He Oranga Hapori: A model for raising Maori ... - Te Puni Kokiri

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He Oranga Hapori: A model for raising Maori ... - Te Puni Kokiri

HE ÖRANGAHAPORIA model for raising Mäoricommunity wellbeing


AcknowledgementsThe Mäori Economic Taskforce thanks Te Röpü Pakihi for their work in preparing this report.The authors would like to thank the individuals and organisations that generously gave their timeto this project.In particular, our appreciation goes to the Emeritus Professor Whatarangi Winiata and DrAnthony Cole of Te Wänanga o Raukawa for their contributions to the He Oranga Hapori project.Further we acknowledge the efforts of the project team who participated in surveying, analysisand report preparation: Linda Pene, Dylan Constantine, Samantha Morrell, Natalie Pene, andDarren Luke.Our gratitude goes to the Te Papaioea and Te Aho communities that gave so willingly and openlyto the study. We also thank Shane Royal who as the Te Aho coordinator provided a good deal ofthe background material for the case study.Finally the team wishes to acknowledge the support of the Mäori Economic Taskforce chaired bythe Minister of Mäori Affairs, Hon Dr Pita Sharples.DisclaimerThe sponsor of this project, Te Röpü Pakihi, has made every effort to ensure that the informationin this report is reliable but makes no guarantee of its accuracy or completeness and does notaccept any liability for any errors. The research undertaken reflects circumstances as understoodby the authors in November 2010.The information and the opinions contained in this report are not intended to be used as abasis for commercial decisions and the Taskforce accepts no liability for any decisions made asa consequence of them. The authors may change, add to, delete from, or otherwise amend thecontent of this report at any time without notice.The material contained in this report is subject to copyright protection unless otherwiseindicated. The copyright material may be reproduced free of charge in any format or mediawithout requiring specific permission. Where the material is published or issued to others,the source and copyright status should be acknowledged. Permission to reproduce copyrightprotected material does not extend to any material in this report that is identified as being thecopyright of a third party. Authorisation to reproduce such material should be obtained from thecopyright holders.1


Contents1 Acknowledgements2 Contents4 Executive Summary5 Introduction6 Whereas Mäori are determined to survive as a people;6 The cultural threshold7 Competing Worldviews8 Dual Economies9 Quantitative Economics - Gross Domestic Product (GDP)10 Qualitative Economics - Genuine Progress Index (GPI)11 Mäori Economics12 Whereas survival as a people will be happening when communities of Mäori find theexpression of kaupapa uplifting, rewarding and preferred;12 Kaupapa and tikanga framework13 Golden Age of Entrepreneurship13 Exchanges of kaupapa14 Whereas it is possible to actively pursue the expression of kaupapa through tikangaselected by the community;14 Trading Tikanga14 Statements of Wellbeing17 Types of Indicators17 Measuring expressions of kaupapa tuku iho18 Method explained21 Results23 What the use of this tool should tell us23 A contribution to whakatupu mätauranga25 Whereas the pursuit of tikanga can be planned and results measured;25 Case Study 1 : Mäori Community Wellbeing in Kapiti and Horowhenua25 Te Aho, a Mäori model for regional development27 Our People, Our Future Summit – September 200928 Analysis of contributions29 Case Study 2 : Te Papaioea describes Mäori Community Wellbeing34 Key themes36 He Oranga Hapori - a model for raising Mäori community wellbeing2


37 References & Appendices37 References38 Appendix 1: Background information and data40 Appendix 2: Statements of Mäori wellbeing43 Appendix 3: Worksheet for the growth and growth quality score calculation44 Appendix 4: Worksheet for the relationship and relationship quality score calculation45 Appendix 5: Table 7 : Statements of Mäori Wellbeing and associated kaupapa tuku iho48 Appendix 6(a): Te Aho Quarterly Report52 Appendix 6(b): Statements of Mäori Wellbeing and associated kaupapa tuku iho53 Appendix 7: Te Aho community and arrangements54 Appendix 8: Potential for Manawatu groups to raise Mäori community wellbeing57 Appendix 9: Potential means to monitor and measure displays of tikanga59 Appendix 10: Worksheet for the Te Papaioea Study61 Appendix 11: QuickStats About Manawatu District62 Appendix 12: QuickStats About Palmerston North City63 Appendix 13: QuickStats About Horowhenua District64 Appendix 14: QuickStats About Kapiti Coast District65 Appendix 15: QuickStats About Porirua City66 He Oranga Hapori: Glossary3


Introduction“Whereas Mäori are determined to survive as a people;Whereas survival as a people will be happening when communitiesof Mäori find the expression of kaupapa tuku iho uplifting,rewarding and preferred;Whereas it is possible to actively pursue the expression of kaupapatuku iho through tikanga selected by the community; andWhereas the pursuit of tikanga can be planned and results measured;THEN,the wellness of Mäori communities can be measured by identifyingthe preferred tikanga of the community and measuring the levelsat which these tikanga are displayed”.This statement was developed by members of the He Oranga Hapori study group following aseries of focus group sessions to discuss how he käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea can contribute totheir survival as a people; and how he käkano will know that this is happening.He Oranga Hapori is a term used at Te Wänanga o Raukawa 5 to describe Community Wellbeingor Mäori Economics and is defined as “the management of the resources, systems, rulesand behaviours in a Mäori society that contribute to the wellbeing of the people and theenvironment using a wholistic 6 approach.”In this study “Mäori wellbeing” is defined as “a Mäori state of being that is characterised by theabundant expression of kaupapa”. This state is described in the following narrative, developed bythe Kapiti and Horowhenua community during their pilot.“Once upon a time, in the not too distant future you will drive over the Pukerua Bay hill and seeacross to Kapiti Island; shimmering like a jewel in the sea. As you look directly below you on theleft in the harbour, you’ll see a Ngäti Toarangatira whänau gathering shellfish at the beach.Up to her ankles in the water and with her youngest mokopuna holding the kete, a kuia prisespaua from the rock with her knife and monitors her nephew’s catch as he fishes koura fromthe rock pools. She hears her daughters singing behind her as they gather harakeke and pïngaofrom the hillside, and she smiles satisfied that they will weave könae to hold their dinnertonight. The smoke from the fire wafts past her as her son feeds the flames and places parcelsof kai within the embers to cook; just as his father had done for years. She wonders whereher tane is and spies him on the top of the hill with three of his eldest grandsons. From theirsilhouettes she can see him pointing to the island, to the hill tops, to the rivers and she knowshe is teaching them whakapapa, describing the history of this whenua and the role their tüpunahave played in developing this land. She’s secure in the knowledge that the natural resourcesare healthy, that her whänau are knowledgeable, self sufficient and that thanks to Mäori havingtino rangatiratanga over taonga tuku iho, all is well in her natural world.5 A Mäori centre of higher learning based atÖtaki delivering 14 undergraduate and 8postgraduate and programmes.6 A “wholistic” approach where the sum ismore than the total of the parts.Let’s leave this Ngäti Toarangatira whänau and head north... to where the people of Te Ati Awa5


ki Whakarongotai are gathering at the marae. The Kaunihera Kaumätua has called a wänangawhakapapa for the iwi. They sit at the front of the house proud of their sons and daughtersthat are confidently completing the protocols of powhiri. The smells from the kitchen areenticing the people as the final waiata are sung by the crowd that has gathered. Despite therain and cold wind, the wharenui is warm and dry. Following the karakia, the marae committeecongratulates the tamariki who won the local te reo competition and are off to the regionalsnext week escorted by their kura kaupapa. The iwi have been fundraising and are able toprovide transport for the three local kura to go. Through the day’s activities of möteatea, mauräkau, carving, weaving, preparation of rongoa and kai; whakapapa is taught, whanaungatangais encouraged, the kaumätua are engaged in decision making and learning. In these ways themarae expresses kaupapa abundantly. We travel to the north again and we cross the mightyÖtaki River! Where the tuna swim from bank to bank feeding and to the place where TeWänanga o Raukawa helps us to see the world through Mäori eyes.Travelling through town we know that many of the buildings are owned by Raukawa and thatthe shopkeepers are Mäori - we know this because the signage is in te reo, and people greet uswith kia ora. Groups of rangatahi are on the street, and are campaigning for their whanaungawho is standing for election as a Mäori Party candidate. Arriving at the Wänanga, we see thewharekai is full of students flowing out onto the courtyard for their dinner. The local Mäoribusiness network is hosting the International Business Networks in the conference centre;the conference is exploring how the inherited values of indigenous peoples can be a bridgebetween the Päkehä cultures of the two or more countries. Whakatupu mätauranga is activeand returning benefits to the people, Mäori are hosting events of international significance,pükengatanga is growing and Mäori are expressing their tino rangatiratanga.In the great Horowhenua, the local Mayor is holding his Council meeting at Kawiu Marae. HisMuaüpoko whänau attend in support, and thanks to his skilful oratory the resolutions arepassed unchallenged. They are keen to finish early to attend the national Mäori business awardsbeing held tonight in town. Mäori are involved and influencing community directions andcelebrating Te Ao Mäori events, relationships between Mäori and others are strong.Under the windmill in Foxton, above the whispering harakeke you can hear the Chairman ofthe Foxton River group recite his whakapapa to Ngäti Kahungunu. He is hosting the localtautangata Mäori association and is happy that he and thousands of Mäori from other iwiare supporting the tangatawhenua, and being supported as they seek to make their owncontributions to this wonderful place they now call another ‘home’.Whereas Māori are determined to survive as a peopleThe cultural threshold 77 In the event of cultural decline, thethreshold is the point beyond which thereis no return.Te käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea, also known as the Mäori people of Aotearoa New Zealand,have flirted with physical extinction. Their adventures around Polynesia required them to adaptto different environmental conditions for their survival. Their arrival on the islands of Aotearoaand the shaping of their world view to explain and understand their discoveries here provedsuccessful. Their observations of these as explanations of their new homeland were conducivewith good health, population growth and refinement of the mätauranga continuum with whichthey arrived on these shores.Following the arrivals of James Cook and the large numbers who were attracted to these islands6


following his visits, the survival of Mäori as a people became less certain. Their physical survivalwas threatened following the signing of Te Tiriti o Waitangi in 1840. By the mid 1890s, the Mäoripopulation had fallen to 42,000 from the estimated 90,000 in 1840. Disappearance was predicted;the designers of public health policy preached the smoothing of the pillow of a dying race.Exactly the reverse occurred. The population of Te käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea multiplied 15times to 600,000 as we entered the 21st century. Physical survival is now assured. Survival as apeople is not.Mäori will be surviving when a large and growing number of Te käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea areliving according to kaupapa tuku iho (inherited values) and tikanga (ways of expressing thesevalues) that distinguish Mäori in the global cultural mosaic.In 1835, 60 years after Cook they declared to the world their independence; five years later theybuilt on this with Te Tiriti o Waitangi. In 1858 the Kingitanga was established and in 1868 Mäoritook up representation in Parliament. Since then there has been a re-emergence of Mäori sociopoliticalbodies, Mäori religious bodies, Mäori educational institutions, Mäori sports bodies acrossmany codes, Mäori regional and national cultural festivals, Mäori broadcasting organisations andso on. These examples of Mäori responses to the approaching cultural threshold are affirmationsthat Mäori are determined to maximise their chances of survival and enrich their distinctiveworldviews.Competing WorldviewsIt is important to understand there are two streams of knowledge that influence our currentthinking and behaviours in Aotearoa - western science epistemology and the Mätauranga Mäoricontinuum. In the former, there is no place for the kaupapa and tikanga framework to explainMäori behaviour.Western science epistemologyFundamental aspects of western science epistemology derive from the work of Galileo articulatedin the 16th century.European scholars used mathematics to describe and explain the workings of the physicalworld. They insisted on the physical truth of their mathematically derived explanations, and theysearched for physical causes to account for the mathematics.Galileo Galilei 8 was a chief architect of this thinking. An Italian physicist, mathematician,astronomer, and philosopher he played a major role in the Scientific Revolution 9 . Galileo madeoriginal contributions to the science of motion through an innovative combination of experimentand mathematics. Albert Einstein referred to him as “the Father of modern science”. 10Galileo was perhaps the first to clearly state that the laws of nature were mathematical. Moretypical of science at the time were qualitative studies 11 . His mathematical analyses are a furtherdevelopment of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosophers.Though he tried to remain loyal to the Catholic Church, his adherence to experimental resultsand their most honest interpretation led to a rejection of blind allegiance to authority, bothphilosophical and religious, in matters of science. This aided the separation of science from bothphilosophy and religion; a major change in human thought patterns. Concurrently, on the otherside of the globe, tüpuna Mäori were shaping their own worldviews in which kaupapa tuku ihowould fill distinctive roles.8 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642.9 5th - 16th century.10 Einstein (1954, p.271). “Propositionsarrived at by purely logical means arecompletely empty as regards reality.Because Galileo realised this, andparticularly because he drummed it intothe scientific world, he is the fatherof modern physics—indeed, of modernscience altogether.”11 Qualitative researchers aim to gatheran in-depth understanding of humanbehaviour and the reasons that governsuch behaviour. The qualitative methodinvestigates the why and how of decisionmaking, not just what, where, when.Hence, smaller but focused samples aremore often needed, rather than largesamples.7


By the standards of his time, Galileo was often willing to change his views in accordance withobservation. In order to perform his experiments, Galileo had to set up standards of lengthand time, so that measurements made on different days and in different laboratories, could becompared in a fashion that could be repeatedly duplicated. This provided a reliable foundationon which to confirm mathematical laws using inductive reasoning.Mätauranga continuumIn the course of their isolation over a period of nearly 1350 years Mäori 12 emerged with theirown view of the world. In the absence of any contact with peoples of different cultures, Mäorideveloped distinctive understandings of the world they occupied. Tüpuna Mäori used theirintellectual knowledge to name and categorise hundreds of plants and species of insects, birdsand animals in Aotearoa New Zealand.Our understanding of Mäori society sits within the mätauranga continuum that has evolved overthe centuries and is encapsulated in the comprehensive definition of the world view offered bythe late Reverend Mäori Marsden.Priest and philosopher, Rev Marsden left for our contemplation the following statement on“worldview”:“Cultures pattern perceptions of reality into conceptualisations of what they perceivereality to be; of what is to be regarded as actual, probable, possible or impossible. Theseconceptualisations formed what is termed the ‘world view’ of a culture. The World (sic) viewis the central systemisation of conceptions of reality to which members of its culture assentand from which stems their value system. The world view lies at the very heart of the culture,touching, interacting with and strongly influencing every aspect of the culture.” 13He complemented this with the following:“(T)he Mäori does not and never has accepted the mechanistic view of the universe whichregards it as a closed system into which nothing can impinge from without.” 14This comment appears to be addressing the approach of Galileo to the exclusion of culturalvariables; suggesting that rather than falling captive to the logic of exclusion where there is noplace for kaupapa tuku iho, Mäori call upon the logic of inclusion.A consequence of Mäori refusal to accept the mechanistic view of the universe as described byRev Marsden is that this logic places Mäori society in a position where multiple and alternativeperceptions can be not only entertained but respected. The logic of inclusion emerges.12 Durie, Mason (2003) Launching MäoriFutures p14 Regarding the settlementof these islands, there is DNA and otherevidence that “a significant colony ofMäori settlers was firmly established someeight hundred or so years ago.” by 1200AD.13 Royal, Te Ahukaramu (2003) The WovenUniverse: Selected Writings of Rev, MäoriMarsden, pp177-178.14 Royal, p178.15 Whatarangi Winiata, Perspectives onPartnerships – National Library of NewZealand Treaty of Waitangi Seminar,Wellington Feb 1999.Dual economiesDespite the fact that tüpuna Mäori developed complicated religious beliefs and comprehensivevalues systems, there is no Mäori word for what we now describe as economics or the economy.We understand that economics is a system of management that provides governments andothers with a framework to manage society.There would be little argument from Mäori whether they are representing whänau, hapü, iwi orsome other röpü Mäori that their people are their wealth. Whilst the accumulation of individualwealth is a primary motivator of western economics; the health and wellbeing of their people isthe compelling factor in Te Ao Mäori.The following statement is as true today as it was when Professor Winiata said it at a NationalLibrary seminar in Wellington over a decade ago. 158


“Aotearoa New Zealand has a dual economy. There is the Mäori economy; there is the westerneconomy. The unemployment experience, the level of training, the age distribution, the healthexperience, the housing condition, the degree of diversification and liquidity of the assetbase and so on are quite different between the two economies. Each economy requires quitedifferent prescriptions to prosper.”The prescriptions of the Mäori economy maintain that Mäori will behave in one of two ways,they will:(a)strive to maximise financial returns subject to the expression of kaupapa tuku iho; or(b) seek to maximise the expression of kaupapa tuku iho subject to financial requirements.Quantitative economics - Gross Domestic Product (GDP)Governments, economists and economic development groups manage community wellbeing witheconomic indicators that reflect what the national economy requires to prosper. That is:• Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – market value of all goods and services made within a year;• number of business units – the ability to generate goods and services;• industry and sector activity – who and how money is generated;• number of car registrations – consumption of goods and services;• balance of trade – the difference between how much we import and export;• building consent numbers – an indication of market demand for construction activities;• occupancy rates in tourism – money brought into the local economy; and• retail sales figures – consumption rates.The saying “money makes the world go round” comes to mind because that’s exactly what theseindicators are measuring - money movements within a community, region or nation. Moneyis the form of measurement or ‘unit-of-account’ used by the western theory of economics tomeasure the wealth of regions and nations.GDP refers to the total market value of goods and services produced within a given period ina country. It is often used as a monetary or economic measure of a country’s performancein production over a given period. For example, an increase in GDP is celebrated as a sign ofeconomic progress.Clearly, GDP is essentially a measure of economic progress because it can capture onlyproduction or consumption of goods and services during a period of time. Hence, non-marketactivities such as volunteer or unpaid work, externalities such as pollution caused in the processof production, loss of leisure or family time due to extra hours of work done, the time spentdoing volunteer or community work and so on are not accounted for in GDP calculations.In order to challenge effectively the mistaken assumption that economic growth necessarilymakes us ‘better off’; the new measures must go beyond adding indicators to create a neweconomic accounting system that includes social and environmental benefits and costs. GDPbasedmeasures of progress are challenged on the grounds that they:• count the depletion of a country’s natural wealth as if it were economic gain;• make no qualitative distinctions, so that crime, sickness, accidents, pollution, disasters, warand other liabilities may spur economic growth and contribute to “progress”; exclude thevalue of unpaid voluntary and household work;• ignore the value of free time, leading to the anomaly that overwork and stress spureconomic growth and are therefore mistakenly counted as signs of progress; and9


• fail to account for equity and distributional issues.It is argued that an indicator and accounting framework that explicitly values natural, humanand social capital in addition to produced capital can help overcome these major flaws.Qualitative economics - Genuine Progress Index (GPI)The GPI is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide as a measure of humanwelfare. 16 Over the past decade the GPI has been promoted internationally as an alternative tothe GDP measure. Like GDP, the GPI is a measure of economic progress. The difference is that GPIalso takes into account social and environmental costs as well as the benefits of growth.The concept has been around for some time now, both here and abroad. It emerged in responseto perceived shortcomings of the GDP as a measure of societal and environmental wellbeing.As discussed previously, GDP simply measures the market value of all final goods and servicesmade within the borders of a community or nation in a year. It will note an oil spill as a benefitbecause work is created as a result of the clean up. In the GPI the environmental and societalcosts of an oil spill are subtracted from the economic benefits.It must be recognised that GDP was not designed to measure social wellbeing and is incapableof assessing quality of life. GDP must be relegated to the purpose for which it was originallydesigned – as a simple quantitative measure of the size of the economy.The capital accounting model adopted by GPI recognises that a society’s actual assets andwealth transcend the produced and financial capital that are accounted for in conventionaleconomic statistics. 17 A society’s total wealth also includes:• natural resources – water, forests, soils, fish stocks, minerals; human resources – health,education, skills and time of its population;• social resources – its communities and networks of organisations, associations and formaland informal bonds that enable its citizens to act in concert; and• cultural resources – sets of values, history, traditions and behaviours that link a specificgroup of people together.From the perspective of a capital approach, natural, human, social and cultural capital aresubject to depreciation, just like the plant and equipment of factories. They require periodicre-investment to maintain and enhance their value.16 Auckland Regional Council, A GenuineProgress Indicator for the Auckland region,2009.17 Coleman, R, The Nova Scotia GenuineProgress Index: Insights for New Zealand(2004)18 Translation by IH Kawharu in Kawharu (ed)Waitangi: Maori & Pakeha Perspectives ofthe Treaty of Waitangi (1989) Appendix, pp319-321.Depreciation of all forms of capital can occur in two forms – through quantitative depletionand through qualitative degradation, both of which in turn may affect economic productivity.In theory, at least, and increasingly in practice, depreciation of all these forms of capitalis measurable and, in many cases, quantifiable. Such measures allow assessment of newinvestment needs, which then allow estimates of projected rates of return on investment.This approach, therefore, has the advantage of allowing policy makers to assess the potentiallong-term returns on investment in all these forms of capital, and thus to compare alternativeinterventions with a view to achieving the best results.A Mäori perspective was expressed in Te Tiriti o Waitangi through its reference to taonga inArticle 2. The definitions of taonga are broader than those that appear in the previous list, andinclude resources that are both tangible and intangible in nature. They are recorded as “...tetino rangatiratanga o o rätou wenua, o rätou kainga me o rätou taonga katoa...” which may betranslated as “the unqualified exercise of their chieftainship over their lands, over their villages,and over their treasures all”. 1810


Mäori economicsMana is formed around the success with which a person or röpü is perceived to be managingtheir affairs and their observed willingness and ability to express manaakitanga. Mana-a-iwi ormore generally mana-a-röpü is the principal currency of röpü tuku iho and this includes, but isnot limited to, financial transactions. 19Mana is the commodity and the accumulation of mana is the means that determines one’s valuewithin that society. Mana is attributed to a person or röpü based on their expression of kaupapaor their practice of mana enhancing behaviours that provides for the management of theresources, systems, rules, and behaviours within the Mäori economy.In order to capture this thought, consider the following. The western economic model dictatesthat monetary price is the form of currency used in the market. Prices are exclusively determinedby two values (supply and demand). By contrast, in Te Ao Mäori, we need to include many values(multiple expressions of a multitude of kaupapa) in the assessment of mana.It is the tikanga that tüpuna Mäori developed as expressions of kaupapa tuku iho and passedonto this generation that has ensured our survival as a people thus far. We must rise to thechallenge and ensure that our contributions add to the distinctiveness of he käkano i ruia mai iRangiätea within the global community.19 Winiata, Cook & Luke, “IwiEntrepreneurship: an Exploration (2009)p5.11


Whereas survival as a people will be happening whencommunities of Māori find the expression of kaupapa uplifting,rewarding and preferredKaupapa and tikanga frameworkKaupapa tuku iho are values inherited from tüpuna Mäori. The processes we follow as part of theimplementation or expression of kaupapa we know as tikanga. In this report we define tikangaas the policies, practices and organisational arrangements associated with the expression ofkaupapa tuku iho.The choice of kaupapa is for the organisation to decide. Te Wänanga o Raukawa, after operating,implicitly and informally, within kaupapa Mäori for 20 years, chose to give more formality tothe process. The selection of the 10 kaupapa emerged from ongoing discussions with kaihautü; 20kaumätua, 21 staff; and with members of Te Manawhakahaere. 22 These are 10 kaupapa tuku ihowe would rather have expressed than not expressed. 23Table 1 - Te Wänanga o Raukawa kaupapa tuku ihoKAUPAPA BRIEF DESCRIPTION 24KaitiakitangaKotahitangaCaring for creation including natural resources, inherited treasures, otherforms of wealth and communities, including Mäori as a peoplePursuing a unity of purpose and direction where all are able and encouragedto contributeManaakitanga Behaviour featuring generosity, care, respect and reciprocity toward others 25PükengatangaRangatiratangaWhanaungatangaWhakapapaWairuatangaProcessing knowledge creation, dissemination and maintenance that leads toscholarship and contributes to the mätaurangs (knowledge) continuum of MäoriReflecting chiefly attributes, seen as “walking the talk”, integrity, humilityand honestyExpressing relationships built on common ancestry and featuringinterdependence, reciprocal obligations, support and guidance within röpütuku iho 26The inter-relationships of all living things by virtue of descent fromPapatüanuku and Ranginui.The recognition of the intimate spiritual connections that link atua,humankind and nature in the past, present and future.20 Academic and administrative directors.21 Elders who are known for their scholarship.22 Council of Te Wänanga o Raukawa.23 A value is something one would ratherhave than not have.24 Prepared by Pakake Winiata, Te Wänanga oRaukawa.25 Petrie, Hazel, (2003) Chiefs of Industry,p176.26 Whakapapa based entities, whänau, hapüand iwi.Te reoÜkaipötangaThe acknowledgement that the preservation of te reo is crucial to our survivalas Mäori; the responsibility to ensure the transmission of te reo to futuregenerations.The importance of türangawaewae, a place where one belongs, feels valuedand is able to contribute.The choice was made from the many kaupapa derived from the Mäori worldview as it evolvedduring the millennium of isolation; and when Mäori survived and flourished – a worldview thatwas pure and unspoiled by the thoughts and ideas of others. These kaupapa tuku iho continue tobe part of Mäori life 250 years later.12


Closer examination of the above descriptions 27 reveal that Pakeke is working in an educationalenvironment. Other organisations such as Te Röpü Pakihi, the Kapiti and Horowhenua Mäoribusiness network may have different descriptions that provide an understanding of whatthe kaupapa means to those involved in the network. One example of this is in the case ofÜkaipötanga which the network defines as the importance of nurturing the creation andsustenance of Mäori enterprise. The fundamental essence of the kaupapa is intact, but thedescription has been developed to reflect an entrepreneurial application.The kaupapa descriptions reflect the context of the user; this adaptability is one of the strengthsof the kaupapa. Similarly, when tikanga are used to give expression to the kaupapa, there is anassortment of options available to us. There is an unlimited number of ‘tika’ (right or correct)ways to express any particular kaupapa tuku iho, these ways are called tikanga. Mäori areconstantly developing and adapting tikanga to give expression to kaupapa tuku iho within thecontext of the environment of operation.Golden age of entrepreneurshipIn the past, hapü controlled the allocation of resources, manufacture, production, anddistribution of the products of Mäori economic activity. Hapü groups and sometimes individualshad inheritable rights to the use of land and fishing sites, but these rights could not be alienatedoutside the iwi without the consent of the numerous hapü making up the iwi.Mäori emerged in the middle decades of the 19th century as the dominant entrepreneurialgroup in Aotearoa. According to researcher and author Dr Hazel Petrie 28 the 1840s and 1850swere properly called ‘the golden age’ of Mäori enterprise. Throughout the ‘golden age’, Mäoriembraced imported technologies and knowledge. Hapü were involved in international shippingand transportation, manufacturing and production, retailing and other commercial activities.Mäori organised and coordinated economic activities by utilising their hapü groups. At timeshapü members combined their resources with those of other hapü to purchase capital assetssuch as flour mills, or to organise themselves for activities such as crewing schooners. Thisprovides a successful example of coordinated economic action of moderately large communitiesat a regional level.This success can be attributed to the determination of Mäori to express certain kaupapa tukuiho, namely, whanaungatanga, rangatiratanga and kaitiakitanga. In this context, these kaupapastraddle social, political and environmental considerations. Moreover, the expression of thevalues inherent in these activities would have been subject to there being financial and otherbenefits flowing to röpü tuku iho. 29 Various authors, particularly Petrie 30 and Merrill 31 haveemphasised the place of whänau, hapü and iwi, commonly referred to as kinship groups in thepolitical and economic life of Mäori.The activity of Mäori cannot be explained by the assumption that economic interests and needsdetermined the social structure. The expression of kaupapa was the determining influence andthe notion of utilitarianism in economics, explains Mäori behaviour better than economics.This is consistent with the proposition that Mäori will seek to express kaupapa and enjoy themultiple, tangible and intangible benefitsExchanges of kaupapaIn Mäori society today, kaupapa tuku iho provide he hapori Mäori with emotional, physical,and spiritual security; the expression of kaupapa are enriching to those enacting the tikanga.27 Petrie, pp 12-13.28 Merrill, pp 402-403.29 Developed with the assistance of PakakeWiniata, Kaihautü, Mätauranga Mäori atTe Wänanga o Raukawa and author of theinitial Wänanga statement on kaupapa asguiding principles to direct the affairs ofthe Wänanga.30 Using these three classifications; therewere 43 growth indicators, 5 descriptiveindicators and the remaining 43 wererelational indicators.31 Ideally, the person who identified theindicator would have also identified thetikanga.13


Whänau members are expected to reciprocate by contributing skills, labour or goods to thewhänau and hapü resource base. Kaupapa such as kotahitanga, manaakitanga, wairuatanga,whakapapa and whanaungatanga place rights and responsibilities on Mäori to care for eachother and work together for the greater good of whänau, hapü iwi and the society they live in.Consequently, the expression of kaupapa designed to contribute to the wellbeing of the whänauis a factor in fulfilling obligations to the whänau.Other kaupapa including kaitiakitanga, pükengatanga, te reo and rangatiratanga placeobligations on Mäori to care for, protect, and manage other things such as natural resources,the language, knowledge, and Te Ao Mäori as a whole. The expressions of kaupapa allowMäori individuals to contribute to the wellbeing of whänau and hapü and are rewarded bysocial approval, honour, respect and esteem. These expressions are mana enhancing, and theirexpression through tikanga contributes to the survival of Mäori as a people.Whereas it is possible to actively pursue the expression ofkaupapa through tikanga selected by the communityTrading tikangaThe economy of Mäori prior to settlement by other people has been previously describedas a subsistence economy. It was very closely linked to the natural world and provided theenvironment in which enough food is grown, hunted or gathered to provide for the people. Onetikanga of the time was that a surplus was only grown if a community desired or needed to tradewith neighbouring communities.Within the trade element where as an example, coastal iwi trade fish with inland iwi forvegetables; are expressions of manaakitanga in the context of reciprocal exchanges. In thesetrading tikanga, the notion of economics is contained within the many and varied concepts ofmanaakitanga.The true foundation of Mäori economics is the reciprocal exchange of kaupapa that are manaenhancing and contribute to the wellbeing of the whänau, hapü and iwi. This poses the question,“How do you measure Mäori community wellbeing?”Statements of wellbeingTo fully answer the question above many things must be considered including choice ofindicators, how measurements are made, how often and how the information is presented. Allof the above implies an understanding of what Mäori community wellbeing is and how it can beeffectively measured.The tikanga (policies, processes and arrangements) used to manage a Mäori community’swellbeing are developed using a selection of indicators or statements of wellbeing. This is bestarrived at by the community in question.32 For example, at Te Wänanga-o-Raukawaa small number of financial tikangaare employed under the kaupapa‘kaitiakitanga’ to guide the financialmanagement of the institution.Kaupapa and tikanga should provide appropriate indicators to measure Mäori communitywellbeing. The He Oranga Hapori study asked 25 individuals to consider the question “whatdo you look for to know that your Mäori community is doing well?” In conjunction with thatquestion, participants were asked to decide which of the 10 kaupapa tuku iho derived fromthe 10 guiding kaupapa of Te Wänanga o Raukawa 32 were being expressed in the activity. Theresulting contributions were not filtered or edited.14


Within a month, these individuals had contributed 91 indicators under the different kaupapa.The indicators are illustrated in Table 2. Again it is important to note that these indicators havenot been edited in their phrasing or deciding which kaupapa were being expressed.Table 2 – Indicators of Community WellbeingWhakapapaHapü and iwi registersHui a tau attendancesInter iwi activities (events, planning, JVs)Iwi Asset Base (value & make up)Kaumätua nohoWhakapapa hikoi/haerengaRangatahi at the marae“We like each other!”“No whänau politics, it’s all about the hapü”Family reunionsTuakana/teina relationships intactWhanaungatangaSense of communityCommunication streams with whänau abroad,or living awayHui and noho with other indigenous groupsNewsletters and websites for whänau awayfrom homeWairuatangaPhysical state of maraeLocal waiata and stories sharedAnnual marae revenueSunday School programmesWe have our own waiataTaiaha lessonsMatariki & other events celebratedWeavers, taiaha, speakers, singers, fishers, kaigatherers, cooks aplenty!Physical & mental wellbeingKaitiakitangaTino rangatira over taongaBusiness survival ratesSettlements secure and growingInter-generational wealth assuredWhänau are healthyRahui are respected by allRetirement strategies and succession planningLong term planning on marae15


ManaakitangaVolunteers i.e. ringawera at maraeIncreased health and social wellbeing by Mäoriaccessing servicesNurturing key firmsBusiness support servicesGreat kai provided to manuhiriPeople wanting to helpTe reoBilingual signage in the communityHealthy paepaeLanguage revitalisation plans in placeTe reo celebrations and competitionsMäori radio stationBilingual signage on the maraeTypes of indicatorsWhen evaluating these indicators at the end of four weeks, it was noted that different types ofindicators were evident, making it therefore difficult to develop one method of measurement.Three different classifications of indicators were identified. 33• Growth Indicator – that measures a change in quantity or size over a period of time such asthe number of people registered with their iwi.• Relationship or State Indicator – that is used to assess the existence of, quality andinfluence of relationships in a particular developmental area of interest. An example fromTable 2 might be that a regional Mäori education strategy is in place. This developmentaloutput indicates that certain relationships had to be in place in order for this stage indevelopment to be achieved. To further investigate this indicator it would be beneficial toknow how well these relationships enhanced or positively influenced the expression of otherkaupapa. This idea is further developed thinking on the following methods.• Descriptive Indicator – that identifies pure data such as gender, or iwi affiliation. This typeof indicator does not feature in the following measuring systems as it exists and generallythere is no relationship change or growth to measure.The indicators were transformed to tikanga; based on the idea that the indicator measured is thegoal or desired end point and which a given tikanga is designed to move towards. As an example,the indicator “healthy paepae” was transformed into a tikanga “Develop numbers of whaikorero,kaikaranga and waiata through the provision of learning to kaumätua wanting to learn and bykaumätua who are willing to teach”.There are a number of other tikanga that might have been developed to achieve this indicatorand express the kaupapa. 34Measuring expressions of kaupapa tuku ihoConsider a Mäori approach where expressions of kaupapa are measured to provide an indicationof the wellbeing of a community. What do you measure and how?This study sets forth a method developed as a contribution towards this important area ofwhakatupu mätauranga. The method is an adaption of theory developed by western scientiststo make accounting adjustments to GDP in order to make corrections for some of its failings. Asdiscussed previously, while GDP is a good measurement of growth, it completely fails to reflectin any way the full range of costs and benefits associated with achieving economic growth ofthis kind. The genuine progress indicator (GPI) involves the use of accounting adjustments thatseek to correct these problems.33 For growth measurements above 100 itwould be necessary to correspondinglyscale the values used in the score strategy.For example, for a growth score of75,000, the score strategy would involveadjustments of +/- 1,000. Likewise, fora growth score of 750,000, the scorestrategy would involve adjustments of+/- 10,000. The scale adjustment madeto the score strategy involves division ofthe growth score by a factor of 100. Thiscorrection would mean that quality scoreadjustments were of consistent scaleacross all growth score measurements.34 Dr Cole believes 10-15% would be theminimum you would use - He ÖrangaAcademic Paper.17


Likewise, we look at how growth in the expression of individual kaupapa and or tikangaon the part of a Mäori community does not reflect the full range of influences (positive ornegative) this growth has had on the expression of other kaupapa and tikanga. For example, thecommunity might experience growth in the area of pukengätanga. While this is a good outcomeas far as it goes, the measurement of the expression of pukengätanga alone may fail to revealhow the hours of study required to achieve this result led to a decline in the expression ofwhanaungatanga. In net terms, this would not be a desirable outcome.Thus the GPI method focuses our attention not on the growth indicator, but on the question ofjust how we grew. A worked example of a simple non-financial accounting method can be usedto explore Mäori community wellbeing from a Mäori worldview in which kaupapa tuku iho arethe guiding values.Method explainedThe study explores a way to assess the amount and quality of kaupapa expression by he hapori.To assess the wellbeing of a Mäori community, it is necessary to look at the expression ofkaupapa tuku iho with tikanga.It has been proposed that the real currency of a Mäori theory of economics are kaupapa andtikanga. There may be debate over the selection of kaupapa tuku iho, the choice could be wideranging and varied however Te Wänanga o Raukawa has been working with the set of 10 in Table1 that fit the purposes of this project.Each kaupapa has, however, many different shades of meaning; a consequence is that each canbe expressed in different ways, one or more for each shade of meaning.The diversity of röpü Mäori and consequently their differing world views will ensure that deeperunderstandings of the meaning of these kaupapa is also diverse. However, there is comfort in theknowledge that the community described is thoroughly familiar with the essence of each of the10 described above.Planning tikangaFor the purposes of the study and this report, 29 indicators were selected and developedcorresponding tikanga within a context of whänau, hapü and iwi wellbeing. It is the tikangadeveloped to express the different kaupapa that are measured. The 29 tikanga developed arelisted in Table 3 below. Table 3 indicates the type of community developmental process thateach tikanga promotes. The capital letter ‘G’ to the right of each tikanga implies that it is anindicator of community growth. The capital letter ‘R’ to the right of each tikanga implies that itis an indicator of community relationships being expressed. In some cases, both ‘G/R’ symbolsare included together to signify that this particular tikanga includes aspects of developmentalgrowth and relationship influences.18


Table 3 –Tikanga developedWhakapapaRangatahi regularly attend the maraeFamily reunions are held regularlyMonitor hui-a-tau attendances 35PükengatangaWänanga and Mäori TEO enrolmenttargets met annuallyA regional Mäori Mätaurangastrategy is in place (by Mäori)Encourage Whakatupu MätaurangaactivitiesWhanaungatangaCommunication streams are openwith whänau abroad, or living awayHui and noho are held with otherindigenous groupsNewsletters and websites areavailable for whänau away from homeÜkaipötangaBusiness Networks operate in theregionMonitor number of maraeRRGGRGRR/GR/GRGManaakitangaPeople want to help on the marae,and with hapu/iwi activitiesPeople want to help on the marae,and with hapu/iwi activitiesEncourage whänau to access healthand social servicesTe reoLanguage revitalisation are plans inplaceBilingual signage is on the maraeDevelop numbers of whaikorero,kaikaranga and waiataKotahitangaA regional Mäori Wellbeing strategyin place (by Mäori)Regular interaction andcommunication occurs betweenbusinessesIndividual Hapü have relationshipswith Council and Crown agenciesKaitiakitangaRetirement strategies and successionplanning are completedLong term marae planning is heldregularlyMonitor Enterprise Numbers annually G Protect our natural world RWairuatangaDevelop skills in weaving, taiaha,speaking, singing, fishing, kaigathering, cookingEstablish 2 minita a Iwi per hapuMatariki & other Mäori events arecelebratedGG/RG/RRangatiratangaInvestment strategies provideemployment and spiritual enrichmentfor membersKaumätua are involved in Iwi decisionmaking and educationEncourage Mäori to occupy positionsof community decision making i.e.Councils, governmentRRGRG/RGRRRRR/GR/GRGThe tikanga listed in Table 3 should not necessarily be thought of as fully representative of Mäoricommunity wellbeing at this stage. However, what they show is that those who participated inthe choice of appropriate indicators fully identify with the idea that Mäori community wellbeingis best measured using those values which identify Mäori as a people distinctive from all others.We draw this conclusion because of the noticeable absence in Table 2 of economic indicators.This is not to imply that economic indicators are irrelevant. 36 Commenting on the noticeableabsence of economic indicators draws attention to the fact that in Te Ao Mäori they do not35 The area was later expanded to includethe tribal boundaries of the five iwiparticipating in the study, that is, Poriruato Rangitikei. This decision was made atthe September 2009 summit.36 Appendix 2 - Statements of MäoriWellbeing and associated Kaupapa tukuiho.19


dominate and are, by themselves, therefore incomplete as a measure of Mäori communitywellbeing.Having chosen these preferred indicators and illustrated how they can be expressed as tikanga(Table 3), the question of how to measure these activities in a way that yields appropriateindicators of Mäori community wellbeing is raised.Measurement methods used to calculate indicatorsWith two different types of Mäori community wellbeing indicators (growth and relationship)identified, it was necessary to develop appropriate ways of measuring each. In the case of atikanga that promotes growth, the measurement challenge is to measure the change in size orquantity over time. For example, in Table 3 under the kaupapa ‘pükengatanga’ is the tikanga‘Encourage whakatupu mätauranga activities’. The measurement of this tikanga might involvecounting the number of whakatupu mätauranga activities that are started and completed withina given time period (e.g. one year). Growth indicators are usually expressed as rates (i.e. projects/year). This is not the case with relationship indicators.In the case of a tikanga that promotes the development and maintenance of kaupapa/tikangarelationships between röpü Mäori, the measurement challenge is different. In this case, theexistence of relationships does not increase in size from one time period to another. In this case,the measurement required is simply to answer the question “does the desired output that givesphysical evidence of the existence of extended relationships exist or not?” The answer is eitheryes or no.The two strategies outlined for the measurement of the growth and relationship indicatorsare incomplete in terms of the goal of measuring Mäori community wellbeing. This is becausethe measurement strategy only looks at wellbeing in terms of the existence of progress beingmade towards the developmental goals. For example, the measurement of growth in whakatupumätauranga activities only measures the rate of emergence of new projects and completion ofnew ones. It reveals nothing about the quality of these projects and more importantly how theycontributed, or failed to contribute to the expression of other kaupapa tuku iho.Likewise, the existence of a developmental output like the production of a languagerevitalisation plan as listed under the kaupapa ‘Te Reo’ in Table 3, is used to infer the existenceof relationships that made possible the formation of this output. However, while a ‘yes’ indicatortells us that these relationships exist, it discloses little about the quality of the relationships andhow they influence the expression of other kaupapa and tikanga.Economists face a similar measurement problem as described in their use of the GDP indicator.However, while GDP effectively measures change in size, it tells us nothing about the qualityof this level of economic growth. Investigation into this problem further would reveal thatincreases in crime, marriage breakdown, suicide, unemployment and environmental degradationall contribute towards making GDP bigger. Thus, while GDP measures growth, it revealsnothing about the type of growth that occurred. In developing indicators of Mäori communitywellbeing, care needs to be taken to not fall into the same trap of producing indicators thatportray environmental degradation and social disintegration as developmental “progress”. Tocalculate indicators that include measurement of ‘genuine progress’ it is necessary to makesome accounting adjustments to the growth and relationship indicator measurement strategiesoutlined above. The method developed for making these accounting adjustments is simple andeffective. However, it should only be considered as another small contribution towards ongoingwhakatupu mätauranga in this area.20


ResultsThe design of this model for the measurement of Mäori community wellbeing took place beforethe case study was planned. This offered the opportunity to also provide a worked exampledemonstrating what might be produced using the model. The following case study provides ameans for comparison.Accounting adjustments made to our growth indicatorAppendix 3 contains a worked example of how non-financial accounting adjustments to agrowth indicator can be made. The worksheet is reasonably easy to understand. At the top of theworksheet the growth indicator for a given measurement period like one year is entered. This isreferred to as the growth score. The growth score reveals the size of growth during the last year,but not the quality of the growth. To calculate the growth quality score it is necessary to gathergrowth quality score data for the remainder of the worksheet.The growth quality data would best be gathered with the assistance of local communitymembers scoring themselves in terms of how they performed over the last year. Thus, the growthquality score would represent an affirmation by the community of how it feels it did in termsof the expression of kaupapa and tikanga associated with this growth score. In this workedexample, the tikanga included in the growth quality calculation have been taken from Table 3.These performance measures would be chosen by the community concerned.Scoring the growth quality section of the growth score worksheet can occur by using thefollowing score strategy.Table 4 - The growth quality score strategy-1 Growth had an unwanted influence on the expression of this tikanga0 Growth did not influence the expression of this tikanga1 Growth had an enhancing influence on the expression of this tikangaIn scoring each of the growth quality tikanga shown in Appendix 3 answers are sought to thequestion “how did the growth that occurred influence the expression of this particular tikanga?”The answer lies within one of three possible score options. A score of zero indicates that thegrowth did not influence this expression of this tikanga. It is also possible to score an enhancing(i.e. 1) and unwanted (i.e. -1) influence score. This question and answer process needs to becompleted for each of the tikanga listed in the Appendix 2 worksheet.Table 5 - The growth quality score results from the growth worksheet (Appendix 3)Total growth score 85Total growth quality score 2Genuine progress indicator growth score 87Potential GPI indicator growth score 113In Table 5, the total growth score is simply the measurement of growth for the year unadjustedfor growth quality. The total growth quality score of 2 indicates that the growth score of 85positively influenced the expression of other tikanga with a net quality score of 2. The netquality score of 2 is arrived at by adding together all of the individual quality scores. This is a netscore because all total negative scores and total positive scores are added together.21


The ‘genuine progress indicator growth score’ of 87 is arrived at by adding together 85 + 2. Thisscore of 87 includes the initial growth score and its quality adjustment. To obtain some idea ofwhat this score means, it should be compared with the ‘potential GPI indicator growth score’ of113 in the last row of Table 5. This score shows how well the study could have scored in terms ofquality if we had been able to score 1 (a positive enhancing influence) to all of the quality scoretikanga shown in the growth worksheet of Appendix 4. Had this happened, the ‘genuine progressindicator growth score’ would have been 113 rather than 87. A score of 87 demonstrates thatwhile growth occurred, the quality of this growth was not as good as it could have been. Morethought is required regarding how growth is achieved, rather than just concentrating on growthfor the sake of achieving a higher growth score.Accounting adjustments made to relationship indicatorSimilar accounting adjustments need to be made to the relationship score of 1 in Appendix 4worksheet. The relationship does not measure change in size from one time period to another.It simply measures the satisfactory completion of a developmental stage which is then used toinfer the existence of appropriate relationships needed to achieve this outcome. Once again, therelationship score of 1 indicates existence of relationships but says nothing about their quality.To assess the nature of relationship quality it is necessary to assess how the relationships(associated with this developmental milestone) contributed towards the expression of othergrowth and relationship tikanga. The same scoring strategy outlined above for our growthquality indicator score (Table 5) is used here. The final results are shown in Table 6 below.Table 6 - The relationship quality score results from the relationship worksheet (Appendix 4)Total relationship score 1Total relationship quality score 9Genuine progress indicator relationship score 10Potential GPI indicator relationship score 29The results shown in Table 6 may be interpreted like those described for the growth indicatorscore in Table 5. This worked example shows it was possible to achieve a potential score of 29;but in this case a score of 10 was calculated. This result again shows that while key relationshipsare in place, they are not yet a positive influence that contributes (100%) to the expressionof other key Mäori community wellbeing indicators (i.e. kaupapa and tikanga). More work isrequired in the future to improve these scores.Calculating a final scoreThe worked examples shown in Appendix 3 and 4 would need to be repeated for each of the29 indicators listed in Table 3. All the scores could then be added together to produce a onedimensional indicator that combines all growth and relationship quality scores into one.There can be problems in aggregating up quality scores across different scales of measurement.For example, it would be possible for large scores from one röpü Mäori to introduce an unequalweighting. However, problems of this kind can be addressed by adding mathematical weightsbased on indicators like area or population size as part of the aggregating process.22


What the use of this tool should tell usThis tool as a contribution toward the measurement of Mäori community wellbeing is notintended as a complete solution to the need in this area. While it has some strengths in terms ofits ease of use, efficiency and accessibility, it is one of a range tools that currently exists and isyet to be developed to support our investigations in this area.For example, a kaitiakitanga survey was recently completed at Te Wänanga o Raukawa to lookat the expression of kaupapa and tikanga in relation to the measurement of direct and indirecteffects on te taiao. This survey involved the collection of detailed datasets over short and longperiods. It also involved complicated mathematical modelling work.The use of a range of tools is consistent with the inclusive logic that is central to the Mäori viewof the world. To this end, we look forward to the other contributions to come from our collectiveeffort in the area of whakatupu mätauranga.While this simple tool is an initial contribution to work in this area, it has the potential to delivervaluable insights into the wellbeing of Mäori communities and the quality of progress which isimportant to us all - the survival of Mäori as a people. It is interesting to consider what a regularsurvey of this kind might disclose about the progress made towards our goals of achieving Mäoricommunity wellbeing.First, it is important to identify exactly where growth in the expression of kaupapa and tikangais occurring and where it is not occurring. With this understanding, remedies and mitigationstrategies can be developed and applied as corrective measures. However, understanding theactual quality of growth and relationship performance would remain quite detailed.In the genuine progress indicator work, it has been discovered that quality measurements, evenwhen made in monetary terms, have many hidden problems. Furthermore, at times the size ofthese problems has been alarming. While much simpler than a genuine progress indicator inmonetary terms, this tool has the ability to (i) reveal hidden factors and (ii) provide indicationsabout the scale or magnitude of problems. This makes it possible to shift attention from growthas a developmental goal (and focus of attention) towards broader quality goals grounded inkaupapa and tikanga.A contribution to whakatupu mätaurangaThe method developed in He Oranga Hapori should be thought of as an initial contribution tothis area of whakatupu mätauranga. Further work remains in this area. However, this simplemathematical approach has some attractive strengths that are discussed later.This method is easy to implement. This is an important point because the collection of dataand conducting of surveys costs money and takes time. It is therefore highly desirable thatthe preferred method is as efficient as possible by returning the greatest possible insights intoMäori community wellbeing for the least possible investment of resources. This is the case withthe method outlined. Its simplicity is its’ strength. This method builds on the holistic identity ofa Mäori worldview. It provides a big-picture perspective and an approach to measure this in amanageable way.Second, an important distinction is made between the measurement of change in size orrelationships and the quality of the change process. This is what the recent interest in genuineprogress indicator work has been about. However, a weakness of the genuine progress indicatorwork has been that to date it still strongly focuses of the measurement of quality aspects of23


growth in monetary terms. There is a sense the He Oranga Hapori method builds on what isaspects of the genuine progress indicator method that are consistent with the Mäori worldview.Third, not only is the measurement method or process relatively easy to implement, but thescoring strategy also makes this approach appealing. By employing a subjective scoring strategyit is possible for the indicator set to reflect the current perceptions of individual members ofthe Mäori community being measured. In this respect the measurement process recognises therangatiratanga of the community, and its’ perceptions of growth and relationship quality. Formembers of the study community who participate in the survey, the scoring strategy is easilyunderstood and simple to apply.Issues of scaleThere are some scale issues associated with the use of the scoring strategy. These have beentouched on already in connection with the process of aggregating up results across differingspatial scales. However, in addition to this aggregation problem, there is also the problem causedby the magnitude or relative size of different growth measurements. In the worked example ascore between 0-100 was chosen. However, the score strategy shown in Table 4 would havebeen inappropriate in terms of scale if the growth measurement was between 100 and 1000,10,000, 100,000 or 1,000,000. 37This measurement process is simple enough to be applied by those studying Mäori communitywellbeing. Further elaborations of the method can be made however these becomemathematically more complicated and require the use of specialist mathematical modellingsoftware. This particular method can be performed with an excel worksheet or alternatively, thecalculations can be run using pencil and paper.The question of survey representationLike all survey methods of this kind, the question of statistical representation should beconsidered. The representation question seeks to discover how many people from thestudy community need to participate in the survey to be able to say the results are a fairrepresentation of collective community wellbeing as opposed to representing the views of asmaller group within the wider community. There are some basic measurement rules that applyin addressing the problem of ‘sample bias’ raised by this question. If a survey sample occursrather than a comprehensive survey of all community members, a random sample would berequired. Second, the larger the sample size the better. 38Final challengeThis report outlines key challenges associated with the development and calculation of indicatorsof wellbeing for Mäori communities. It is apparent that sole dependence on conventionaleconomic, business and or demographic indicators will not help to assess the wellbeing of aMäori community against the goal of survival as a people.37 ART Confederation.38 submissions to the Kapiti and HorowhenuaDistrict Council’s LTCCP - Long termcommunity council plan.To ensure genuine progress is made towards this goal, it is necessary to formulate an approachto indicator development, calculation and monitoring that emerges from the Mäori worldview,especially those values that unmistakably identify Mäori for who we are – he käkano i ruia mai iRangiätea.24


Whereas the pursuit of tikanga can be planned and resultsmeasuredCase Study 1: Mäori Community Wellbeing in Kapiti and Horowhenua 39Survival of Mäori as a PeopleMäori in the Kapiti and Horowhenua area have confidence in the forever statement “E kore au engaro; he käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea” (I will never be lost, a seed from Rangiätea).These käkano accept that through the ages, their tüpuna Mäori have had a care for, expandedupon and bequeathed Te Reo as the repository of all the things that make Mäori distinctive asa people. Current generations are increasingly becoming aware that their contribution to thesurvival of Mäori as a people is through expanding on their inheritance. They do so by buildingthe body of mätauranga Mäori gifted through the expression of kaupapa tuku iho.The enrichment of expressing kaupapaOver 200 käkano, whänau, hapü and other groups within this community developed 36indicators of wellbeing 40 to describe their community wellbeing in the narrative on page 7.The sense of enrichment that one gains from the expressions of kaupapa occurring in thisnarrative are appreciated by Mäori, especially those who have mana whenua over the Kapiti andHorowhenua landscape.As they read the piece, they reflect on times past when their own whänau were able to harvestkaimoana easily from the beach; they’re reminded of korero with their own grandparents onwhakapapa; and they dream of the day when the local marae will be abundant in terms ofpeople, knowledge and skills.He käkano that use the expression of kaupapa to contribute to the comfort and security ofwhänau are uplifted by the rewards of respect, admiration and esteem.Pursuing the expression of kaupapaThe narrative describes a world that 112 rangatahi, 70 kaumätua, 50 Mäori businesses, five iwiauthorities representing 30 marae, numbers of whänau, and tautangata Mäori have told us theydream of for this community.From these statements the definition of Mäori Wellbeing was developed as “a Mäori state ofbeing that is characterised by the abundant expression of kaupapa”. The past nine months haveinvolved developing plans and completing activities that contribute to the wellbeing of ourMäori community by many groups including Te Aho.Te Aho’s circle of interest was the mechanism used to design, plan, implement, monitor andreport on He Oranga Hapori as a study of Mäori community engagement.Te Aho, a Mäori model for regional developmentTe Aho, is a Mäori model for regional development operating in the Kapiti and Horowhenuafor the past 15 months. It is a cluster of Iwi groups, their respective hapü and other Mäoriorganisations (such as educational providers, health and social organisations, and businessoperators). Te Aho is an example of Mäori collaborating with each other, and others to enhancethe wellbeing of a particular Mäori community.39 Huihuinga is a quarterly forum where theTe Aho quarterly report is approved beforeit is presented at the councils JointEconomic Development Forum.40 Kaitiakitanga, Rangatiratanga,Whanaungatanga, Pükengatanga,Manaakitanga and Kotahitanga.25


Kapiti and Horowhenua profileIn the combined districts of Kapiti and Horowhenua there are five Iwi including Ngäti Tukorehe,Muaüpoko, Te Ati Awa ki Whakarongotai, Ngäti Toarangatira and Ngäti Raukawa. The latterthree make up a Confederation of three Iwi 41 and have formal relationships with groups includingthe Kapiti Coast District Council. In addition to the Kapiti Coast District Council, this communityis served by the Horowhenua District Council to the north. The combined Iwi areas cross allboundaries; their takiwä extend from Manawatu in the north to Porirua in the south; and theiractivities are influenced by five district councils and two regional councils.Planned tikanga and results - Five strands of Te AhoInitially, five indicators of wellbeing were developed under five priority areas or strands; thetikanga that have been implemented to give expression to these priorities are also listed.1. Developing Whänau – Whänau are the core of Mäori society and are crucial change agentsfor positive Mäori development. An Iwi forum is charged with progressing this strand, twoimportant tikanga implemented by this group to celebrate whakapapa and whanaungatangainclude:• Developing a Kaumätua Forum with over 70 members to provide guidance to Te Aho. Thegroup meets quarterly. The Ngäti Raukawa kaumätua hosted the senior leadership of theMäori Party and the National Party including the Prime Minister at Raukawa Marae.• Working together to develop a Whänau programme based on a kaupapa and tikangaframework.2. Enhancing Skills – Skills are vital to successful Mäori economic transformation; increasinglydetermining the nation’s ability to grow economically. Examples of the tikanga developedby a group of Mäori businesses, organisations and institutions with an interest in education(compulsory and tertiary) include:• Provider packages where the group developed pathways for learning for their studentsand staff from Level 1 to Level 7 degrees within the region.• A Mäori Literacy and Numeracy programme for students was developed by and piloted bya member of our provider group.• Our People, Our Future Summit – held on the 1st & 2nd September 2009 where 160attendees contributed.• Our People, Our Future, Our Way Summit - held 16th June 2010 where 70 participantsattended.41 The Dominion Post, April 19, 2010, p-A7.42 Appendix 6 - Te Aho Quarterly Report.43 One or more of the ten that Te Wänanga oRaukawa has been working with.3. Strengthening Relationships – Meaningful relationships need to be built that acceptdiversity; have long term commitment and are nurtured. Responsibility for giving expressionto kotahitanga and rangatiratanga in this strand is shared by all groups involved in Te Aho.• Iwi are collaborating on economic development strategies including Whänau Oraprogrammes.• Tertiary education providers are working together.• There is increased participation by Mäori with industry groups and local government.• Relationships with both Councils are improved.• Development of processes for Mäori submissions to LTCCP. 42• Regular and informal breakfasts with the two mayors.• Council attendances to Huihuinga. 4326


4. Creating Knowledge – Research and development are important factors in promotingeconomic growth, and facilitating dynamic Mäori participation in the local, national, andglobal economy. A small group with links to the Te Wänanga o Raukawa are busy with anumber of tikanga that give expression to pükengatanga.• Completed a survey of Te Röpü Pakihi members.• Developed a Te Reo Mäori resource for Mäori businesses that was released by Te RöpüPakihi at Matariki.• Completed a study into the Influence of Mäori Business Networks on Mäori Enterprise;presented a paper on the findings to a research symposium in Adelaide and to a KoorieBusiness Network conference in Melbourne.• Completed and reported on a study into the behaviours of Iwi Investment – based on theTRoR/Levin Meats case study. Presented to a number of audiences nationally by ProfessorWiniata.• Developed He Oranga Hapori, a Mäori model for measuring community wellbeing using akaupapa and tikanga framework.• Worked with Te Röpü Pakihi to refine the regional Mäori Business Awards to reflectMäori business wellbeing using a kaupapa and tikanga framework.5. Involving Community – Ensuring our community is aware of, understands, and supports TeAho. The project team completes promotional activities that give expression to ükaipötangaand kotahitanga using the following tikanga:• Developed a marketing strategy and communications plan which will be launched thismonth• Promotional activities and presentations to a number of MPs, community, Mäoriorganisations, funding organisations, the Mäori economic summit, the Federation ofMäori Authorities, Minister of Mäori Affairs Hon Dr Pita Sharples Economic Taskforce,MEDs Small Business Advisory Group and the National Mäori Business Networks Forum.Our People, Our Future Summit – September 2009In September 2009, the Our People, Our Future Summit was held at Te Wänanga o Raukawaover two days. At least 160 Mäori from the Rangitikei to Whitireia attended, contributed theirthoughts and built their dreams for Mäori Community Wellbeing.Six 44 kaupapa based workshops were held with the theme of ‘Building the dream for Mäori in theregion’. Many of the aspirations led to a blend of education, social, and health initiatives with afundamental requirement of being driven by our need to express kaupapa in all that we do. Cleareducation initiatives called for the survival and enhancement of Te Reo Mäori, focused trainingand pathways, the development of knowledge, increased kaupapa Mäori education provision,tikanga and kaupapa training in leadership and business leaders.Those aspirations, tikanga and initiatives were developed into 36 Indicators of Mäori CommunityWellbeing that seek to describe the aspiration concisely with tikanga to bring the state ofwellbeing into fruition.Te Aho has a responsibility to bring these aspirations into being. Te Aho for a met to considerthe indicators and develop tikanga to make progress towards the state of wellbeing describedin the list. It was accepted that not all groups could make contributions to all of the indicators,however each group would consider what contribution it could make.44 Appendix 8 provides a brief profile of theMäori community in the Manawatu.27


Measuring the displays of tikangaThe results of this activity are illustrated in Table 7 (Appendix 5) and were reported to a secondsummit Our People, Our Future, Our Way held in June 2010.Table 7 uses the activities of five main fora that are active within Te Aho and meeting at leastmonthly (education, iwi, business) or quarterly (huihuinga and kaumätua).Focus groups were established for short explorations or for specific activities. An example of thisis the Te Ao Mäori ki Horowhenua group that had its origins as a Te Aho submission to LTCCP.The Te Aho submission grew to include 10 separate Mäori group submissions and ultimatelyTe Ao Mäori ki Horowhenua was charged with building the relationship with the HorowhenuaDistrict Council on behalf of all Mäori in the district. Since then, the group’s interests haveexpanded. They include exploring how a Mäori model of engagement with territorial authoritiescan be used effectively with the five district or city councils and three regional councils in theWellington to Manawatu region.The contributions of Te Ao Mäori ki Horowhenua are included in the ‘Huihuinga & Others’ columnalong with Te Röpü Whakatupuranga and other sub-committees established to investigate MäraKai; a loan guarantee programme; a recession response group; marketing team; and a projectteam to coordinate and facilitate the strategy.Analysis of contributionsOf the 36 statements, only two are not being actively progressed:5. Iwi investments provide employment and enrichment for members - no iwi investmentshave occurred since the development of the indicators. A kaupapa based model for IwiInvestment has been developed and it is anticipated hese investment practices will beimplemented once the activity resumes.13. All tamariki have access to whänau managed kura kaupapa education - within the regionthere are a number of Mäori education models operating within the compulsory sector.They include Whänau Advisory Groups in primary and secondary schools; bilingualunits in primary schools; Mäori boarding schools; kura a iwi; and kura kaupapa Mäori.Whänau are engaged in these models and whänau managed kura kaupapa education willbe advanced as the success of the kura kaupapa option becomes more well known. The2009 NCEA results indicate that Mäori boarding schools and kura kaupapa all achieveabove national standards with kura kaupapa in the region consistently scoring 100%across levels 1, 2 and 3. 45Activities have been or are currently underway that have given expression to all 10 of thekaupapa tuku iho shows Te Aho is making progress towards Mäori community wellbeing asdescribed by the community. Further, the activity occurring within 34 of the 36 indicatorssupports the conviction of Te Aho that it is making a contribution to the survival of Mäori as apeople.45 Appendix 8 - Potential for Manawatugroups to raise Mäori communitywellbeing.46 Aotearoa Private Training Education &Employment.Each quarter, Te Aho reports to Te Huihuinga on the activities completed in the past threemonths. The report monitors and presents Te Aho’s activity in terms of expressions of kaupapa.This report is also presented to the Joint Councils Economic Development Forum. The report forthe period to 30 October 2010 is attached. 46The report identifies below each heading in the left-hand column a group of numbers; thesealign to the indicators of wellbeing being contributed to in these activities. Without exception TeAho has made progress towards the achievement of every wellbeing indicator in this period. The28


exercise identifies those areas we excel at, such as number 23 - where 13 of our projects in thepast quarter made some contribution to Mäori engaging productively with the wider community.The other extreme are those few indicators (seven in total) that contributed to three indicatorsor less. Now that these have been identified, activities can be developed to advance progress inthese areas.Case Study 2: Te Papaioea describes Mäori Community WellbeingA second pilot of the He Oranga Hapori study tested some of the understandings andlearnings gained in the Kapiti and Horowhenua experience. The absence of an organised Mäoricollaboration of key sectors, community, iwi/hapü and crown agencies in the Manawatu regionmeant there was difficulty duplicating the Kapiti/Horowhenua experience fully. It was thereforedecided to the value of the second pilot would be to concentrate on activities to assist inconfirming the theoretical model by:• describing Mäori community wellbeing with indicators• identifying tikanga that give expression to kaupapa tuku iho• designing a framework for recording and reporting results.Survival of Mäori as a peopleMäori determination over the past 200 years to raise their prospects of survival is extraordinaryand evident in the maintenance of over 1000 marae and their affiliated röpü tuku iho;organisations such as the Mäori Women’s Welfare League, Mäori education bodies, Mäoribroadcasting organisations, sports codes, religious bodies, business networks and similar röpüMäori that give expression to kaupapa tuku iho. One could assert the axiom that Mäori will seekto maximise their survival as a people through the expression of kaupapa tuku iho.Participants in He Oranga Hapori Te Papaioea pilot affirm this assumption. Over four days, foursurveyors interviewed a random sample of 126 Mäori with the following characteristics:• 59% affiliated with local iwi• 6% did not know their iwi• 52% male• Age range 17 to 75 years• Average age 35.7 yearsThe surveys were conducted in the City Square, at a rugby sports ground, the library, busterminals, Massey University’s Hokowhitu campus, the local Work & Income site and in achildren’s playground. Surveys took place over four days from Friday to Monday including theweekend.The enrichment of expressing kaupapaEach käkano was asked the question “what do you look for to know that your Mäori communityis doing well?” The participant was then asked to identify the kaupapa tuku iho 47 that influencedtheir thinking.Their collective responses reveal their aspirations for a Mäori community that gives expressionto kotahitanga, pükengatanga and rangatiratanga. The sample was sensitive to tensions withintheir Mäori community believed to be causing distress between different Iwi and hapü groups.Calls for increased expressions of whanaungatanga and whakapapa were consistent throughout47 Appendix 9 - Potential means to monitorand measure displays of tikanga.29


the study. The development of tikanga that give expression to these two kaupapa was seen asthe solution to many of the problems identified. The peacemaking qualities of these kaupapawere being sought in these pleas.The sample, though not statistically representative of the local Mäori community 48 identifiedopportunities for increased kotahitanga by those röpü tuku iho and röpü Mäori charged withthe delivery of health, social service, business and education programmes. The faith of theseparticipants in the ability of kaupapa to potentially restore balance in the community suggeststhey find the manifestations of these inherited values positive and elevating. Their preference forthese expressions was clear.Pursuing the expression of kaupapaThe sample identified the following 40 indicators of wellbeing. With the assistance of thesurveyors and the use of printed resources that detailed Te Wänanga o Raukawa descriptorsfor each of the 10 kaupapa; the participants distinguished the kaupapa that influenced theirthinking.Table 8- Indicators of WellbeingWhakapapa1. Programmes that help us to understand the values and experiences of our tüpuna arefreely available.2. Families live healthy lifestyles.3. Families maintain healthy relationships with each other, with hapü, and with theirmarae.Whanaungatanga4. Kaumätua are actively engaged and contributing positively to society.5. Mäori entrepreneurs and business owners are supported.6. Police and Ministry of Justice personnel work with whänau, hapü and iwi.7. Mäori students are supported in their study.Wairuatanga8. Mäori lead spiritual lives of mutual respect.9. Whänau are growing, gathering and preparing kai to sustain themselves and membersof their community.Kaitiakitanga10. Rangatahi are encouraged to participate productively in their community.11. Mäori are aware and engaged in activities that protect and nurture te taiao.12. Whänau are maintaining and protecting whakapapa.48 Appendix 10 - Worksheet for the TePapaioea study.Te Reo13. Te Reo is a compulsory subject in all primary and secondary schools.14. Palmerston North adopts a policy that promotes bilingual signage.15. Numbers of Te Reo speakers are being developed.16. Kohanga reo, kura kaupapa and wänanga are being established.30


Kaipotanga17. Marae are seen as preferred venues for events and functions by whänau.18. Marae are active and busy serving the needs of their community.Manaakitanga19. Kaumätua are supported in contributions to whänau, hapü and iwi.20. Mäori businesses employ Mäori.21. Mäori are volunteering to encourage and support others in need.22. Community groups and service providers are well resourced.Rangatiratanga23. Good role models are promoted to rangatahi.24. Effective leadership is demonstrated at whänau, hapü and iwi level by kaumätua andothers.25. Mäori are developing strong sense of identity and self-confidence.26. Mäori are active and participating in political affairs.Kotahitanga27. Whänau are engaging with other cultures.28. Iwi are involved and participating positively in the community.29. Iwi are working with each other.30. Te Tiriti is promoted in the community and included in primary and secondarycurriculum.31. Mäori are skilled and engaged in the workforce.32. Business support services contribute to the Mäori economy.33. The community shares collective responsibility for welfare of tamariki.Pukengatanga34. Mäori culture is celebrated through events, functions and programmes.35. Kapa haka groups are growing their numbers and standards of performance.36. Kaumätua and others are ensuring that tikanga and kawa are upheld on marae andwithin the whänau and hapü.37. Kaupapa Mäori models are developed and used in Mäori communities.38. Preservation of mätauranga Mäori through informal and formal wänanga learning.39. Financial literacy courses are available at all marae.40. Greater access to Mäori educational institutions.An analyst joined the surveyors over two days to identify and develop tikanga from theseindicators to give expression to the kaupapa.In this way, the sample demonstrated their ability to actively pursue the expression of kaupapathrough tikanga they selected.Planned tikanga and resultsThe study group also identified potential statements to measure the display of tikanga andsubsequent expressions of kaupapa tuku iho. A matrix was developed to identify different groupsin the Mäori community that might influence how the tikanga is implemented and subsequentlyincrease the expression of these kaupapa. 4949 The plan was developed by the peoplesof Ati Awa, Ngäti Raukawa and NgätiToarangatira. The activities of WRMincluded the establishment of TeWänanga-o-Raukawa in Ötaki.31


For this exercise, it was assumed that the groups of interest would be similar to those involved inthe Kapiti and Horowhenua experience:1. Whänau/Hapü/Iwi - the iwi and hapü of Rangitäne and if encompassing the widerManawatu rohe, hapü of Ngäti Raukawa also. Whänau, hapü and iwi feature highly in thematrix as they have dual opportunity to participate. First, (whänau units and individuals)as consumers, and secondly, as institutions that can provide support, programmes orassistance in one form or another;2. Pakihi Mäori - Te Au Pakihi, the Manawatu based Mäori business network is notcurrently active. However, there are a number of Mäori enterprises operating in the areademonstrating a willingness to re-organise themselves, to represent business and industry;3. Health and social service providers - this sector is well represented by Mäori and is looselyconnected through industry groups and collectives that have formed with the assistanceof the District Health Board (DHBs). A forum for this purpose could be formed with theassistance of one or two key players in the industry; potential facilitators have beenidentified.4. Education (compulsory, secondary and tertiary providers) - the number of Mäori tertiaryorganisations has decreased in the region over recent years, however Te Ataarangi, TeWänanga o Aotearoa, Te Kokiri Development Consultancy and a number of informal trainersendure. The secretary of the regional AMPTEE 50 group is currently involved in the Kapitiexperience and is able to identify and engage with Manawatu providers – at least in theinterim until they are in a position make their own arrangements.5. Other (including government agencies and pan-tribal groups such as the Mäori Women’sWelfare League, Mäori Wardens, Mäori District Councils). Te Puni Kökiri would be wellplaced to play a role in supporting this community collaboration.A cursory examination of the matrix reveals a multitude of opportunities for the local Mäoricommunity to affect an increase in the Mäori Wellbeing of their community in Te Papaioea.Some initial coordination will be required to get the groups organised. These groups should beencouraged to develop their own indicators of wellbeing within a workshop format. This abilityto describe Mäori community wellbeing, design their own tikanga, and the means to monitortheir own progress would engender the commitment required to successfully manage their owntino rangatiratanga.The study group identified 126 across all röpü for opportunities for the development of tikanga:• Iwi/hapü and whänau 38• Pakihi Mäori 19• Education sector 26• Health & social service providers 11• Others 32126 (at least)As there is an unlimited number of tikanga that can be designed give expression to kaupapa,the only constraint is the imagination. In this manner, the framework is a powerful source ofcreativity and innovation.50 See section titled Dual Economies; p11.32


Measuring displays of tikangaOnce the tikanga had been identified and worked, statements were prepared to describe howa community could potentially monitor whether the tikanga had been implemented, and howeffective that implementation had been. 51The study group endeavoured to ensure that the majority of monitoring statements reflecteda change in size or growth. It is understood that a growth statement is consistently simpler tomeasure than a relationship statement.Just as there is any number of tikanga to give expression to kaupapa, there is more than one wayto monitor or measure any given tikanga. Once the form of monitor and measurement has beendecided upon, a scorecard is possible. A worked example of the He Oranga Hapori scorecard wasprepared for the Te Papaioea study. 52With an opening balance of 69; the total growth quality score calculated over the 40 tikanga,provided a closing balance of 70; out of a possible 108.Table 9 - Te Papaioea scorecard totalsTotal growth score 69Total growth quality score 1Genuine progress indicator growth score 70Potential GPI indicator growth score 108If the scores were actual rather than theoretic, a community could draw from these scores thatthere is work to do in terms of progressing Mäori community wellbeing. The scorecard alsoidentifies the kaupapa given expression to and the manner in which that occurred.From these examples we can see that in theory there is the potential for this community to:a) identify how kaupapa tuku iho can assist to describe what community wellbeing is forTe Papaioea;b) design a range of tikanga to give expression to a range of kaupapa and to progressmovement toward the described wellbeing;c) develop a set of statements to monitor and measure that expression; andd) to tally those expressions from one period to another (i.e. annually), and use thosescorecards to plan ahead.51 Hui Taumata Taskforce, (2006) MäoriEconomic Data and Benchmarking p66.52 Te Puni Kökiri, (2008) Te Pütake Rawa aNgä Mäori – The Mäori Asset Base p5.33


Then, the wellness of Māori communities can be measuredby identifying the preferred tikanga of the community andmeasuring the levels at which these tikanga are displayedKey themesWhereas Mäori are determined to survive as a peopleThe experience with the two communities demonstrated a desire to behave as Mäori throughlearning and speaking te reo, the desire for spiritual comfort through karakia, the wish to spendtime with family and with extended relations, to preserve whakapapa and learn waiata. Whetherthe participants realised it or not these aspirations are expressions of kaupapa tuku iho.The Kapiti and Horowhenua study had the advantage of working with a community who werefamiliar with Mäori models; beginning with Whakatupuranga Rua Mano - Generation 2000(WRM) a tribal development plan implemented in 1975 with a 25-year horizon 53 and morerecently with the Te Aho project.Those involved in the Kapiti and Horowhenua study numbered over 200 and included coordinatedgroups and fora of rangatahi, kaumätua, whänau, Mäori engaged in education, health and socialservice provision, business and those with a care for the governance and management of iwi andhapü affairs. These groups engaged with the study in facilitated group situations.Te Papaioea community in close proximity to Te Wänanga o Raukawa had a number of paststudents in the sample and their familiarity with the Wänanga teachings had shaped theirthinking. The influence of Sir Professor Mason Durie and his work with Massey University andwith Whänau Ora was also evident through some of the comments received.One hundred and twenty six participants were engaged randomly as individuals through afour day survey. Though a less organised group, the survey participants were able to articulatethe expression of kaupapa as a contribution to the survival of Mäori as a people with someconfidence.Whereas survival as a people will be happening when communities of Mäori find the expressionof kaupapa uplifting, rewarding and preferredThe effect of giving expression to kaupapa is an experience that has positive effects on thosewho are engaged in the activity. It is satisfying, uplifting and comforting - it is preferred.Kaupapa tuku iho are inherited values, they are called this because we value them, they arethings we would rather have than not have. The important place of kaupapa in our lives affirmsthat tikanga designed to give expression to these values are preferred. The two case studies bothillustrate communities that make efforts or show a continued desire to give expression to thesekaupapa.53 These figures do not include any capitalgrowth recorded by those Iwi who havereceived Iwi Treaty settlements.In the Kapiti and Horowhenua experience there were repeated examples of attendees describingthe workshops and seminars as both inspirational and aspirational. The merriment at theseevents belies the significance of the contributions being made to mätauranga Mäori. Thenarrative on page 33 developed to describe Mäori wellbeing for this community never failed toelicit an emotional response from Mäori who reside in the area, in particular from the iwi andhapü mentioned therein.These groups were also influenced by a desire to give expression to tino rangatiratanga.Comments from some of the participants related that having a plan for the expression of34


kaupapa provided a sense of comfort and direction. Another comment was that as individuals, aswhänau units some participants were able to “make a difference” and make a contribution to thewellbeing of their community. This was seen to be mana enhancing.The Mäori community represented by Te Papaieoa’s sample showed a community that exhibitedless concern for the enrichment received from expressions of kaupapa. However, this communitydemonstrated an understanding and confidence that future expressions of kaupapa could beproblem solving and had potential for peace making and dispute resolution. The positive effectsand the enhanced sense of identity elicited from tikanga designed to give expression to kaupapawere present in the responses.Pursuing the expression of kaupapa through tikanga selected by the communityThe Kapiti and Horowhenua groups were involved in workshops over a period of a year. Duringthose workshops they were repeatedly asked to design and develop tikanga that gave expressionto kaupapa tuku iho within a wellbeing context.The original 29 indicators used to develop the He Oranga Hapori theoretical model wereexpanded upon and refined by this community. The result was 36 wellbeing indicators or tikangabeing designed and implemented by one or more of the Te Aho groups. The number of tikangadeveloped for each of the kaupapa was regulated to ensure balance across the framework.The Te Papaioea experience was very different. The community response to the design of tikangathat give expression to kaupapa and tikanga within the context of Mäori community wellbeingoccurred over a period of only four days by survey, rather than workshops. The opportunities torefine and further develop their framework were not availableDespite this, the survey did reveal that Mäori were willing participants and quite capableof designing tikanga to give expression to kaupapa that could potentially be used to createwellbeing within their Mäori community. The researchers were comfortable that the tikanga thatfinally evolved from this community were reflective of their wishes.Whereas the pursuit of tikanga can be planned and results measuredThe He Oranga Hapori theoretical model was demonstrated in the two case studies. Theseexperiences indicated that within He Oranga Hapori there is a process for the systematicdesign of tikanga that can be measured and furthermore the process can be duplicated, if thecommunity in question is willing.1. Understand the community and build relationships within.2. Engage the key interest groups including röpü tuku iho and community including rangatahiand kaumätua. Mäori sector groups taking account of education, social and health services,industry and finance.3. Identify a representative sample (100-200 participants for a community).4. Invite these groups to collaborate on the design of a kaupapa tuku iho matrix.5. Work with the sample to develop indicators of Mäori community wellbeing throughworkshops and presentations.6. Refine the indicators into tikanga and identify the interest groups with capacity to progressthe tikanga.7. Develop means of measuring the progress of the tikanga and prepare a scorecard.8. Establish forums with responsibility for advancing various tikanga.35


9. Implement the tikanga.10. Engage with government agencies and potential funding organisations to secure resourcing.11. Hold regular hui with the community to report and plan ahead.12. Complete the scorecard annually and report to a major gathering.This process has been illustrated in the figure below.Understand theCommunityEngage interestedgroupsIdentify sampleRefine indicatorsto tikangaIdentify indicatorsof wellbeingInvite collaborationto design kaupapaframeworkDevelop means ofmeasuring tikangaDevelop forums withresponsibility foradvancing tikangaImplement thetikangaComplete scorecard& report annuallyReport and planaheadSecure resourcingThe process provides a system of management that gives the community a framework tomanage their own affairs. This is our understanding of economics 54 and this understanding givesexpression to tino rangatiratanga.He Oranga Hapori - a model for raising Mäori community wellbeingOver the past four decades, Mäori have clearly signalled their determination to survive asa people through the creation of institutions that endorse the application of kaupapa andtikanga. Examples of some of the tikanga that have been acted upon to achieve continuity andrecognition include:54 See section titled Dual Economies; p11• the establishment of hundreds of kohanga reo and te reo in primary and secondary schools;• tertiary education institutions that offer certificate to doctoral studies;• Mäori radio and television that continue to flourish; and• regional and national Mäori sport and Mäori public speaking competitions are common.36


These tikanga too could be measured using the model that has been developed. He OrangaHapori model has many possible applications, the analysis of iwi wellbeing, businesssustainability, sector activity and even the state of the nation’s economy.The determination of Mäori to survive as a people through the expression of kaupapa underpinsthe design of the He Oranga Hapori model. This makes the model meaningful for Mäoricommunities and, hence is the preferred option over the GDP and GPI models of economicmanagement. The model also allows members of Te Hapori to make significant positivecontributions to the mätauranga continuum and consequently to the survival of Mäori as apeople.REFERENCES & APPENDICESReferences1. Einstein, Ideas and Opinions (1954) p2712. Improvement & Development Agency (I&DEA), Driving Economic Prosperity: Benchmark &diagnostic tool for Local Authorities (2008)3. Improvement & Development Agency (I&DEA), No Council of Despair: Positive localleadership in a recession (2009)4. Public & Corporate Economic Consultants, From Recession to Recovery (2008)5. Durie, Launching Mäori Futures (2003) p146. Royal, Te Ahukaramu, The Woven Universe: Selected Writings of Rev, Mäori Marsden (2003)p177-1787. Winiata W, Perspectives on Partnerships – National Library of New Zealand Treaty ofWaitangi Seminar, Wellington (1999)8. Auckland Regional Council, A Genuine Progress Indicator for the Auckland region, (2009)9. Winiata, Cook & Luke, Iwi Entrepreneurship: an Exploration (2009) p510. Petrie, Hazel ,Chiefs of the Industry (2003) pp12-13 & p17611. Merrill, Chiefs of the Industry (2003) pp402 – 40337


Appendix 1 - Background information and dataA. Mäori Economic SummitIn January 2009, the Minister of Mäori Affairs, Hon. Pita Sharples hosted a Mäori EconomicSummit where over 150 people gathered to discuss issues and actions that government andMäori could take to address the recession amongst other things.Historically, recessions have had a disproportionately negative impact on Mäori compared tonon-Mäori largely because of Mäori concentrations in the labour market and industry sectors.In recent years Mäori have made significant gains in terms of skills and education. Significantnumbers of Mäori are in sectors particularly vulnerable to current international economicdevelopments, including the construction and manufacturing industries.These characteristics present risks for Mäori incomes and, consequently, Mäori housing. Mäoriare currently under-represented in home ownership statistics and there is a risk that therecession will further entrench this difference, reducing the intergenerational benefits of Mäorihome ownership.Increasing Mäori unemployment may encourage entry into further education or training.However, there is also the risk that if incomes decline significantly higher levels of educationand training may be considered too costly. Mäori assets are concentrated in the primary andsecondary sectors and thus exposed to global fluctuations. The value of Mäori assets is thereforeexpected to decline over the short term. Most Mäori businesses are concentrated in exportindustries such as fishing, forestry, agriculture and tourism sectors which are also exposed toglobal economic conditions.The Summit identified ideas to create jobs and grow the Mäori economy. Some other ideasincluded a more equitable distribution of funding for Mäori providers to deliver services tosupport whänau in need; greater collaboration amongst Mäori asset holders to achieve betterreturns; and a longer term focus on education and training to alleviate poverty.B. Mäori Economic TaskforceThe Mäori Economic Taskforce was established in March 2009 as a result of the Mäori EconomicSummit. The Taskforce is a key initiative for the enhancement of Mäori economic prosperity andcontributes to the work programme of the Prime Minister’s Jobs Summit.Mäori have made significant social and economic gains in recent years. More Mäori areemployed in a wider range of jobs and have better qualifications than just a decade ago.Mäori assets have increased in value and there are now more Mäori businesses engaged acrosssectors.On 28 January 2009, the Minister of Mäori Affairs held an Economic Summit to canvass ideasand potential initiatives to ensure Mäori could mitigate the effects of the economic downturnand position themselves to reap the benefits of economic recovery. The Mäori EconomicTaskforce was the brainchild of this workshop and supports the introduction and implementationof initiatives to enhance Mäori economic prosperity in the short-term and beyond the recession;as well as promote and utilise kaupapa Mäori and Mäori structures as drivers of prosperity.The Taskforce has a budget of $4.5 million per annum to research and implement initiatives.The Taskforce’s foundations are based on the following principles:38


1. Working together:• investing in Mäori;• with government and government working with Mäori; and• leveraging international networks.2. Enhancing education, training and skills:• by investing in training and skills for Mäori• with a focus on rangatahi.3. Fostering enterprise by:• supporting research and development;• reducing regulatory costs; and• enhancing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by focusing on increasing productivity.4. Growing existing resources:• using them more effectively; and• diversifying where possible.These principles guide the work being done to achieve the three main goals the Taskforce isworking towards.a) Support Mäori through the economic recession by promoting skills training and education,enhancing resilience in communities, and protecting or growing employment opportunities.b) Strategic economic development opportunities for Mäori beyond the immediate economicclimate by identifying areas where Mäori can lift their participation in the economy andunlock their potential to ensure that Mäori can take advantage of and be a driver foreconomic recovery and future growth.c) Promote and use kaupapa Mäori and Mäori structures as drivers of prosperity.Chaired by the Minister of Mäori Affairs, Hon Dr Pita Sharples, the Taskforce is also attended bythe Associate Minister of Mäori Affairs, the Hon Georgina Te Heuheu and Te Puni Kökiri ChiefExecutive, Mr Leith Comer.Mäori Economic Taskforce members were appointed for their experience in a wide range ofdisciplines and each leads progress in one of the following Taskforce workstreams:• June McCabe, Investment Capital and Enterprise• Bentham Ohia. Education, Training & Information Technology• Mark Solomon, Tribal Assets• Ngahiwi Tomoana, Primary Sector• Daphne Luke, Small and Medium Enterprises• Hon. John Tamihere, Social and Community (Resigned February 2010)• Rob McLeod, Economic Growth & Infrastructure (Resigned April 2010)C. Future demographic profileTo understand New Zealand’s economic future, it is necessary to first understand the country’sdemographic realities:Rapid growth of the Mäori population:39


• In 1951 there were just 134 000 Mäori who made up 6.9% of the national population.• In 2006 there were 565 300 or 14.6% - that’s one in seven New Zealanders.• Stats NZ is now predicting that in 2026 Mäori will make up some 17% of the population ataround 818 000.In 2006, the median age of Mäori men was 21 compared to 35 for other males whilst the medianage for Mäori women was 24 compared to 36 for other females.Mäori are younger and having more children. By 2050 there will be more Mäori and Pasifikastudents in schools than all other ethnic groups combined.Students• In 2008 there were 165,425 Mäori students who made up 22% of the national studentpopulation.• In the same year, there were 71,322 Pasifika students – 9.5% of all students.• Combined that’s 31.5% of the total student population.D. Mäori EnterpriseMäori Enterprise is a term that encompasses all commercial activities of Mäori. The MäoriFortune 50 (Net Assets) List, 55 which identifies the 50 largest collectively owned Mäoriorganisations or organisations operated for the benefit of Mäori, shows that the top 10organisations each has greater than $100m in net assets. The total asset base for MäoriEnterprise was reported by Te Puni Kökiri to be $16.5 billion in 2005/2006, an increase of $7.5billion or 83% since 2001. 56In 2005/2006:• 52% of Mäori commercial assets were estimated to be invested in primary industries(agriculture, forestry and fishing; and mining).• 8% in secondary industries (manufacturing, electricity gas and water; and construction).• 40% in the tertiary industries (wholesale and retail trade; accommodation; cafes andrestaurants; transport; storage and communication; finance and insurance; property andbusiness services; education; health and community services; cultural and recreationalservices; and, personal and other services). 57Appendix 2: Statements of Māori wellbeing and associatedKaupapa tuku iho55 Hui Taumata Taskforce, (2006) MäoriEconomic Data and Benchmarking p6656 Te Puni Kökiri, (2008) Te Pütake Rawa aNgä Mäori – The Mäori Asset Base p557 These figures do not include any capitalgrowth recorded by those Iwi who havereceived Iwi Treaty settlements.Kaitiakitanga – acting so as to preserve and maintain taonga; ensuring safety in all activities.1. Our natural resources are healthy and sustainable.2. Mäori hold into Rangatiratanga over taonga tuku iho.3. All marae have developed and implemented succession plans in governance, managementand operations.Rangatiratanga – exhibiting leadership by example; the ability to bind people together;following through on commitments.4. Whänau and hapü are knowledgeable and self sufficient.5. Iwi investments provide employment and enrichment for members.40


6. Kaumätua are involved and engaging in iwi/hapü decision making and learning.7. Governance groups are healthy, skilled, and provide strong kaupapa based guidance.8. Self determination is expressed within all social, business and professional environments.Whanaungatanga – recognising that our people are our wealth; knowing that you are not alone;and assuring others that nor are they alone.9. Mäori business networks in the area are well supported.10. Tautangata Mäori are supporting the tino rangatiratanga of the mana whenua.11. Tautangata Mäori are supported in the learning, sharing and expression of their ownindividual iwitanga.12. Tangata whenua from abroad are engaging with Aotearoa Mäori.Pükengatanga – teaching, preserving and creating knowledge as part of the Mätaurangacontinuum.13. All tamariki have access to whänau managed kura kaupapa education.14. Whakatupu Mätauranga is active and returning benefits to the community.15. Kaumätua contributions are sought after.16. Enrolment targets for Wänanga and other Mäori educational organisations are met.Manaakitanga – behaving in ways that elevate others; showing respect and considerationtoward others; generosity and fulfilling reciprocal obligations.17. Whänau are shaping and participating in Whänau wellbeing.18. Hosting events of regional and national significance for Mäori.19. Celebrating and supporting, voluntary activities.Kotahitanga – making decision and taking actions that lead to the unity of purpose and not todivision and disharmony.20. Relationships and communication between Mäori are strong.21. Consensus decision making is effective.22. Rangatahi are involved in education and community.23. Mäori are engaging productively with the wider community.Whakapapa – Ranginui, Papatüanuku and their children are here; our tüpuna are beside us; weare one with these as we carry out our role in the creation of our future; this is whakapapa.24. Take opportunities for teaching whakapapa.25. Hapü are regularly engaging to share and celebrate whakapapa connections with eachother, and with other iwi.26. Hui, including Hui-a-tau are well attended by members of whänau, hapü and iwi.Ükaipötanga – having a sense of importance, of belong and of being a contributor to your land,to your home, to your türangawaewae.27. Mäori influence community decision making.28. Marae are well supported.29. Marae express kaupapa tuku iho abundantly.30. Marae are the preferred choice for events.41


Te reo – this is the repository of all that we are as Mäori; ko Te reo te kaipupuri i te Mäoritanga.31. Take opportunities to learn/teach and use Te Reo.32. Language revitalization plans in the place with whänau, hapü and iwi.33. Bilingual signage on the marae and in the community.Wairuatanga – recognising that our relationship with other and with our environment (maunga,awa, moana, marae) is more than physical.34. Develop skills based on inherited knowledge (e.g. values, models of thinking, weaving,rongoa).35. Whänau and hapü provide spiritual support.36. Te Ao Mäori events are celebrated.42


Appendix 3: Worksheet for the growth and growth quality scorecalculationEnter your growth indicator name here 851 Whakapapa Growth quality scores1. Rangatahi regularly attend the marae. -1 R2. Family reunions are held regularly. 1 R3. Monitor hui-a-tau attendances. 1 G2 Pükengatanga1. People want to help on the marae, and with hapü/iwi activities. 0 R2. Encourage whänau to access health and social services. 1 G3 Whanaungatanga1. Communication streams are open with whänau abroad, or living away. 0 R2. Hui and noho are held with other indigenous groups. 1 R/G3. Newsletters and websites are distributed for whänau away from home. -1 R/G4 Ükaipötanga1. Business networks operate in the region. 1 R2. Monitor number of marae. 0 G3. Monitor enterprise numbers annually. -1 G5 Wairuatanga1. Develop skills in weaving, taiaha, speaking, singing, fishing, kaigathering, cooking.0 G2. Establish 2 minita a iwi per hapü. -1 R/G3. Matariki & other Mäori events are celebrated. 1 R/G6 Rangatiratanga1. Investment strategies provide employment and spiritual enrichment formembers.0 R/G2. Kaumätua are involved in iwi decision making and education. 1 R/G3. Encourage Mäori to occupy positions of community decision makingi.e. Councils, government.7 Kaitiakitanga-1 G1. Retirement strategies and succession planning are completed. 1 R2. Long term marae planning is held regularly. -1 R/G3. Protect our natural world. 0 R8 Kotahitanga1. A regional Mäori Wellbeing strategy in place (by Mäori). 1 R2. Regular interaction and communication occurs between businesses. -1 R3. Individual Hapü have relationships with Council and Crown agencies. 0 R9 Te Reo1. Language revitalisation plans are in place. 1 R2. Bilingual signage is on the marae. -1 R/G3. Develop numbers of whaikorero, kaikaranga and waiata. 0 G10 Manaakitanga1. People want to help on the marae, and with hapü/iwi activities. 1 R2. Encourage whänau to access health and social services. -1 G43


Total growth score 85Total growth quality score 2Genuine progress indicator growth score 87Potential GPI indicator growth score 113Appendix 4: Worksheet for the relationship and relationshipquality score calculationEnter your relationship indicator name here 11 Whakapapa Relationship quality score1. Rangatahi regularly attend the marae. -1 R2. Family reunions are held regularly. 1 R3. Monitor hui-a-tau attendances. 1 G2 Pükengatanga1. People want to help on the marae, and with hapü/iwi activities. 1 R2. Encourage whänau to access health and social services. 1 G3 Whanaungatanga1. Communication streams are open with whänau abroad, or living away. 0 R2. Hui and noho are held with other indigenous groups. 1 R/G3. Newsletters and websites are distributed for whänau away from home. -1 R/G4 Ükaipötanga1. Business networks operate in the region. 1 R2. Monitor number of marae. 0 G3. Monitor enterprise numbers annually. -1 G5 Wairuatanga1. Develop skills in weaving, taiaha, speaking, singing, fishing, kaigathering, cooking.1 G2. Establish 2 minita a iwi per hapü. -1 R/G3. Matariki & other Mäori events are celebrated. 1 R/G6 Rangatiratanga1. Investment strategies provide employment and spiritual enrichment formembers.1 R/G2. Kaumätua are involved in iwi decision making and education. 1 R/G3. Encourage Mäori to occupy positions of community decision makingi.e. Councils, government.7 Kaitiakitanga1 G1. Retirement strategies and succession planning are completed. 1 R2. Long term marae planning is held regularly. -1 R/G3. Protect our natural world. 0 R8 Kotahitanga1. A regional Mäori wellbeing strategy in place (by Mäori). 1 R2. Regular interaction and communication occurs between businesses. -1 R3. Individual hapü have relationships with council and crown agencies. 0 R44


9 Te Reo1. Language revitalisation are plans in place. 1 R2. Bilingual signage is on the marae. -1 R/G3. Develop numbers of whaikorero, kaikaranga and waiata. 0 G10 Manaakitanga1. People want to help on the marae, and with hapü/iwi activities. 1 R2. Encourage whänau to access health and social services. 1 GRelationship score 1Total relationship quality score 9Genuine progress indicator relationship score 10Potential GPI indicator relationship score 29Appendix 5: Table 7: Statements of Māori Wellbeing andassociated kaupapa tuku ihoMäori Community Wellbeing Indicators Education Iwi &SocialBusiness Kaumätua Huihuinga& OthersKaitiakitanga – acting so as to preserve and maintain taonga; ensuring safety in all activities.1. Our natural resources are healthyand sustainable.2. Mäori hold onto rangatiratanga overtaonga tuku iho.3. All marae have developed andimplemented succession plansin governance, management andoperations.Rangatiratanga – exhibiting leadership by example; the ability to bind people together; followingthrough on commitments.4. Whänau and Hapü areknowledgeable and self sufficient.5. Iwi investments provide employmentand enrichment for members.6. Kaumätua are involved andengaging in iwi/hapü decision makingand learning.7. Governance groups are healthy,skilled, and provide strong kaupapabased guidance.8. Self determination is expressedwithin all social, business andprofessional environments.45


Mäori Community Wellbeing Indicators Education Iwi &SocialBusiness Kaumätua Huihuinga& OthersWhanaungatanga – recognising that our people are our wealth; knowing that you are not alone; andassuring others that nor are they alone.9. Mäori business networks in the areaare well supported.10. Tautangata Mäori are supportingthe tino rangatiratanga of the manawhenua.11. Tautangata Mäori are supported inthe learning, sharing and expression oftheir own individual iwitanga.12. Tangata whenua from abroad areengaging with Aotearoa Mäori.Pükengatanga – teaching, preserving and creating knowledge as part of the Mätauranga continuum.13. All tamariki have access to whänaumanaged kura kaupapa education.14. Whakatupu Mätauranga isactive and returning benefits to thecommunity.15. Kaumätua contributions are soughtafter.16. Enrolment targets for Wänangaand other Mäori educationalorganisations are met.Manaakitanga – behaving in ways that elevate others; showing respect and consideration towardothers; generosity and fulfilling reciprocal obligations.17. Whänau are shaping andparticipating in Whänau Ora.18. Hosting events of regional andnational significance for Mäori.19. Celebrating and supporting,voluntary activities.Kotahitanga – making decision and taking actions that lead to the unity of purpose and not todivision and disharmony.20. Relationships and communicationbetween Mäori are strong.21. Consensus decision making iseffective.22. Rangatahi are involved ineducation and community.23. Mäori are engaging productivelywith the wider community.46


Mäori Community Wellbeing Indicators Education Iwi &SocialBusiness Kaumätua Huihuinga& OthersWhakapapa – Ranginui, Papatüanuku and their children are here; our tüpuna are beside us; we areone with these as we carry out our role in the creation of our future; this is whakapapa.24. Take opportunities for teachingwhakapapa.25. Hapü are regularly engagingto share and celebrate whakapapaconnections with each other, and withother iwi.26. Hui, including Hui-a-tau are wellattended by members of whänau, hapüand iwi.Ükaipötanga – having a sense of importance, of belong and of being a contributor to your land, toyour home, to your türangawaewae.27. Mäori influence communitydecision making.28. Marae are well supported.29. Marae express kaupapa tuku ihoabundantly.30. Marae are the preferred choice forevents.Te reo – this is the repository of all that we are as Mäori; ko Te reo te kaipupuri i te Mäoritanga.31. Take opportunities to learn/teachand use Te reo.32. Language revitalisation plans inthe place with whänau, hapü and iwi.33. Bilingual signage on the marae andin the community.Wairuatanga – recognising that our relationship with other and with our environment (maunga, awa,moana, marae) is more than physical.34. Develop skills based on inheritedknowledge (e.g. weaving, rongoa).35. Whänau and hapü provide spiritualsupport.36. Te Ao Mäori events are celebrated.47


Appendix 6(a): Te Aho Quarterly Report (August to October 2010)Te Aho Quarterly Report (July to October 2010)Horowhenua Kapiti Joint Economic Development Forum17 November 2010Te Aho continues to develop its reporting processes. The evolution continues with a new formatand inclusion of monitoring practices for Indicators of Wellbeing.KAUPAPATIKANGAManaakitanga - Behaving in ways that elevate others; showing respect and consideration;generosity and fulfilling reciprocal obligations.Te Aho distributed an invitation to Mäori and communityorganisations to come together to a half day free event offeringpractical advice on how to seek and make the most of fundingopportunities.The forum began with guest speakers and funding specialistsTe Aho Fit for Funding who spoke about the application processes and also shared theirSeminarknowledge and experiences. Many made most of the opportunity14, 18, 19, 26 58 to talk face to face with funding agencies and to network with thelocal NGO sector.Representatives from major funding organisations were availablefor advice –- including Lotteries, IRD, TG McCarthy Trust, PubCharity, JR McKenzie, Charities Commission and the Department ofInternal Affairs, TPK, Ministry of Social Development.Kotahitanga - Making decisions and taking actions that lead to unity of purpose and not to divisionand disharmony.National Mäori BusinessNetwork - Kötuitui4, 8, 9, 18, 19, 23, 26Ministerial Delegation toChina Led by Mäori AffairsMinister Dr Pita Sharples5, 8, 9, 12, 20, 21, 23Members of the Te Röpü Pakihi Committee attended the Kötuituiannual planning meeting in Wellington. Denis Grennell, Te RöpüPakihi executive is the Chair of the national association.Daphne Luke participated in the Minister Sharples Mäori businessdelegation to China. The group visited Beijing, Guizhou andShanghai. The purpose of the trip was to open up pathwaysfor trade and business to follow. Our interest also extended toexploring how the inherited values of Mäori and of the Chinese, canbe used to derive commercial returns.The 15 delegates represented the following sectors: fisheriesand aquaculture, farming and forestry, banking and propertydevelopment, tourism, culture and the creative industries,telecommunications, science, education, health and social services.During the week in China, the opportunity to visit R&D institutions,meet ethnic communities involved in tourism and farming ventures,and help bless and open the massive carved waharoa (gateway) atthe Baoshan Folk Arts Museum, which was gifted by New Zealandto the people of China.Those involved saw a great potential in developing export marketsthat work has continued since our return.58 The Wellbeing Indicator that this activitycontributes to - see Appendix I48


Kaitiakitanga - Acting so as to preserve and maintain taonga; ensuring safety in all activities.Local Governmentelections2, 10, 18, 23, 27Te Aho held a series of short hui in Waikanae, Ötaki, Levin andShannon to encourage Mäori onto the roll, and to promote theimportance of voting in the local elections. These hui weresupported by Mäori candidates who were standing for either of thetwo Councils.Ükaipotanga - Having a sense of importance, of belonging and of being a contribution to yourcommunity, your land, your türangawaewae.Mauri Manaaki Tangata-Mäori Tourism Strategy3, 4, 6, 12, 14, 18, 19, 20,23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30,31, 34, 35Fibre Optic BroadbandLoop3, 4, 5, 12, 20, 23Ongoing hui and collaboration with marae, hapü, iwi and whänaurepresentative is providing the encouragement to work togetherand assist each other for the RWC activities.Over the past three months we have been involved in providingsupport assistance and guidance in Marae project proposals, DIAfunding applications, identify tourism activities, preparing draftmarae tour itineraries and events, marae training opportunities,identify and collaborating with local tour operators and marketingopportunities.Marae participation has been confirmed and at a special Marae huiheld in September representatives from DIA, TPK and MSD were onhand to liaise and network with the cluster group.Te Wänanga o Raukawa has almost completed Stage 1 of a fibreoptic network in Ötaki connecting the library, schools, business,homes, iwi radio, marae, the Wänanga and farms. With 60% of theWänanga’s students being taught through Marae Based Studies,this service will enhance their capability to deliver online learning.Te Arahanga was the first business in Ötaki to connect to the ultrafast broadband service for telephones and internet provision.Te Wänanga has gone on to lead a national bid for the government’srural broadband initiative. This activity involves industry, a Chinesedebt funder and a consortium of Mäori investors.Te reo - Te reo is the repository of all that we are as Mäori; support, encourage and be respectful ofthe use of Te reo Mäori.Reo FM & Te Aho5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16, 15,19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,31, 32, 36ReoFM, the Raukawa radio station re-launched earlier this monthwith a new programme, new talent line up and a new frequency -now 88.7. Technical problems prevented the launch going live butit highlighted to those present (include government agencies) thechallenges that we face as one of the five unfunded Iwi stations inthe country.The new line-up includes a live breakfast show hosted by KimoWiniata with interviews and talkback, a hapori slot providescommunity services with an opportunity to promote their servicesand activities and a one hour slot called Raukawa reo provides for100% reo content.Te Aho has an hour on Thursday mornings and will use this timefor a reo Mäori course, interviews with forum members and others(perhaps the Mayors or Council members) organising activities thatcontribute to the objectives of the strategy. Kara Kearney is theproducer of the show ensuring that Te Aho leverages off the radiostation as a key component of the communications strategy.49


Whakapapa - Our tüpuna are beside us; we are one with them as we carry out our role in thecreation of our future.Te Whakahoutanga2, 3, 6, 7, 15, 17, 21, 25, 26,29, 34, 35, 36Whänau Ora - WhänauInteraction, Innovation,Engagement Fund3, 4, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 20,22, 23,24, 25, 28, 29, 30,31,32, 34, 35A group of kaumätua led by Matua Whatarangi Winiata, JusticeEddie Durie, Gabrielle Rikihana and others have formed to provideTe Runanga o Raukawa with strong governance and leadershipbased on Mäori models of behaviour.Te Aho will be promoting a new Whänau Ora fund beingadministered by Te Puni Kökiri to support whänau to develop andimplement Whänau development plans.These plans include training programmes or services to meet theobjectives of the whänau or developing and providing informationand resources for whänau. The regional spend will be open toWhänau Ora providers as well as non-government organisationsincluding iwi, hapü, rünanga, whänau trusts and marae committees.Wairuatanga - Recognising that our relationships with each other and with our environment is morethan physical.He Parakuihi Rangatira1, 2,8, 10, 23, 26, 27, 28, 33The Te Aho Chairman and different members of the Te Ahoforums or working parties meet quarterly for breakfast with thetwo Mayors. These frank and honest discussions promote goodrelations and increase our respective understandings of each other.We would like to take this opportunity to affirm our continuedsupport of both Jenny and Brendan as they both take on anotherterm.Whanaungatanga - Recognising that our people are our wealth; foster our relationships andconnections to one another.Te Ao Mäori mai iRangitikei ki Whitireia1,2, 8, 10, 20, 21, 23, 27Te Röpü Pakihi - PoolNight8, 9, 11,16, 18, 19, 20,22,23,24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 33, 34,35, 36Te Ao Mäori Working party completed its development of a tikangaMäori model for engagement between local government andiwi. At Whakarongotai Marae, the group presented their findingsand reported to members of the five Iwi located between Poriruaand Manawatu. A new working party was formed to continuediscussions with the local authorities around implementation of themodel. Te Aho representatives met with Liz Kelly, now Porirua CityCouncil Deputy Mayor to discuss the model. She was supportiveof the concept and Te Aho provided assistance with her campaignin terms of helping to develop strategy and build a team to supporther election.The network held its annual pool competition at the LevinCosmopolitan Club in July. This function always brings together agood number of members and this year was no different. The senseof camaraderie and friendly competition promotes the networkingof businesses and builds our understanding of each other’sactivities.50


Pükengatanga - Teaching, preserving and creating knowledge as part of mätauranga Mäori andother ways of knowing.Whänau Ora -Collaborative Whänau OraEOI2, 4 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 16,17, 20, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30,34, 35Te Äti Awa ki Whakarongotai, Ngäti Raukawa, and Muaüpoko,co-developed a kaupapa based model for the design and delivery ofWhänau Ora services based on the principle of Mäori Managementof Matters Mäori. The decision for the joint proposal for has beendeferred until next year however the Iwi groups have decided togo ahead with developing their structural arrangements, traintheir staff and re-engineer the delivery of their existing contractedservices in line with the principles of their Whänau CentredServices proposal. The Iwi group has decided to combine resourcesto employ a coordinator to further develop the proposal forgovernment consideration in the new year.The contributions of TeAho to the wellbeingof the Kapiti andHorowhenua communities2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,14,15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23,25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 35, 36As we round up our third year of operation, it has becomeincreasingly evident that we need to develop a means to measurethe contributions of Te Aho to the wellbeing of the Kapiti andHorowhenua communities.Linda Pene has begun planning a kaupapa based evaluation of thestrategy using the He Oranga Hapori model for Mäori wellbeing.This activity will produce the following outputs:a) Completion a case study on Te Aho; and the implementationarrangements of the strategy itself.b) Integrate the model for developing He Oranga Hapori (Mäoricommunity wellbeing) as a means of measuring Te Aho’s annualcontribution to the survival of Mäori as a people.c) Provide an analysis of that contribution with anyrecommendations for future implementation.This evaluation project will be completed in the next three monthsand reported upon in the first quarter of 2011.Rangatiratanga - Exhibiting the attributes of a rangatira, humility, generosity, setting of goodexamples, and diplomacy in binding people together to good and just causes.Emeritus ProfessorWhatarangi Winiatastands down as Presidentof the Mäori Party2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 20, 21, 22,23,24, 26,27, 30, 31, 34,35, 36Members of Te Röpü Pakihi and Te Aho supported the farewellspeech of founding president, Professor Whatarangi Winiata atOmahu Marae recently.A unifying force, Matua Whatarangi made his farewells after sevenyears in the job, his parting gift to the party was not only hispresident’s report but a special paper he had written titled “MäoriManagement of Tino Rangatiratanga.”A unifying force, Matua Whatarangi made his farewells after sevenyears in the job, his parting gift to the party was not only hispresident’s report but a special paper he had written titled “MäoriManagement of Tino Rangatiratanga.”Co leader Tariana Turia made the following comment “I mihi to theincredible leadership, the breadth of vision, the enduring wisdom ofMatua.”For us locally, it means that our rangatira is back amongstus providing his guidance and support to our efforts forrangatiratanga locally. His love and attention continues toinfluence our endeavours to maximise our own contributions forthe survival of people.51


Appendix 6(b): Statements of Māori Wellbeing and associatedkaupapa tuku iho with the [number] of activities thatprogresses each indicator that Te Aho has beeninvolved in (in the last quarter)Kaitiakitanga – acting so as to preserve and maintain taonga; ensuring safety in all activities.1. Our natural resources are healthy and sustainable [2].2. Mäori hold into rangatiratanga over taonga tuku iho [8].3. All marae have developed and implemented succession plans in governance, managementand operations [4].Rangatiratanga – exhibiting leadership by example; the ability to bind people together;following through on commitments.4. Whänau and hapü are knowledgeable and self sufficient [7].5. Iwi investments provide employment and enrichment for members [3].6. Kaumätua are involved and engaging in iwi/hapü decision making and learning [5].7. Governance groups are healthy, skilled, and provide strong kaupapa based guidance [1].8. Self-determination is expressed within all social, business and professional environments [9].Whanaungatanga – recognising that our people are our wealth; knowing that you are not alone;and assuring others that nor are they alone.9. Mäori business networks in the area are well supported [5].10. Tautangata Mäori are supporting the tino rangatiratanga of the mana whenua [5].11. Tautangata Mäori are supported in the learning, sharing and expression of their ownindividual iwitanga [5].12. Tangata whenua from abroad are engaging with Aotearoa Mäori [4].Pükengatanga – teaching, preserving and creating knowledge as part of the Mätaurangacontinuum.13. All tamariki have access to whänau managed kura kaupapa education [2].14. Whakatupu Mätauranga is active and returning benefits to the community [4].15. Kaumätua contributions are sought after [5].16. Enrolment targets for Wänanga and other Mäori educational organisations are met [4].Manaakitanga – behaving in ways that elevate others; showing respect and considerationtoward others; generosity and fulfilling reciprocal obligations.17. Whänau are shaping and participating in whänau wellbeing [4].18. Hosting events of regional and national significance for Mäori [5].19. Celebrating and supporting, voluntary activities [6].Kotahitanga – making decision and taking actions that lead to the unity of purpose and not todivision and disharmony.20. Relationships and communication between Mäori are strong [10].21. Consensus decision making is effective [5].22. Rangatahi are involved in education and community [5].52


23. Mäori are engaging productively with the wider community [13].Whakapapa – Ranginui, Papatüanuku and their children are here; our tüpuna are beside us; weare one with these as we carry out our role in the creation of our future; this is whakapapa.24. Take opportunities for teaching whakapapa [5].25. Hapü are regularly engaging to share and celebrate whakapapa connections with eachother, and with other iwi [6].26. Hui, including Hui-a-tau are well attended by members of whänau, hapü and iwi [9].Ükaipötanga – having a sense of importance, of belong and of being a contributor to your land,to your home, to your türangawaewae.27. Mäori influence community decision making [6].28. Marae are well supported [3].29. Marae express kaupapa tuku iho abundantly [5].30. Marae are the preferred choice for events [6].Te reo – this is the repository of all that we are as Mäori; ko te reo te kaipupuri I te Mäoritanga.31. Take opportunities to learn/teach and use Te Reo [5].32. Language revitalization plans in the place with whänau, hapü and iwi [2].33. Bilingual signage on the marae and in the community [2].Wairuatanga – recognising that our relationship with other and with our environment (maunga,awa, moana, marae) is more than physical.34. Develop skills based on inherited knowledge (values, models of thinking, weaving, rongoaetc) [6].35. Whänau and hapü provide spiritual support [7].36. Te Ao Mäori events are celebrated [5].Presented byKara KearneyJoint Economic ForumHorowhenua District Council Chambers17 November 2010Appendix 7: Te Aho community and arrangementsThe Kapiti Coast District Council and Horowhenua District Council have established a jointeconomic forum that is chaired by Mayor Brendan Duffy. This forum developed it’s CommunityPriorities and from these the Kapiti and Horowhenua Economic Development strategy thatidentified four key priorities including Apparel & Textile Manufacturing; Food Production &Processing; Tourism & Events and finally, Mäori Enterprise. Under the Mäori Enterprise prioritythe Ngä Pakihi Mäori o Kapiti Horowhenua Report on Mäori enterprise in the region wasprepared. One of the recommendations of that report was that a regional Mäori economicdevelopment strategy be prepared by Mäori in the area with the support of the joint forum. Theforum agreed and resourced Mäori contractors to bring together key Mäori groups engaged inMäori economic development activities to develop a strategy.53


Those groups included iwi and hapü representatives, industry sectors including landincorporations, enterprise, health and social service providers, educationalists, retailers,manufacturers, business services and others. Over the period of one day, the group worked toprepare a Mäori regional plan with a vision for a Mäori community with strong whänau, skilledindividuals and organisations, plentiful and healthy natural resources, supported by the widersociety; living within kaupapa and tikanga.The Te Aho community has grown to include our whänau, hapü, iwi, Mäori businesses, andbusiness associations, service providers, the Councils, government agencies, and a range offunders.It’s important to understand that Te Aho is not a legal entity – there is no bank account and noconstitution. It’s a collective, a strategy that moves across the whenua of five Iwi and territoriesof two district Councils. As projects are developed by the groups, one or more members willapply and receive funding for that project. As an example, the Mäori business network receivedthe funds for the coordinator’s salary from Enterprising Communities; the Mäori economicdevelopment agency received the marketing funds from Te Puni Kökiri; a PTE received thefunding for the development of the literacy and numeracy programme from TEC; and maraegenerally receive the funding for the kaumätua and rangatahi forums from Pub Charities etc.This is a strength of Te Aho; everyone makes a contribution, everyone benefits, and everyone isaccountable. In the expanded rohe Te Aho is now accountable to a population of 76,000 Mäori,with five iwi, 36 hapü and almost 700 Mäori businesses.Appendix 8: Potential for Manawatu groups to raise Māoricommunity wellbeingKAUPAPA & TIKANGAWhakapapa1. Programmes that help us tounderstand the values and experiencesof our tüpuna are available.2. Families live healthy lifestyles.3. Families maintain healthyrelationships with each other, withhapü, and with their marae.Whanaungatanga4. Kaumätua are actively engaged andcontributing positively to society.5. Mäori entrepreneurs and businessowners are supported.6. Police and MOJ personnel workwith whänau, hapü and iwi.7. Mäori students are supported intheir study.IWI/HAPÜRÖPÜ WITH POTENTIAL TO CONTRIBUTEPAKIHI HEALTH EDU. OTHER54


KAUPAPA & TIKANGAWairuatanga8. Mäori lead spiritual lives of mutualrespect.9. Whänau are growing, gathering andpreparing kai to sustain themselvesand members of their community.Kaitiakitanga10. Rangatahi are encouraged toparticipate productively in theircommunity.11. Mäori are aware and engaged inactivities that protect and nurture tetaiao.12. Whänau are maintaining andprotecting whakapapa.Te Reo13. Te Reo is a compulsory subject inall primary and secondary schools.14. Palmerston North adopts a policythat promotes bilingual signage.15. Numbers of te reo speakers arebeing developed.16. Kohanga reo, kura kaupapa andwänanga are being established.Ükaipotanga17. Marae are seen as preferred venuesfor events and functions by whänau.18. Marae are active and busy servingthe needs of their community.Manaakitanga19. Kaumätua are supported incontributions to whänau, hapü and iwi.20. Mäori businesses employ Mäori.21. Mäori are volunteering toencourage and support others in need.22. Community groups and serviceproviders are well resourced.IWI/HAPÜRÖPÜ WITH POTENTIAL TO CONTRIBUTEPAKIHI HEALTH EDU. OTHER55


KAUPAPA & TIKANGARangatiratanga23. Good role models are promoted torangatahi.24. Effective leadership isdemonstrated at whänau, hapü and iwilevel by kaumätua etc.25. Mäori are active and participatingin political affairs.Kotahitanga26. Whänau are engaging with othercultures.27. Iwi are involved and participatingpositively in the community.28. Iwi are working with each other.29. Te Tiriti is promoted in thecommunity and included in primaryand secondary curriculum.30. Mäori are skilled and engaged inthe workforce.31. Business support servicescontribute to the Mäori economy.32. The community shares collectiveresponsibility for welfare of tamariki.Pükengatanga33. Mäori culture is celebratedthrough events, functions andprogrammes.34. Kapa haka groups are growingtheir numbers and standards ofperformance.35. Kaumätua and others are ensuringthat tikanga and kawa are upheld onmarae and within the whänau andhapü.36. Kaupapa Mäori models aredeveloped and used in Mäoricommunities.37. Preservation of mätauranga Mäorithrough informal and formal wänanga.38. Financial literacy courses areavailable at all marae.39. Greater access to Mäorieducational institutions.40. Governance groups arecompetently fulfilling their roles.IWI/HAPÜRÖPÜ WITH POTENTIAL TO CONTRIBUTEPAKIHI HEALTH EDU. OTHER56


Appendix 9: Potential means to monitor and measure displaysof tikangaKAUPAPA & TIKANGAWhakapapa1. Programmes that help us to understand thevalues and experiences of our tüpuna are freelyavailable.MONITORIncreased programme enrolments.2. Families live healthy lifestyles. Decreased doctors visits/health care costs.3. Families maintain healthy relationships witheach other, with hapü, and with their marae.Whanaungatanga4. Kaumätua are actively engaged andcontributing positively to society.5. Mäori entrepreneurs and business owners aresupported.6. Police and Ministry of Justice personnelwork with whänau, hapü and iwi.Volunteer numbers/hours increase at marae andother events.Kaumätua Councils and forums are increasing innumber and in engagements.Increased numbers of Mäori businesses areengaged by business mentors and managementprogrammes.Mäori and whänau liaison officers areengagements with whänau are increasinglypreventive in nature rather than punitive.7. Mäori students are supported in their study. Increased completion/graduation numbers.Wairuatanga8. Mäori lead spiritual lives of mutual respect. Mäori mental health numbers decrease.9. Whänau are growing, gathering andpreparing kai to sustain themselves andmembers of their community.Kaitiakitanga10. Rangatahi are encouraged to participateproductively in their community.11. Mäori are aware and engaged in activitiesthat protect and nurture te taiao.12. Whänau are maintaining and protectingwhakapapa.Te Reo13. Te reo is a compulsory subject in all primaryand secondary schools.14. Palmerston North adopts a policy thatpromotes bilingual signage.15. Numbers of te reo speakers are beingdeveloped.16 Kohanga reo, kura kaupapa and wänanga arebeing established.Maara kai numbers are increasing.Opportunities for rangatahi engagementincrease.Natural habitats, native flora and faunaincrease in numbers and condition.Increased wänanga whakapapa are held byhapü and marae.Increased number of fluent speakers.Increased awareness of Mäori place namesthrough increased signage.Increased number of fluent speakers.Numbers of Mäori programmes.57


KAUPAPA & TIKANGAÜkaipotanga17. Marae are seen as preferred venues forevents and functions by whänau.18. Marae are active and busy serving the needsof their community.Manaakitanga19. Kaumätua are supported in contributions towhänau, hapü and iwi.MONITORIncreased marae bookings and revenues.Volunteer numbers increase.Kaumätua are visible in the community.20. Mäori businesses employ Mäori. Mäori unemployment numbers decrease.21. Mäori are volunteering to encourage andsupport others in need.22. Community groups and service providers arewell resourced.Rangatiratanga23. Good role models are promoted torangatahi.24. Effective leadership is demonstrated atwhänau, hapü and iwi level by kaumätua andothers.25. Mäori are developing strong sense ofidentity and self-confidence.26. Mäori are active and participating inpolitical affairs.KotahitangaVolunteer numbers are increasing.Providers have efficient and effectivepersonnel, programmes are relevant.Youth mentoring programmes are wellsupported.Whanau wellbeing is increasing.Marae attendances are increasing.Voter registrations and voting numbers increase.27. Whänau are engaging with other cultures. Bicultural events are organised.28. Iwi are involved and participating positivelyin the community.Iwi are visible and relevant in the community.29. Iwi are working with each other. Iwi relationships are positive and meaningful.30. Te Tiriti is promoted in the community andincluded in primary and secondary curriculum.31. Mäori are skilled and engaged in theworkforce.32. Business support services contribute to theMäori economy.33. The community shares collectiveresponsibility for welfare of tamariki.Pükengatanga34. Mäori culture is celebrated through events,functions and programmes.35. Kapa haka groups are growing theirnumbers and standards of performance.36. Kaumätua and others are ensuring thattikanga and kawa are upheld on marae andwithin the whänau and hapü.Increased awareness and discussions aroundTreaty issues.Mäori incomes rise.Increased numbers of business enterprises.Community programmes and arrangements aredeveloped.Increased numbers of events that are wellattended.Increased attendances, increased competition.Kaumätua Councils are well attended,Kaumätua are increasingly visible at marae.58


KAUPAPA & TIKANGA37. Kaupapa Mäori models are developed andused in Mäori communities.38. Preservation of mätauranga Mäori throughinformal and formal wänanga learning.39. Financial literacy courses are available atall marae.40 Greater access to Mäori educationalinstitutions.41. Governance groups are competentlyfulfilling their roles.MONITORExpressions of kaupapa are increased across theMäori community.Numbers of courses, attendances andcompletions increase.Whanau are increasingly taking control andresponsibility for their own financial affairs.TEO and TEI enrolment numbers increase.Kaupapa Mäori governance training isunderway.Appendix 10: Worksheet for the Te Papaioea StudyEnter your growth indicator name here 691 Whakapapa Growth quality scores1. Programmes that help us to understand the values and experiencesof our tüpuna are available.0 R/G2. Families live healthy lifestyles. 1 R3. Families maintain healthy relationships with each other, with hapü,and with their marae.1 R2 Pükengatanga4. Mäori culture is celebrated through events, functions and programmes. 0 G5. Kapa haka groups are growing their numbers and standards ofperformance.6. Kaumätua and others are ensuring that tikanga and kawa areupheld on marae and within the whänau and hapü.7. Kaupapa Mäori models are developed and used in Mäoricommunities.8. Preservation of mätauranga Mäori through informal and formalwänanga.-1 G0 R/G1 G1 G9. Financial literacy courses are available at all marae. 0 R/G10. Greater access to Mäori educational institutions. -1 G11. Governance groups are competently fulfilling their roles. -1 R3 Whanaungatanga12. Kaumätua are actively engaged and contributing positively to society. 1 R/G13. Mäori entrepreneurs and business owners are supported. -1 G14. Police and MOJ personnel work with whänau, hapü and iwi. 0 R/G15. Mäori students are supported in their study. 0 R/G4 Ükaipötanga16. Marae are seen as preferred venues for events and functions bywhänau.1 G59


17. Marae are active and busy serving the needs of their community. 0 G5 Wairuatanga18. Mäori lead spiritual lives of mutual respect. 0 R19. Whänau are growing, gathering and preparing kai to sustainthemselves and members of their community.1 G6 Rangatiratanga20. Good role models are promoted to rangatahi. 0 G21. Effective leadership is demonstrated at whänau, hapü and iwi levelby kaumätua etc.0 R/G22. Mäori are active and participating in political affairs. 1 G7 Kaitiakitanga23. Rangatahi are encouraged to participate productively in theircommunity.24. Mäori are aware and engaged in activities that protect andnurture te taiao.0 R/G0 R/G8 Kotahitanga25. Whänau are engaging with other cultures. 0 R26. Iwi are involved and participating positively in the community. -1 R27. Iwi are working with each other. -1 R/G28. Te Tiriti is promoted in the community and included in primary andsecondary curriculum.0 R29. Mäori are skilled and engaged in the workforce. 0 R/G30. Business support services contribute to the Mäori economy. -1 G31. The community shares collective responsibility for welfare oftamariki.-1 R9 Te Reo32. Te reo is a compulsory subject in all primary and secondary schools. 0 G33. Palmerston North adopts a policy that promotes bilingual signage. 0 G34. Numbers of Te Reo speakers are being developed. 1 G35. Kohanga reo, kura kaupapa and wänanga are being established. -1 G10 Manaakitanga36. Kaumätua are supported in contributions to whänau, hapü and iwi. 1 R/G37. Mäori businesses employ Mäori. 1 G38. Mäori are volunteering to encourage and support others in need. 0 R/G39. Community groups and service providers are well resourced. -1 GTotal growth score 69Total growth quality score 1Genuine progress indicator growth score 70Potential GPI indicator growth score 10860


Appendix 11: QuickStats About Manawatu DistrictTotal population• 28,254 people usually live in Manawatu District. This is an increase of 744 people, or 2.7percent, since the 2001 Census.• Its population ranks 41st in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• Manawatu District has 0.7 percent of New Zealand’s population.Population of Manawatu District and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 14,052 1,965,618Female 14,202 2,062,326Total 28,254 4,027,947Mäori ethnic population• 3,867 Mäori usually live in Manawatu District, an increase of 501 people, or 14.9 percent,since the 2001 Census.• Its Mäori population ranks 42nd in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• 0.7 percent of New Zealand’s Mäori population usually live in Manawatu District.Mäori Population of Manawatu District and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 1,956 274,860Female 1,911 290,469Total 3,867 565,329Note: The Mäori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mäori ethnic group. It includesthose people who stated Mäori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnicgroups.Number of dwellings counted• There are 10,515 occupied dwellings and 1,029 unoccupied dwellings in Manawatu District.• For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,273unoccupied dwellings.• There are 96 dwellings under construction in Manawatu District, compared with 13,557under construction throughout New Zealand.Local GovernmentRegional Council - Manawatu Regional CouncilTerritorial Authorities - Manawatu District61


Appendix 12: QuickStats About Palmerston North CityTotal population• 75,540 people usually live in Palmerston North City. This is an increase of 3,507 people, or4.9 percent, since the 2001 Census.• Its population ranks 12th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• Palmerston North City has 1.9 percent of New Zealand’s population.Population of Palmerston North City and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 36,345 1,965,621Female 39,192 2,062,326Total 75,543 4,027,947Mäori ethnic population• 11,316 Mäori usually live in Palmerston North City, an increase of 1,890 people, or 20.1percent, since the 2001 Census.• Its Mäori population ranks 17th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• 2.0 percent of New Zealand’s Mäori population usually live in Palmerston North City.Mäori Population of Palmerston North City and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 5,577 274,860Female 5,739 290,466Total 11,316 565,329Note: The Mäori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mäori ethnic group. It includesthose people who stated Mäori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnicgroups.Number of dwellings counted• There are 27,849 occupied dwellings and 1,662 unoccupied dwellings in Palmerston NorthCity.• For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,276unoccupied dwellings.• There are 189 dwellings under construction in Palmerston North City, compared with 13,560under construction throughout New Zealand.Local GovernmentRegional Council - Manawatu Regional CouncilTerritorial Authorities - Palmerston North City Council62


Appendix 13: QuickStats About Horowhenua DistrictTotal population• 29,865 people usually live in Horowhenua District. This is an increase of 42 people, or 0.1percent, since the 2001 Census.• Its population ranks 39th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• Horowhenua District has 0.7 percent of New Zealand’s population.Population of Horowhenua District and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 14,301 1,965,621Female 15,564 2,062,329Total 29,868 4,027,947Mäori ethnic population• 6,078 Mäori usually live in Horowhenua District, an increase of 282 people, or 4.9 percent,since the 2001 Census.• Its Mäori population ranks 30th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• 1.1 percent of New Zealand’s Mäori population usually live in Horowhenua District.Mäori Population of Horowhenua District and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 2,910 274,860Female 3,165 290,469Total 6,075 565,329Note: The Mäori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mäori ethnic group. It includesthose people who stated Mäori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnicgroups.Number of dwellings counted• There are 12,027 occupied dwellings and 2,181 unoccupied dwellings in HorowhenuaDistrict.• For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,273unoccupied dwellings.• There are 111 dwellings under construction in Horowhenua District, compared with 13,557under construction throughout New Zealand.Local GovernmentRegional Council - Manawatu Regional CouncilTerritorial Authorities - Horowhenua District Council63


Appendix 14: QuickStats About Kapiti Coast DistrictTotal population• 46,200 people usually live in Kapiti Coast District. This is an increase of 3,753 people, or 8.8percent, since the 2001 Census.• Its population ranks 22nd in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• Kapiti Coast District has 1.1 percent of New Zealand’s population.Population of Kapiti Coast District and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 21,486 1,965,618Female 24,711 2,062,329Total 46,197 4,027,947Mäori ethnic population• 5,481 Mäori usually live in Kapiti Coast District, an increase of 624 people, or 12.8 percent,since the 2001 Census.• Its Mäori population ranks 31st in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• 1.0 percent of New Zealand’s Mäori population usually live in Kapiti Coast District.Mäori Population of Kapiti Coast District and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 2,562 274,860Female 2,916 290,469Total 5,478 565,326Note: The Mäori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mäori ethnic group. It includesthose people who stated Mäori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnicgroups.Number of dwellings counted• There are 19,368 occupied dwellings and 3,048 unoccupied dwellings in Kapiti CoastDistrict.• For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,276unoccupied dwellings.• There are 168 dwellings under construction in Kapiti Coast District, compared with 13,560under construction throughout New Zealand.Local GovernmentRegional Council - Wellington Regional CouncilTerritorial Authorities - Kapiti Coast District Council64


Appendix 15: QuickStats About Porirua CityTotal population• 48,546 people usually live in Porirua City. This is an increase of 1,179 people, or 2.5 percent,since the 2001 Census.• Its population ranks 21st in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• Porirua City has 1.2 percent of New Zealand’s population.Population of Porirua City and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 23,634 1,965,618Female 24,912 2,062,329Total 48,546 4,027,947Mäori ethnic population• 9,642 Mäori usually live in Porirua City, an increase of 261 people, or 2.8 percent, since the2001 Census.• Its Mäori population ranks 20th in size out of the 73 districts in New Zealand.• 1.7 percent of New Zealand’s Mäori population usually live in Porirua City.Mäori Population of Porirua City and New Zealand, 2006 CensusRegion/City/DistrictNew ZealandMale 4,539 274,860Female 5,106 290,469Total 9,645 565,329Note: The Mäori ethnic population is the count for people of the Mäori ethnic group. It includesthose people who stated Mäori as being either their sole ethnic group or one of several ethnicgroups.Number of dwellings counted• There are 15,564 occupied dwellings and 804 unoccupied dwellings in Porirua City.• For New Zealand as a whole, there are 1,478,709 occupied dwellings and 159,276unoccupied dwellings.• There are 108 dwellings under construction in Porirua City, compared with 13,560 underconstruction throughout New Zealand.Local GovernmentRegional Council - Wellington Regional CouncilTerritorial Authorities - Porirua City Council65


He Oranga Hapori: GlossaryGDPGPIHapüHe käkano i ruia mai i RangiäteaHe Oranga HaporiHorowhenuaHuihui-a-tauIwiKaikarangakai moanaKaitiakitangaKaitiakitanga SurveyKapitiKaupapakaupapa tuku ihokäwanatangaKaumätuaKaunihera Kaumätuaköhanga reoKotahitangaKurakura kaupapaMära KaiManaManaakitangaMana a iwi / mana a röpümana enhancingGross Domestic ProductGenuine Progress Indicatora cluster of familiesan individual of Mäori descentcommunity wellbeingdistrict south of Manawatumeetingannual meetinga cluster of hapücallerseafoodGuardianship/StewardshipGuardianship surveydistrict north of Poriruavalueinherited valuegovernorshipeldersCouncil of Elderslanguage nestunity and common purposeschoolkura kaupapa Mäori - Mäori medium schoolcommunity gardenthe regard that others hold based on how one manages oneselfand one's affairsgenerosity and reciprocitythe regard that others hold based on how an iwi or röpümanages its affairsbehaviours that increase the mana of the recipient and thoseperforming the activity66


Mäori wellbeinga Mäori state of being that is characterised by the abundantexpression of kaupapa tuku ihoMäori worldview the beliefs and practices that tüpuna Mäori developed in the 800-1000 years leading up to the 1600s and have since maintainedMaraeMatarikiMätauranga Mäori continuummau räkaumöteateaMuaupokoNgäti ToarangatiraNgäti TukoreheNgäti Raukawa ki te tongaNohoPakihi MäoriPükengatangaRangitäneRangatiratangaRingaweraRongoaröpü mätaurangaröpü tautokoröpü tuku ihotakiwätaongataonga tuku ihotaiahataura heretauiwiMäori meeting placeboth the name of the Pleiades star cluster and also of theseason of its first rising in late May or early Juneaccumulated Mäori knowledge baseMäori martial artschantan Iwi of the Kurahaupo wakaan Iwi of the Tainui wakaan Iwi of the Tainui wakan Iwi of the Tainui wakasit or overnight stayMäori businessAbility and educationan Iwi of the Kurahauposovereignty and self determinationcooks and kitchen handsmedicineeducation groupupport groupinherited groupregionthat which we value highlythat which our tüpuna valued and passed onto usspeara grouping of Mäori who have their main affiliation to iwi inareas other than where they residenon Mäori67


tautangata Mäoritangata whenuaTe AhoTe Ao MäoriMäori person with their affiliation to iwi in areas other thanwhere they residepeople of the landa Mäori strategy for regional development within the Whitireiato Rangitikei River boundariesthe Mäori worldTe Whare Wänanga o AtaarangiTe Ati Awa ki WhakarongotaiTe HuihuingaTe Mana WhakahaereTe PapaioeaTe ReoTe Tiriti o WaitangiTe Wänanga o AotearoaTe Wänanga o RaukawaTikangatino rangatiratangaTürangawaewaetüpuna MäoriÜkaipötangaWaiatawairuatangawänanga whakapapawhaikörerowhakapapawhakatupu mätaurangawhänauwhanaungatangawhanaungaAn Iwi of the Tokomaru wakathe gatheringthe governing body of Te Wänanga o RaukawaPalmerston Norththe languageTreaty of WaitangiMäori Tertiary Education Institution with multiple campusesand coursesa Mäori centre of learning based in Ötaki delivering14 undergraduate and eight postgraduate programmescustomsabsolute sovereigntyplace of standingMäori ancestorswhere one's contributions are valued and where there is asense of belongingsongspiritualitygenealogyformal speechgenealogyknowledge developedfamily (extended)relationships and interconnectednessrelation68


Contact the TaskforceChair of the Mäori Economic Taskforce: The Hon Dr Pita R Sharples, Minister of Mäori AffairsTaskforce Secretariat: Carol BerghanPostal Address: PO Box 18041, Parliament Building, Wellington 6160Address: Level 7, Bowen House, WellingtonContact: Phone : 04 817 9800 | Fax : 04 817 6525 | Email : met@tpk.govt.nz | Web : www.tpk.govt.nz

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