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3B MEDIZIN | Biologie | Bachmann Lehrmittel

VR1379.indd 1 (Serum =

VR1379.indd 1 (Serum = plasma without fibrinogen) 25.10.2006 11:11:16 Uhr › Sie finden immer die wichtigsten Punkte zu Themen wie Skelett und Muskulatur des Menschen, Augen, Ohren, Herz, Lunge, Nerven und Erkrankungen wie Diabetes mellitus, Hepatitis, Krebs, Allergien und mehr. VR1379 The Blood Erhältlich in deutscher Sprache Erythrocytes The blood of an adult contains approx. 4-6 million red blood cells (erythrocytes) depending on the sex. They are produced in the bone marrow and then released into the blood. The formation is stimulated by a renal hormone (erythropoietin). The level of young erythrocytes (reticulocytes) is an indication of the rate of regeneration. This rate is usually 3-18 parts per thousand. The mature erythrocytes are anucleate, biconcave discs approx. 7.5 µm in diameter. To enable them to enter minuscule vessels they are deformable. In addition to water, one third of them consists of the red blood pigment hemoglobin. This substance enables them to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. Erythrocytes disintegrate after approx. 120 days. Their fragments are mainly broken down in the spleen. Erythrocyte Thrombocytes One µl of blood usually contains 150,000 – 400,000 platelets (thrombocytes). These serve to stop bleeding: 2-6 minutes after an injury to a vessel, the platelets clump together and provide initial wound closure that is not yet stable. They simultaneously trigger the complex process of blood clotting. This takes 5-7 minutes and can be inhibited by certain drugs (heparin, cumarin). After a life span of 9-10 days, thrombocytes are mainly broken down in the spleen. Blood cells Erythrocytes Leukocytes Thrombocytes Thrombocyte Lymphocytes Granulocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Neutrophils Basophils Anemia A reduction in the number of red blood cells, the red blood pigment hemoglobin or the proportion of blood cells in the total blood volume is called anemia. 3 groups of causes are differentiated: 1) Anemia caused by loss of blood. 2) Anemia caused by reduced production of erythrocytes or hemoglobin – these can be congenital or the consequence of infections, poisonings or autoimmune diseases – and 3) anemia caused by increased breakdown or destruction of erythrocytes. Possible causes include iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, disorders of iron utilization or a deficiency in the hormone for blood formation, erythropoietin. Headache Reduced power of concentration Quick fatigability Vertigo, "black before the eyes" Ringing in the ears Sleeplessness Paleness General symptoms of anemia Shortness of breath Heart murmur Muscular pain Cardiac enlargement Dyspnea Sensitivity to cold Rapid pulse rate Composition of the Band cells Segmented cells Hypersegmented cells Blood The blood volume of an adult is approx. 1/14 of the body weight. 49.5% Water 55% Plasma 45% Cells 1.1% Nutrients: sugar, fat Electrolytes: sodium chloride, potassium, calcium, magnesium and vitamins, hormones, trace elements, amino acids 4.4% Proteins: albumins, globulins, fibrinogen 42.8% Red blood cells (erythrocytes) 0.1% White blood cells (leukocytes) 2.1% Platelets (thrombocytes) Dead cell T lymphocyte Cancer cell Lymphocytes Lymphocytes are 7-12 µm in diameter. A distinction is made between T B lymphocyte lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. T lymphocytes play an important role in the defense against infections, especially viruses and fungi. They form a crucial part of the defense mechanism against tumors and the rejection of transplants. They induce delayed-type hypersensitivity and stimulate immunological defense reaction by producing substances that regulate cell growth (interleukins, interferons). B lymphocytes produce so-called Immunoglobulin (Ig) immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM) for defense purposes. IgE induces an immediate-type hypersensitive HI viruses reaction. Granulocytes Granulocytes are 10-17 µm in diameter. They are classified into three groups based on their staining properties: neutrophilic, basophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes. Neutrophilic granulocytes are attracted by bacterial toxins and disintegration products. They “ingest” and “digest” bacteria, foreign substances and dead cells. In this process they are destroyed themselves and form pus. Basophilic Basophilic granulocytes induce immediate-type allergic reactions granulocyte by releasing histamine. Eosinophilic granulocytes play an important role in all allergic reactions and in parasitic infestations. Edemae Blood Formation Except for the lymphocytes, the various blood cells are produced exclusively in the red bone marrow of the flat bones, the short bones and the joint ends of the tubular bones. There they are formed from the same stem cells. After their replication and maturation the blood cells are eventually released into the blood or are initially stored. Only a part of the lymphocytes is formed in the bone marrow. These cells mature and replicate in the lymphatic organs (lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland). The Blood Count The blood count is a routine examination to determine a variety of medical issues. A drop of blood taken from a blood sample is used to produce a so-called smear preparation. The total numbers of the individual blood cells are then determined by counting them under the microscope. In addition, the total amount of red blood pigment (hemoglobin = Hb) in the blood is measured, as well as the percentage of all blood cells in the complete blood (hematocrit = HCT) and values on the size, volume and hemoglobin content of the red blood cells. In the large blood count, the various subgroups of the white blood cells are additionally differentiated (differential blood count). The neutrophilic granulocytes are differentiated according to their stage of maturation. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) ESR is an unspecific test indicating the presence of a disease. The object of the test is to measure the sedimentation rate of the erythrocytes. The normal sedimentation rate of erythrocytes is 3-8 mm after one hour in men and 6-11 mm in women. After 2 hours, the normal sedimentation rate is 5-12 mm in men, and 6-20 mm in women. After 24 hours Left shift Myeloblasts Promyelocytes Myelocytes Metamyelocytes Band granulocytes Segmented granulocytes granulocytes Hypersegmented Fatigue Tonsillitis, inflammation of the mouth Susceptibility to infections Fever, night sweat, weight loss Enlarged liver Neutrophilic granulocyte Eosinophilic granulocyte Bacterium Chief complaints associated with white blood cell diseases Nose bleeding Leukemia This malignant disease is associated with an uncontrolled growth of Lymphadenosis one cell group of the white blood cells in the bone marrow. This causes suppression of the normal blood formation. Once the cells have been released into the blood, uncontrolled proliferation occurs there as well. Changes in the A distinction is made between acute and chronic forms of the disease. blood count Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia with the lowest degree of malignancy. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by a gradual onset at medium age and has poor chances of recovery. The acute types of leukemia usually occur as lymphatic leukemia in children (ALL), and as myeloid leukemia in adults (AML). Acute leukemia in childhood has good chances of recovery. Differential Blood Count When immature forms of the neutrophilic granulocytes appear in the blood count this is referred to as a left shift. This is common in the presence of many infectious diseases, inflammations and purulence. In case of a myeloid leukemia, immature preliminary stages of the granulocytes will appear in the blood count. Hypersegmented granulocytes are caused by overaging of the erythrocytes. Skin fungus, eczema Enlarged spleen Punctate bleeding Serum of the blood groups: Blood Groups Based on specific surface structures (antigens) of the erythrocytes four different blood groups are distinguished: A, B, AB and 0. Each blood group contains antibodies against foreign surface structures. Blood group A thus contains antibodies against B, B against A, AB none and 0 antibodies against A and B. If the antibodies meet the matching antigens during blood transfusions, this will lead to a life-threatening clumping of the erythrocytes. The incompatibility reaction will be stronger if the recipient’s blood contains antibodies against the donor’s blood. The rhesus factor (Rh) is another incompatibility factor of the blood. In Rh negative persons (mother) antibodies will be formed only upon contact (birth) with Rh positive blood (child) Erythrocytes of the blood groups: 0 A B AB Bone pain 0 A B AB Distribution of frequency: 0 Rh+: 33% 0 Rh-: 5% A Rh+: 41% A Rh-: 7% B Rh+: 7.6% Monocytes B Rh-: 2% Monocytes have a diameter of 12-20 µm and are therefore the AB Rh+: 3.4% largest white blood cells. They remain in the blood for 1-2 days AB Anti-A and then migrate into the various organs. There they are converted Rh-:1% Anti-B into macrophages (large scavenger cells). Their functions include Clumping the ingestion and digestion (phagocytosis) of foreign particles and the presentation to lymphocytes. Monocyte © 3B Scientific GmbH www.3bscientific.com Hamburg, Germany, 2002 Design and text: Wilfried Hennig Printed in Germany Illustrations: Holger Vanselow Das Blut Laminiert M-1001375 Papierversion M-4006604 266 MEDIZINISCHE LEHRTAFELN

VR1152/4006657/1001480 Posteriorarch of atlas Spinous process Radiate ligament of head of rib Costotransverse ligament Lateral Vertebral costotransverse foramen ligament Verteberal arch Costal process Intervertebral disc Spinal nerve Auricular surface of sacrum Posterior rami of sacral nerves Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass. Possible causes include inactivity, poor nutrition (protein, calcium, or vitamin defi ciency, alcoholism), or prolonged corticosteroid therapy. Postmenopausal women are particularly affected, as the reduction in estrogen production causes a predominance of osteoclast acti vity over that of the osteoblasts. This results in a loss bone stability leading to fractures, most commonly in the spinal column, femur, and radius. The collapse of thoracic vertebrae cause them to assume a wedge shape, resulting in the typical “dowager’s hump” and shortened statue of the osteo porosis patient. Printed in Germany VR1620/4006710/1001586 Anterior cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves Intercostobrachial nerve Medial brachial cutaneous nerve Lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve Posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (from radial nerve) Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve Superficial branch of radial nerve Femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve Ilioinguinal nerve Median branch of median nerve Dorsal nerve of penis Anterior cutaneous nerves (from femoral nerve) Great saphenous vein Lateral sural cutaneous nerve Superficial peroneal nerve Intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve Medial dorsal cutaneous nerve Anterior arch of atlas Dens of axis Superior articular facet Foramen transversarium Atlas (C1) Auriculotemporal nerve Greater occipital nerve Trigeminal ganglion Greater petrosal nerve Chorda tympani Mandibular nerve Facial nerve Inferior alveolar nerve Lesser occipital nerve Great auricular nerve Accessory nerve Transverse cervical nerve Supraclavicular nerves Axis (C2) Body of vertebra Head of rib Joint of head of rib Rib Spinous process Costotransverse joint Spinal process Body of Healthy Vertebra Body of Osteoporitic Vertebra This is a disease of the thoracic spinal column caused by impaired bone growth. The vertebrae appear wedge-shaped due to defective positioning of the sympysis. The curvature of the thoracic vertebrae increases, and their mobility is limited. Boys are more often affected than girls. Infrapatellar branch of saphenous nerve Saphenous nerve Deep peroneal nerve Erector spinae muscle Medial branch of dorsal ramus Lateral branch of dorsal ramus Trapezius muscle Spinal ganglion Latissimus dorsi muscle Spinal cord External intercostal muscle Dorsal root of spinal nerve Internal intercostal muscle Ventral root of spinal Ventral ramus of spinal nerve nerve (intercostal nerve) Meningeal branch Sympathetic trunk Serratus anterior muscle Gray and white rami communicantes Lateral cutaneous branch Thoracic splanchnic Innermost nerves intercostal Ventral ramus of spinal nerve Subcostal muscles muscles External abdominal oblique muscle Vertebral column External intercostal membrane Rectus abdominus muscle Costal origin of diaphragm Anterior cutaneous branch of Linea alba ventral ramus Printed in Germany Femoral nerve Superficial branch of ulnar nerve Deep branch of ulnar nerve (II) C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Normal Posture Cervical vertebrae Vertebrae C1 cervicales = atlas C2 C1=Atlas, = axis C2=Axis Thoracic Vertebrae vertebrae thoracicae Lumbar Vertebrae vertebrae lumbales Sacrum Os sacrum Coccyx Os coccygis Lordosis Promontary of sacrum Auricular surface of sacrum The double S-shaped curvature of the spinal column allows weight bearing on the vertical axis as needed for activities such as jumping. Four basic posture types are recognized. Individual posture is hereditary, but is also influenced by the growth process, age, illness, and condition of shoulder, back and hip muscles. Ulnar nerve Median nerve Cervical nerves 1-8 Thoracic nerves 1-12 Lumbar nerves 1-5 Severe lordosis Subcostal nerve Cauda equina Deep branch of radial nerve Rhomboid fossa Inferior colliculus Iliohypogastric nerve Arachnoid Cerebellar peduncle Ilioinguinal nerve Glossopharyngeal and Superficial branch of radial nerve vagus nerves Lateral cutaneous femoral nerve Genitofemoral nerve Femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve Ulnar nerve Median nerve Obturator nerve Sacral plexus Spinal cord Common palmar digital nerves (from median nerve) 1st, 2nd, 4th ribs Proper palmar digital nerves (from median nerve) Proper palmar digital nerves (from ulnar nerve) Sacrum (opened) Arch of vertebra Spinal dura mater Coccygeal nerve Coccyx External filum terminale Sacral nerves 1-5 l o r d k y p h u e i q Flat back Temporal branches of facial nerve Lateral branch of supraorbital nerve Medial branch of supraorbital nerve Longitudinal cerebral fissure Ophthalmic nerve Frontal pole of cerebrum Frontal lobe Frontal nerve Orbital gyri Olfactory bulb Maxillary nerve Pterygopalatine ganglion Temporal pole of cerebrum Olfactory tract [I] Posterior superior alveolar branches of infraorbital nerve Optic nerve [II] Infraorbital nerve Lingual nerve Anterior perforated substance Optic chiasm Ophthalmic nerve [V1] Pituitary gland (hypophysis) Maxillary nerve [V2] Oculomotor [III] nerve Mandibular nerve [V3] Mental nerve Mamillary body Trochlear nerve [IV] Trigeminal nerve [V] Pons Facial nerve [VII] 4th cervical nerve 5th cervical nerve Abducens nerve [VI] Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] 6th cervical nerve Hypoglossal nerve [XII] Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] 7th cervical nerve 8th cervical nerve Vagus nerve [X] Spinal cord Brachial plexus 1st thoracic nerve Accessory nerve [XI] Vermis of cerebellum Olive Cerebellar hemisphere Axillary artery Thoracic portion of spinal cord Musculocutaneous nerve Sympathetic trunk Intercostal nerves Radial nerve Median nerve Ulnar nerve Saphenous nerve Vasoadductor membrane Cutaneous branch of obturator nerve Sartorius muscle Deep peroneal nerve Superficial peroneal nerve Ilium Hypoglossal nerve Filum terminale Femoral nerve Conus medullaris Neural plate Neural groove Future neural crest Ectoderm Ectoderm Neural fold Cross Section of Nervous System Apparatus of a 20 Day-old Embryo After development of the neural plate, the midline neural groove is formed. It is bounded by both neural folds. Ectoderm Neural crest Sulcus limitans 21st day 24th day In the median area, the neural folds The neural groove closes and begin fusing to form the neural groove. is covered by surface ectoderm. Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve Dorsal digital nerves Common peroneal nerve Tibial nerve Vertebra prominens Transverse costal facet Intervertebral foramina Inferior and superior costal facets Spinal processes Lateral disc herniation Epidural space Subarachnoid space Arachnoid Posterior ramus of spinal nerve Anterior ramus of spinal nerve Medial disc herniation Degeneration or erosion of vertebrae and vertebral discs may cause part or all of the disc to protrude into the spinal canal, thereby compressing the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots. Disturbances in sensation, pain, and paralysis can result. Herniated discs often occur in the lower lumbar region, but can also be found in the cervical area. This hereditary disease, which affects nine times more men than women, is classified as an arthritis. The course of the illness can be chronic or episodic. Various joints show inflammatory changes with subsequent stiffening and ossification. The iliosacral, vertebral, and hip joints are most often affected. Cervical portion of spinal cord Dura mater Dorsal ramus of spinal nerve Ventral ramus of spinal nerve Spinal cord Ligamentum flavum Posterior root of spinal nerve Anterior root of spinal nerve Spinal ganglion Vertebral atery and vein a) b) a) Concentric pressure produces an evenly applied compression (C) on the nucleus pulposus and the anulus fibrosus. b) Eccentric pressure pushes the nucleus propulsus to the unaffected side; the anulus fibrosusis subjected to traction forces (T). Intervertebral foramen Superior articular process Costal Anterior Ligamentum flavum processes longitudinal ligament Supraspinous ligament Anulus fibrosis fibrosus Discus intervertebralis ligament Interspinous intervertebral disc Nucleus pulposus Spinous process Inferior articular Basi-vertebral vien canal process Posterior longitudinal ligament Posterior sacral foramina Epidural space Subarachnoid space Arachnoid Medial calcaneal branches of tibial nerve Cerebrum Cerebellum www.3bscientific.com Hamburg, Germany, 1995 Design and text: Antje Gottberg Illustration: Heinrich Römisch Scoliosis is a term designating lateral curvature of the spinal column. Scoliotic deviations, which can result from anomalies such as differences in leg length, are differentiated from structual scoliosis which is caused by deformity of the vertebrae. Supraspinatus muscle Deltoid muscle Infraspinatus muscle Axillary nerve Teres major muscle Long head of triceps brachii muscle Lateral head of triceps brachii muscle Radial nerve Posterior brachial cutaneous nerve Latissimus dorsi muscle Intercostal nerves Subcostal nerve External abdominal oblique muscle Iliohypogastric nerve Supinator muscle Ilioinguinal nerve Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle Genitofemoral nerve Quadratus lumborum muscle Muscular branches of radial nerve Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle Abductor pollicis Superior longus muscle gluteal Extensor pollicis brevis nerve Extensor pollicis longus muscle Piriformis muscle Superficial branches of radial nerve Gluteus medius muscle Extensor indices muscle Extensor retinaculum Inferior gluteal nerve Tendon of extensor pollicis Dorsal branch muscles of ulnar nerve Dorsal Quadratus interosseous femoris muscle muscles Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve Gluteus maximus muscle Dorsal digital nerves Sciatic nerve Adductor magnus muscle Iliotibial tract Long head of biceps femoris muscle Short head of biceps femoris muscle Semitendinosus muscle Adductor magnus Vastus medialis muscle Long head of biceps femoris muscle Lateral sural cutaneous nerve Plantaris muscle Semimembranosus muscle Lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle Medial head of gastrocnemius muscle Soleus muscle Tibial nerve Flexor hallucis longus muscle Flexor digitorum longus muscle Tibialis posterior muscle Peroneus brevis muscle Spinal cord Ligamentum flavum Dorsal root Sural nerve Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon Lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve Ventral root Spinal ganglion Vertebral artery and vein www.3bscientific.com Hamburg, Germany, 1996 Design and Text: Wilfried Hennig Tendon of extensor digitorum muscles Sternocleidomastoid muscle Scalene muscles Printed in Germany Clavicle Manubrium of sternum Right lung Sternum 5th rib Xiphoid process External intercostal muscles Internal intercostal muscles Cartilage of 10th rib Heart Liver Stomach Gallbladder Duodenum Colon Frontal sinus Ethmoidal cells Maxillary sinus Hyoid bone Thyrohyoid membrane Larynx Cricothyroid muscle Thyroid gland Trachea Apex of the lung External intercostal muscles External abdominal muscle Internal abdominal muscle Rectus abdominis muscle Transversus abdominis muscle Superior recess Lateral recess Nasal recess Infraorbital recess Zygomatic recess Alveolar recess Clavicle 1st rib Left lung The space inside the thorax is enlarged by contraction of the muscles responsible for inspiration. Air is breathed in as a result of the negative pressure generated. The most important muscle is the diaphragm which, on being flattened, enlarges the space inside the thorax. The muscles between the ribs create an enlarged space by raising the ribs. Intensified inspiration is underpinned by the ancillary respiratory muscles, which include the scalene muscles and the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Regular expiration is effected passively by virtue of the restoring force of the elastic pulmonary tissue. The internal intercostal muscles as well as the abdominal muscles facilitate intensified expiration. Apex of the lung Sulcus of subclavian artery Trachea Aortic arch Ribs Upper lobe Right pulmonary artery Horizontal fissure Right pulmonary veins Frontal section through left lung Heart Diaphragm Middle lobe Lower lobe Terminal bronchiolus Elastic fibers Bronchial branch Pulmonary vein Alveoli Alveolar wall Alveolar septum Alveolar pore Frontal sinus Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Vestibule of nose Vestibule of mouth Horizontal fissure Right Lung Upper lobe 1 Apical segment 2 Posterior segment 3 Anterior segment Middle lobe 4 Lateral segment 5 Medial segment Lower lobe 6 Apical segment 7 Medial basal segment 8 Anterior basal segment 9 Lateral basal segment 10 Posterior basal segment Oblique fissure 8 4 Left pulmonary artery Hilum of the lung Left principle bronchus Lower lobe Sulcus of esophagus 2 9 1 Base of the lung 3 5 7 10 10 Oblique fissure Right principle bronchus Bronchopulmonary lymph node Sulcus of azygos vein Pulmonary ligament Diaphragmatic surface 3 1 9 5 4 8 Left lung 3 4 Sphenoidal sinus Nasopharynx Oropharynx Epiglottis Laryngopharynx Apex of the lung Upper lobe Sulcus of aortic arch Left pulmonary veins Cardiac impression Oblique fissure Cardiac notch Lingula Respiratory bronchiolus Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Alveolar ductule Capillary network Sacculus Right lung Left lung Upper lobe 1 Apical segment 2 Posterior segment 3 Anterior segment 4 Superior lingual segment 5 Inferior lingual segment Lower lobe 6 Apical segment 8 Anterior basal segment 9 Lateral basal segment 10 Posterior basal segment At the level of the 4th to 5th thoracic vertebra, the trachea divides into a left and a right principle bronchus. Together with the pulmonary vessels, the latter enter the pulmonary tissue at the hilum of the lung. Coursing further, the main bronchi divide into 2 or 3 lobar bronchi, with these in turn dividing to give rise to the segmental bronchi. The latter divide into increasingly smaller bronchi, called bronchioli. They lead into the so-called alveolar duct, which is surrounded by the alveoli. The individual alveoli are surrounded by a network of capillaries from the pulmonary circulation. It is here that the inspired oxygen passes from the alveoli into the pulmonary veins and carbon dioxide passes from the pulmonary arteries into the alveoli for expiration. 6 1 1 2 9 10 10 www.3bscientific.com Hamburg, Germany, 1998 Design and text: Antje Gottberg, Wilfried Hennig Illustrations: Holger Vanselow 6 3 4 9 Spinal Column Anatomy and Pathology r v c e i c a o s i s L o r d o s e C e r v i c a l l e Upper Cervical Vertebra Horizontal Section of 4th Cervical Vertebra o s i s Thoracic Vertebra with Costal Joints left side with ligaments T h o r a s e t h o C y p h o c i c r a c CD C D ZT CD Pressure on the Intervertebral Discs o m b s e l r d o a i r e r d o s r l o L u m b a i s L o Longitudinal Section of Lumbar Vertebral Segment Lumbar Vertebra, Sacrum and Coccyx with spinal nerves Osteoporosis Anterior View of Spinal Column Four Types of Posture Lateral View of Spinal Column Scoliosis Disc Herniation Scheuermann’s Disease (juvenile kyphosis) Bechterew’s Disease (ankylosing spondylitis) © 3B Scientific GmbH Die menschliche Wirbelsäule - Anatomie und Pathologie Laminiert M-1001314 Papierversion M-4006574 Der menschliche Schädel Laminiert M-1001312 Papierversion M-4006573 Nervous System VR1322 The Respiratory System Inferior View of Brain Posterior Lung Segments Upper Airways Left hilum of the lung Spinal Cord with Spinal Nerves Muscles of the expiratory phase Respiratory Musculature Right hilum of the lung Bronchial Tree and Gas Exchange Embryonic Development of Nervous System Spinal Nerve Pathway in Thorax Cross Section of 4th Cervical Vertebra © 3B Scientific GmbH Muscles of the inspiratory phase © 3B Scientific GmbH Alle erhältlich in deutscher Sprache Nervensystem Laminiert M-1001422 Papierversion M-4006628 Das Atmungssystem Laminiert M-1001350 Papierversion M-4006592 Lehrtafeln & Poster | MEDIZINISCHE LEHRTAFELN 267

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    3B BONElike Was ist 3B BONElike? Au

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    WIRBELSÄULENMODELLE › BEWEGLICHE

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    Erweiterte Wirbelsäulen + Für erw

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    WIRBELSÄULEN ÜBERSICHTSTABELLE Se

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    BECKEN & BECKENSKELETT Männliches

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    › AUS LANGLEBIGEM UND WEICHEM VIN

  • Seite 186 und 187:

    SCHÄDELMODELLE | Klassik-Schädels

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    Schädelmodelle für spezielle Demo

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    + 3B BONElike Schädelmodelle: unve

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    MUSKULATUR 180 cm Lebensgroße män

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    84 cm › Eine platzsparende Altern

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    › Auf abnehmbarem Sockel! Luxus-M

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    TORSOMODELLE › Echte 3B Scientifi

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    Der geöffnete Rücken legt die Wir

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    Geschlechtsloser Klassik-Torso, 12-

  • Seite 204 und 205:

    › Zu jeder Scheibe finden Sie in

  • Seite 206 und 207:

    HAUTMODELLE Haut, Blockmodell, 70-f

  • Seite 208 und 209:

    KOPF- UND GEHIRNMODELLE + Sie könn

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    › Großartige Modelle zum Studium

  • Seite 212 und 213:

    + 3B Scientific® Gehirnmodelle sin

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    Gehirnschnitt Vergrößerter und ho

  • Seite 216 und 217: NERVENSYSTEM-MODELLE 5-fache Vergr
  • Seite 218 und 219: AUGENMODELLE Auge in Augenhöhle, 3
  • Seite 220 und 221: Netzhaut und Linse sind leicht aust
  • Seite 222 und 223: › SELBST AUS DER HINTERSTEN REIHE
  • Seite 224 und 225: ZAHNMODELLE Zahnerkrankung, 2-fach
  • Seite 226 und 227: Oberer dreiwurzeliger Mahlzahn, 5-t
  • Seite 228 und 229: HERZMODELLE › ABGUSS EINES REALEN
  • Seite 230 und 231: › Abnehmbare Teile zum eingehende
  • Seite 232 und 233: › HYPERTROPHIE › THYMUS Mit lin
  • Seite 234 und 235: LUNGENMODELLE Segmentiertes Lungenm
  • Seite 236 und 237: VERDAUUNG & HARNAPPARATMODELLE ›
  • Seite 238 und 239: Erkrankungen der Speiseröhre Diese
  • Seite 240 und 241: Darstellung der feingeweblichen Nie
  • Seite 242 und 243: 3B ORTHObones 3B Scientific® ORTHO
  • Seite 244 und 245: 3B ORTHObones PREMIUM + 3B ORTHObon
  • Seite 246 und 247: GESUNDHEITSERZIEHUNG Praktische und
  • Seite 248 und 249: SEXUALAUFKLÄRUNG Ideal für Vorfü
  • Seite 250 und 251: SCHWANGERSCHAFT & GEBURT Entwicklun
  • Seite 252 und 253: Becken zur Demonstration der Geburt
  • Seite 254 und 255: GESUNDHEIT - MANN Hoden-Tastmodell
  • Seite 256 und 257: ERNÄHRUNG Darstellung Visualisiere
  • Seite 258 und 259: GESUNDER LEBENSSTIL › JETZT IN VE
  • Seite 260 und 261: DIABETES Diabetes-Injektionsübungs
  • Seite 262 und 263: DROGENMISSBRAUCH Brille zur Simulat
  • Seite 264 und 265: MEDIZINISCHE LEHRTAFELN 3B Scientif
  • Seite 268 und 269: LEHRTAFELN & POSTER › Besuchen Si
  • Seite 270 und 271: INDEX 3B 3B BONElike...............
  • Seite 272 und 273: INDEX K Katheterisierungstrainer...
  • Seite 274 und 275: PRODUKTÜBERSICHT MEDIZINISCHE SIMU
  • Seite 276: A worldwide group of companies UK 3