for car interiors, presents the<br />

first headliner substrate produced by thermoforming a<br />

PU foam with materials made from urban & post-consumer<br />

plastic waste and end-of-life tyres. Working with recycled<br />

materials is a natural step in the company’s commitment<br />

to developing a sustainable business. The aim is to reduce<br />

waste and energy consumption during manufacturing and<br />

to meet the demand for eco-friendly interiors, something<br />

increasingly valued by car buyers’ choices.<br />

The headliner part looks like a standard headliner and<br />

performs exactly the same (sustainability surge comes<br />

without any reduction in the physical properties of the<br />

headliner). This accomplishment has been possible thanks<br />

to a material’s manufacturing process developed by the<br />

partner BASF (using of chemical recycling) that Antolin<br />

has validated and introduced in a fully electric European<br />

premium car that has just been launched to the market.<br />

Approximately 50 % of the headliner weight is recycled. In<br />

this particular project, 100 % of the textile, 70 % of the core<br />

foam, and 70 % of the plastic sunroof reinforcement frame<br />

have been obtained from residues that couldn’t be recycled<br />

in any other way and would have been, ultimately, disposed<br />

of in landfills or incinerated.<br />

“This project is a step towards a more sustainable car<br />

interior trim and a huge leap for the Wet PU technology.<br />

A technology that has demonstrated to be the most<br />

competitive in terms of cost and quality, fulfilling at the<br />

same time the most demanding specifications from our<br />

clients,” says Enrique Fernandez, Advanced Engineering<br />

Director, Overhead Systems BU.<br />

“We are going one step further by deploying the strategy<br />

among our clients worldwide. Our next project featuring<br />

recycled core PU foam will be unveiled in <strong>2022</strong> and it will be<br />

manufactured using renewable electricity. Our commitment<br />

is to reduce the generation of waste and emissions in all<br />

our production processes,” highlights Javier Blanco, Grupo<br />

Antolin’s Sustainability Director. These types of solutions are<br />

an example of the company’s technological commitment to<br />

help its customers to develop more sustainable vehicles by<br />

reducing waste, weight and emissions.<br />

This action is part of the Sustainability Master Plan that<br />

has been designed with the United Nations Sustainable<br />

Development Goals’ 2030 Agenda as a roadmap.<br />

Mechanical recycling<br />

As the leading overhead systems supplier, Grupo Antolin<br />

focuses on different methods and technologies to recycle<br />

interior trim parts as part of its objective to make a positive<br />

contribution to society and reduce carbon footprint. In<br />

this sense, mechanical recycling is another well-known<br />

procedure that helps to reintegrate plastic products into<br />

the production cycle. This is a mature technology that has<br />

found many applications and it’s well integrated in industrial<br />

processes. This type of recycling is currently being used<br />

with thermoplastic structures. With thermoset materials,<br />

mechanical recycling is not possible in many cases, though.<br />

Antolin has developed<br />

technologies that allow to process<br />

a wider quality range of recycled<br />

plastic sources that are transformed<br />

into automotive parts using a<br />

process called Novaform. On the<br />

other hand, it has also introduced<br />

in serial production in Europe a<br />

method to recycle the thermoset<br />

run-offs and technical scrap from<br />

headliners and transform them<br />

into construction boards. These<br />

boards are currently being used in<br />

Europe, Africa, and South America.<br />

The product, branded Coretech, is<br />

capable of transforming a composite<br />

thermoset product (that couldn’t be<br />

recycled in other ways) into a board<br />

with outstanding insulation and<br />

endurance properties. MT<br />

www.grupoantolin.com<br />

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 35

Foam<br />

Mattress recycling now a reality<br />

Dow Polyurethanes, a business division of Dow (Midland,<br />

Michigan, USA), and Orrion Chemicals Orgaform<br />

(Semoy, France) together with Eco-mobilier (Paris,<br />

France), H&S Anlagentechnik (Sulingen, Germany), and The<br />

Vita Group (Manchester, UK) have inaugurated a pioneering<br />

mattress recycling plant as part of the RENUVA program.<br />

Old mattresses made of polyurethane foam will now be<br />

recovered, dismantled, and chemically recycled to create<br />

a new polyol, which is a key starting material to produce<br />

polyurethane. This Renuva polyol is designed for various<br />

applications including mattresses. The recent unveiling<br />

is a major step forward for the recovery and recycling of<br />

polyurethane foam and a significant advance for closing the<br />

loop for end-of-life mattresses. At full capacity, the plant<br />

will process up to 200,000 mattresses per year to tackle the<br />

growing mattress waste problem.<br />

“We are immensely proud to have unveiled this plant.<br />

By doing so we are answering the question of what can be<br />

done with recycled polyurethane foam. It is part of Dow’s<br />

strong commitment to delivering solutions that help close<br />

the loop and protect our environment,” commented Marie<br />

Buy, Sustainability Leader EMEAI, Dow Polyurethanes, “As<br />

Renuva now shifts focus to the production phase and the<br />

first foam made with the new polyol, our Dow Polyurethane<br />

sustainability journey continues. We are actively exploring<br />

future possibilities for recycled material and potential<br />

applications. It is really a new beginning.”<br />

The Renuva mattress recycling plant is the result of<br />

strong collaboration between Dow and key players from<br />

across the mattress lifecycle: chemical innovator Orrion<br />

Chemicals Orgaform, expert mattress collector Ecomobilier,<br />

turnkey solutions provider H&S Anlagentechnik,<br />

and foam manufacturer The Vita Group.<br />

“This really is a first for our company and for France.<br />

We have a longstanding commitment to creating more<br />

sustainable solutions and have long recognized the need<br />

for the industry to be part of the solution,” commented<br />

Christian Siest, President, Orrion Chemicals Orgaform,<br />

“Our plant uses a chemical recycling process in which the<br />

polyurethane foam is decomposed and converted into a<br />

novel single product. The great thing about this is versatility;<br />

we can process foam from any mattress and the Renuva<br />

polyol recipe itself can be tailored for different applications.”<br />

“Our ambition is to ensure the quality of the materials<br />

collected and delivery to Renuva so that we keep to the<br />

promise of a closed loop”, stated Dominique Mignon,<br />

President of Eco-mobilier.<br />

As previously announced, flexible polyurethane foam<br />

solutions provider, The Vita Group will use the Renuva polyol<br />

to create its award-winning Orbis flexible foam, providing a<br />

more sustainable offering to the bedding market.<br />

“Consumer attitudes have changed significantly, and<br />

people are becoming a lot more focused on making<br />

sustainable choices. We have already seen strong interest<br />

from customers across Europe for Orbis foam and interest<br />

in the Renuva technology, providing exciting opportunities<br />

for our product lines,” commented Mark Lewis, Operations<br />

and Projects Director at The Vita Group.<br />

Last year in late September, Dow and Renuva partners<br />

hosted a special virtual event “Closing the Loop for<br />

Mattresses: A New Beginning with Renuva” to reflect on the<br />

future of the program and share a closer look at what this<br />

plant means for the bedding industry (see video link).<br />

Eco-mobilier is also collaborating with materials<br />

manufacturer Covestro (Leverkusen, Germany), aspiring<br />

to generate enhanced value aiming at mattresses and<br />

upholsteries. Both parties want to further develop waste<br />

markets for foam used in such applications, to enable its<br />

use in chemical recycling processes with high efficiency<br />

at an industrial level. Furthermore, the parties underline<br />

their commitment through an agreement, which sets out<br />

a common understanding of strategic goals, projects, and<br />

activities, forming the basis for a long-term cooperation<br />

between them.<br />

Covestro and Eco-mobilier want to keep mattrasses out<br />

of landfill and minimize incineration, thus reducing their<br />

environmental impact, and giving the material a new life.<br />

For this purpose, they want to combine their expertise<br />

and jointly develop a new solution and a business model<br />

for the chemical recycling of polyurethane foam from postconsumer<br />

mattresses and upholsteries.<br />

Eco-mobilier has extensive experience in the collection,<br />

logistics and processing of used furniture, such as<br />

mattresses and upholsteries. This mainly concerns the<br />

dismantling of used furniture and pre-sorting materials in<br />

Dismantling of old matresses<br />

Chemical recycling step<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Foam<br />

order to obtain pure foam parts as raw materials for<br />

recycling. A key topic of the collaboration is to further<br />

develop the decentralized dismantling process of<br />

mattresses to avoid ecologically unfavourable transport<br />

of the foam parts to the chemical recycling plant.<br />

At a later stage, the partners also plan to evaluate<br />

possibilities and develop a corresponding process<br />

for recycling upholstered furniture with polyurethane<br />

foams.<br />

Brand<br />

owner<br />

Retail<br />

End customer<br />

End-of-life<br />

products<br />

“For ten years, Eco-mobilier has been acting to set<br />

up and improve a specific scheme for End-of-Life PU<br />

foam collecting and recycling. The partnership between<br />

Eco-mobilier and Covestro will allow to increase and<br />

to diversify the existing solutions for the chemical<br />

recycling of PU foam and to extend the perspectives<br />

for a material which had been considered, yet recently,<br />

as non-recyclable. Especially, by experiencing padded<br />

furniture recycling with Covestro, Eco-mobilier is<br />

delighted to start a new stage of development of its<br />

strategy targeting ´zero landfilling´ for furniture,” said<br />

Dominique Mignon.<br />

As part of its new collaboration with Eco-mobilier,<br />

Covestro intends to make use of a novel process<br />

compared to other chemical recycling approaches,<br />

which it has developed for recycling the foam chemically.<br />

The technology has competitive advantages as it allows<br />

the recovery of both core raw materials originally used.<br />

To this end, the company also operates a pilot plant<br />

for flexible foam recycling at its site in Leverkusen,<br />

Germany, which is used for test purposes.<br />

“We are thrilled to complement Eco-mobilier´s<br />

unique expertise in furniture recycling with our chemical<br />

recycling technology in this powerful partnership,” says<br />

Christine Mendoza-Frohn, Executive Vice President &<br />

Info<br />

See a video-clip at:<br />

tinyurl.com/<br />

mattress-recycling<br />

Manufacturing<br />

SeekTogether<br />

Recycling<br />

Collection<br />

Dismantling<br />

Collaborating across the value chain<br />

(Source: www.corporate.dow.com)<br />

Head of Sales EMLA for Performance Materials at Covestro.<br />

“The strategic intent of our collaboration is to design and<br />

validate a joint pilot model to encourage and make real an<br />

accelerated adoption of recycling and reusing polyurethane<br />

foams from used furniture in Europe and beyond.”<br />

Both these collaborations aim at changing part of our<br />

linear consumer system towards a more circular one, such<br />

undertakings are difficult to implement as Mila Skokova,<br />

Sales and Product manager at H&S Anlagentechnik, points<br />

out, “Renuva has created an echo system that brings together<br />

all the players in mattress recycling, otherwise it would never<br />

be possible to implement innovative recycling solutions of this<br />

magnitude. There are many hurdles to overcome in building<br />

a new industrial echo system – a changed process can only<br />

succeed if all players involved pull in the same direction. It<br />

requires determination to make the shared vision a reality<br />

– every partner must have the unconditional will to take on<br />

the role of gamechanger. This way, barriers such as legal<br />

frameworks or antiquated ways of thinking can be overcome.”<br />

Hopefully, in the future more key players, not just in the fields<br />

of mattress recycling and polyurethane, will work together to<br />

change the system and as Mila astutely states, “this requires<br />

a shared value system of trust, reliability, and fairness.” AT<br />

www.dow.com<br />

www.oc-orgaform.com<br />

www.eco-mobilier.fr<br />

www.hs-anlagentechnik.de<br />

www.thevitagroup.com<br />

www.covestro.com<br />

Production of new matresses (all photos from the video (see link)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 37

Foam<br />

KANEKA Biodegradable Polymer Green Planet (Expanded beads)<br />

Kaneka Corporation (Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan) announced<br />

last year that they have been developing technology for<br />

turning KANEKA Biodegradable Polymer Green Planet<br />

(PHBH) into a foam material. Recently, Kaneka’s new foam<br />

products were adopted by fishery businesses for fish boxes<br />

that store fresh fish.<br />

In search of measures to help solve the <strong>issue</strong> of marine<br />

microplastics, the adoption by fishery businesses of Green<br />

Planet PHBH foam products for fish boxes opens a door to<br />

a solution that deals directly with ocean pollution, and there<br />

is growing interest from the fisheries industry.<br />

Kaneka’s biodegradable polymer Green Planet is a<br />

100 % plant-derived biodegradable polymer (PHBH)<br />

developed by integrating fermentation and macromolecule<br />

technologies. It has excellent biodegradability in a wide<br />

range of environments and has the unique characteristic<br />

of biodegrading especially well in seawater. Already almost<br />

four years ago, the OK Biodegradable MARINE certification<br />

was <strong>issue</strong>d to Green Planet TÜV AUSTRIA Belgium (then still<br />

Vinçotte), an international certifying body headquartered in<br />

Belgium.<br />

By using Kaneka’s proven expandable plastic technology,<br />

the company developed the Green Planet Molded Foam<br />

Products, as a new use of its PHBH resins. It is the result<br />

of the combination of technologies that Kaneka masters<br />

particularly well. Kaneka announced to continue developing<br />

materials for products such as containers for shipping<br />

perishable foods for the fishing and farming industries,<br />

fishing industry materials such as floats for culturing, and<br />

cushions that are made of foam beads and shock-absorbing<br />

materials for home electrical appliances and furniture.<br />

Kaneka has declared its alignment with the<br />

recommendations of the TCFD (Taskforce on Climaterelated<br />

Financial Disclosures, as established by the<br />

Financial Stability Board on the request of the G20).<br />

Here, one particular area the company plans to tackle is<br />

“Contributing to a Recycling-oriented Society”. Adoption<br />

of Green Planet is progressing in various fields, including<br />

straws and cosmetics packages. Kaneka will increasingly<br />

broaden the usage of Green Planet PHBH as a material that<br />

helps reduce the impact on the environment and provide<br />

solutions to environmental <strong>issue</strong>s. MT<br />

www.kaneka.co.jp/en<br />

PHBH foam<br />

products<br />

KANEKA Biodegradable Polymer<br />

Green Planet Molded Foam<br />

products adopted for fish boxes<br />

Containers for storing and transporting fish boxes<br />

(Green Planet particle foam products)<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

New 3D printing powder<br />

for food industry<br />

Materials<br />

FABULOUS, an expert company in polymeric 3D<br />

printing materials, brings innovation to a market now<br />

focused on production. Fabulous is a French company<br />

from Lyon. Recently they introduced BLUECARE, a mass<br />

blue PA 11 based material for the powder-based additive<br />

manufacturing (3D-printing) systems (LS, SLS, HSS, IRS).<br />

It has been certified for Food Contact Application following<br />

the European Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2<strong>01</strong>1 on<br />

plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact<br />

with food and alcohol.<br />

Material requirements of the food industry<br />

Additive Manufacturing is a production technology growing<br />

in every market, changing from prototyping applications to<br />

production. The food industry market (and others) follows<br />

this trend and Bluecare comes to answer some of its needs:<br />

1. Safety Blue Plastic Parts are used in different industrial<br />

areas, as prevention in the food industry, due to their<br />

visibility and identification in real-time production lines<br />

(identification of foreign bodies or fragments of plastics in<br />

food by visual or optical blue detection).<br />

2. Final machinery parts certified for food contact: parts<br />

made of plastic materials and in direct contact with food<br />

must meet strict requirements in regard to the materials<br />

used, especially when it comes to verifying that the contact<br />

is not harmful from a physiological point of view. Blue<br />

Care, through its certifications, meets the requirements<br />

of international regulations for parts in contact with food.<br />

Also, with Bluecare, component cleanliness is easier to<br />

evaluate, as spores, mould, food, or detergent residue are<br />

clearly visible.<br />

Environmental benefits of Bluecare material :<br />

In addition to safety blue colour needed for food line<br />

production, Blue Care material got two main benefits for<br />

sustainability :<br />

More than ten European customers specialized in the<br />

food industry are now using Bluecare. FDA certification is<br />

currently in progress for USA/Canada market.<br />

At https://tinyurl.com/fabulous-3D several videoclips<br />

about Bluecare can be seen.<br />

More powder innovations<br />

Fabulous has become a key player in innovation in the<br />

industrial 3D printing powders market. At the recent<br />

Formnext world fair (November 2021, Frankfurt/M.,<br />

Germany) two other materials were introduced:<br />

• DETECT: Polymer metal composite, with magnetic<br />

detection functionality and certifications for different<br />

sectors.<br />

• RED STOP: the equivalent of Bluecare but mass red, to<br />

manufacture parts requiring safety visibility. MT<br />

https://fabulous.com.co/en/<br />

Info<br />

See a video-clip at:<br />

https://tinyurl.com/<br />

fabulous-3D<br />

• Biosourced polymer, compared to conventional fossilbased<br />

polymers.<br />

• Refresh rate is the highest possible for 3d printing<br />

material: 50 % of the powder reusable<br />

The first applications of Bluecare :<br />

Partner customers already started producing parts using<br />

Blue Care in January 2021: this is the case of the IDPRINT<br />

3D printing service in Laiz, France: Bluecare powder was<br />

used to design 30 cm wide modular food conveyor belts.<br />

A success, according to Patrice Panchot, manager of<br />

Idprint 3D, who believes that the material is perfectly<br />

adapted to his needs: “Bluecare is the ideal material for<br />

additive manufacturing of parts for food conveyors, avoiding<br />

the manufacture of a mould that is too expensive for the<br />

number of parts to be made.”<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 39

Processing<br />

Extrusion lines<br />

for natural fibre waste<br />

Sustainability is now a key concept that affects all<br />

economic sectors, first and foremost construction,<br />

where attention is increasingly required when<br />

dealing with innovative and eco-sustainable materials,<br />

also for interior furnishings. In this respect, Bausano<br />

(Rivaroio Canavese, Italy) leading international player in<br />

the design and production of custom extrusion lines for the<br />

transformation of plastic materials responds to the new<br />

needs of the sector, enhancing its extrusion lines for plastic<br />

waste (PVC, PE, or PP) and natural fibres, including wood<br />

dust and substances of plant origin, such as rice husks,<br />

coffee grounds, banana peels, seaweed, almond shells,<br />

avocado kernels, cork, and other plant residues.<br />

In detail, the market for composites obtained from<br />

natural fibres is experiencing significant growth thanks to<br />

the properties that make these materials unique in terms<br />

of versatility, reliability, and environmental impact. In fact,<br />

they are 100 % recyclable and can be transformed into a<br />

new product at low cost. By virtue of their exceptional<br />

performance characteristics, in terms of high resistance to<br />

corrosion, atmospheric agents, UV rays, and impermeability,<br />

they are ideal for cladding, furniture and indoor and outdoor<br />

flooring, especially decking. Furthermore, thanks to their<br />

increased lifespan, plant fibre-plastic composite materials<br />

are also increasingly used in the automotive sector, for<br />

the internal lining of door panels, dashboards, trunks and<br />

for the production of particularly light components, which<br />

contribute reducing the weight of vehicles.<br />

Bausano’s extrusion technology has been perfected<br />

to incorporate up to 100 phr of wood or natural fibre. The<br />

specific counter-rotating twin-screw configuration makes<br />

it possible to achieve an accurate mixing between melted<br />

polymer and fibre, passing it through the die without the<br />

need for a melting pump. Specifically, profiles can be<br />

directly extruded from the raw material (direct extrusion)<br />

or the material can be processed starting from the granule<br />

(indirect extrusion). In direct extrusion, Bausano machines<br />

ensure the processing of fibres with a moisture content<br />

of up to 12 % at a speed three times higher with respect<br />

to other solutions on the market. The granulation lines,<br />

specifically designed to ensure maximum performance<br />

at any production speed, also enable the use of recycling<br />

materials and can be configured with premixing or<br />

gravimetric dosing systems upstream. The granules<br />

obtained can thus be transformed into a finished product<br />

either through injection moulding or extrusion, with twin<br />

or single screw. Lastly, the lines are distinguished by the<br />

high degree of customisation, the wide range of modular<br />

accessories and a special coating, on request, which<br />

extends the useful lifespan of screws and cylinders up to<br />

25,000 hours, before replacement is required.<br />

Clemente Bausano, Vice President of the Company states<br />

“The plant fibre-plastic composite materials are a valid<br />

alternative in construction and architecture. In fact, they<br />

are part of a circular economy perspective: for example, the<br />

wood used is usually a product of waste from the furniture<br />

industry that is recycled to be extruded again, thus reducing<br />

deforestation”, and continues “Europe is currently the thirdlargest<br />

market in the world for wood-plastic composites<br />

and I believe that EU policies for the environment and<br />

climate provide significant opportunities for the growth of<br />

the sector, in particular through the “Renovation Wave”<br />

strategy, an integral part of the Green Deal promoted by<br />

Brussels.” And he concludes: “For Bausano, enhancing this<br />

range of extruders is part of a broader programme, aimed at<br />

pursuing the sustainable development goals drafted in the<br />

United Nations 2030 Agenda. A path that sees us engaged<br />

on three levels: social, environmental, and economic, acting<br />

as the spokespeople for a virtuous change that also involves<br />

our customers.”<br />

Bausano also offers counter-rotating twin-screw<br />

extrusion lined specially dedicated to the processing of<br />

biodegradable polymers such as PVA. Bausano meets the<br />

special requirements of such polymers thanks to its special<br />

extrusion lines, of the MD Nextmover product family, for the<br />

production of water-soluble bioplastic granules, which are<br />

ideal for subsequent blown film extrusion. There are some<br />

special aspects to be taken into consideration, including the<br />

length of the barrel, which must allow the material to pass<br />

through for the time strictly necessary. In fact, if it remains<br />

there for too long, it will be subject to excessive stress.<br />

The second aspect is temperature, as processing takes<br />

place at much higher temperatures than with PVC, for<br />

example. In addition, in order to obtain a granule without<br />

impurities, the gel point must be determined with absolute<br />

accuracy. bioplastics MAGAZINE will report about this in more<br />

detail in one of the future <strong>issue</strong>s. MT<br />

www.bausano.com<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

PLA crystallization and drying<br />

Now possible in just minutes instead of hours<br />

Processing<br />

A<br />

particular challenge in processing PLA is<br />

crystallization and drying. Because PLA is a<br />

hygroscopic thermoplastic, it readily absorbs<br />

moisture from the atmosphere. The presence of even small<br />

amounts of moisture hydrolyzes the biopolymer in the melt<br />

phase and reduces the molecular weight. As a result, the<br />

mechanical properties of PLA decrease and the quality of<br />

the final product is compromised. Therefore, PLA must be<br />

thoroughly dried directly before melt-processing. In many<br />

cases, recycled polymers must also be crystallized before<br />

drying.<br />

With its infrared rotary drum (IRD), KREYENBORG (Senden,<br />

Germany) offers a fast, energy-saving and product-friendly<br />

solution. Feed material is first introduced into the rotary<br />

drum by a volumetric dosing system. High-level heat is then<br />

quickly and directly introduced into the core of the material<br />

by means of infrared light. With its special wavelength, the<br />

infrared light penetrates the granules, thus the introduced<br />

energy heats the material from the inside and drives the<br />

moisture out through heat flow from the inside out. The air,<br />

laden with moisture, is discharged by a constant flow of<br />

air from within the drum. The air itself is not heated by the<br />

infrared light, just by the heat coming from the granules.<br />

This makes the process even more energy efficient.<br />

A continuously moving spiral welded into the rotary<br />

drum ensures a homogeneous mass-flow with a defined<br />

residence time (first-in/first-out principle) (see picture).<br />

The mixing elements integrated in the spirals, as well<br />

as the rotation, ensure continuous mixing of the feed<br />

material. In the process, the material at the surface is<br />

constantly exchanged. These continuous rotary movements<br />

prevent the product from blocking and clumping. With<br />

these advantages, drying times of only 15 minutes can be<br />

achieved.<br />

In conventional hot-air dryers, the previously crystallized<br />

PLA can be dried at only 65–90 °C (150-190 °F) using<br />

dehumidified air. Here, higher drying temperatures could<br />

lead to softening and blocking of the polymer in the dryer.<br />

Typically, this results in drying times of between 2 and<br />

8 hours, while lower drying temperatures result in even<br />

longer drying times. The energy input necessary for these<br />

conventional processes is sometimes considerable.<br />

Generally, PLA must be dried to a moisture level of < 250<br />

ppm and maintained at this level to minimize hydrolysis<br />

during melt processing. Achieving and maintaining these<br />

kinds of levels is not optional, but is an absolute necessity,<br />

and is feasible using Kreyenborg’s infrared rotary drum. A<br />

dry granule helps control relative viscosity (RV) loss, which<br />

should be less than 0.1. Controlling RV loss is critical to<br />

maintaining impact resistance, melt-viscosity, and other<br />

important properties of the feedstock.<br />

Kreyenborg invites customers who want to see the<br />

performance of the machinery in action to participate in<br />

pilot plant trials, which now can even be conducted online.<br />

MT<br />

https://www.kreyenborg.com<br />

Kreyenborg crystallisation and drying principle<br />

1<br />

Feeding+material flow+temperature scheme<br />

1 Dosing hopper<br />

2<br />

2<br />

Drum with weldedhelix<br />

3<br />

3<br />

Infraredmodule<br />

4<br />

4<br />

Temperature measurement<br />

9<br />

Material outlet<br />

9<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 41

Opinion<br />

The new JRC’s<br />

“Plastics LCA method”<br />

already needs an update<br />

Constance Ißbrücker, Head of Environmental Affairs at European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Erwin Vink, Sr. Sustainability Manager, NatureWorks LLC<br />

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is basically the only tool<br />

we currently have for making comparisons between<br />

products from an environmental point of view. The<br />

development of LCA tools started more than 30 years ago<br />

but it seems that they are still far from perfect. In that time,<br />

a wide range of different LCA methods and databases have<br />

been created, all competing with each other. Do we really<br />

need them all? Maybe we should have one globally accepted<br />

methodology and database, but that probably will never<br />

happen. Another serious shortcoming is that several very<br />

critical environmental problems, like loss of biodiversity<br />

and plastic pollution of our soil and oceans, are still not<br />

incorporated in LCAs because the assessment methods<br />

are not available yet. This means that LCAs still only<br />

incorporate a part of the total environmental impact. For<br />

some environmental impacts, such as climate change, one<br />

would expect that the LCA tool would work very well, but<br />

also here we see many different calculation procedures and<br />

‘incomparable’ data sets. So, even for this most basic global<br />

environmental impact, the tool comes with challenges. The<br />

LCA community still has some significant challenges for<br />

the years to come. So, at this point, it remains important to<br />

be always very cautious and critical in judging LCAs and the<br />

methodologies behind them.<br />

In the EU Plastics Strategy, a vision was presented where<br />

innovative materials and alternative feedstocks would<br />

ultimately replace fossil resources. In this context, and<br />

with the knowledge about the shortcomings of available<br />

LCA methods, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) was tasked<br />

in 2<strong>01</strong>8 by the European Commission to develop a new<br />

LCA methodology to evaluate the potential environmental<br />

impacts of plastic products from different feedstocks. This<br />

resulted in July 2021, in the publication of a 308-page LCA<br />

methodology study called: ‘LCA of alternative feedstocks for<br />

plastic products’ Part 1: the Plastics LCA methodology [1].<br />

(In Part 2, ten LCA case studies will be published based on<br />

this methodology.)<br />

Over those three years, European Bioplastics (EUBP)<br />

had had personal meetings with the JRC experts and<br />

additionally provided numerous reports, reviews, and<br />

comments. A significant amount of time was invested in<br />

this effort for many reasons, one of them being that this<br />

LCA methodology could become the basis to create policies<br />

around biobased and biodegradable polymer products.<br />

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

However, the resulting JRC “Plastics LCA method”, turned<br />

out to be highly problematic and rather biased, making it<br />

impossible to carry out complete and well-balanced LCA<br />

comparisons between biobased and fossil-based plastics.<br />

In its current form, the method strengthens the current<br />

dominance of fossil-based plastics and often just neglects<br />

the negative impacts of the extraction of fossil resources<br />

on climate and environment. This is grossly at odds with<br />

the EU’s commitment towards reducing the dependency<br />

on fossil-carbon and becoming climate neutral. The<br />

methodology also undermines many of the targets set out<br />

in the EU Green Deal and Plastics Strategy. It is therefore<br />

also not in line with the latest IPCC report saying we need<br />

to stop using fossil resources.<br />

However, the whole <strong>issue</strong> is not only about bioplastics.<br />

European Bioplastics drafted a two-page Position Paper [2]<br />

N.N.: EUBA position on the JRC LCA Methodology and got<br />

the support of other European Biobased Industry Groups,<br />

organized in the European Bioeconomy Alliance (EUBA).<br />

This is important support since this is not only touching the<br />

bioplastics industry but the whole EU bioeconomy industry.<br />

Therefore, EUBP, together with the other members of the<br />

European Bioeconomy Alliance, have recently called upon<br />

the Commission not to make use of the methodology until it<br />

has been re-opened and significantly revised and improved.<br />

Herewith a summary of our findings to illustrate<br />

the significant asymmetry and shortcomings of the<br />

methodology.<br />

Biogenic carbon sequestration<br />

The methodology ignores the key advantage of biobased<br />

products, which is the uptake of carbon dioxide from<br />

the atmosphere, sequestering it into products, and so<br />

preventing that carbon dioxide from contributing to climate<br />

change. This is a key advantage over fossil-based plastics.<br />

Biobased products replace fossil carbon in plastics and<br />

reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. This fact should<br />

be accounted for by being a mandatory part of a fair and<br />

balanced assessment of environmental impacts. As an<br />

example, the EU standard EN 16760 (“Biobased products –<br />

Life cycle assessment”) provides guidance on how biogenic<br />

carbon uptake should be accounted for in the assessment of<br />

biobased plastics, but this calculation remains a voluntary,<br />

meaningless option in the suggested methodology.<br />

Comparing mature and immature production<br />

systems<br />

For fossil-based plastics, the raw material extraction,<br />

production, conversion, logistics, and end-of-life options<br />

have been optimized for the last 50–70 years, while<br />

many biobased plastics are still in their early stage of<br />

development. They are at the beginning of their maturity or<br />

optimization curve.<br />

The LCA methodology provides no real answer on how to<br />

compare systems that have different levels of maturity. In a<br />

meaningful assessment (LCA should inform about decisions<br />

that shape the future) of biobased plastics, this potential<br />

for further improvements should be incorporated. By not<br />

acknowledging these differences, the LCA methodology<br />

mainly supports the status-quo and ignores the potential of<br />

innovation. That clearly can’t be the goal.<br />

Data reporting requirements<br />

In an area where the report really goes wrong are the<br />

requirements on data reporting (this is the basic data that<br />

goes into the life cycle inventory). It is not demanding for<br />

the same requirements for data sets for biobased and<br />

fossil-based feedstocks. For biobased production systems,<br />

detailed company-specific data are required, while for<br />

fossil-based systems, the industry average (black boxes)<br />

data sets are still acceptable. It is still allowed to just exclude<br />

emissions coming from accidents, spills, and oil fires. After<br />

30 years of performing LCA studies, these practices need<br />

to be stopped. For biobased plastics products, all kind<br />

sof details are requested, which as such is totally correct,<br />

about agricultural emissions, machinery use, heavy metals,<br />

chemical use, resource types, production locations and<br />

water consumption, while there is no or hardly any attention<br />

paid to similar aspects for the fossil-based alternatives.<br />

Incorporation of Land Use Change (LUC)<br />

For biobased plastics, LUC shall be included, while for<br />

fossil-based plastics, the methodology is much less strict.<br />

This is not correct, including aspects should be consistent<br />

for all types of materials. Even if the contributions seem<br />

to be relatively small (which is often used as an excuse for<br />

ignoring it), they should be included to increase awareness<br />

and the fact that several relatively small contributions<br />

can lead to a significant contribution. Further, continuous<br />

improvement of agricultural practices, such as soil carbon<br />

uptake by improved management, needs to be taken up in<br />

the LCA calculations, instead of being parked at the side-line<br />

under the header: ‘additional environmental information.’<br />

Inconsistent inclusion of indirect effects<br />

Negative indirect effects for biobased plastics, such as<br />

Indirect Land Use Change(iLUC), are considered relevant<br />

and recommended to be included, while the inclusion of<br />

negative indirect effects of fossil-based plastics is explicitly<br />

ruled out. A big omission is the lack of methodology to<br />

include the direct and indirect effects of the leakage of<br />

persistent plastics into our environment. On the other<br />

hand, great importance is given in the LCA methodology<br />

to the scientifically controversial <strong>issue</strong> of Indirect Land<br />

Use Change (iLUC). It’s based on mere model calculations<br />

that vary greatly due to the lack of standardized methods<br />

– interestingly, unlike the calculation methods for biogenic<br />

carbon uptake. Despite of the uncertainty, the assessment<br />

of iLUC is considered important and mandatory in the LCA<br />

methodology. Further iLUC contributions are often included<br />

while no proof has been provided if it also takes place.<br />

Requirements for providing proof<br />

Also, with this aspect, the methodology is not consistent.<br />

For positive indirect effects of biobased plastic products,<br />

such as soil carbon storage by improved agricultural<br />

management, proof is required, while no proof is required<br />

for negative indirect effects of biobased materials, like iLUC.<br />

Biodiversity impacts<br />

In the JRC LCA method, the topic of biodiversity is<br />

strongly linked to the agricultural production process of<br />

biobased products. For fossil-based products, there is<br />

much less attention for this topic, while there is a direct,<br />

Opinion<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 43

Opinion<br />

clear link via climate change between the emissions of<br />

fossil carbon and the effects on biodiversity. The main<br />

reasons for the decrease in biodiversity are overpopulation,<br />

global warming, deforestation, and pollution. And according<br />

to the latest IPCC report, Global warming is largely driven<br />

by emissions from fossil resources (including incineration<br />

of fossil plastics) and agriculture (dominated by livestock).<br />

Reflecting end-of-life realities<br />

All recycling options, including organic recycling, need<br />

to be treated equally and correctly represent existing and<br />

potential future waste infrastructure. To capture the real<br />

value of industrial composting in comparison to other EOL<br />

options, the LCA should be performed on waste stream<br />

level, rather than on product level.<br />

Normalization and weighting<br />

In the JRC LCA method, weighting is a mandatory step.<br />

As such this is already a debatable step since a lot of<br />

information is condensed (and lost) into one number and<br />

the number is also excluding all information that should<br />

be reported under ‘additional environmental information,’<br />

as suggested many times in the report. Setting weighting<br />

factors can be a subjective process. The suggested factors<br />

are from 2<strong>01</strong>8, which makes it unclear how representative<br />

they are for current reality and the years to come. Finally, it is<br />

always unclear how EU weighting factors can be applied for<br />

non-EU production systems. The set up of such significant<br />

factors might need a regular revision by a dedicated team<br />

of experts.<br />

Feedstock supply data requirements<br />

For biobased plastics, feedstock certification schemes<br />

like RSB, ISCC PLUS, and Bonsucro are developed and<br />

in use. They deal with a wide range of topics such as<br />

biodiversity, emission reductions, carbon sequestration,<br />

and exposure to harmful substances. Nothing similar is in<br />

place for fossil-based feedstock. This aspect is completely<br />

excluded from a methodology comparing and judging the<br />

life cycles of biobased and fossil-based systems, of which<br />

feedstock production is one of the most important steps, if<br />

not the most important one.<br />

Some final considerations<br />

EUBP and EUBA consider the LCA methodology, as<br />

presented by the JRC, not fit for the purpose of comparing<br />

biobased with conventional fossil-based plastics. The<br />

Commission should stop the wider dissemination or<br />

application of this methodology and start a new review.<br />

Otherwise, it will adversely affect EU progress in the field of<br />

sustainable and renewable climate-neutral materials.<br />

It is disappointing to see how unfit for purpose the final<br />

LCA methodology turned out to be after three years of<br />

extensive discourse and contributions of scientific expertise<br />

by the biobased industries and related experts. There is<br />

a choice whether we want to continue with business as<br />

usual or whether we are serious about a transition to a<br />

fossil-independent, biobased circular economy. Of course,<br />

it would be desirable for the EU Commission to consider<br />

reopening the JRC study in order to make the necessary<br />

adaptations to replace fossil carbon in plastics. LCAs are<br />

seen as an important and popular method to assess the<br />

sustainability of products. But are they, really? In the light<br />

of the JRC method’s shortcomings, we might need to start<br />

a discussion on whether LCAs, as currently conducted,<br />

really are the best tool to properly assess the benefits and<br />

impacts of a biobased circular economy.<br />

Finally, plastics are essential to modern life. There is a<br />

choice to make as to whether humanity continues to obtain<br />

the required carbon for plastics from underground deposits<br />

of oil and gas, or whether a transition towards obtaining this<br />

necessary carbon from the atmosphere is not just desirable<br />

but essential. But, unfortunately, the JRC study is again<br />

a mere comparative life cycle assessment between fossil<br />

and biobased products, affected by the above-mentioned<br />

weaknesses and without a vision for the future, since the<br />

pivotal role of bioplastics in building a renewable carbonbased<br />

economy is, de facto, ignored.<br />

[1] Nessi, S. et.al.: LCA of alternative feedstocks for plastic products’ Part<br />

1: the Plastics LCA methodology; https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/<br />

repository/bitstream/JRC125046/plastics_lca__method_final_online.pdf<br />

[2] N.N.: EUBA position on the JRC LCA Methodology; https://docs.<br />

european-ioplastics.org/publications/EUBA_Position_on_JRC_LCA_<br />

Methodology.pdf<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org | www.natureworksllc.com<br />

Info<br />

For a more in-depth analysis of the JRC LCA<br />

methodology, please view the presentation by<br />

Erwin Vink, NatureWorks: “A review of the JRC<br />

report on LCA of alternative feedstocks for plastics<br />

production”, held at the recent 16 th European<br />

Bioplastics Conference 2021 in Berlin<br />

See a video-clip at: https://tinyurl.com/EUBP-Vink<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Celebrating 85 years of<br />

twist wrapping!<br />

Applications<br />

A lifetime of wrapping sweets, with an end of life<br />

to help the future<br />

End of last year, Futamura (Wigton, Cumbria, UK)<br />

celebrated a significant milestone in the history of its<br />

packaging films: 85 years of twist wrapping individual<br />

sweets. The company’s Cellophane films were used<br />

for the first automated twist wrap machines. In the early<br />

days, they were often referred to as a ‘transparent paper’<br />

as they were made from renewable wood pulp. Over the<br />

years, the films became synonymous with confectionery<br />

wraps, being established as the packaging of choice thanks<br />

to their excellent technical performance on the packaging<br />

machinery and aesthetic appeal.<br />

With its inherent dead-fold properties, Cellophane was<br />

the ideal choice for twist wrapping: the films ran extremely<br />

well on packaging machines, static-free, wrapping at high<br />

speeds with an incredibly low level of miswraps. They also<br />

held their twist naturally, without the need for heat sealing<br />

or adhesives. This meant that the wraps could be easily<br />

opened, even by younger consumers – a must when you<br />

wrap sweets!<br />

In the last 20 years, acknowledging the growing demand<br />

for environmentally responsible packaging, Futamura<br />

launched NatureFlex films. This new generation of films<br />

is the natural evolution of the original Cellophane: the<br />

technical performance of Cellophane, renewable raw<br />

materials sourced from sustainably managed plantations<br />

and the additional benefit of more sustainable end-of-life<br />

options. NatureFlex is certified for home composting by<br />

TUV Home compost and meets European and international<br />

norms for industrial composting including EN13432 and<br />

ASTM D6400.<br />

Compostability, the solution to the small format<br />

flexible <strong>issue</strong><br />

Whilst we have all seen companies and authorities<br />

making statements and committing to the path of<br />

mechanical recycling, it is becoming increasingly apparent<br />

that recycling will not be the solution for all applications.<br />

The study ‘Breaking the plastic wave’ made it very clear that<br />

there is no silver bullet: the industry must use all options<br />

available to resolve the current packaging end of life <strong>issue</strong>s.<br />

Today, brands and waste management operators are<br />

acknowledging that small format flexibles will be extremely<br />

difficult to handle and recycle. Small format, traditional<br />

twist wraps fall into this category: small by definition and<br />

often scrunched up or torn, rendering them even smaller.<br />

In this specific application, using a compostable film such<br />

as NatureFlex enables a positive end of life: consumers can<br />

simply place it in a home compost bin and the film will break<br />

down within 6 to 8 weeks. As facilities develop, industrial<br />

composting will also become an option, and this is certainly<br />

already happening in some European countries such as Italy<br />

and Ireland. Both options – home and industrial composting<br />

– enable the production of soil-enriching compost. Finally,<br />

in the unfortunate event that sweet wrappers were littered<br />

(not something Futamura would ever condone), then<br />

NatureFlex wrappers would certainly break down, with<br />

a lower environmental impact than ones produced with<br />

conventional plastics.<br />

According to Futamura Sales & Marketing Director,<br />

Andy Sweetman; “the combination of exceptional wrapping<br />

performance coupled with an enhanced end of life solution<br />

make NatureFlex the logical choice in small format flexible<br />

applications such as twist wrap.”<br />

High-performance packaging<br />

When it comes to twist wrapping, NatureFlex films offer<br />

a renewable and compostable alternative. They are most<br />

effective on packing machinery. SACMI Chocolate Spa.,<br />

a machine manufacturer that began in 1907, under the<br />

earlier name of Carle & Montanari, has been producing<br />

wrapping machines for sweets since 1957, regularly runs<br />

NatureFlex on their machines. Valentina Bergami from<br />

SACMI Chocolate Spa. sales and marketing department<br />

said: “NatureFlex is a very reliable material, with all the<br />

features a material needs to have when running on a<br />

wrapping machine: elasticity to withstand the traction in<br />

the unwinding process, where the film is unwound from its<br />

reel and fed to the wrapping area. Rigidity, so the film can<br />

be pushed through the feeding unit of our wrappers where it<br />

is cut to length right on top of the product. And last, but not<br />

least: elasticity to be twisted and memory effect so that the<br />

twists are held and don’t re-open.”<br />

Valentina Bergami added: “We have tested various<br />

versions of NatureFlex with various looks, transparent or<br />

metallised, and the material passed with very good results<br />

through our trials. This is why we actively recommend it<br />

to our clients seeking for new eco-friendly alternatives to<br />

plastics.”<br />

NatureFlex films are used to wrap many different brands<br />

of sweets, from your family’s favourite colourful chocolates<br />

to niche vegan brands. MT<br />

https://www.natureflex.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 45

Application News<br />

Eco-consciousness<br />

comes to yoga mats<br />

Yoloha (Charleston, South Caroline, USA) is a company<br />

that sets out to make things better. In their pursuit of<br />

quality yoga mats made from high levels of renewable<br />

materials, they chose to work with HEXPOL TPE.<br />

Seven years ago, Yoloha Founder Chris Willey sat<br />

down in his garage, thought outside the box and made<br />

a yoga mat out of the most sustainable materials he had<br />

on hand. By combining cork with recycled rubber, Chris<br />

created the world’s first cork yoga mat.<br />

The mat was more than just an eco-friendly alternative<br />

to the traditional yoga mat. It was naturally high<br />

performing with impeccable grip and antimicrobial<br />

properties. It was then and there that Yoloha Yoga was<br />

born with the mission of bringing sustainable movement<br />

to people all around the world.<br />

To support Yoloha’s sustainability goals, Hexpol TPE<br />

developed a customised material from the Dryflex Green<br />

family of biobased thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). The<br />

TPE has 55 % biobased content. It has a high melt strength<br />

and drawability to easily produce foamed materials with<br />

a uniform foam structure. Foaming brings lightweight<br />

advantages and cushioning in applications such as mats,<br />

protective clothing, and seating.<br />

“I have worked with and tested most foams on the<br />

market from Natural rubber, EVA, PU, etc., and I have<br />

found TPE foam to be the perfect blend of support,<br />

durability, and weight,” said Yoloha founder Chris Willey.<br />

“With that in mind, I discovered Hexpol TPE with their<br />

focus on sustainability. We quickly developed a great<br />

relationship and worked together to develop a customised<br />

material.”<br />

The Dryflex Green family of biobased TPEs contain<br />

raw materials from renewable resources, including<br />

by-products from agriculture rich in carbohydrates,<br />

especially saccharides such as grain, sugar beet, or<br />

sugar cane. TPEs are available with amounts of biobased<br />

content to over 90 % (ASTM D 6866) with hardnesses from<br />

15 Shore A to 60 Shore D.<br />

Kathrin Heilmann, technical sales for sustainable<br />

TPE at Hexpol TPE GmbH added, “We’re proud to work<br />

with Yoloha on this project. We aimed to achieve a high<br />

biobased content while keeping mechanical performance<br />

and processability. The material shows a good foamability<br />

for mats and other extruded products.” MT<br />

www.hexpolTPE.com<br />

| www.yolohayoga.com<br />

Industrial compostable<br />

stretch film<br />

Cortec Corporation (St. Paul, Minnesota, USA) just<br />

received OK compost INDUSTRIAL certification of its Eco<br />

Wrap ® stretch film from TÜV Austria.<br />

Eco Wrap is the world’s first compostable industrialstrength<br />

machine grade stretch film launched by the<br />

company earlier last year. Considering Cortec’s longtime<br />

focus on compostable films and green packaging materials,<br />

this is a huge step forward. Eco Wrap users can benefit from<br />

material/waste reduction in many ways. Most applications<br />

requiring three wraps of standard film can use two wraps of<br />

Eco Wrap without sacrificing strength or protection.<br />

This green packaging solution may allow its users to<br />

avoid tariffs, fines, and tip fees in areas where polyethylene<br />

is prohibited or restricted. Eco Wrap is shelf and curb<br />

stable and will retain its integrity until disposed of properly.<br />

The latest formula of compostable Eco-Wrap uses a<br />

tackifier additive to make an industrial-strength stretch<br />

wrap that can be used on most standard automated stretch<br />

wrap equipment. This is a breakthrough for the industrial<br />

packaging and warehousing industries which rely heavily<br />

on automated stretch wrapping to prepare pallets of goods<br />

for storage, inventory, or shipment.<br />

Eco Wrap can be used in numerous applications where<br />

conventional stretch film is needed, such as:<br />

• Agriculture bundling (e.g., hay bales and lumber)<br />

• Corralling of goods for storage and shipment<br />

• Pallet wrapping<br />

• Luggage wrapping at airports<br />

• Packaging construction materials<br />

• Transporting furniture<br />

Eco Wrap is extremely elastic and works on most existing<br />

automated machines. The film is easily applied by adjusting<br />

the tension. By opting for Eco Wrap, users can improve<br />

their environmental image while getting the necessary<br />

packaging job done. MT<br />

www.ecocortec.hr/eng<br />

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Suntory introduces<br />

100 % plant-based PET bottle prototypes<br />

Suntory Group, Tokyo, Japan, announced in early December that, as a crucial step toward its aim to use 100 % sustainable<br />

PET bottles globally by 2030 and eliminate all petroleum-based virgin plastic from its global PET supply, the company has<br />

successfully created a prototype PET bottle made from 100 % plant-based materials. The prototype has been produced for<br />

the company’s iconic Orangina brand in Europe along with its best-selling bottled mineral water brand in Japan, Suntory<br />

Tennensui. This announcement marks a breakthrough after a nearly decade-long partnership with the US-based sustainable<br />

technology company Anellotech.<br />

PET is produced using two raw materials, 70 % terephthalic acid (PTA) and 30 % mono ethylene glycol (MEG). Suntory’s<br />

prototype plant-based bottle is made by combining Anellotech’s new technology, a plant-based paraxylene derived from wood<br />

chips, which has been converted to plant-based PTA, and pre-existing plant-based MEG made from molasses which Suntory<br />

has been using in its Suntory Tennensui brand in Japan since 2<strong>01</strong>3.<br />

“The competitive advantage of Anellotech’s Bio-TCat generated paraxylene is its<br />

process efficiency (it uses a single-step thermal catalytic process by going directly<br />

from biomass to aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylene)), as well as the opportunity<br />

it creates for a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions as compared to its<br />

identical fossil-derived paraxylene in the manufacture of PET, especially as it generates<br />

required process energy from the biomass feedstock itself,” said David Sudolsky,<br />

President and CEO of Anellotech.<br />

This technology is one of the latest investments from Suntory in the company’s long<br />

history of addressing the social and environmental impacts of containers and packaging.<br />

In 1997, Suntory established its “Guidelines for the Environmental Design of Containers<br />

and Packaging.” For plastic bottles specifically, it has used its 2R+B (Reduce/Recycle +<br />

Bio) strategy to reduce the weight of containers, including labels and caps, and actively<br />

introduce recycled or plant-based materials in its plastic bottles used globally. Most<br />

significantly, it has created the lightest bottle cap, the thinnest bottle label, and the<br />

lightest PET bottle produced in Japan to date. MT<br />

www.suntory.com | www.anellotech.com<br />

Application News<br />

Sneakers made from fruit waste<br />

Since the textile industry is the second most polluting in the world and intensive farming is a plague for the planet, Italian<br />

sneaker brand ID.EIGHT now launched (first introduced via Kickstarter in 2020) sneakers made from the by-products of the<br />

food industry. The company primarily use four materials drive from apples, grapes, seeds, and pineapples to manufacture the<br />

upper part of the shoe.<br />

Apple skin: In recent years, the amount of agro-food waste used to make sustainable products has increased from 0 to over<br />

30 tonnes per month. A great resource is, for example, the cartamela (apple paper from dried, crushed, and pressed apple<br />

peels)used for handkerchiefs and kitchen rolls, ID.EIGHT uses this material as a component to create the upper part of the<br />

sneakers.<br />

Pinatex, made with the waste leaves of pineapple growing in the<br />

Philippines is also used as a component. The pineapple industry<br />

produces about 40,000 tonnes of leaves every year, and since they are<br />

considered a waste material, they are usually left to rot or burned.<br />

Today it is possible to recover them to create a bio-material. With 480<br />

leaves (16 pineapple plants) you can get 1 square meter of material.<br />

The third component is Vegea, a material derived from the biopolymerization<br />

of grape pomace in Italy. Over 7 million tonnes of<br />

grape pomace are discarded every year by the wine industry. Thus,<br />

grape scrapings, skins, and seeds (part of the pomace), are used in<br />

the form of a durable, flexible material.<br />

The upper sole, laces, and label are made from different recycled<br />

materials. MT<br />

www.id-eight.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 47

Application News<br />

Scotch & Soda partners with Tipa<br />

Scotch & Soda (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) is a fashion<br />

brand that champions individuality, authenticity, and the power<br />

of self-expression. Addressing sustainability is also at the core<br />

of the brand’s approach, and begins, for them, with a focus on<br />

materials.<br />

In December 2021, Scotch & Soda announced<br />

their partnership with TIPA (Hod HaSharon,<br />

Merkaz, Israel), and in <strong>2022</strong>, a minimum of one<br />

million of Scotch & Soda’s garments will be<br />

packed in TIPA ® bioplastic bags. For the Spring<br />

and Summer <strong>2022</strong> collections, Tipa bags will<br />

represent 21 % of the total product packaging<br />

and will be used for high volume items, such<br />

as T-shirts, jeans, sweatshirts, sweaters and<br />

shirts, throughout menswear, womenswear, and<br />

kidswear.<br />

Polybags made of polyethylene (PE) are a<br />

low-volume flexible film commonly used in the<br />

fashion industry, and were previously the best<br />

option for product packaging. However, on average, 24 % of<br />

global non-fibre plastic consumption is incinerated while 58 %<br />

ends up in landfill and natural ecosystems, taking hundreds of<br />

years to break down.<br />

Photo Scotch & Soda<br />

When Scotch & Soda looked towards alternatives,<br />

they found there are now innovative materials like<br />

Tipa bags that offer the same level of protection<br />

but are less reliant on fossil fuels return to earth as<br />

nutrient-rich soil at their end-of-life, as opposed to<br />

landfill and incineration.<br />

The integration of Tipa bags is part of Scotch<br />

& Soda’s sustainability mission to contribute to<br />

environmental protection. Through its partnership<br />

with Tipa, Scotch & Soda hopes to inspire customers<br />

to start composting and raise awareness about<br />

the environmental impact of both the production<br />

and end-of-life of conventional packaging. The<br />

brand aims to step away from conventional plastic<br />

polybags for all product categories by 2025. MT<br />

www.tipa-corp.com | www.scotch-soda.com<br />

Pepsico Europe to eliminate<br />

fossil-based plastic in crisp and chip bags<br />

Following the introduction of PepsiCo Positive, the company’s strategic end-to-end transformation with sustainability at the<br />

centre, PepsiCo Europe (Geneva, Switzerland) recently announced that by 2030, it plans to eliminate virgin fossil-based plastic<br />

in all its crisp and chip bags. This ambition will apply to brands including Walkers, Doritos, and Lay’s and will be delivered by<br />

using 100 % recycled or renewable plastic in its packets.<br />

Consumer trials of the packaging will begin in European markets in <strong>2022</strong>, starting with renewable plastic in a Lay’s range<br />

in France in the first half of the year. Later in the year, a range from the Walkers brand in the UK will trial recycled content.<br />

The recycled content in the packs will be derived from previously used plastic and the renewable content will come from byproducts<br />

of plants such as used cooking oil or waste from paper pulp. PepsiCo estimates it may achieve up to 40 % greenhouse<br />

gas emissions reduction per tonne of packaging material by switching to virgin fossil-free material.<br />

Silviu Popovici, Chief Executive Officer, PepsiCo Europe commented: “Flexible packaging recycling should be the norm<br />

across Europe. We see a future where our bags will be free of virgin fossil-based plastic. They will be part of a thriving circular<br />

economy where flexible packaging is valued and can be recycled as a new packet. We’re investing with our partners to build the<br />

technological capacity to do that. We now need<br />

an appropriate regulatory landscape in place<br />

so that packaging never becomes waste.”<br />

“Through collaboration and innovation, we<br />

can progress to a viable circular economy for<br />

our food packaging in Europe,” shared Archana<br />

Jagannathan, Senior Director, Sustainable<br />

Packaging, PepsiCo Europe. “Today, the<br />

supply of recycled and renewable materials for<br />

flexibles is limited. The regulatory environment<br />

is very dynamic and we need more clarity on<br />

policy and recognised technologies. If a policy<br />

and waste infrastructure, similar to beverage<br />

bottle packaging, accelerates for flexibles, we<br />

will speed up our plans and go even faster to<br />

meet our commitments.” MT<br />

www.pepsico.com<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Recycled ocean plastic<br />

for Ford Bronco<br />

In early December<br />

DSM Engineering<br />

Materials (Emmen,<br />

The Netherlands)<br />

announced that Ford<br />

Motor Company, HellermannTyton,<br />

and<br />

DSM earned an Innovation<br />

Award from<br />

the Society of Plastics<br />

Engineers (SPE)<br />

for the use of Akulon ® RePurposed recycled ocean plastic in<br />

the Ford Bronco Sport. This application was also recognized<br />

by Ford as the first of many potential uses for recycled ocean<br />

plastics in a major vehicle platform.<br />

Ford uses wiring harness clips made of ocean-harvested<br />

plastic ghost gear in Bronco Sport models. Invisible to vehicle<br />

occupants, the wiring harness clips fasten to the sides of the<br />

Bronco Sport second-row seats and guide wires that power<br />

various features in the vehicle’s cargo area. Ford testing<br />

shows that the Akulon RePurposed material, despite having<br />

spent time in saltwater and sunlight, is as strong and durable<br />

as petroleum-based clips. MT<br />

www.dsm.com/akulonrepurposed<br />

PLA water bottle<br />

UK based online retailer DrinkWell has spent the last 12<br />

months developing the UK’s first biodegradable on-the-go<br />

water bottle.<br />

The Eco Bottle was launched in mid-January and is made<br />

from PLA, derived from corn starch. “The great tasting water<br />

comes from a natural spring in Hereford, United Kingdom,”<br />

as Tom Bell, founder and Managing Director of DrinkWell<br />

told bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

The new biobased packaging requires 50 % less fossil<br />

fuel for production, compared with fossil-based PET plastic<br />

bottles, and releases 60 % fewer carbon emissions.<br />

The bottle can be fully recycled, will completely compost<br />

within 3–6 months or if incinerated in general waste will<br />

burn completely toxic-free.<br />

DrinkWell is wholesaling the<br />

water directly to the on-trade,<br />

off-trade, and cash & carry<br />

market. It will also be working<br />

with gyms and leisure facilities.<br />

Despite a slightly higher<br />

price, consumers were “willing<br />

to pay more for a product that<br />

is going to be better for the<br />

planet,” Tom explained. MT<br />

www.drinkwelluk.com<br />

Application News<br />

10-12 May – Cologne, Germany<br />

The Answer to Your Hunt for Renewable Materials<br />

The unique concept of presenting all renewable material solutions at<br />

one event hits the mark: bio-based, CO2-based and recycled are the only<br />

alternatives to fossil-based chemicals and materials.<br />





OF THE<br />

YEAR <strong>2022</strong><br />

First day:<br />

• Chemical Industry:<br />

Challenges and Strategies<br />

• Renewable Chemicals<br />

and Building Blocks<br />

• Biorefineries<br />

• Chemical Recycling<br />

Second day:<br />

• Renewable Polymers<br />

and Plastics<br />

• Fine Chemicals<br />

• Policy and Markets<br />

• Innovation Award<br />

Third day:<br />

• Renewable Plastics<br />

and Composites<br />

• Biodegradation<br />

• The Brands View on<br />

Renewable Materials<br />

1<br />


Call for Innovation<br />

Submit your Application<br />

for the “Renewable<br />

Material of the Year<br />

<strong>2022</strong>”<br />

Organiser<br />

Premium<br />

Partner<br />

Innovation Award<br />

Sponsor<br />

Sponsors<br />

renewable-materials.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 49

Basics<br />

Biodegradation:<br />

One concept, many nuances<br />

Over the course of the 20 th century, we have become<br />

adapted to plastics and production and consumption<br />

have skyrocketed these past decades. Plastics have<br />

many different properties, are lightweight, can easily be<br />

formed into any shape and most importantly are extremely<br />

durable. Nowadays, it is almost impossible to imagine a<br />

world without plastics. As a small thought experiment, it is<br />

interesting to imagine your room without plastics.<br />

However, it has become clear that the durability of plastics<br />

is also the biggest disadvantage. Unmanaged disposal of<br />

plastic waste in the environment results in visual pollution<br />

nowadays appearing in the news daily. As a consequence<br />

of this pollution, the (micro)plastic accumulation in nature<br />

over time increases.<br />

Over the last few decades, this growing concern about<br />

plastics has encouraged governments and international<br />

governing bodies to implement legislation and directives<br />

with specific requirements on the reduction, re-usage, and<br />

(organic) recycling of plastic products. These legislative<br />

matters together with increasing awareness amongst<br />

consumers and producers emanated the appearance<br />

of (bio)degradable plastics in the market. Nonetheless,<br />

there is currently still a lot of confusion on the definition<br />

of (bio)degradable plastics and their actual behaviour<br />

in the environment. As misinformation might give rise to<br />

greenwashing and incorrect expectations for these products,<br />

causing more harm than good for the environment, clear<br />

terminology and communication between all parties are of<br />

utmost importance. Topics like bioplastics, biodegradability<br />

& compostability will be rolled out in the paragraphs below.<br />

Bioplastics… What’s in a name?<br />

The question “What are bioplastics?” might be more<br />

difficult than it seems. What comes to mind when you think<br />

of bioplastics? Plastics derived from natural materials?<br />

Plastics that can be biodegraded? Or are bioplastics both<br />

of the above? (Fig. 1).<br />

First of all, it is important to note that the nature of<br />

the raw material is not directly connected to its potential<br />

to biodegrade. Plastics of petrochemical origin can be<br />

biodegradable while plastics from natural feedstocks – known<br />

as biobased plastics – are not necessarily biodegradable.<br />

Examples of biobased but non-biodegradable plastics<br />

include bio-PE and bio-PET. Since these have an identical<br />

chemical structure as their petro-based alternatives, these<br />

are not biodegradable and should be managed in the same<br />

way as conventional PET. Vice versa, not all petro-based<br />

polymers are non-biodegradable. Examples like PBAT and<br />

PCL can be biodegraded in compost.<br />

The fact is that the term ‘bioplastics’ is not clearly<br />

defined and can be misleading or confusing to customers.<br />

Therefore, experts are tending towards using biobased<br />

plastics or biodegradable plastics over the term bioplastics.<br />

Complete biodegradability<br />

Biodegradation can be defined as the biochemical<br />

conversion of materials into natural substances like CO 2<br />

and water (and CH 4<br />

if biodegradation is anaerobic) through<br />

the activity of micro-organisms (Fig. 2). It is important to<br />

note that not all organic carbon is converted, as a small part<br />

is assimilated as microbial biomass. To take this biomass<br />

assimilation into account, biodegradation is considered<br />

complete if 90 % conversion of organic carbon to CO 2<br />

is<br />

achieved. It is important to understand this may absolutely<br />

not be seen as 10 % microplastics remaining.<br />

Conversion to CO 2<br />

is the only correct way to quantify<br />

biodegradation. Parameters like visual disappearance of<br />

material, molecular weight reduction, loss of technical<br />

material characteristics are often wrongfully used to make<br />

claims on biodegradation. However, these parameters<br />

only prove biological activity but do not guarantee actual<br />

biodegradation.<br />

Biodegradation and the importance of the<br />

environment<br />

Biodegradation is caused by enzymatic, microbial, and/<br />

or fungal activity. As microbial ecology varies from one<br />

environment to another, it is important to understand that<br />

biodegradability is highly dependent on the environment.<br />

The claim of biodegradability should always be linked<br />

to a specific environment. For instance, lignin-rich<br />

materials (e.g., hardwood) may biodegrade relatively fast<br />

in environments with fungi present like in soil or compost,<br />

while these materials can persist for decades in water or<br />

landfills. There are cases of perfectly conserved newspapers<br />

(high lignin content) from the 1960s found in landfills today.<br />

As another example, standard PLA requires a thermal<br />

trigger (> 50 °C) before the biodegradation process can be<br />

started. These high temperatures are achieved in industrial<br />

composting facilities or anaerobic digesters operating<br />

at high temperatures. However, when thrown in the<br />

composting heap at home this material will not biodegrade<br />

in the required time frame. As this can be very frustrating<br />

for customers it is important for producers to clearly<br />

indicate in which environment the product is biodegradable<br />

and generic claims on biodegradability should not be made.<br />

Composting plants are very diverse and may operate at<br />

a higher or lower technology level, with different loading<br />

rates, process durations, temperatures, etc. Also, our<br />

planet offers a great variety in soils, fresh & marine waters.<br />

Some soils may be extremely hot and dry, while other soils<br />

can be wet and almost anaerobic. It would be impossible<br />

and impractical to have different testing standards for<br />

each possible environment. It is therefore important to<br />

have reliable test methods that can be used to prove<br />

biodegradability of materials in various environments. The<br />

purpose of lab testing is to prove the inherent nature of the<br />

material to biodegrade under a given set of environmental<br />

conditions. It is also important that results are accurate and<br />

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

By:<br />

Bruno De Wilde, Managing Director,<br />

Astrid Van Houtte and Tristan Houtteman<br />

Marketing & Sales Engineers<br />

OWS<br />

Gent, Belgium<br />

Basics<br />

reproducible. Lab tests are per definition always optimized<br />

but not accelerated, meaning that all parameters like<br />

temperature, pH, nutrients, etc. are optimized except for the<br />

parameter which is studied. For biodegradation, testing this<br />

limiting parameter will be the carbon source. Furthermore,<br />

a positive reference material (easily biodegradable e.g.,<br />

cellulose) is also included and used to validate the test.<br />

The recurring question often asked is whether materials<br />

that pass testing at optimized test conditions will also<br />

biodegrade in the actual environment. The answer is that<br />

in reality, the same level of biodegradation will be obtained,<br />

yet, the rate will depend on local conditions (temperature,<br />

humidity, etc.).<br />

Composting, so much more than biodegradation<br />

A well-known managed end-of-life environment is<br />

compost. Very often compostability is used interchangeably<br />

with biodegradability. The fact is that compostability is<br />

a much broader concept. One European standard with<br />

requirements on biodegradability is EN 13432 (2000) on<br />

industrial compostability of packaging, covering also<br />

requirements for chemical characteristics, disintegration,<br />

and ecotoxicity. All four requirements must be met before<br />

a product can be considered compostable. Compostable<br />

products will therefore be biodegradable under composting<br />

conditions but not necessarily vice versa (Fig. 3).<br />

During chemical characterization, concentrations<br />

of heavy metal & fluorine are compared to pre-defined<br />

limits. The goal of ecotoxicity testing is to check whether<br />

degraded material, present in the produced compost,<br />

does not exert any adverse effects on test species (plants<br />

and/or earthworms). Biodegradation can be seen as<br />

degradation on a biochemical level, while disintegration is<br />

the physical breakdown or fragmentation of material into<br />

smaller particles. In real-life composting, disintegration &<br />

biodegradation are closely intertwined. To further illustrate<br />

the difference between biodegradation & disintegration one<br />

can take wood as an example. Wood is biodegradable, that<br />

is a fact. However, not all wood is compostable. A small twig<br />

will disintegrate almost directly, while a big tree trunk might<br />

take several decades to disintegrate. Another example is<br />

conventionally non-biodegradable plastics enriched with<br />

additives which are said to improve degradation. These<br />

additives can indeed enhance disintegration of polymers and<br />

are used as a solution for the visual contamination of litter.<br />

However, complete biodegradation is not really proven and<br />

the residual microplastics may persist in the environment<br />

for a very long time. Therefore, these additives are regarded<br />

more as an out of sight, out of mind solution, rather than as<br />

a sustainable solution to combat plastic pollution.<br />

Uncontrolled environments<br />

Not all plastics end up in managed end-of-life sites. Some<br />

materials may unintentionally disperse in uncontrolled<br />

environments like soil, waterways, or marine due to littering<br />


Fig. 1: biobased plastics, biodegradable plastics<br />

Microorganisms<br />

+ O 2<br />

Biochemistry<br />

CO 2<br />

H 2<br />

O<br />

Humus<br />

Biomass<br />

Fig. 2: “The circle of life”<br />

Environmental<br />

safety<br />

Chemical<br />

characteristics<br />

(Heavy metals)<br />

Ecotoxicity<br />

(Effect on plants)<br />

Fig. 3: All four requirements must be met<br />

Organic matter<br />

Degradation<br />

Biodegradation<br />

(Degradation on<br />

a chemical level)<br />

Disintegration<br />

(Degradationon<br />

a physicallevel)<br />

Basic Photosynthesis<br />

7<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 51

Basics<br />

but also due to their functional use in these environments<br />

(think about horticultural aids, fertilizer coatings, fishing<br />

nets, etc.). Several specific test methods exist to assess<br />

degradability of materials in these uncontrolled environments.<br />

Recently, new test methods have been developed to assess<br />

biodegradability in marine water habitats. The sea is a very<br />

diverse environment with many different habitats, like the<br />

open water, seawater/sediment interface, or the marine<br />

sediment, and there is still a lot of research to be done here.<br />

A standard specification with pass/fail criteria on<br />

biodegradability of products intentionally used on and in<br />

soil did not exist until 2<strong>01</strong>8, at which point EN 17033 (2<strong>01</strong>8)<br />

for biodegradable mulch films was published. Aside from<br />

biodegradability in soil, additional requirements linked to<br />

heavy metals & toxicity are included.<br />

Long-term biodegradation, an opportunity?<br />

Certain products should biodegrade within a short<br />

timeframe as these materials have a short functional life<br />

(e.g., detergents) or as these materials often only spend a<br />

limited time in the processing facility (e.g., food service ware)<br />

like a composting plant or anaerobic digester. The main focus<br />

of current certificates is also on these ready biodegradable<br />

products.<br />

However, ready biodegradability is not always the best<br />

option since certain materials first need to fulfil their (long)<br />

functional life in the environment before biodegrading. This<br />

offers a whole new range of challenges and opportunities<br />

for producers. Examples of such materials can be found<br />

in horticulture. Mulch films should have good mechanical<br />

properties over their operational lifetime (one or multiple<br />

seasons) and the degradation process should only start when<br />

mulch films are ploughed into the soil. Another example from<br />

horticulture is slow-release fertilizers. These polymers should<br />

continuously degrade over a long period of time to guarantee<br />

continuous release of the fertilizer. Also in pisciculture, there<br />

are materials that end up in the ocean and cannot be easily<br />

retrieved. For these materials in situ biodegradation in soil/<br />

water offers an added value.<br />

Day-to-day products like textiles, shoe soles or car tires are<br />

another source of unintentionally dispersed microplastics.<br />

Although these products should not be marketed as<br />

biodegradable, it would be beneficial if these materials<br />

degrade over time and would be non-persistent. For these<br />

types of materials, long-term biodegradation and thus nonpersistency<br />

has an added value.<br />

However, biodegradability should never be used as a license<br />

to litter. Therefore, a distinction should be made between<br />

biodegradability as an inherent product characteristic that can<br />

be communicated on a business-to-business or a businessto-government<br />

level and biodegradability as an end-of-life<br />

option that can be communicated to the public. For example,<br />

it is beneficial if cigarette filters are biodegradable, although<br />

they should not be marketed as such as to not encourage<br />

littering. In a lot of regions, it is therefore also prohibited to<br />

market products as biodegradable.<br />

In summary<br />

If we want to tackle the plastics waste problem, a systemic<br />

approach with regard to waste will be needed. Products<br />

should be designed for reusability & recyclability, however,<br />

for certain applications including highly contaminated waste<br />

like food service ware and coffee capsules, this is not always<br />

possible. In such cases, organic recycling (biodegradation)<br />

is a good alternative. Clear communication between<br />

legislators, producers, consumers, and waste operating<br />

facilities is vital to ensure proper waste management.<br />

Biodegradability is highly dependent on the environment<br />

as it is linked to the activity of different types of microorganisms<br />

present. It is important to select the<br />

environment in which to test the biodegradability based<br />

on the foreseen end-of-life of the product. Managed<br />

end-of-life options include composting and anaerobic<br />

digestion. Unmanaged end-of-life environments include<br />

soil, fresh water, and marine water. Products leaking into<br />

uncontrolled environments should not necessarily be ready<br />

biodegradable, although non-persistency for these types of<br />

products is all the more important.<br />

About the authors<br />

This article was written by Bruno De Wilde (Managing<br />

Director of OWS), Astrid Van Houtte & Tristan Houtteman<br />

(both Marketing & Sales Engineers at OWS). OWS is a<br />

strictly independent testing laboratory and has over 30<br />

years of experience in the field of biodegradability and<br />

compostability testing, for which it is certified & accredited<br />

to ISO 17025. OWS is the only laboratory worldwide that<br />

is recognized by all certification bodies active in the field<br />

of biodegradability and compostability: TÜV AUSTRIA<br />

(Belgium), DIN CERTCO (Germany), BPI (US), JBPA (Japan)<br />

and ABA (Australia). Furthermore, OWS is a (very) active<br />

member of several normalization organizations such as<br />

ISO (international), CEN (European) and ASTM (US) and<br />

is the official Belgian delegate of several ISO and CEN<br />

committees. For more information about OWS, you can visit<br />

their website.<br />

www.ows.be<br />

52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Automotive<br />

10<br />

Years ago<br />

Published in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Rubber from<br />

dandelions<br />

Could Taraxacum koksaghyz<br />

be a future source of rubber<br />

for the tyre industry?<br />

Taraxacum koksaghyz<br />

(photos: Christian Schulze Gronover)<br />

Automotive<br />

E<br />

ven the rubber industry has felt the impact of a shortage<br />

of raw material and so is seeking alternatives to the supply<br />

of natural rubber from the Hevea brasiliensis tree.<br />

This tree grows very slowly and needs about 20 years before<br />

it yields its harvest. “Natural rubber is gaining in interest<br />

because of the price of oil”, says Dirk Prüfer, professor and<br />

head of department at the Institute for Plant Biochemistry<br />

and Biotechnology at the Wilhelms University in Münster. The<br />

amount produced today will hardly be enough to cover demand.<br />

As an alternative dandelions are possibly a solution. During<br />

World War II the Americans, Soviets and Germans were looking<br />

at such alternatives. The idea of using dandelions as a natural<br />

source of raw materials was initiated by the Soviets in the<br />

early 1930s. When the Japanese occupied South-East Asia the<br />

Russians and Americans started to look seriously at producing<br />

a natural product from dandelions. On the occupation of the<br />

region by the Americans the Germans were using the technology<br />

Dandelion produces in its root, amongst other things, natural<br />

rubber, and can be successfully grown in wide areas of Europe<br />

which in other respects are not particularly fertile. If this were to<br />

be done on a commercial scale then the numerous existing wild<br />

species would have to be grown under agricultural conditions.<br />

In particular it will be a case of increasing the yield.<br />

A German group of six research partners have been working<br />

since spring 2<strong>01</strong>1 on the methodical basis of a cultivation<br />

programme for Caucasian or Russian dandelion (Taraxacum<br />

koksaghyz).<br />

The project is being promoted by the German Federal Ministry<br />

of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV) via the<br />

Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR).<br />

The first step in the research programme is the adaptation<br />

of existing biotechnical cultivation methods to dandelion<br />

cultivation. Alongside this the researchers want to obtain<br />

seeds in kilogram quantities. The Continental Tyre Company<br />

(Continental Reifen AG), an industrial partner of the group, is<br />

planning tests of the first natural rubber samples.<br />

In terms of cultivation the researchers, unlike in other<br />

European R&D projects on the same topic, are focussing on<br />

two year old plants. They expect to obtain, among other things,<br />

a higher potential yield in the second year. The disadvantage of<br />

a 2-year cycle is that the cultivation takes longer because only<br />

in the second year do the plants produce seed. For this reason<br />

the scientists want to use methods such as special analysis<br />

techniques to accelerate the process as much as possible.<br />

In February of this year, a new project, supported by the<br />

German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)<br />

will be launched. The project partners are: Continental Reifen<br />

Deutschland GmbH, Synthomer, Südzucker AG, Fraunhofer<br />

IME & ICB, Aeskulap GmbH, University Stuttgart, Max-Plack-<br />

Institute for Plant Breeding, Julius Kühn Institut, LipoFIT<br />

Analytic GmbH. The goal is the sustainable development of<br />

dandelion as an alternative source to replace natural rubber,<br />

latex and inulin. Stay tuned - bioplastics MAGAZINE will keep you<br />

updated on this project. MT<br />

In January <strong>2022</strong>,<br />

Fred Eickmeyer,<br />

Managing director and plant breeder<br />

Eskusa, Parkstetten Germany<br />

says:<br />

Rubber made from dandelions, dismissed<br />

as a crazy idea around 10 years<br />

ago, is now the basis for the commercial<br />

production of a first bicycle tyre - the Continental<br />

Urban Taraxagum ® . To achieve<br />

this, many innovations were made. First,<br />

using molecular data on rubber biosynthesis,<br />

high-rubber-yielding dandelion lines were established<br />

through knowledge-based breeding<br />

from wild varieties. In parallel, good agricultural<br />

practices were developed for growing dandelions<br />

in the field, from sowing to harvesting seeds<br />

and roots. Field-cultivated plants formed the<br />

basis for the development of an extraction process<br />

that enables the environmentally<br />

friendly extraction of natural rubber<br />

from dandelion roots. Finally, the<br />

process parameters were adapted<br />

so that the new raw material found<br />

its way into industrial bicycle production.<br />

Subsequent tests showed<br />

that the dandelion bicycle tyre performed<br />

optimally in all categories.<br />

And the story continues: currently,<br />

all process steps are being scaled<br />

up so that car tyres made of dandelion<br />

rubber will also be found<br />

on the roads in the future. Local<br />

production of natural rubber with<br />

dandelions will hopefully also<br />

help to stop the further conversion<br />

of unique tropical rainforests<br />

into rubber tree monocultures<br />

- which would be of great<br />

importance for the preservation<br />

of biodiversity and climate stability.<br />

A core team of 5 partners<br />

(Continental Reifen AG, Fraunhofer<br />

IME, WWU Münster, JKI,<br />

ESKUSA) still works with the<br />

same enthusiasm on the development<br />

of dandelion towards<br />

a sustainable industrial<br />

rubber plant. They are supported<br />

by Continental and by<br />

the German Federal Ministry<br />

of Agriculture (BMEL) via the<br />

Agency for Renewable Resources<br />

(FNR).<br />


1. Raw Materials<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

AGRANA Starch<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Conrathstraße 7<br />

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria<br />

bioplastics.starch@agrana.com<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe<br />

Polyester Co., Ltd.<br />

No. 316, South Beijing Rd. Changji,<br />

Xinjiang, 831100, P.R.China<br />

Tel.: +86 994 22 90 90 9<br />

Mob: +86 187 99 283 100<br />

chenjianhui@lanshantunhe.com<br />

www.lanshantunhe.com<br />

PBAT & PBS resin supplier<br />

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.<br />

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou<br />

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,<br />

Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663<br />

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696<br />

info@ecopond.com.cn<br />

www.kingfa.com<br />

BASF SE<br />

Ludwigshafen, Germany<br />

Tel: +49 621 60-99951<br />

martin.bussmann@basf.com<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />

Mixcycling Srl<br />

Via dell‘Innovazione, 2<br />

36042 Breganze (VI), Italy<br />

Phone: +39 04451911890<br />

info@mixcycling.it<br />

www.mixcycling.it<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per <strong>issue</strong> you<br />

can be listed among top suppliers in the<br />

field of bioplastics.<br />

Gianeco S.r.l.<br />

Via Magenta 57 1<strong>01</strong>28 Torino - Italy<br />

Tel.+39<strong>01</strong>19370420<br />

info@gianeco.com<br />

www.gianeco.com<br />

Xiamen Changsu Industrial Co., Ltd<br />

Tel +86-592-6899303<br />

Mobile:+ 86 185 5920 1506<br />

Email: andy@chang-su.com.cn<br />

1.1 bio based monomers<br />

1.2 compounds<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

39 mm<br />

For Example:<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per <strong>issue</strong><br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 <strong>issue</strong>s x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 <strong>issue</strong>s) and extends<br />

automatically if it’s not cancelled<br />

three month before expiry.<br />

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.<br />

info@pttmcc.com / www.pttmcc.com<br />

Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563<br />

MCPP Germany GmbH<br />

+49 (0) 211 520 54 662<br />

Julian.Schmeling@mcpp-europe.com<br />

MCPP France SAS<br />

+33 (0)2 51 65 71 43<br />

fabien.resweber@mcpp-europe.com<br />

Microtec Srl<br />

Via Po’, 53/55<br />

30030, Mellaredo di Pianiga (VE),<br />

Italy<br />

Tel.: +39 041 5190621<br />

Fax.: +39 041 5194765<br />

info@microtecsrl.com<br />

www.biocomp.it<br />

Earth Renewable Technologies BR<br />

Estr. Velha do Barigui 10511, Brazil<br />

slink@earthrenewable.com<br />

www.earthrenewable.com<br />

Trinseo<br />

1000 Chesterbrook Blvd. Suite 300<br />

Berwyn, PA 19312<br />

+1 855 8746736<br />

www.trinseo.com<br />

BIO-FED<br />

Branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH<br />

BioCampus Cologne<br />

Nattermannallee 1<br />

50829 Cologne, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00<br />

info@bio-fed.com<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics<br />

527 Commercial St Suite 310<br />

Emporia, KS 668<strong>01</strong><br />

Tel.: +1 620-273-8919<br />

info@greendotbioplastics.com<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />

NUREL Engineering Polymers<br />

Ctra. Barcelona, km 329<br />

50<strong>01</strong>6 Zaragoza, Spain<br />

Tel: +34 976 465 579<br />

inzea@samca.com<br />

www.inzea-biopolymers.com<br />

www.facebook.com<br />

www.issuu.com<br />

www.twitter.com<br />

www.youtube.com<br />

Tel: +86 351-8689356<br />

Fax: +86 351-8689718<br />

www.jinhuizhaolong.com<br />

ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com<br />

Global Biopolymers Co.,Ltd.<br />

Bioplastics compounds<br />

(PLA+starch;PLA+rubber)<br />

194 Lardproa80 yak 14<br />

Wangthonglang, Bangkok<br />

Thailand 10310<br />

info@globalbiopolymers.com<br />

www.globalbiopolymers.com<br />

Tel +66 81 9150446<br />

a brand of<br />

Helian Polymers BV<br />

Bremweg 7<br />

5951 DK Belfeld<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel. +31 77 398 09 09<br />

sales@helianpolymers.com<br />

https://pharadox.com<br />

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Sukano AG<br />

Chaltenbodenstraße 23<br />

CH-8834 Schindellegi<br />

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77<br />

Fax +41 44 787 57 78<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

Biofibre GmbH<br />

Member of Steinl Group<br />

Sonnenring 35<br />

D-84032 Altdorf<br />

Fon: +49 (0)871 308-0<br />

Fax: +49 (0)871 308-183<br />

info@biofibre.de<br />

www.biofibre.de<br />

Natureplast – Biopolynov<br />

11 rue François Arago<br />

14123 IFS<br />

Tel: +33 (0)2 31 83 50 87<br />

www.natureplast.eu<br />

TECNARO GmbH<br />

Bustadt 40<br />

D-74360 Ilsfeld. Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0)7062/97687-0<br />

www.tecnaro.de<br />

P O L i M E R<br />


Ege Serbest Bolgesi, Koru Sk.,<br />

No.12, Gaziemir, Izmir 35410,<br />

Turkey<br />

+90 (232) 251 5041<br />

info@gemapolimer.com<br />

http://www.gemabio.com<br />

1.3 PLA<br />

Total Corbion PLA bv<br />

Stadhuisplein 70<br />

4203 NS Gorinchem<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 183 695 695<br />

Fax.: +31 183 695 604<br />

www.total-corbion.com<br />

pla@total-corbion.com<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.97 Waisha Rd, Jiaojiang District,<br />

Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China<br />

Tel: +86-576-88827723<br />

pla@hisunpharm.com<br />

www.hisunplas.com<br />


- Sheets 2 /3 /4 mm – 1 x 2 m -<br />

GEHR GmbH<br />

Mannheim / Germany<br />

Tel: +49-621-8789-127<br />

laudenklos@gehr.de<br />

www.gehr.de<br />

1.4 starch-based bioplastics<br />

BIOTEC<br />

Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32<br />

46446 Emmerich/Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Plásticos Compuestos S.A.<br />

C/ Basters 15<br />

08184 Palau Solità i Plegamans<br />

Barcelona, Spain<br />

Tel. +34 93 863 96 70<br />

info@kompuestos.com<br />

www.kompuestos.com<br />


Parque Industrial e Empresarial<br />

da Figueira da Foz<br />

Praça das Oliveiras, Lote 126<br />

3090-451 Figueira da Foz – Portugal<br />

Phone: +351 233 403 420<br />

info@unitedbiopolymers.com<br />

www.unitedbiopolymers.com<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

Kaneka Belgium N.V.<br />

Nijverheidsstraat 16<br />

2260 Westerlo-Oevel, Belgium<br />

Tel: +32 (0)14 25 78 36<br />

Fax: +32 (0)14 25 78 81<br />

info.biopolymer@kaneka.be<br />

TianAn Biopolymer<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

1.6 masterbatches<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

Albrecht Dinkelaker<br />

Polymer- and Product Development<br />

Talstrasse 83<br />

60437 Frankfurt am Main, Germany<br />

Tel.:+49 (0)69 76 89 39 10<br />

info@polyfea2.de<br />

www.caprowax-p.eu<br />

Treffert GmbH & Co. KG<br />

In der Weide 17<br />

55411 Bingen am Rhein; Germany<br />

+49 6721 403 0<br />

www.treffert.eu<br />

Treffert S.A.S.<br />

Rue de la Jontière<br />

57255 Sainte-Marie-aux-Chênes,<br />

France<br />

+33 3 87 31 84 84<br />

www.treffert.fr<br />

www.granula.eu<br />

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

3. Semi finished products<br />

3.1 Sheets<br />

Customised Sheet Xtrusion<br />

James Wattstraat 5<br />

7442 DC Nijverdal<br />

The Netherlands<br />

+31 (548) 626 111<br />

info@csx-nijverdal.nl<br />

www.csx-nijverdal.nl<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

Bio4Pack GmbH<br />

Marie-Curie-Straße 5<br />

48529 Nordhorn, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 (0)5921 818 37 00<br />

info@bio4pack.com<br />

www.bio4pack.com<br />

Plant-based and Compostable PLA Cups and Lids<br />

Great River Plastic Manufacturer<br />

Company Limited<br />

Tel.: +852 95880794<br />

sam@shprema.com<br />

https://eco-greatriver.com/<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, Vice president<br />

Yunlin, Taiwan(R.O.C)<br />

Mobile: (886) 0-982 829988<br />

Email: esmy@minima-tech.com<br />

Website: www.minima.com<br />

w OEM/ODM (B2B)<br />

w Direct Supply Branding (B2C)<br />

w Total Solution/Turnkey Project<br />

Naturabiomat<br />

AT: office@naturabiomat.at<br />

DE: office@naturabiomat.de<br />

NO: post@naturabiomat.no<br />

FI: info@naturabiomat.fi<br />

www.naturabiomat.com<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

42<strong>01</strong> Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55<strong>01</strong>4 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.404.8700<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@natur-tec.com<br />

www.natur-tec.com<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.0321.699.6<strong>01</strong><br />

Tel. +39.0321.699.611<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 55

6. Equipment<br />

6.1 Machinery & Molds<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

Suppliers Guide<br />

Buss AG<br />

Hohenrainstrasse 10<br />

4133 Pratteln / Switzerland<br />

Tel.: +41 61 825 66 00<br />

Fax: +41 61 825 68 58<br />

info@busscorp.com<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

6.2 Degradability Analyzer<br />

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer<br />


143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka,Japan<br />

Tel:+81-54-624-6155<br />

Fax: +81-54-623-8623<br />

info_fds@saidagroup.jp<br />

www.saidagroup.jp/fds_en/<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />

EREMA Engineering Recycling<br />

Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH<br />

Unterfeldstrasse 3<br />

4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA<br />

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0<br />

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23<br />

erema@erema.at<br />

www.erema.at<br />

9. Services<br />

Innovation Consulting Harald Kaeb<br />

narocon<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb<br />

Tel.: +49 30-28096930<br />

kaeb@narocon.de<br />

www.narocon.de<br />

nova-Institut GmbH<br />

Chemiepark Knapsack<br />

Industriestrasse 300<br />

50354 Huerth, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40<br />

E-Mail: contact@nova-institut.de<br />

www.biobased.eu<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

10. Institutions<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10<strong>01</strong>9, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

Institut für Kunststofftechnik<br />

Universität Stuttgart<br />

Böblinger Straße 70<br />

7<strong>01</strong>99 Stuttgart<br />

Tel +49 711/685-62831<br />

silvia.kliem@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Dept. of Chem. Eng & Mat. Sc.<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts Hanover<br />

Faculty II – Mechanical and<br />

Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

30453 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69<br />

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69<br />

lisa.mundzeck@hs-hannover.de<br />

www.ifbb-hannover.de/<br />

10.3 Other Institutions<br />

Green Serendipity<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

IJburglaan 836<br />

1087 EM Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 6-24216733<br />

www.greenseredipity.nl<br />

Osterfelder Str. 3<br />

46047 Oberhausen<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227<br />

thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

1<strong>01</strong>17 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

GO!PHA<br />

Rick Passenier<br />

Oudebrugsteeg 9<br />

1<strong>01</strong>2JN Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

info@gopha.org<br />

www.gopha.org<br />

Our new<br />

frame<br />

colours<br />

Bioplastics related topics,<br />

i.e., all topics around<br />

biobased and biodegradable<br />

plastics, come in the familiar<br />

green frame.<br />

All topics related to<br />

Advanced Recycling, such<br />

as chemical recycling<br />

or enzymatic degradation<br />

of mixed waste into building<br />

blocks for new plastics have<br />

this turquoise coloured<br />

frame.<br />

When it comes to plastics<br />

made of any kind of carbon<br />

source associated with<br />

Carbon Capture & Utilisation<br />

we use this frame colour.<br />

The familiar blue<br />

frame stands for rather<br />

administrative sections,<br />

such as the table of<br />

contents or the “Dear<br />

readers” on page 3.<br />

If a topic belongs to more<br />

than one group, we use<br />

crosshatched frames.<br />

Ochre/green stands for<br />

Carbon Capture &<br />

Bioplastics, e. g., PHA made<br />

from methane.<br />

Articles covering Recycling<br />

and Bioplastics ...<br />

Recycling & Carbon Capture<br />

We’re sure, you got it!<br />

As you may have already noticed, we are expanding our scope of topics. With the main target in focus – getting away from fossil resources – we are strongly<br />

supporting the idea of Renewable Carbon. So, in addition to our traditional bioplastics topics, about biobased and biodegradable plastics, we also started covering<br />

topics from the fields of Carbon Capture and Utilisation as well as Advanced Recycling.<br />

To better differentiate the different overarching topics in the magazine, we modified our layout.<br />

56 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

Vol. 17<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Subscribe<br />

now at<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

the next six <strong>issue</strong>s for €179.– 1)<br />

Special offer<br />

for students and<br />

young professionals<br />

1,2) € 99.-<br />

2) aged 35 and below.<br />

Send a scan of your<br />

student card, your ID<br />

or similar proof.<br />

Event Calendar<br />

You can meet us<br />

International Conference on Cellulose Fibres <strong>2022</strong><br />

02.02. - 03.02.<strong>2022</strong> - Cologne, Germany<br />

https://cellulose-fibres.eu/<br />

Forum of Biobased & Biodegradable materials<br />

09.03. - 10.02.<strong>2022</strong> - Shenzhen, China<br />

https://tinyurl.com/bio-shenzhen<br />

bio!PAC 2021/22 (NEW DATE !)<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

15.03. - 16.03.<strong>2022</strong> - Online<br />

www.bio-pac.info<br />

Conference on CO 2<br />

-based Fuels and Chemicals<br />

23.03. - 24.03.<strong>2022</strong> - Cologne, Germany<br />

http://co2-chemistry.eu/<br />

PIAE – International professional congress for plastics<br />

in cars<br />

30.03. - 31.03.<strong>2022</strong> - Mannheim, Germany<br />

https://www.vdiconference.com/piae/<br />

CHINAPLAS <strong>2022</strong><br />

25.04. - 28.04.<strong>2022</strong> - Shanghai, China<br />

www.chinaplasonline.com/CPS22<br />

Events<br />

daily updated eventcalendar at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

The Renewable Materials Conference<br />

10.05. - 12.05.<strong>2022</strong> - Cologne, Germany<br />

https://renewable-materials.eu/<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 16<br />

Bioplastics - CO 2 -based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

Highlights<br />

Coating | 10<br />

Films, Flexibles, Bags | 40<br />

Basics<br />

Cellulose based bioplastics | 50<br />

Bioplastics - CO 2 -based Plastics - Advanced Recycling<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Cover Story<br />

First straw bans<br />

begin to topple | 7<br />

2007<br />

Highlights<br />

Automotive | 18<br />

Foam | 36<br />

06 / 2021<br />

Basics<br />

Biodegradation | 50<br />

ISSN 1862-5258 ... is read in 92 countries Nov/Dec<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Jan/Feb <strong>01</strong> / <strong>2022</strong><br />

7 th PLA World Congress<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

24.05. - 25.05.<strong>2022</strong> -Munich, Germany<br />

www.pla-world-congress.com<br />

Interfoam <strong>2022</strong><br />

15.06. - 17.06.<strong>2022</strong> - Shanghai, China<br />

www.interfoam.cn/en<br />

Plastics for Cleaner Planet - Conference<br />

26.06. - 28.06.<strong>2022</strong> - New York City Area, USA<br />

https://innoplastsolutions.com/conference<br />

Bioplastix India<br />

29.07. - 30.07.<strong>2022</strong> - Bangalore, India<br />

https://bioplastex.com/<br />

Subject to changes.<br />

For up to date event-info visit https://www.bioplasticsmagazine.com/en/event-calendar/<br />

+<br />

or<br />

Use the promotion code ‘watch‘ or ‘book‘<br />

and you will get our watch or the book 3)<br />

Bioplastics Basics. Applications. Markets. for free<br />

(new subscribers only).<br />

1) Offer valid until 31 March <strong>2022</strong>.<br />

3) Gratis-Buch in Deutschland leider nicht möglich (Buchpreisbindung).<br />

Watch as long as supply lasts.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17 57

Companies in this <strong>issue</strong><br />

Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert<br />

Adsale / Chinaplas 16 27<br />

Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) 53<br />

Agrana Starch Bioplastics 54<br />

Amsilk 28<br />

Anellotech 47<br />

Arkema 7,24<br />

Avantium 6,14<br />

Balstic Yacht 26<br />

BASF 12,24,34 54<br />

Bausano 40<br />

Bcomp 30<br />

Beijing Univ. Chem. Tech. 22<br />

Bio4pack 14 55<br />

Bio-Based Industry Joint Undertkaing 23<br />

Bio-Fed Branch of Akro-Plastic 54<br />

Biofibre 55<br />

Biomitive 23<br />

Biotec 4,14 55,59<br />

BluePHA 6<br />

BMEL 30,53<br />

Bonsucro 44<br />

BPI 56<br />

Braskem 24<br />

Buss 13,56<br />

Caprowachs, Albrecht Dinkelaker 55<br />

Cathay Biotech 16,18<br />

ColorFABB 13<br />

Continental 22,53<br />

Cortec Corporation 46<br />

Covestro 36<br />

Crop Energies 30<br />

Customized Sheet Extrusion 55<br />

Danimer Scientific 8<br />

Desserto 28<br />

Dow 2,36<br />

Dr. Heinz Gupta Verlag 35<br />

DrinkWell 49<br />

DSM 49<br />

Earth Renewable Technologies 46<br />

Earthfirst Films by Sidaplax 14<br />

Eastman Chemical Company 24<br />

Eoc-mobilier 36<br />

Erema 56<br />

Eskusa 53<br />

European Bioplastics 5,8,10,11,14,42 56<br />

European Commission 10<br />

Evonik Industries 24<br />

Fabulous 39<br />

FAO 8<br />

FKuR 14 2,54<br />

Ford 30<br />

Four Motors 30<br />

Fraunhofer IME 53<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 56<br />

Next <strong>issue</strong>s<br />

Issue<br />

Month<br />

Publ.<br />

Date<br />

edit/ad/<br />

Deadline<br />

02/<strong>2022</strong> Mar/Apr 04.04.<strong>2022</strong> 04.03.<strong>2022</strong> Thermoforming /<br />

Rigid Packaging<br />

Fraunhofer WKI 30<br />

Futamura 45<br />

Future Market Insights 24<br />

Gehr 55<br />

Gema Polimers 55<br />

Genecis Bioindustries 6<br />

Gianeco 54<br />

Global Biopolymers 54<br />

Go!PHA 56<br />

Goodyear 22<br />

Grafe 54,55<br />

Granula 55<br />

Great River Plastic Manuf. 55<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics 54<br />

Green Serendipity 14 56<br />

Grupo Antolin 34<br />

Gruppo Fabbri Vignola 12<br />

H&S Anlagentechnik 36<br />

Helian Polymers 6,13 54<br />

Hellerman Tyton 49<br />

Hexpol TPE 46<br />

ICC Plus 44<br />

IDPRINT 3D 39<br />

Inst. F. Bioplastics & Biocomposites 56<br />

Institut f. Kunststofftechnik, Stuttgart 56<br />

JinHui ZhaoLong High Technology 54<br />

JKI 53<br />

Joint Research Centre JRC 10,42<br />

Kaneka 38 55<br />

Kingfa 54<br />

Kinner 26<br />

Kompuestos 54,55<br />

Kreyenborg 41<br />

Manthey racing 31<br />

Mercedes-Benz 28<br />

Michigan State University 56<br />

Microtec 54<br />

Minima Technology 55<br />

Mitsubishi Chemical 24<br />

Mixcycling 54<br />

Mylo 28<br />

NaKu 14<br />

narocon InnovationConsulting 56<br />

Naturabiomat 55<br />

Natureplast-Biopolynov 55<br />

NatureWorks 5,14,24,42<br />

Natur-Tec 55<br />

Neste 14<br />

nova Institute 11,14 21,25,49,56<br />

Novamont 14 55,6<br />

Numi Organic Tea 14<br />

Nurel 54<br />

Orrison Chemicals Orgaform 36<br />

OTIZ 22<br />

Edit. Focus 1 Edit. Focus 2 Basics<br />

Additives /<br />

Masterbatch / Adh.<br />

30/<strong>2022</strong> May/Jun 07.06.<strong>2022</strong> 06.05.<strong>2022</strong> Injection moulding Beauty &<br />

Healthcare<br />

04/<strong>2022</strong> Jul/Aug <strong>01</strong>.08.<strong>2022</strong> <strong>01</strong>. Jul 22 Blow Moulding Polyurethanes/<br />

Elastomers/Rubber<br />

05/<strong>2022</strong> Sep/Oct 04.10.<strong>2022</strong> 02.09.<strong>2022</strong> Fiber / Textile /<br />

Nonwoven<br />

06/<strong>2022</strong> Nov/Dec 05.12.<strong>2022</strong> 04.11.<strong>2022</strong> Films/Flexibles/<br />

Bags<br />

Building &<br />

Construction<br />

Consumer<br />

Electronics<br />

OWS 14,5<br />

Pepsoco Europe 48<br />

plasticker 24<br />

polymediaconsult 56<br />

Porsche 30<br />

PTT/MCC 54<br />

PureGreen 14<br />

Refork 13<br />

Renault 30<br />

Ricoh Europe 14<br />

Rodenburg Biopolymers 14<br />

Ronal 32<br />

RSB 44<br />

RWDC 14<br />

SACMI Chocolate 45<br />

Saida 56<br />

Sappi Europe 20<br />

Scotch & Soda 48<br />

Shandong Chambroard 22<br />

Shandong Linglong Tire 22<br />

Solvay 5,24<br />

Sukano 55<br />

Sulapac 14<br />

Suntory Group 47<br />

Superfoodguru 14<br />

Swan 26<br />

Taghleef Industries 14<br />

Tecnaro 55<br />

Teco2il 30<br />

The Vita Group 36<br />

TianAn Biopolymer 55<br />

Tipa 14,48<br />

TNO 14<br />

Total Corbion PLA 6,14,24 55<br />

TotalEnergies Corbion 6,8<br />

Treffert 55<br />

Trillium Renewable Chemicals 5<br />

Trinseo 54<br />

TU Delft 14<br />

TÜV Austria Belgium 38<br />

UBQ 28<br />

United Biopolymers 55<br />

United Nations 8<br />

Univ. Amsterdam 14<br />

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 56<br />

VDI 9<br />

Volkswagen 30<br />

Vyva Fabrics 28<br />

Wolf Oil Corporation 30<br />

WWF 7<br />

WWK Münster 53<br />

Xiamen Chagsu Industries 23,54<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 54<br />

Yoloha 46<br />

Zeijiang Hisun Biomaterials 55<br />

plastic or "no plastic" -<br />

that's the question<br />

Biocompatability of PHA<br />

FDCA and PEF<br />

Feedstocks, different<br />

generations<br />

Chemical recycling<br />

Trade-Fair<br />

Specials<br />

Chinaplas Preview<br />

Chinaplas Review<br />

K'<strong>2022</strong> Preview<br />

K'<strong>2022</strong> Review<br />

Subject to changes<br />

58 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>01</strong>/22] Vol. 17

SMART<br />


FOR<br />



• Food contact grade<br />

• Odourless<br />

• Plasticizer free<br />

• Home and industrial<br />

compostable<br />

100%<br />

compostable<br />

(according to EN 13432)


as orange peel<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />


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