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Flower development of Lilium longiflorum - The Lilium information ...

Flower development of Lilium longiflorum - The Lilium information ...

Chapter 3 6 23 13 28 22

Chapter 3 6 23 13 28 22 40 77 52 41 32 32 33 85 75 63 98 66 0.1 90 36 71 28 47 83 97 57 88 26 35 43 100 100 60 DOMADS1 - Dendrobium grex LLSEP3 - Lilium longiflorum OM1 - Aranda deborah SEP3 - Arabidopsis thaliana 100 SaMADSD - Sinapsis alba MTF1 - Pisum sativum EGM1 - Eucalyptus grandis BpMADS1 - Betula pendula GhMADS1 - Gossypium hyrsutum VvMADS4 - Vitis vinifera CDM44 - Chrysanthemum x morifolium 99 71 TM5 - Lycopersicon esculentum FBP2 - Petunia x hybrida 82 NsMADS3 - Nicotiana sylvestris DEFH200 - Antirrhinum majus 100 DEFH72 - Antirrhinum majus SbMADS1 - Sorghum bicolor HvMADS9 - Hordeum vulgare 99 OsMADS8 - Oryza sativa 100 OsMADS45 - Oryza sativa CMB1 - Dianthus caryophyllus DoMADS3 - Dendrobium grex MdMADS3 - Malus domestica 100 PrMADS1 - Pinus radiata 100 EGM3 - Eucalyptus grandis FBP23 - Petunia x hybrida CanMADS1 - Capsicum annuum 100 FBP9 - Petunia x hybrida NtMADS4 - Nicotiana tabacum SEP2 - Arabidopsis thaliana 100 99 SEP1 - Arabidopsis thaliana BoSEP1A - Brassica oleracea VvMADS2 - Vitis vinifera MAGL4 - Populus tremuloides CAGL2 - Cucumis sativus 100MdMADS1 - Malus domestica MdMADS8 - Malus domestica DEF49 - Antirrhinum majus FBP5 - Petunia x hybrida 99 TAGL2 - Lycopersicon esculentum 100 TM29 - Lycopersicon esculentum MdMADS4 - Malus domestica AGL3 - Arabidopsis thaliana FBP4 - Petunia x hybrida CDM77 - Chrysanthemum x morifolium 100 74 HAM137 - Helianthus annuus GRCD1 - Gerbera hybrida DOMADS2 - Dendrobium grex GGM11 - Gnetum gnemon 88 99 DAL1 - Picea abies GpMADS3 - Gnetum parvifolium 100 GGM9 - Gnetum gnemon CDM104 - Chrysanthemum x morifolium 99 94 100 OsMADS17 - Oryza sativa PaMADS1 - Poa annua TaMADS12 - Triticum aestivum OsMADS5 - Oryza sativa 100 50 OSMADS1 - Oryza sativa HvMADS7 - Hordeum vulgare

Isolation and Characterisation of LLSEP3 Figure 2. Phylogenetic analysis of MADS-box genes. The tree was generated by the ClustalX version 1.8 program (Thompson et al., 1997) using a Phylip distance matrix with 1,000 bootstrap trials. Graphic representation was produced by the TreeView software (Page, 1996). LLSEP3 is indicated in bold. The species of origin are given after the respective gene names. Bars represent 10% amino acid substitution per site along the 185 domain. An explanation of why SEP3 induces early flower phenotype cannot be easily given up till now. This phenomenon may be due to its intrinsic and uncharacterised role during floral meristem identity or even with functional mimicry of a floral meristem gene, such as AP1. Segregation of early flowering and twisted leaves was followed up and confirmed until the T2 generation. T1 generation plants were assessed for RNA expression, showing active transcription of LLSEP3 and the selection NPTII gene (Figure 5). A B flower bud length (cm) 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 L T S C LLSEP3 GAPDH Figure 3. Expression profile analysis of LLSEP3. A. LLSEP3 transcripts are present in developing floral buds (1.5 to 3.5 cm lengths). B. LLSEP3 is expressed in mature floral organs (T, tepals; S, stamens; C, carpels) and not detected in leaves (L). Ten micrograms of total RNA were loaded in each lane. Loading control is given by hybridisation with a lily GAPDH probe in the lower panels. Whereas antisense expression of SEP3 in Arabidopsis led to phenotypes similar to intermediate alleles of the flower meristem identity and homeotic gene ap1 (Pelaz et al., 2001a), antisense expression of LLSEP3 in Arabidopsis did not show any visible phenotypic alteration, presumably because its sequence already diverges too much to promote gene silencing of SEP3 by antisense RNA. 41

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