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ISSN 1862-5258<br />

May / June<br />

03 | <strong>2018</strong><br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 13<br />

Basics<br />

Castor Oil | 52<br />

Highlights<br />

Injection Moulding | 14<br />

Additives/Masterbatches | 18<br />

Cover Story:<br />

Netherlands to prohibit<br />

Oxo-degradables | 9<br />

... is read in 92 countries


Resins<br />

THE BIOPLASTIC<br />

SPECIALIST OFFERS:<br />

Elaborated product portfolio<br />

Technical support<br />

Marketing advice<br />

Tailor-made formulations<br />

PLA Blends<br />

Green PE Compounds<br />

Cellulose Compounds<br />

Bio-PA Compounds<br />

Bio-TPE Compounds<br />

Natural Fibre Compounds


Editorial<br />

dear<br />

readers<br />

Towards the end of May, most of us were absolutely swamped with e-mails asking<br />

us to re-subscribe or to confirm some subscription or the other - but mostly<br />

newsletters. And we apologize for being part of this annoying hassle. The reason<br />

is the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that came into force<br />

on May 25. So we’d like to take the opportunity here again to ask all who haven’t<br />

done so already to (re-) register for our free bi-weekly e-mail-newsletter and<br />

info-mailings about our events or other related products or services. We will use<br />

nothing but your e-mail address. And only for the aforementioned purposes. No<br />

third party will ever have access to your data.<br />

Here is the link tinyurl.com/bio-newsletter<br />

The soccer referee on our cover photo is Patrick Gerritsen, founder and CEO<br />

of Bio4pack (www.bio4pack.com). From 2003-2009, he was an official FIFA<br />

referee, presiding over 60 international matches, next to acting as match official<br />

in the “Koninklijke Nederlandse Voetbal Bond” (Dutch professional soccer<br />

league) from 1997 to 2015. The cover relates to the news on page 9, which, it<br />

should be noted, was also was the most clicked-on item in our daily online<br />

news on our website, namely ”The Netherlands looking to ban oxo-degradable<br />

plastics”.<br />

Other highlight topics of this issue are Injection moulding and Additives /<br />

Masterbatches. In the Basics section we have a closer look at Castor oil.<br />

The next event we’d like to bring to your attention is the new 1 st PHA platform World<br />

Congress in Cologne, Germany on the 4 th and 5 th of September.<br />

Plus: the call for proposals for the <strong>2018</strong> edition of the Global Bioplastics Award is also<br />

open (cf. p. 41). So if you think your product or service from the world of biobased plastics<br />

deserves the award, or you’d like to nominate somebody else’s, just let us know.<br />

And please don’t forget: for current news, be sure to check the latest reports, breaking<br />

news and daily news updates at www.bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />

WWW.MATERBI.COM<br />

adv mela se tore_bioplasticmagazine_05.06.2017_210x297_ese.indd 1 05/05/17 11:39<br />

r1_05.2017<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 13<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Basics<br />

Castor Oil | 49<br />

Highlights<br />

Injection Moulding | 14<br />

Additives/Masterbatches | 18<br />

May / June<br />

Cover Story:<br />

Netherlands to prohibit<br />

Oxo-degradables | 9<br />

03 | <strong>2018</strong><br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

We hope you enjoy reading bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

Sincerely yours<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

In this issue we have a closer look to India. India, also called the Republic of<br />

India. is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the<br />

second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most<br />

populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the<br />

south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast<br />

(Wikipedia).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 3


Content<br />

Imprint<br />

May / June 03|<strong>2018</strong><br />

3 Editorial<br />

5 News<br />

9 Cover Story<br />

10 Events<br />

26 Application News<br />

45 Material News<br />

48 Brand Owner<br />

49 Basics<br />

51 10 years ago<br />

58 Suppliers Guide<br />

61 Event Calendar<br />

62 Companies in this issue<br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr. Michael Thielen (MT)<br />

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Samsales (German language)<br />

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467<br />

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468<br />

s.brangenberg@samsales.de<br />

Michael Thielen (English Language)<br />

(see head office)<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Kerstin Neumeister<br />

Print<br />

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.<br />

1004 Riga, Latvia<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

Print run: 3.300 copies<br />

Injection Moulding<br />

14 Dimensional stability of injection<br />

moulded bioplastics<br />

16 Injection moulded NFC<br />

Additives / Masterbatches<br />

18 Biobased masterbatches for PLA,<br />

PBS and biobased blends<br />

20 Biobased additives<br />

21 Renewable, sustainable mineral<br />

22 Bio-Masterbatches with ecofriendly,<br />

mineral pigments<br />

23 Biobased wax additives<br />

From Science & Research<br />

28 PHBV from waste water<br />

30 Breaking barrier for clean &<br />

green BioPolyols<br />

34 Biobased filler for SMC<br />

38 Astroplastic<br />

Report<br />

28 Spanish project will develop customized<br />

materials<br />

46 The journey of bioplastics in the Indian<br />

subcontinent<br />

INDIA<br />

32 Compostable sanitary napkins for<br />

India’s girls and women<br />

Materials<br />

37 Sun protection cosmetics<br />

40 Thermoplastic Starch<br />

Trade shows<br />

24 Chinaplas-Review<br />

42 NPE-Review<br />

bioplastics magazine<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bM is published 6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified subscribers<br />

(169 Euro for 6 issues).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in<br />

92 countries.<br />

Every effort is made to verify all Information<br />

published, but Polymedia Publisher<br />

cannot accept responsibility for any errors<br />

or omissions or for any losses that may<br />

arise as a result.<br />

All articles appearing in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, or on the website<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com are strictly<br />

covered by copyright. No part of this<br />

publication may be reproduced, copied,<br />

scanned, photographed and/or stored<br />

in any form, including electronic format,<br />

without the prior consent of the publisher.<br />

Opinions expressed in articles do not<br />

necessarily reflect those of Polymedia<br />

Publisher.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions<br />

for publication. Submissions are<br />

accepted on the basis of full assignment<br />

of copyright to Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

unless otherwise agreed in advance and in<br />

writing. We reserve the right to edit items<br />

for reasons of space, clarity or legality.<br />

Please contact the editorial office via<br />

mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

The fact that product names may not be<br />

identified in our editorial as trade marks<br />

is not an indication that such names are<br />

not registered trade marks.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

spelling. However, in articles based on<br />

information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Envelopes<br />

A part of this print run is mailed to the<br />

readers wrapped in bioplastic envelopes<br />

sponsored by Plastiroll Oy, Finland.<br />

Cover<br />

Photo: Jan Ligtenberg<br />

Follow us on twitter:<br />

http://twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Like us on Facebook:<br />

https://www.facebook.com/bioplasticsmagazine


daily upated news at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

News<br />

Packaging related properties of biopolymers<br />

Because of the multitude of biopolymers on the market it<br />

is often difficult to gain an overview about their packaging<br />

related properties. For this reason, Verena Jost from<br />

the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and<br />

Packaging IVV (Freising, Germany) extruded and analysed<br />

various commercially available biopolymers. The oxygen<br />

and water vapour barrier, crystallinity, tensile strength,<br />

elongation at break and Young’s modulus of PLA, PHAs,<br />

PHB, PHBHB, PHBV, TPS, PBAT, PBS, PCL and BioPE<br />

were analysed. The results show the broad range of<br />

mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymer films<br />

that can be achieved by currently available grades. From<br />

the functional point of view, the commodity polymers<br />

PE and PP can be well complemented by the analysed<br />

biopolymers. MT<br />

Young‘s modulus YM [GPa]<br />

5 —<br />

—<br />

4<br />

—<br />

3 —<br />

—<br />

2 —<br />

—<br />

1 —<br />

BioPE PP-HD<br />

PBAT+PLA+filler<br />

—<br />

PLC<br />

PBAT+PLA<br />

PP-LD PBAT<br />

PBS TPS<br />

TPU<br />

0 —<br />

0 20 40 60 200 250<br />

Tensile strength σ [MPa]<br />

—<br />

—<br />

PHB<br />

—<br />

PHBV11<br />

PHBV7<br />

—<br />

PHBV3<br />

—<br />

PHBHB18<br />

PP<br />

PHBHB10+PLA+filler<br />

PHBHB13<br />

—<br />

—<br />

PLA<br />

—<br />

PET-BO<br />

—<br />

—<br />

Info:<br />

1: The complete report can be downloaded from<br />

tinyurl.com/bm<strong>2018</strong>03<br />

www.ivv.fraunhofer.de<br />

Picks & clicks<br />

Most frequently clicked news<br />

Magnetic<br />

for Plastics<br />

www.plasticker.com<br />

Here’s a look at our most popular online content of the past two<br />

months. The story that got the most clicks from the visitors to<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com was:<br />

The Netherlands looking to ban oxo-degradable plastics<br />

(29 Mar <strong>2018</strong>)<br />

After France and Spain implemented actions in 2017 to limit the production,<br />

distribution, sale, provision and utilization of packaging or bags made<br />

from oxo-degradable plastics – conventional plastics that falsely claim<br />

to biodegrade – the Netherlands now, too, has announced plans for a<br />

complete ban of oxo-degradable plastics.<br />

See also our Cover-Story on page 9<br />

• International Trade<br />

in Raw Materials, Machinery & Products Free of Charge.<br />

• Daily News<br />

from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets.<br />

• Current Market Prices<br />

for Plastics.<br />

• Buyer’s Guide<br />

for Plastics & Additives, Machinery & Equipment, Subcontractors<br />

and Services.<br />

• Job Market<br />

for Specialists and Executive Staff in the Plastics Industry.<br />

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 5


News<br />

daily upated news at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Camphor as viable alternative to castor oil for<br />

production bio-PA?<br />

Within the scope of the Camphor-based polymers<br />

international research project, the Fraunhofer Institute IGB<br />

will, in the coming year, research sustainable production<br />

processes for biobased monomers.<br />

The Camphor-based polymers<br />

project, a collaborative effort between<br />

the IGB branch Bio, Electro and<br />

Chemocatalysis BioCat in Straubing,<br />

Germany and research and industry<br />

partners, aims to develop technology<br />

that will make it possible to use residual<br />

materials from pulp production for the<br />

manufacture of plastics.<br />

Castor (ricinus) oil is one biobased<br />

alternative to crude oil as a starting material for the production<br />

of polyamides; however, it has some disadvantages: processing<br />

is complex and several synthesis steps are required to convert<br />

castor oil into monomers.<br />

BioCat and its project partners are investigating the use of<br />

terpene camphor for the production of biobased monomers<br />

for polyamides and polyesters. Moreover, in contrast to castor<br />

oil production, both the extraction and processing of camphor<br />

is unproblematic. The terpene is produced in large quantities<br />

in China from by-products of the pulp industry and is therefore<br />

not only a sustainable raw material, but also readily available.<br />

In addition, only a single synthesis step is required to produce<br />

the targeted biomonomers.<br />

As part of the Camphor-based polymers project, BioCat and<br />

its partners are working on an efficient biocatalytic process for<br />

the selective functionalization of the camphor into biobased<br />

monomers.<br />

“The ultimate goal of our project is<br />

the sustainable production of biobased<br />

polymers, which ranges from the use of<br />

natural terpenes from the Chinese pulp<br />

industry to the production of polymeric<br />

materials in Germany,” said IGB scientist<br />

Dr. Michael Hofer, who heads the project<br />

at BioCat.<br />

In order to achieve this goal and to<br />

map out the entire value-added chain,<br />

Hofer and his team are working together<br />

with scientific and industrial project partners from China and<br />

Germany. Worldwide, pulp-based camphor production currently<br />

amounts to 17 000 tonnes per year, mainly produced by just five<br />

Chinese pulp manufacturers. One of these was enlisted as an<br />

industrial partner for the project “Camphor-based polymers”.<br />

The potential for global camphor production based on pulp is<br />

estimated by the project partners to be 100 000 tonnes.<br />

The project, which was launched in January <strong>2018</strong>, is<br />

scheduled to run until December 2020 and is coordinated by the<br />

Chair of Chemistry of Biogenic Raw Materials at the Technical<br />

University of Munich. The Federal Ministry of Education and<br />

Research is funding the project as part of the “Bioeconomy<br />

international” program. MT<br />

https://is.gd/PDuoR7 (Fraunhofer IGB)<br />

DuPont & Archer Daniels Midland open<br />

biobased pilot facility<br />

End of April <strong>2018</strong>, DuPont Industrial Biosciences (DuPont) and Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) announced the<br />

opening of the world’s first biobased furan dicarboxylic methyl ester (FDME) pilot production facility in Decatur, Illinois. The<br />

plant is the centerpiece of a long-standing collaboration that will help bring a greater variety of sustainably sourced biomaterials<br />

into the lives of consumers.<br />

FDME is a molecule derived from fructose that can be used to create a variety of biobased chemicals and materials, including<br />

plastics, that are ultimately more cost-effective, efficient and sustainable than their<br />

fossil fuel-based counterparts.<br />

One of the first FDME-based polymers under development by DuPont is<br />

polytrimethylene furandicarboxyate (PTF), a novel polyester also made from DuPont’s<br />

proprietary Bio-PDO (1,3-propanediol). PTF is a 100 % renewable polymer that, in<br />

bottling applications, can be used to create plastic bottles that are lighter-weight,<br />

more sustainable and better performing.<br />

Research shows that PTF has up to 10-15 times the CO2 barrier performance of<br />

traditional PET plastic, which results in a longer shelf life. With that better barrier,<br />

companies will be able to design significantly lighter-weight packages, lowering the<br />

carbon emissions and significant costs related with shipping carbonated beverages. MT<br />

www.biosciences.dupont.com<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


News<br />

BioAmber announces<br />

filing for stay of proceedings<br />

on creditors<br />

BioAmber Inc. announced on May 4th, that it filed a<br />

voluntary petition for relief under chapter 11 of the United<br />

States Bankruptcy Code<br />

Its two Canadian subsidiaries, BioAmber Sarnia Inc. and<br />

BioAmber Canada Inc., filed a Notice of Intention (the "NOI")<br />

to make a proposal under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act<br />

(Canada), with a view to strengthening the company’s financial<br />

health and solidifying its long-term business prospects.<br />

BioAmber believes filing these procedures is the best way<br />

to protect all stakeholders and will best facilitate its efforts to<br />

renegotiate its debt and raise the funds needed to continue<br />

its operations. The filing of these procedures has the effect of<br />

imposing an automatic stay of proceedings that will protect<br />

the company, its Canadian subsidiaries and their assets<br />

from the claims of creditors while the company pursues its<br />

restructuring efforts.<br />

There can be no guarantee that the company will be<br />

successful in securing further financing or achieving its<br />

restructuring objectives. Failure by the company to achieve<br />

its financing and restructuring goals will likely result in<br />

the company and/or its subsidiaries being forced to cease<br />

operations and liquidate its assets<br />

Pursuant to the NOI filing, PricewaterhouseCoopers Inc. has<br />

been appointed as the trustee in the proposal proceedings. MT<br />

www.bio-amber.com<br />

Symphony<br />

Environmental moves<br />

into the bioplastic<br />

sector<br />

Symphony Environmental Technologies has signed<br />

a collaboration agreement and commitment to a<br />

strategic investment with French biotechnology start<br />

up, Eranova.<br />

bEranova has developed a technology which extracts<br />

starch from algae which can be used to produce a range<br />

of compostable and biodegradable bioplastics. Other<br />

applications include biofuel, biopolymers, proteins for<br />

food and animal feed stock, and by-products for the<br />

pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.<br />

The key benefits of the technology, said Symphony,<br />

are, among other things, the fact that a natural,<br />

renewable waste product which pollutes beaches can<br />

now be put to good use; also, algae are a non-foodbased<br />

resource, which do not impact the food industry,<br />

in addition to providing higher yields per hectare due to<br />

the fast growing rate of algae.<br />

The agreement marks Symphony’s first move into<br />

the bioplastics sector. The UK-based company is a<br />

producer of a wide range of polymer masterbatches and<br />

additives, including oxo-degradable and anti-microbial<br />

technologies.MT<br />

www.symphonyenvironmental.com<br />

Full stereocomplex PLA technology now<br />

commercially available from Total Corbion PLA<br />

Total Corbion PLA, Gorinchem,The Netherlands, recently<br />

announces the launch of a novel technology that can create full<br />

stereocomplex PLA in a broad range of industrial applications.<br />

The proprietary technology will enable PLA applications able<br />

to withstand temperatures close to 200°C (HDT-A).<br />

The new technology enables stereocomplex PLA – a<br />

material with long, regularly interlocking polymer chains that<br />

enable an even higher heat resistance than standard PLA.<br />

This breakthrough in PLA temperature resistance unlocks<br />

a range of new application possibilities, and provides a<br />

biobased replacement for PBT and PA glass fiber reinforced<br />

products. For example, injection molded applications for<br />

under-the-hood automotive components can now be made<br />

from glass fiber reinforced stereocomplex PLA, offering both<br />

a higher biobased content and a reduced carbon footprint.<br />

The technology can offer these same sustainability benefits to<br />

the wider automotive, aerospace, electronics,home appliance,<br />

marine and construction industries.<br />

“Over the past decades, the benefits of full stereocomplex<br />

PLA have been studied by universities and R&D departments<br />

on a laboratory scale”, says Stefan Barot, Senior Business<br />

Director Asia Pacific. “Now, Total Corbion PLA is the first<br />

company to scale up this technology and make it available<br />

for a broad range of industrial applications. The technology<br />

enables full stereocomplex morphology not only in the lab<br />

environment but also in commercial production facilities”.<br />

Commercial samples of full stereocomplex PLA will soon<br />

be made available for customer evaluation. Total Corbion PLA<br />

is looking for brand owners, converters and compounders<br />

that wish to validate and capitalize on this new technology. MT<br />

www.total-corbion.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 7


Richard Altice named<br />

new president and CEO of NatureWorks<br />

NatureWorks’ board of directors has named Richard<br />

Altice as the company’s new President and Chief Executive<br />

Officer, replacing Marc Verbruggen, who led the company<br />

from 2008 to his retirement in 2017.<br />

Altice comes to NatureWorks from PolyOne Corporation<br />

where he was Senior Vice President and President –<br />

Designed Structures and Solutions. At PolyOne, he had<br />

global responsibility for the sheet, roll stock, and<br />

formed packaging business. Prior to PolyOne,<br />

Altice also served as Vice President of Hexion’s<br />

global specialty epoxy business focused on<br />

coatings and composites. Altice holds a Bachelor<br />

of Science degree in Chemical Engineering from<br />

Missouri University of Science and Technology.<br />

“We are pleased to welcome Rich as<br />

NatureWorks’ CEO. Rich is an exemplary leader.<br />

He brings broad experience and demonstrated<br />

success in international business, strategic<br />

marketing, and building highly effective teams<br />

to serve customers in the polymer and chemical<br />

industry,” said Peter Hawthorne, Chairman of the Board. “We<br />

believe Rich’s leadership will advance market development<br />

and the adoption of NatureWorks’ performance materials in<br />

new applications.”<br />

“Through my prior work experience, I became familiar<br />

with NatureWorks and thought very highly of the company<br />

and its products,” said Altice. In a personal meeting with<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Rich added: ”I’m excited about the time<br />

in which I have joined NatureWorks, seeing an enormous<br />

amount of efforts by very dedicated, long-term employees in<br />

this company. I think they have really created NatureWorks<br />

culture, the company’s leadership, and the market interest<br />

in renewably sourced advanced polymers and chemicals.<br />

This all presents an exciting opportunity”.<br />

NatureWorks was the first company to offer commercially<br />

available low-carbon-footprint bioplastics derived<br />

from 100 % annually renewable resources. Recently,<br />

NatureWorks reached the milestone of 900,000 tonnes<br />

(2 bn pounds) of Ingeo biopolymer sold globally via its<br />

comprehensive portfolio of 33 grades, which<br />

are converted into thousands of consumer<br />

and industrial products. In 2017, the company<br />

launched a performance chemicals business<br />

with the new Vercet platform for adhesives<br />

and coatings. Along with its customers<br />

and supply chain partners, NatureWorks<br />

continues to introduce new, innovative Ingeobased<br />

applications across a spectrum of<br />

industries, including expanded offerings<br />

for 3D printing filaments, a first-of-itskind<br />

liner to increase the energy efficiency<br />

of refrigerators (cf. p. 45), and hydrophilic<br />

nonwovens for absorbent hygiene products. With leading<br />

coffee companies, NatureWorks is developing a new<br />

generation of high performance compostable capsules for<br />

single-serve coffee makers.<br />

These applications and more will be discussed at<br />

Innovation Takes Root, the international forum on advanced<br />

biomaterials, this September in San Diego, California.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE will then do a more comprehensive<br />

interview with Richard Altice, who is married, father of two<br />

daughters and who, when not working for NatureWorks,<br />

loves outdoor activities like hiking, running and golf. MT<br />

www.natureworksllc.com<br />

Bioplastics will outpace the economy as a whole<br />

In a Plastics Market Watch report released 10 May, entitled Watching: Bioplastics – the Plastics Industry Association<br />

(PLASTICS) reports bioplastics are in a growth cycle stage and will outpace the economy as a whole.<br />

New investments and entrants in the sector and new products and manufacturing technologies are projected to make<br />

bioplastics more competitive and dynamic.<br />

The report finds growing interest in bioplastics, but also a continued need for education. According to a survey PLASTICS<br />

conducted of U.S. consumers in January <strong>2018</strong>, more consumers are “familiar” or “somewhat familiar” with bioplastics<br />

compared to a survey conducted just two years ago; 32 % of consumers are familiar with bioplastics in <strong>2018</strong> compared to only<br />

27 % in 2016. The PLASTICS survey also indicated 64 % of consumers would prefer to buy a product made with bioplastics – and<br />

expect to see bioplastics in disposable plastic tableware, plastic bags, food and cosmetic packaging, and toys.<br />

As bioplastics product applications continue to expand, the growth dynamics of the industry will continue to shift. Looking at<br />

industry studies on market segmentation, packaging is the largest segment of the market at 37 % followed by bottles at 32 %.<br />

Growth opportunities in bioplastics manufacturing are expected to continue from the demand and supply side. While in the past<br />

growth in bioplastics was primarily driven by higher petrol-based polymers, changes in consumer behavior will be a significant<br />

factor for higher demand of bioplastics.<br />

The report is available for download to members and non-members.<br />

www.plasticsindustry.org<br />

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Cover-Story<br />

The Netherlands looking to ban<br />

oxo-degradable plastics<br />

After France and Spain implemented actions in 2017 to limit the production, distribution, sale, provision and utilization of<br />

packaging or bags made from oxo-degradable plastics – conventional plastics that falsely claim to biodegrade – the Netherlands<br />

now, too, has announced plans for a complete ban of oxo-degradable plastics.<br />

“A ban on oxo-plastics that fall apart into microplastics is an important step in the fight against pollution,” said Suzanne Kröger,<br />

Member of the Dutch Parliament and GroenLinks, the party that submitted the proposal in the Lower House. "Microplastics are<br />

an increasing problem. They end up in nature, in the food chain and in our bodies. It is important for a total ban to be imposed<br />

on these plastics that fall apart as soon as possible. If it can no longer be produced, then this rubbish will no longer end up in<br />

our nature" [1]<br />

The announcement followed a report by the European Commission earlier in January this year announcing plans to restrict<br />

the use of these materials in Europe. The New Plastics Economy initiative of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation called for a ban<br />

on oxo-degradable plastics as early as November last year. "Although there is a perception that these materials are safely<br />

biodegradable, there is scientific evidence that they can be harmful to the food chain," said The New Plastics Economy [2].<br />

The use of oxo-degradable plastics for bags, bottles and labels is on the rise in different areas of the world. Made from<br />

conventional, fossil-based polymers to which chemical additives are added to promote degradation, these plastics disintegrate<br />

at an accelerated rate following exposure to UV-light, oxygen or heat.<br />

The key word in this context is ‘disintegrate’: rather than undergoing biodegradation, the plastic breaks down into tiny<br />

particles, which contributes to the formation of microplastics. The microparticles can be found in plankton and algae, among<br />

other things, and therefore spread easily into other organisms, according to GroenLinks [2].<br />

The Netherlands supports a full ban, rather than the restricted use proposed by the Commission. “If it is no longer allowed<br />

to be produced, it will no longer be able to find its way into our environment,” said Kröger. MT<br />

[1] www.pakkracht.biz<br />

[2] www.duurzaambedrijfsleven.nl<br />

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1804012ERE_Bioplastics Magazine.indd 1 bioplastics MAGAZINE 25.04.18 [03/18] Vol. 15:4413<br />

9


Events<br />

organized by<br />

Co-organized by Jan Ravenstijn<br />

www.pha-world-congress.com<br />

4 th PHA platform World Congress, preliminary programme<br />

Tuesday, Sep 04, <strong>2018</strong><br />

08:45-09:15 Jan Ravenstijn The PHA Platform - Virtues and Challenges<br />

09:15-09:40 Mats Linder, Ellen MacArthur Foundation The role of PHA in a circular economy for plastics<br />

09:40-10:05 Michael Carus, nova Institute<br />

Production capacities of bio-based polymers –<br />

status and outlook & political and social framework for further growth<br />

10:05-10:30 Erwin LePoudre, Kaneka Marketing of Biodegradable Polymer PHBHTM as a Solution to Plastic Waste <strong>Issue</strong>s<br />

11:10-11:35 Harald Kaeb, narocon Pitfalls and opportunities for marketing PHA products<br />

11:35-12:00 Fred Bollen, LifetecVision Exploiting competitive advantage and creating market attractiveness for PHA-polymers<br />

12:00-12:25 Jos Labée, Modified Materials Use of PHBH in fishing gear<br />

12:25-12:50 Sam Deconinck, OWS Biodegradation of PHAs: not simply a fixed feature<br />

Phil van Trump, Danimer<br />

14:00-14:30<br />

& Garry Kohl, PepsiCo<br />

PHA for packaging applications (t.b.c.)<br />

14:30-14:55 Eligio Martini, MAIP PHBH compounds for electrical switches (ABB)<br />

14:55-15:20 Pieter Samyn, Hasselt University<br />

Formulation and processing of PHB with fibrillated<br />

cellulose for nanocomposite films and paper coatings<br />

15:20-15:45 Urs Hänggi, Biomer Virgin PHB has thermoplastic properties, but is not a thermoplast<br />

16:00-16:20 Coffee<br />

16:20-16:55 Eike Langenberg & Carsten Niermann, FKuR Meet the needs for future legislations: Innovative PHA compounds<br />

16:55-17:20 Remy Jongboom, Biotec PHBH compounds for bags?<br />

Wednesday, Sep. 05, <strong>2018</strong><br />

09:00-09:25 Karel Wilsens, AMIBM Nucleating agents for PHAs and other biopolymers<br />

09:25-09:50 Christophe Collet, Scion Research From pine to PHA products<br />

09:50-10:15 Leon Korving, Phario High quality PHBV from wastewater<br />

10:15-10:40 Lenka Mynářová, Hydal/Nafigate Hydal PHA – Circular Economy Concept<br />

11:20-11:45 Li Teng, Bluepha<br />

11:45-12:10 Molly Morse, Mango Materials t.b.d.<br />

12:10-12:35 Andrew Falcon, FullCycle Bioplastics PHB/PHBV from waste streams<br />

Bluepha: Industrial-scale Low-cost P(3HB-co-4HB)<br />

Production using Halomonas bluephagenesis TD via an Open Fermentation Process<br />

14:00-14.25 Christian Bonten, IKT, Univ. Stuttgart Impact modification of PHB by building of a blockcopolymer<br />

14:25-14:50 Harold van der Zande, Stamicarbon PHA coating for slow release fertilization<br />

14:50-15:15 Ruud Rouleaux, Helian (on behalf of Tianan) PHBV from Tianan / 3D printing applications<br />

16:05-16:30 Kenichiro Nishi, Kaneka PHBH applications presentation<br />

16:30-16:55 Alessandro Carfagnini, Sabio Kartell (design furniture)<br />

16:55-17:20 Stefan Jockenhövel, AMIBM Role of Biodegradable Polymers for (Regenerative) Medicine<br />

Subject to changes, please visit the conference website<br />

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Automotive<br />

Save the Date<br />

04-05 Sep <strong>2018</strong><br />

Cologne, Germany<br />

Register now, and benefit from our<br />

Early Bird discount until June 30/<strong>2018</strong><br />

www.pha-world-congress.com<br />

organized by<br />

Co-organized by Jan Ravenstijn<br />

PHA (Poly-Hydroxy-Alkanoates or polyhydroxy fatty acids) is a family of biobased polyesters. As in many<br />

mammals, including humans, that hold energy reserves in the form of body fat there are also bacteria that<br />

hold intracellular reserves of polyhydroxy alkanoates. Here the micro-organisms store a particularly high level<br />

of energy reserves (up to 80% of their own body weight) for when their sources of nutrition become scarce.<br />

Examples for such Polyhydroxyalkanoates are PHB, PHV, PHBV, PHBH and many more. That’s why we speak<br />

about the PHA platform.<br />

This PHA-platform is made up of a large variety of bioplastics raw materials made from many different renewable<br />

resources. Depending on the type of PHA, they can be used for applications in films and rigid packaging,<br />

biomedical applications, automotive, consumer electronics, appliances, toys, glues, adhesives, paints, coatings,<br />

fi bers for woven and non-woven and inks. So PHAs cover a broad range of properties and applications.<br />

That’s why bioplastics MAGAZINE and Jan Ravenstijn are now organizing the 1 st PHA-platform World Congress<br />

on 4-5 September <strong>2018</strong> in Cologne / Germany.<br />

This congress will address the progress, challenges and market opportunities for the formation of this new polymer<br />

platform in the world. Every step in the value chain will be addressed. Raw materials, polymer manufacturing,<br />

compounding, polymer processing, applications, opportunities and end-of-life options will be discussed.<br />

When there is sufficient interest there will be a workshop on the basics of the PHA-platform in the afternoon of<br />

September 3 rd , preceding the conference.See website for details.<br />

Platinum Sponsor:<br />

Gold Sponsor:<br />

Silver Sponsor:<br />

Media Partner:<br />

Supported by:<br />

Bronze Sponsor:<br />

1 st Media Partner<br />

Institut<br />

für Ökologie und Innovation<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 11


Events<br />

Glass fibre reinforced<br />

PLA wins award<br />

Innovation Award Bio-based Material of the Year <strong>2018</strong><br />

for Arctic Biomaterials<br />

The Innovation Award Bio-based Material of the Year<br />

<strong>2018</strong> was awarded to three innovative bio-based materials.<br />

The competition focused on new developments in the biobased<br />

economy, which have a market launch in <strong>2018</strong>. The<br />

winners were elected on 15 May by the participants of the<br />

11th International Conference on Bio-based Materials in<br />

Cologne, Germany. As in the previous year, the award was<br />

sponsored by InfraServ GmbH & Co. Knapsack KG, a service<br />

provider for the planning, construction and operation of<br />

plants and sites.<br />

The “International Conference on Bio-based Materials”<br />

is organised by nova-Institute (Germany) and a wellestablished<br />

global meeting point for companies working<br />

in the field of bio-based chemicals and materials. 205<br />

participants, mainly from the industry and representing 22<br />

countries, met in Cologne on 15 and 16 May <strong>2018</strong> to discuss<br />

the latest developments in the sector. 21 companies<br />

presented their products and services at the exhibition.<br />

The winners in detail:<br />

No 1: Arctic Biomaterials Oy (Finland):<br />

Degradable PLA reinforced with glass fibre that erodes<br />

back to harmless minerals in composting environment<br />

ArcBioxTM BGF30-B1 is a Polylactic Acid (PLA) that<br />

is reinforced using LFT (long fibre) technology with a<br />

special degradable glass fibres. This innovation makes it<br />

possible that bio-based plastics can be used in technically<br />

demanding durable applications and still have the option<br />

of biodegradation at the end of life. The<br />

reinforcement is a glass fibre<br />

developed by Arctic<br />

Biomaterials Oy (ABM) and can also be used for<br />

several other bio-based polymers. This composite material<br />

reduces the carbon footprint and use of non-renewable<br />

energy of a composite product drastically compared to<br />

fossil-based reinforced plastics. This reinforced PLA is<br />

compostable and certified by the seedling mark from DIN<br />

CERTCO. More information: www.abmcomposite.com<br />

No 2: Cardolite Corporation (US/Belgium):<br />

Cashew nutshell residual-based blocking agent<br />

NX-2026 is an ultra-high purity 3-pentadeca-dienylphenol<br />

recently developed by Cardolite through advanced<br />

proprietary process technology. 3-pentadeca-dienyl-phenol<br />

is the main component distilled from cashew nutshell<br />

liquid, a renewable and non-edible resin extracted from<br />

the honeycomb structure of the cashew nut. NX-2026 has<br />

been successfully introduced to the coating and adhesive<br />

market as a non-toxic isocyanate (NCO) blocking agent that<br />

is a suitable replacement for petrochemical phenols. NCO<br />

systems blocked with NX-2026 provide lower viscosity and<br />

deblocking temperature than equivalent systems blocked<br />

with phenols. Moreover, NX-2026 blocked NCO prepolymers<br />

can be used in 2K epoxy systems to improve bond and T-peel<br />

strengths while maintaining good cure properties. More<br />

information: www.cardolite.com<br />

No 3: AIMPLAS Instituto Tecnológico del Plástico<br />

(Spain):<br />

Bio-based and biodegradable nets for green beans<br />

A packaging<br />

material which is more<br />

than 80% bio-based<br />

and more sustainable<br />

than conventional<br />

polyethylene nets but<br />

has similar linear<br />

weight and mechanical<br />

properties. The<br />

innovative product is<br />

a biodegradable net<br />

suitable for green beans packaging. A compound has been<br />

developed through reactive extrusion and the combination<br />

of different biodegradable materials and additives. Chemical<br />

modification was made by grafting low molecular weight<br />

units, such as oleic alcohol, obtained by the fermentation of<br />

sugars extracted from vegetable waste (watermelon). More<br />

information: www.aimplas.es<br />

www.bio-based-conference.com<br />

www.nova-institute.eu<br />

The nova-Institute would like to thank:<br />

The nova-Institute would like to thank InfraServ GmbH<br />

& Co. Knapsack KG (Germany) for sponsoring the<br />

renowned Innovation Award “Bio-based Material of the<br />

Year <strong>2018</strong>”.<br />

BASF SE (Germany) and UPM Biochemicals (Finland/<br />

Germany) are supporting the conference as Silver<br />

Sponsors and Neste SA (Finland/Suisse), FKUR<br />

Kunststoff GmbH (Germany) and Synvina C. V.<br />

(Netherlands) as a Bronze Sponsor.<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


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All conferences at www.bio-based.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 13


Injection Moulding<br />

Dimensional stability of<br />

injection moulded bioplastics<br />

During processing plastics, there are different fundamental<br />

factors that influence the quality of a component.<br />

A key factor for the injection moulding process<br />

is the dimensional stability. This describes how much the<br />

dimensions of the processed part deviate from the specified<br />

dimension after processing. In particular, problems<br />

often quickly arise here due to different shrinkage and warpage<br />

properties, once a new material, such as a bioplastic,<br />

should be used for an existing injection moulded component.<br />

At the Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites –<br />

IfBB, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Hanover, various<br />

bioplastics were therefore investigated in more detail.<br />

The following marketable and commercially available materials<br />

were examined:<br />

material to be substituted, differs strongly in its shrinkage<br />

properties, this usually leads to processing problems and<br />

requires a corresponding adjustment of the cavity. It is<br />

therefore not possible to make the general statement that<br />

a slight shrinkage is good and a large shrinkage is bad. As<br />

a general rule, if the cavity should not be reconstructed<br />

to suit the material, the bioplastic should exhibit similar<br />

shrinkage behaviour as the petrochemical material to be<br />

substituted. In addition, when processing bioplastics – as<br />

well as conventional plastics – widely differing shrinkage<br />

properties in and across the direction of flow lead to<br />

component distortion.<br />

Table 1: Overview of the examined bioplastics for injection moulding applications<br />

Material Tmelt [°C] Tmold [°C] Holding pressure [bar] Flow Direction [%] Cross Direction [%] FD/CD<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 3052D 200 °C 30 °C 500 bar 0,247 0,315 0,784126984<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 3251D 200 °C 30 °C 500 bar 0,242 0,28 0,864285714<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 6202D 200 °C 30 °C 500 bar 0,258 0,294 0,87755102<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Revode 190 200 °C 30 °C 500 bar 0,265 0,304 0,871710526<br />

Jelu WPC Bio PLA H60-500-14 200 °C 30 °C 500 bar 0,154 0,171 0,900584795<br />

Jelu WPC Bio PE H50-500-20<br />

#DIV/0!<br />

FKuR Terralene HD 3505 230 °C 30 °C 500 bar 1,906 1,45 1,314482759<br />

Evonik Vestamid Terra HS16 250 °C 80 °C 500 bar 1,558 1,631 0,955242183<br />

Showa Denko Bionolle 1020MD 200 °C 30 °C 500 bar 0,814 0,839 0,970202622<br />

Metabolix Mirel P1004 180 °C 30 °C 500 bar 0,404 0,64 0,63125<br />

During processing, the bioplastic is melted in the injection<br />

moulding machine and injected under high pressure into an<br />

injection mold cavity. Once the cooling time is completed,<br />

the cooled part is ejected from the cavity. At this point,<br />

important aspects that must be observed when changing<br />

from a conventional plastic to a bioplastic – this also applies<br />

when changing to a different petroleum-based plastic –<br />

are the different shrinkage and warpage characteristics<br />

of the substituting material. The material shrinkage<br />

allows significant statements to be made concerning the<br />

compatibility of the selected material with the existing cavity<br />

and whether component distortion must be expected. If the<br />

The results of this investigations show that most of the<br />

investigated bioplastics show an almost isotropic shrinkage<br />

and warpage (FD/CD) behavior with a little more shrinkage<br />

in CD than in FD and a ranking lower than 1. This is similar<br />

to most of the petroleum-based plastics and therefore an<br />

important aspect of substitutability. Furthermore, it can be<br />

seen that the PLA-based bioplastics show a low shrinkage.<br />

This corresponds to a typical behavior of unreinforced<br />

amorphous thermoplastics. The other bioplastics have<br />

significantly higher processing shrinkages. In the case of<br />

Vestamid Terra HS16, the shrinkage is very high but in a<br />

magnitude typical for PA. The bioplastic Bionolle 1020MD<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Injection Moulding<br />

By:<br />

Marco Neudecker, Nuse Lack, Hans-Josef Endres<br />

Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites – IfBB<br />

University of Applied Sciences and Arts<br />

Hanover, Germany<br />

Figure 1: Shrinkage and warpage of bioplastics<br />

FD/CD Ranking 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 3052D<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 3251D<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 6202D<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Revode 190<br />

Jelu WPC Bio PLA H60-500-14<br />

—<br />

—<br />

—<br />

—<br />

—<br />

—<br />

Jelu WPC Bio PE H50-500-20<br />

not measurable due to bad surface<br />

—<br />

FKUR Terralene HD 3505<br />

—<br />

Evonik Vestamid Terra HS16<br />

—<br />

Showa Denko Bionolle 1020MD<br />

—<br />

Metabolix Mirel P1004<br />

—<br />

FD/CD<br />

Flow Direction (%) Cross Direction (%)<br />

also shows increased shrinkage values which are still in<br />

the lower usual range of semi-crystalline thermoplastics.<br />

Significant anisotropy is exhibited by the Mirel P1004 and<br />

the Terralene HD 3505. The shrinkage of Mirel P1004<br />

is characteristic of largely amorphous thermoplastics,<br />

which also have a relatively high viscosity. Striking is<br />

the high anisotropy, which makes this material prone to<br />

distortion. Terralene HD 3505 belongs to semi-crystalline<br />

thermoplastics but shows a very high shrinkage value,<br />

especially in FD.<br />

We STARCH<br />

your bioplastics.<br />

Made in Austria.<br />

The results listed here and many other conclusions<br />

relevant to processors could be identified in the processing<br />

project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Food and<br />

Agriculture. All results are freely accessible and available to<br />

anyone interested in two databases:<br />

• Material Data Center (www.materialdatacenter.com/bo/)<br />

• Project Results Database (http://www.biokunststoffeverarbeiten.de).<br />

The project outcome closes important gaps in the<br />

knowledge of the processing of bio-synthetic materials.<br />

For further questions the competence network of project<br />

partners can be contacted (http://verarbeitungsprojekt.<br />

ifbb-hannover.de/de/projektkontakte.html).<br />

www.ifbb-hannover.de<br />

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THE NATURAL UPGRADE<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 15


Injection Moulding<br />

Injection moulded NFC<br />

Simulation vs. Experiment<br />

Figure 1: SEM pictures of sisal fibre<br />

bundles before (left) und after compounding<br />

(right). A: Fibre bundle breakage. B: Start of<br />

fibre bundle splitting. C: Peeling behaviour<br />

of sisal. [2]<br />

Figure 2: Distribution of the length (left)<br />

and width (right) for sisal before processing<br />

(Original), after compounding (Granules)<br />

and after injection moulding (Plate). The<br />

results are shown as box-and-whisker plots<br />

(whiskers with a maximum of 1.5 x IQR,<br />

outliers shown as circles). Boxplots with *<br />

represent not normally distributed samples<br />

and different capitals represent significant<br />

differences. [2]<br />

Due to growing environmental concerns, the interest<br />

for renewable resources increases drastically nowadays.<br />

Natural fibre-reinforced composites (NFC) are<br />

an interesting prospect to combine light weight constructions<br />

with renewable resources. Natural fibre-reinforced<br />

form-pressed composites have been used for interior panels<br />

since 1954 [1]. A new interest increases using natural<br />

fibre-reinforced, injection moulded components for largescale<br />

production in the automotive industry. As engineers<br />

only consider predictable compounds in component development<br />

processes, models to simulate natural fibre-reinforced<br />

compounds need to be developed. Common software<br />

programs for injection moulding simulation already include<br />

models to simulate glass fibre-reinforced polymers, but<br />

not yet NFC. To close this gap the project “Material and<br />

Flow Models for Natural Fibre-Reinforced Injection Moulding<br />

Materials for Practical Use in the Automotive Industry”<br />

(NFC-Simulation) was created.<br />

Besides others, two main aspects of the simulation are<br />

the prediction of the fibre orientation and the final fibre<br />

morphology (fibre length and width) in the component<br />

part. The fibre orientation and fibre morphology influence<br />

the mechanical properties of the component. For the<br />

analyses of the fibre orientation and fibre morphology in a<br />

component, plates were injection moulded with 30 mass%<br />

sisal/PP. Sisal fibres are leaf fibres from the plant Agave<br />

sisalana P.. The fibre morphology was determined before<br />

compounding, after compounding and after injection<br />

moulding via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and via<br />

FibreShape 5.1.1 (IST AG, Vilters, Switzerland), an image<br />

analysis software. The SEM pictures show that the sisal<br />

fibre bundles split and break during compounding (figure 1).<br />

In figure 2, it is shown that the length is significantly reduced<br />

during compounding, while no further reduction could<br />

be observed during injection moulding. The simulation<br />

also showed correlating results: no fibre breakage during<br />

injection moulding [2].<br />

For the fibre orientation measurements, the µ-CT analysis<br />

was found to be the most promising experimental method<br />

to validate the fibre orientation results of the injection<br />

moulding simulation [3]. The fibre orientation results of the<br />

µ-CT analysis showed good correlation with the injection<br />

moulding simulation via Cadmould at different measuring<br />

points on the injection moulded plate (see figure 3).<br />

Finally, glove boxes of the Ford B-Max (figure 4)<br />

were injection moulded by IAC Group and crash tests<br />

were performed experimentally and simulatively. The<br />

experiments and crash simulation correlated well [4,5].<br />

A first closed development cycle for a sisal-reinforced<br />

component could be realised from the process simulation,<br />

over the component manufacturing and component test to<br />

the crash-simulation in the project NFC-Simulation.<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Injection Moulding<br />

By:<br />

Katharina Albrecht, HSB – City University of Applied Sciences Bremen, Germany<br />

Tim Osswald, University of Wisconsin - Madison, USA<br />

Erwin Baur, M-Base Engineering + Software GmbH, Aachen, Germany<br />

Maira Magnani, Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen, Aachen, Germany<br />

Jörg Müssig, HSB – City University of Applied Sciences Bremen, Germany<br />

Natural fibres used to reinforce polymers in the automotive<br />

industry instead of glass fibres can provide the advantage<br />

of reduced carbon footprints [6]. The implementation of<br />

material models of NF-reinforced polymers in software<br />

programs opens the market for sustainable, bio-based<br />

compounds in various automotive components.<br />

References<br />

[1] Prömper E. (2010): Natural Fibre-Reinforced Polymers in Automotive<br />

Interior Applications. In: Müssig J., (editor): Industrial application of<br />

natural fibres: Structures, properties and technical applications. Ed.<br />

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010, 423-437.<br />

[2] Albrecht, K., Osswald, T., Baur, E., Meier, T., Wartzack, S. & Müssig,<br />

J. (<strong>2018</strong>): Fibre length reduction in natural fibre-reinforced polymers<br />

during compounding and injection moulding - Experiments versus<br />

numerical prediction of fibre breakage. Journal of Composites Science<br />

2, 20.<br />

[3] Albrecht, K., Baur, E., Endres, H.-J., Gente, R., Graupner, N., Koch, M.,<br />

Neudecker, M., Osswald, T., Schmidtke, P., Wartzack, S., Webelhaus, K.<br />

& Müssig, J. (2017): Measuring fibre orientation in sisal fibre-reinforced,<br />

injection moulded polypropylene - Pros and cons of the experimental<br />

methods to validate injection moulding simulation. Composites Part A:<br />

Applied Science and Manufacturing 95, 54–64.<br />

[4] Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH, IAC Group GmbH,<br />

LyondellBasell, Kunststoffwerk Voerde, Simcon Kunststofftechnische<br />

Software GmbH, M-Base Engineering und Software GmbH,<br />

Hochschule Hannover, Hochschule Bremen, TU Clausthal, Fraunhofer<br />

LBF, University of Wisconsin-Madison (2014): Werkstoff- und<br />

Fließmodelle für naturfaserverstärkte Spritzgießmaterialien für den<br />

praktischen Einsatz in der Automobilindustrie. Final report of the<br />

project “NFC-Simulation”, 2014. < http://www.fnr-server.de/ftp/pdf/<br />

berichte/22005511.pdf > (<strong>2018</strong>-04-27). – in German<br />

[5] Franzen, M., Magnani, M. & T. Baranowski (2014): Advanced Crash<br />

Simulation of Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics with MF-<br />

GenYld+CrachFEM. 3rd MATFEM Conference, 21st October 2014 Schloss<br />

Hohenkammer, Hohenkammer, DE.<br />

[6] Markarian J. (2015): Renewable reinforcements hit the road.<br />

Compounding World 2015, Vol. March 2015, 57-64.<br />

www.bionik-bremen.de<br />

Figure 3: Comparison of results of the µ-CT<br />

measurements and the IM simulation determing<br />

the fibre orientation at six measuring points in<br />

the IM plate. Left: Main fibre orientation angles<br />

in the shell layer. Right: Main fibre orientation<br />

angles in the core layer. Positions without any bar<br />

refer to an angle of 0°. Results are shown in a<br />

mathematical positive sense. [3]<br />

The project NFC-Simulation was funded by the German<br />

Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer<br />

Protection (BMELV) through the Fachagentur<br />

Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR, Gülzow, Germany).<br />

Project partners were: Ford Forschungszentrum<br />

Aachen GmbH, Aachen, DE; IAC (International Automotive<br />

Components), Ebersberg, DE; LyondellBasell,<br />

Frankfurt, Germany; Kunststoffwerk Voerde Hueck &<br />

Schade GmbH & Co. KG, Ennepetal, DE; Simcon Kunststofftechnische<br />

Software GmbH, Würselen, DE; M-Base<br />

Engineering + Software GmbH, Aachen, DE; University<br />

of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, USA; University of<br />

Applied Sciences and Arts Hannover, IfBB (Institute for<br />

Bioplastics and Biocomposites), Hannover, DE; HSB -<br />

City University of Applied Sciences Bremen, Bremen,<br />

De; Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Polymer<br />

Materials and Plastic Engineering, Clausthal,<br />

DE, and Fraunhofer LBF, Darmstadt, DE.<br />

Figure 4: Injection moulded glove box with 30 %<br />

sisal/PP. [4] (Foto: Frank Schumann, IAC)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 17


Additives / Masterbatches<br />

Biobased masterbatches for<br />

PLA, PBS and biobased blends<br />

Sukano AG (Schindellegi, Switzerland) is proud to<br />

have embarked on the bioplastics journey over a<br />

decade ago (cf. p. 51). By leveraging their expertise,<br />

focus and dedication in conventional polyester plastics to<br />

bioplastics, their biobased masterbatches portfolio has<br />

grown significantly with a product range for any kind of<br />

PLA, as well as PBS and bio PET.<br />

Today the spotlight is on what PBS based masterbatches<br />

can do to strengthen this revolutionary resin and its<br />

blends, mainly with PLA, with its two-fold bio properties.<br />

Being essentially biobased, bio-PBS resin and<br />

masterbatches are also biodegradable and compostable.<br />

Sukano tailor-made bio-PBS masterbatches are easily<br />

compounded with another bioplastic material. They<br />

provide a drop-in type of masterbatch to be added to<br />

the resin, and require no process changes, nor new<br />

machinery machinery to achieve great results according to<br />

customer’s manufacturing needs at the same throughput<br />

as comparable conventional plastics.<br />

Bio-PBS is a resin that needs bio-PBS based<br />

masterbatches, highly compatible to this polymer,<br />

to support its material environmental friendly, food<br />

compliant, printability and heat resistance properties.<br />

To achieve the best benefits from this choice, the<br />

masterbatches are also formulated for biobased content<br />

with cradle-to-cradle biopolymer and ingredients.<br />

Knowing that Bio- PBS is naturally compostable at 30 °C<br />

into H 2<br />

O, CO 2<br />

and biomass either in a composting facility<br />

or at home, Sukano developed three main product grades<br />

to enhance the final product even further. This enables it to<br />

finally replace several flexible packaging structures out in<br />

the market while still complying with the biodegradability<br />

regulations. Sukano’s masterbatches are designed to<br />

maintain the main resin characteristics, and therefore to<br />

be disposed of along with organic waste.<br />

The array of applications and assessments made<br />

by their experts indicate that Sukano’s masterbatches<br />

support applications that can be used for food contact at<br />

up to 100 °C. This high service temperature performance<br />

means it is suitability for hot beverages, boxes and utensils<br />

for freshly cooked food and food containers.<br />

The modified resin with Sukano’s masterbatches<br />

achieves its heat seal performance at the same level of<br />

sealability properties as fossil-based polymers.<br />

These characteristics, in addition to potential blends,<br />

means that bio-PBS can be also targeted for key end<br />

applications such as paper coatings, single use food<br />

service and flexible packaging.<br />

Paper cups are among the main target of PBS and PLA<br />

resins or blends as replacements for PE coatings. This<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


By:<br />

Alessandra Funcia<br />

Head of Sales and Marketing<br />

Sukano AG<br />

Schindellegi, Switzerland<br />

application is certainly one of the most commonly misunderstood when it<br />

comes to its compostability claim.<br />

Today, many paper cups are still laminated with conventional plastics to<br />

prevent liquid from leaking out or soaking the paper, ultimately causing the<br />

cup to collapse. This thin fossil-based plastic coating negatively impacts<br />

the biodegradation process of the paper, making it almost impossible to<br />

biodegrade, especially when both sides of the cup are coated.<br />

However, using Bio-PBS or PLA coated paper cups makes them indeed<br />

compostable. Additionally, the bio-PBS masterbatches added to the bio-<br />

PBS paper cups or heat stable PLA means the cups can still be filled with<br />

hot and cold beverages, and consumers can safely enjoy their drinks in an<br />

environmentally improved product type.<br />

Other applications where the use of highly compatible masterbatches<br />

enable bio-PBS and its blends to outperform conventional plastics is in the<br />

injection molding process for food service applications.<br />

The blended products achieve improved mechanical properties, such<br />

as impact strength, in addition to higher service temperatures, keeping<br />

dimensional stability at desired levels, allowing the material to flow smoothly,<br />

the parts to be molded properly and at industrial yields needed, while still<br />

being compostable.<br />

What’s more, the greatest breakthrough where Sukano biobased<br />

masterbatches in PBS and PLA are present is in flexible packaging.<br />

A typical flexible packaging is based on dry lamination of many layers,<br />

where each layer has a predefined role of its own. Sukano masterbatches<br />

based in PBS and PLA are used in combination with bio-PBS and special<br />

grades of neat PLA, creating a combination of resins that have a compostable<br />

sealing performance compared to other bioplastics, yet still provide a higher<br />

gas barrier than low density PE, and retain the aroma of the packaged<br />

product longer. Sukano masterbatches do not interfere in the packaging<br />

transparency, thus allowing the product to be seen so it can display its<br />

appetite appeal on the shelves naturally.<br />

The flexible packaging structures can be used for dry, baked and frozen<br />

food, fruits and vegetables. Sukano masterbatches enable flexible packaging<br />

structures to remain recyclable, compostable and be produced using less<br />

conventional plastic.<br />

The circular economy concept indicates the design phase for new<br />

packaging as the key disruptive point for higher environmental credentials<br />

of packaging. Flexible package is in the top of the list of targeted packaging<br />

where urgent improvements are required.<br />

Sukano masterbatches enable creative and functional changes for the<br />

flexible packaging market, protecting food from wastage, being compostable,<br />

transparent and using less plastic – and all able to be processed on existing<br />

industrial manufacturing lines.<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

EMERY<br />

OLEOCHEMICALS –<br />

THE FIRST CHOICE<br />

IN SUSTAINABLE<br />

POLYMER ADDITIVES.<br />

LUBRICANTS<br />

RELEASE AGENTS<br />

SPECIAL PLASTICIZERS<br />

SURFACE FINISH AGENTS<br />

VISCOSITY REGULATORS<br />

CREATING VALUE<br />

www.emeryoleo.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 19


Additives / Masterbatches<br />

Biobased additives<br />

that enhance polymer processing and improve end product quality<br />

With more than 60 years of experience delivering<br />

high-performance, natural-based products to the<br />

plastics industry, Emery Oleochemicals GmbH<br />

(Düsseldorf, Germany; headquartered in Telok Panglima<br />

Garang, Malaysia) is well-positioned to offer natural-based<br />

polymer additives, especially lubricants, plasticizers and<br />

surface finish agents to companies in the plastics industry<br />

that are seeking more sustainable products.<br />

Why Green Polymer Additives?<br />

Due to the plastics industry’s heightened interest in<br />

sustainability, Emery Oleochemicals is also constantly<br />

refining its Green Polymer Additives product portfolio to<br />

exceed the increasingly stringent standards and regulations.<br />

From the very beginning, when the LOXIOL ® brand was<br />

first introduced in 1957, Emery’s experienced product<br />

development teams around the globe have concentrated on<br />

creating specialized additives through the use of renewable<br />

biobased raw materials from natural fats and oils.<br />

Lubricants for Optimal Processability<br />

Loxiol lubricants from Emery Oleochemicals are<br />

compatible with various stabilizers and are mainly based on<br />

renewable raw materials. Loxiol G 59 improves the material<br />

flow during extrusion and reduces the melt viscosity. It<br />

has food contact approval and is suitable for transparent<br />

applications. It is compatible with several polymers and it<br />

reduces the formation of deposits (blooming) on the final<br />

article as well as on the machines (plate out), and thereby, it<br />

increases the productivity.<br />

Loxiol G 24 is an external lubricant and release agent<br />

that is based on 100 % renewable resources. It can replace<br />

paraffin and Fischer-Tropsch waxes.<br />

Sustainable Additives for C-PVC<br />

It is well known in the plastics industry that the processing<br />

behavior of C-PVC is significantly different from that of PVC.<br />

To meet these unique application requirements, Emery<br />

Oleochemicals’ latest technical developments include<br />

tailored ester lubricants for processing of chlorinated PVC<br />

(C-PVC). Advantages of Emery’s new lubricants are, among<br />

others, a biobased-feedstock, a minor influence on the Vicat<br />

softening point and a defined chemical structure similar to<br />

the often used paraffin waxes. These lubricants also enable<br />

an exact adjustment of the processing window. In addition,<br />

Emery’s most recent product developments include food<br />

contact compliant additives that adhere to the respective<br />

regulations in all major regions worldwide.<br />

Customized Solutions to Meet Today’s<br />

Challenging Applications<br />

In addition to a broad portfolio of established products,<br />

Emery Oleochemicals offers customized products that<br />

are not only eco-friendly, but also tailored to the desired<br />

performance specifications. as well as economically<br />

viable,” emphasizes Dr. Harald Klein, Global Platform Head<br />

of Emery Oleochemicals’ Green Polymer Additives business<br />

unit.<br />

In addition to a broad portfolio of established products,<br />

Emery Oleochemicals offers customized solutions tailored<br />

to special requirements. “Today, it is not enough to provide<br />

standardized products. Plastics manufacturers require<br />

additives that are not only eco-friendly, but also customized<br />

to their performance specifications as well as economically<br />

viable,” emphasizes Dr. Harald Klein, Global Platform Head<br />

of Emery Oleochemicals’ Green Polymer Additives business<br />

unit.<br />

Emery Oleochemicals’ global operations are supported<br />

by a diverse workforce and an extensive global distribution<br />

network covering over 50 countries worldwide. MT<br />

http://greenpolymeradditives.emeryoleo.com/additives/<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Additives / Masterbatches<br />

Renewable,<br />

sustainable<br />

mineral<br />

By:<br />

Jeff Apisdorf<br />

President<br />

MultiPlast Systems, Inc.<br />

Solon, Ohio, USA<br />

Multiplast Systems, Inc. (Solon, Ohio) recently introduced<br />

a range of masterbatches made with RenewCal, a<br />

renewable biogenic, highly purified oolitic aragonite<br />

(calcium carbonate). This unique mineral has physical and<br />

environmental characteristics unlike all other mined alternatives.<br />

Compatible with a wide range of resins, including biobased<br />

resins, RenewCal masterbatches offer a wide range of<br />

benefits including performance, economics, environmental<br />

and degrading in both flexible and rigid products.<br />

Sourced in their 500 square mile lease on the Bahama<br />

Banks, this unique crystalline formed mineral is replenished<br />

by approximately 900,000 tonnes per year. Current supply of<br />

this accumulated material is over 2 billion tonnes. The natural<br />

biogenic process is based on a confluence of factors, including<br />

ocean currents, sea-floor topography, and the natural<br />

presence of picoplankton stimulated by photosynthesis, which<br />

cause these microscopic organic organisms to combine<br />

atmospheric carbon dioxide with pure calcium in the water, to<br />

form oolitic aragonite. These oolites then precipitate as very<br />

pure grains of calcium carbonate, which settle on the ocean<br />

floor. This continuing natural mineralization process is also,<br />

at the same time, sequestering 5,680 tonnes of CO 2<br />

from<br />

the atmosphere. Unlike mined minerals which vary based<br />

on the range of sources, RenewCal is very consistent. as it is<br />

produced from the same source under the same conditions.<br />

Harvested with minimal environmental impact, RenewCal<br />

is proven to be carbon minimal to negative, renewable and<br />

sustainable. Environmental benefits include replacing fossil<br />

fuel-based resins, lowering carbon footprint compared to<br />

mined minerals, and producing finished products with a<br />

higher degree of renewable content.<br />

Benefits of improved degradability/compostability are due to<br />

RenewCal’s ability of high Ph buffer against acids, for higher<br />

loadings and for greater mineral surface area, which all speed<br />

up the degradation process.<br />

Benefits in production, performance, and economics are<br />

due to its unique crystalline needle like particle shape, high<br />

zeta potential (improved dispersion), ability to load high<br />

percentages depending on the application and cost reduction<br />

by replacing more expensive resins. Improved barrier<br />

characteristics and heat deflection are achieved by its high<br />

aspect ratio, crystalline particle shape and high loading thus<br />

producing a greater tortuous path.<br />

RenewCal masterbatches are FDA compliant for food<br />

packaging, come in a range of carriers and can have mineral<br />

content up to 80 %.<br />

Typical applications are flexible film, thermoformed<br />

sheeting, blown and injection molding, synthetic paper and<br />

extrusion coatings.<br />

www.multiplastsystems.com<br />

COMPEO<br />

Uniquely efficient. Incredibly versatile. Amazingly flexible.<br />

With its new COMPEO Kneader series, BUSS continues<br />

to offer continuous compounding solutions that set the<br />

standard for heat- and shear-sensitive applications, in all<br />

industries, including for biopolymers.<br />

• Moderate, uniform shear rates<br />

• Extremely low temperature profile<br />

• Efficient injection of liquid components<br />

• Precise temperature control<br />

• High filler loadings<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

Leading compounding technology<br />

for heat- and shear-sensitive plastics<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 21


Additives / Masterbatches<br />

Biobased wax<br />

additives<br />

Clariant adds high-performing<br />

solutions based on non-food<br />

competing biomass to its broad<br />

portfolio of waxes for bio- and<br />

conventional plastics applications.<br />

External Lubrication: Polyamide 6 (PA 6)<br />

Clariant, a world leader in specialty chemicals and<br />

recognized as one of the most sustainable chemical<br />

companies in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index,<br />

is introducing a family of high-performance waxes<br />

based on renewable feedstock: Licocare ® RBW. These<br />

multi-purpose additives are based on crude rice bran<br />

wax. This is a non-food-competing by-product from the<br />

production of rice bran oil. Clariant chemically and physically<br />

upgrades this non-edible component of the oil and<br />

thus contributes to using the rice bran’s full value. The<br />

main target applications for Licocare RBW are engineering<br />

thermoplastics such as polyamides, polyesters or<br />

TPU, biopolymers like PLA, and epoxy resins. They offer<br />

benefits to resin manufacturers, Masterbatch producers,<br />

compounders or plastics convertors. Clariant’s innovative<br />

solutions can also be used for other applications,<br />

such as agriculture, coatings, home and personal care.<br />

By:<br />

Manuel Bröhmer<br />

Product Manager<br />

Clariant Plastics & Coatings (D) GmbH<br />

Gersthofen, Germany<br />

Release force [N]<br />

Spiral length [cm]<br />

520 —<br />

500 —<br />

480 —<br />

460 —<br />

440 —<br />

420 —<br />

46 —<br />

45 —<br />

44 —<br />

43 —<br />

42 —<br />

41 —<br />

40 —<br />

Without<br />

Lubricant<br />

Without<br />

Lubricant<br />

Licocare<br />

RBW 300<br />

Licocare<br />

RBW 102<br />

Standard<br />

Montan wax<br />

Polymer: Durethan B 29, Dosage: 0,3%<br />

Flow Improvement: Polyamide 6 (PA 6)<br />

Licocare<br />

RBW 300<br />

Licocare<br />

RBW 102<br />

Standard<br />

Montan wax<br />

Standard<br />

PETS<br />

Standard<br />

PETS<br />

Formulation for the test; Polymer: Durethan B 29, Dosage of test product: 0,3%<br />

Application tests by Clariant show that Licocare RBW<br />

solutions achieve higher performance levels compared<br />

to alternative solutions on the market. The major two<br />

grades for plastics applications, Licocare RBW 300 TP and<br />

Licocare RBW 102 TP, fulfil numerous highly demanding<br />

requirements set for example by the transportation and<br />

electrical and electronic industries. Licocare RBW 300<br />

TP is a highly thermostable, partially saponified wax,<br />

Licocare RBW 102 TP is a medium-polarity wax type.<br />

Clariant’s new solutions improve melt flow, lower the<br />

amount of force required to release parts from molds,<br />

ensure a more homogeneous distribution of pigments<br />

or fillers, and lead to less yellowing of final products.<br />

Furthermore, they offer outstanding processing stability,<br />

even at elevated temperatures, due to their superior<br />

thermal stability, very low volatility and low metal<br />

content. Ultimately, Licocare RBW benefits its customers<br />

by significant claims: improved shaping flexibility, better<br />

mechanical properties and improved surface finish.<br />

Reduced rejection rates and more effective dosage can<br />

positively impact the financial bottom line of Clariant’s<br />

and its customers’ customers.<br />

Clariant has launched its EcoTain ® -certified Licocare<br />

RBW solutions in Japan, China and the United States this<br />

year and is gradually introducing its sustainable product<br />

line for plastics in other markets. Clariant awards its<br />

EcoTain sustainable excellence label to products in its<br />

portfolio that provide sustainable benefits above market<br />

standard and therefore represent best-in-class solutions.<br />

“Sustainability has become a major focus in the plastics<br />

industry, driven by society’s growing environmental<br />

awareness and consumers’ demand for more sustainable<br />

plastics”, says Manuel Mueller, Global Head of Market<br />

Segment Plastics in Business Line Advanced Surface<br />

Solutions at Clariant. “To improve the eco-friendliness and<br />

to boost their product performance, plastics companies<br />

are increasingly making use of renewable raw materials<br />

such as bio-polymers and bio-additives. Our Licocare RBW<br />

solutions support this development at the forefront.” MT<br />

www.clariant.com<br />

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Additives / Masterbatches<br />

Bio-Masterbatches with<br />

ecofriendly, mineral pigments<br />

Bio-masterbatches from Albrecht Dinkelaker, Polymer-<br />

und Produktentwicklung (Zell im Wiesental,<br />

Germany) are made with the compostable, waterproof<br />

carrier material Caprowax P. They are suitable for use as<br />

universal colourants of bioplastics, blends and biocomposites,<br />

such as<br />

• PLA, PBS, PHA, PCL, Caprowax P-blends<br />

• Polysaccharides and derivates, PVAc/bioplastic-blends,<br />

• bio-NFC, bio-WPC, PVOH, bio-UPR, bio-TPE and NIPU<br />

(Non-isocyanate polyurethane)<br />

The pigments added to the Caprowax P base carrier<br />

are non-toxic minerals comparable to naturally occurring<br />

inorganic pigments, such as oxides, ultramarines, silicates,<br />

pyrophosphates, natural carbonates and vegetable carbon.<br />

These bio-masterbatches enable bioplastics to be dyed<br />

according to the specifications of DIN EN 13432. They are<br />

water insoluble, already mineralised and yield colours<br />

ranging from light pastel shades to strong, natural hues.<br />

The carrier material - Caprowax P - is a mixture of a<br />

compostable polyester and modified, GMO-free plant oils,<br />

tested and approved by MFPA (Materialforschungs- und<br />

-prüfanstalt, University Weimar, Germany). It is compliant<br />

with the criteria of DIN EN 13432. The material has<br />

been comprehensively tested by MFPA, to evaluate its<br />

disintegration at bench scale and the quality of the compost,<br />

including its ecotoxicological harmless state (MFPA - Test<br />

certificate: P31029-05).<br />

Albrecht Dinkelaker’s bio-masterbatches are compatible<br />

with many different bioplastics in a wide range of<br />

thermoplastic processing technologies:<br />

• Injection moulding, thermoforming, blow moulding,<br />

compression moulding<br />

• fibres, mono- and multifilaments, sheets, foils, films,<br />

foams,<br />

• hotmelt, NF-biocomposites<br />

• and much more …<br />

These masterbatches can be supplied in opaque or<br />

translucent colours, while achromatic and pearlescent<br />

effects are also possible. Step by step, the palette of<br />

Caprowax P - bio-masterbatches will be expanded. This<br />

includes ecofriendly, calcined Kaolin as white pigment.<br />

Interested customers can ask for up to 4 free 50 g<br />

samples. Commercial quantities are available in 80 – 500 kg<br />

batches. Samples of laboratory prototypes with brightening<br />

Kaolin or pearlescent pigments are also available.<br />

The mineral color pigments used in Caprowax P are<br />

harmless, lightfast, non-migratory, thermally stable, water<br />

insoluble and comparable with natural, mineral pigments.<br />

They are - in a range of 15 – 40% - low-dusty incorporated in<br />

the compostable carrier material and already mineralised.<br />

Pigments and carrier material are free of aromatics and<br />

toxic heavy metals.<br />

For the most part, they are free of nitrogenous substances.<br />

The renewable, modified plant oil is GMO-free and presents<br />

no competition to food and feed.<br />

Bio-masterbatches can be processed at temperatures<br />

from 90 to 200 °C, and for a short time up 220 °C. Different<br />

bioplastics can be coloured with masterbatches in a range<br />

of 0,5 – 6 %. In colored final products separate, mineralic<br />

components are ≤1% . MT<br />

www.caprowax-p.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 23


Chinaplas-Review<br />

Chinaplas <strong>2018</strong><br />

The rainy weather in Shanghai seemed not to have affected<br />

the number of visits to Chinaplas <strong>2018</strong> which was<br />

moved to the National Exhibition and Convention Centre,<br />

Hongqiao, Shanghai for the first time.<br />

The National Exhibition and Convention Centre is located<br />

about 1.5 km from Hongqiao Airport and 60 km from Pudong<br />

Airport. It is close to the Hongqiao highspeed train HUB, just a<br />

10 minutes walk away. Metro lines 2, 17 and 23 stop there, and<br />

were highly suggested as they are the most convenient way<br />

to get to Chinaplas <strong>2018</strong> because of the heavy street traffic in<br />

Shanghai.<br />

The design of National Exhibition and Convention Centre<br />

is like a Shamrock grass leaf with three office buildings and<br />

a 5 star hotel at the four leaf tips. The complex offers over<br />

400,000 m² indoor exhibition space including 13 halls with<br />

28,800 m² each and 3 halls with 10,00 m² each. An additional<br />

100,000 m² outdoor exhibition space completes the centre.<br />

From 24 th April to 27 th April <strong>2018</strong>, Chinaplas saw a record<br />

breaking attendance of 180,701 visitors which shows a 21.6 %<br />

increase compared to 2016 and 16.4 % compared to 2017. On<br />

the second day alone Chinaplas had 64,385 visitors, which is as<br />

many as NPE (Orlando/USA) two weeks later saw over 5 days.<br />

At Chinaplas <strong>2018</strong>, two new special zones, 3D technology<br />

zone and TPE rubber zone were introduced in addition to the<br />

existing 16 zones.<br />

In the Bioplastics zone a total of 38 exhibitors, consisting of<br />

resins manufacturers, compounders and products converters<br />

showed their products and services.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE talked with most of the Chinese<br />

exhibitors and found that the local market accounts only for<br />

less than 10 % of their total sales volume. Insider pointed<br />

out that a lack of an efficient waste classification system and<br />

missing anaerobic organic waste biodegradation systems<br />

result in a lack of value for biodegradable products in a circular<br />

economic system.<br />

According to China Bioplastics Alliance, a first breakthrough<br />

for biodegradable plastics applications would be agricultural<br />

mulch films. Although according to the latest legalization<br />

the use of any plastic mulch film less than 12 µm thickness<br />

is forbidden, so that farmers can re-collect PE mulch film<br />

after harvest. However, according to local experts, the Chinese<br />

government is well aware about the comparative advantages<br />

of biodegradable mulch films. Every province has accumulated<br />

biodegradable mulch film trial data over the last 10 years. There<br />

seem to be no functional issues. The biggest obstacle seems<br />

to be the cost factor. China Bioplastics Alliance are studying<br />

different ways to reduce cost to an acceptable level including<br />

building a large scale factory in Northwest China where natural<br />

gas is available to produce BDO and subsequently PBAT.<br />

One of the most interesting visitors at the booth of bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE was a company from Tibet. They have been involved<br />

in water treatment in Tibet and are now looking for a partner<br />

to introduce anaerobic organic waste digestion systems to<br />

Tibet. They claimed that Tibet may be the most suitable place<br />

to adopt anaerobic digestion of organic waste because of the<br />

following reasons:<br />

Tibet’s regional spirit is back to nature. According to the<br />

Tibetan faith, celestial burial is performed by letting animals<br />

eat dead bodies.<br />

Tibetan people incinerate combustible waste for heating<br />

purposes in winter. Therefore their concept of waste<br />

classification is much better than in most parts of the People’s<br />

Republic of China.<br />

Tibet is a minority area. It is therefore expected that<br />

government will spend much more resources in environmental<br />

protection.<br />

www.chinaplasonline.com<br />

By:<br />

John Leung, Biosolutions<br />

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Automotive<br />

Back in 1989, we had a big, crazy idea.<br />

What if we could turn greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into<br />

products? It took a lot of research and some real innovation, but<br />

today Ingeo is valued for its unique properties and found in<br />

products from coffee capsules to nonwovens to appliances.<br />

natureworksllc.com |<br />

@natureworks<br />

Join us at Innovation Takes Root to learn more.<br />

The NatureWorks Advanced Biomaterials Forum | September 10 -12<br />

Rancho Bernardo Inn | San Diego, California USA<br />

innovationtakesroot.com | #ITR<strong>2018</strong><br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 25


Application AutomotiveNews<br />

Chocomel to opt for innovative packaging of<br />

more than 80 % plant-based materials<br />

Sustainable production<br />

is high on the agenda<br />

at FrieslandCampina<br />

(Amersfoort. The Netherlands)<br />

as sustainable<br />

leader in the dairy sector.<br />

For the long-keeping<br />

variety of their brand<br />

Chocomel, the company<br />

is now the first food<br />

producer in the world to<br />

opt for a new, innovative<br />

cardboard liter pack. One<br />

that is for more than 80<br />

% made of raw materials<br />

that come from plants,<br />

with wood and sugar cane<br />

as parent materials. The<br />

new packaging has been<br />

available in stores in the<br />

Netherlands since end of<br />

May <strong>2018</strong>.<br />

The new packaging of the sustainable varieties of Chocomel<br />

is from more than 80 % made of plant-based materials. In<br />

addition to the cardboard, which is produced from wood that<br />

is 100 % sourced from FSC-certified forests, the plastic cap<br />

and the outer plastic layer of the iconic yellow-colored suit<br />

are now made from plants. It concerns the part of the plant<br />

that remains after the part that is suitable for food has been<br />

taken out. The exact plastic material was not disclosed, but<br />

presumably it is Braskem’s bio-PE. The processing of this<br />

material for the packaging of Chocomel is therefore not at<br />

the expense of food. On an annual basis, about 40 million<br />

packages are involved.<br />

By crossing the 80 % limit FrieslandCampina reaches<br />

the threshold for the highest possible, 4-star certificate,<br />

‘Ok Biobased’. This is issued by the worldwide accredited<br />

inspection and certification organisation TÜV Austria<br />

(formerly Vinçotte). Compared with the previous packaging,<br />

the new Chocomel pack yields a CO 2<br />

saving of 17 %,<br />

according to the independent Swedish environmental<br />

research institute IVL.<br />

The choice for this innovative packaging is completely<br />

in line with FrieslandCampina’s strategy, route2020, and<br />

purpose, Nourishing by nature, which stands for better<br />

nutrition for consumers in the world, good income for the<br />

farmers, now and in the future. To achieve climate-neutral<br />

growth, FrieslandCampina is working on an efficient and<br />

sustainable production chain. In line with Sustainable<br />

Development Goal 12 of the United Nations, Sustainable<br />

consumption and production (SDG 12), the company aims to<br />

use only agricultural raw materials and paper packaging in<br />

2020, from fully sustainably managed sources.” MT<br />

www.frieslandcampina.com<br />

WPC posts for electric fences<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics (Emporia, Kansas, USA) developed<br />

a wood-plastic composite for Kencove’s PasturePro Posts<br />

for electric fences that is stronger, lasts longer and is easier<br />

to use compared to conventional solutions.<br />

It’s organic certifed and ready for long-term use.<br />

Kencove Farm Fence Supplies is a US-nationwide<br />

manufacturer and distributor of electric fence supplies<br />

for animal containment and exclusion. They manufacture<br />

electric fencing materials such as posts, wire and energizers<br />

and serve large farming operations as well as personal<br />

backyard farms — anyone who needs animal containment<br />

and protection solutions. The<br />

company carries electric fencing<br />

supplies for chickens, horses,<br />

cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and<br />

more.<br />

The material for the PasturePro<br />

Posts had to balance:<br />

Dielectric properties, tensile<br />

strength, memory capability,<br />

durability, aesthetics, flexibility,<br />

UV properties, and recyclability.<br />

Determining a formulation that met all these requirements<br />

as well as the cost target was challenging. As such, Green<br />

Forest Composites, the original manufacturer of PasturePro<br />

Posts, reached out to Green Dot Bioplastics.<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics worked to run multiple trial<br />

productions with various combinations of polypropylene (PP)<br />

grades and wood, as well as various processing conditions.<br />

Wood fiber was used to add strength and lighten the<br />

weight of the posts. There was a wide range of wood species<br />

to pick from, including oak, pine and maple that came in<br />

various particle sizes. Choosing the correct one was critical<br />

since its properties would affect the manufacturing process.<br />

There were several manufacturing challenges associated<br />

with the PasturePro Posts. In the early 2000s, the orientation<br />

of wood-plastic composites was a newly patented process<br />

and everything from speed, length of the line, heating,<br />

cooling and die sizes were constantly being adjusted. After<br />

carefully consulting with Green Forest Composites, Green<br />

Dot Bioplastics was able to pinpoint a consistent wood pellet<br />

that could function within the formulation. MT<br />

www.greendotbioplastics.com<br />

www.kencove.com<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Application Automotive News<br />

New generation of coffee capsules<br />

Flo, a major European food packaging producer from Parma, Italy, recently<br />

introduced Gea, the first coffee capsule in the world that combines compostability,<br />

oxygen barrier, and an improved taste and aroma experience for the consumer. The<br />

capsule was created in partnership with NatureWorks and is the result of a two-year<br />

joint development process that created a compostable capsule aimed to deliver on<br />

the high-performance requirements of the most demanding roasters.<br />

“Gea represents a new generation of capsules, designed to meet the needs of<br />

coffee roasters and coffee lovers, but also to address environmental issues related<br />

to the management of waste,” says Erika Simonazzi, marketing director of Flo. “As<br />

food packaging producers, we are very careful to study the right materials for their<br />

use, based on environmental requirements and the dictates of the new rules of the<br />

circular economy.”<br />

Gea is entirely composed of Ingeo PLA, which is certified for industrial composting systems according to global standards<br />

such as EN-13432 (EU) and ASTM D6400-04 (USA). The new capsule technology platform is fully approved for food contact and<br />

is now in final testing by TÜV Austria and the Italian Composting and Biogas Association (CIC) for compostability certification.<br />

“A fully compostable capsule provides an elegant and simple system for delivering the valuable used coffee grounds to<br />

industrial compost,” said Steve Davies, commercial director, NatureWorks Performance Packaging. “Thanks to the collaboration<br />

with Flo and their unique capability and dedication to developing improved packaging technologies, we are proud to support the<br />

commercialization of the first compostable coffee capsule made from 100 % Ingeo. The results demonstrate that delivering a<br />

superior taste and brewing experience to the consumer does not have to sacrifice sustainability.”<br />

Compared to compostable capsules currently on the market, the new Gea capsules address market requests for material<br />

ageing stability in an industrially compostable format. “Being able to count on a capsule that does not show signs of ageing in<br />

a few months, but is shelf stable for years, is a huge value for coffee roasters,” explains Erika Simonazzi. “Roasters should be<br />

focused on their coffee, not the packaging it is packed in. NatureWorks’ unique analytical and engineering capabilities together<br />

with Flo’s know-how in thermoforming technology, were critical to developing this solution.”<br />

Gea capsules also are an excellent barrier to oxygen, which protects the organoleptic qualities of the packaged coffee. The<br />

taste and aroma of the coffee are preserved, satisfying the needs of coffee roasters while ensuring an enhanced brewing<br />

experience for consumers.<br />

Initially targeting the demanding requirements of high pressure, single serve coffee systems, the Gea capsules have<br />

successfully passed the industrialization and filling tests at Flo’s major partner coffee roasters and will be available on the<br />

market starting in October <strong>2018</strong>.” MT<br />

www.flo.eu | www.natureworksllc.com<br />

(Photo: The Guardian / Shutterstock)<br />

Arla introduce mass-balance based bio-packaging<br />

Arla Foods Germany (Düsseldorf) is the first company to opt for the innovative SIGNATURE PACK from SIG Combibloc<br />

(Neuhausen, Switzerland) – the world’s first aseptic carton pack that is 100% linked to plant-based renewable material.<br />

Signature pack cartons are made from 77% paper board from wood and 23% plant-based polymers through mass balancing. This<br />

means that for the polymers used in the packaging, an equivalent amount of biobased feedstock went into the manufacturing of<br />

(other) polymers ofthe supplier. To ensure the integrity of this process, the mass balancing is certified through recognised and<br />

audited certification schemes (ISCC PLUS and TÜV SÜD CMS71). Arla now offers its 1 litre 1.5% and 3.8% organic milk (Arla ®<br />

BIO Weidemilch) in the Signature pack.<br />

By choosing the innovative Signature pack, Arla is demonstrating its commitment to sustainability as it strives to increase<br />

the market share of its organic dairy products. Arla’s organic milk cartons now carry a clear message to consumers: buying<br />

this pack promotes the use of renewable raw materials to protect fossil resources while making a positive impact in reducing<br />

the CO 2<br />

level compared with a standard carton pack.<br />

Elise Bijkerk, Marketing Director at Arla Foods Germany said: “The Signature pack<br />

is a great match for our BIO Weidemilch. Consumers that choose for our pure Arla BIO<br />

Weidemilch also have an increasingly strong interest in sustainable packaging. With<br />

the value-added pack from SIG, we can demonstrate our commitment to transparency<br />

and our holistic approach to sustainability across the value chain. We are happy to be<br />

the first company to use Signature pack and to be able to offer consumers in Germany<br />

this solution.”<br />

www.signature-pack.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 27


Report<br />

PHBV from waste water<br />

Phario: an opportunity for the polymer market<br />

Save the date<br />

see page 10-11 for details<br />

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a well-known family of biodegradable<br />

bioplastics. One in particular is PHBV, a less<br />

crystalline and amorphous rubbery material with unique<br />

properties. A Dutch consortium with -surprisingly- regional<br />

water authorities has committed to investing in a PHBV demonstration<br />

project called PHARIO in 2019. It is an open invitation<br />

to the polymer industry to co-invest in the development of<br />

this promising, biodegradable value chain.<br />

PHARIO<br />

A group of five Dutch water authorities, responsible for<br />

processing wastewater into clean water and protection of<br />

shores against rising water levels, form a core development<br />

group called Phario. This group assisted with its sectoral<br />

innovation institute, technology providers and two sludge<br />

incinerators. During a 10-month pilot, they achieved an<br />

excellent PHBV quality and business case, producing PHBV<br />

(up to 40% HV) from municipal sludge and waste fatty acids<br />

and successfully testing applications.<br />

Etteke Wypkema, innovation manager of Phario explains<br />

the concept: ‘The processes required for purifying sewage<br />

water already appear to breed the right bacteria for making<br />

PHA bioplastic. For the bacteria, this plastic is a form of<br />

energy reserve; if you offer them enough food under the right<br />

conditions (fatty acids), they produce this plastic, up to 50 %<br />

of their own weight. This plastic has very beneficial thermal<br />

and mechanical properties that make it usable for all kinds of<br />

applications. It is also biodegradable, and, most importantly:<br />

globally scalable, as the approach fits most conventional<br />

wastewater treatment plants (WWTP).’<br />

Promising results from the pilot stage<br />

Mid 2016 the project concluded in a public report [1] that<br />

the harvested activated sludge can consistently produce a<br />

high quality PHA/PHBV polymer that has interesting and<br />

meaningful application potentials and a sound business case.<br />

The polymer produced showed a 70% lower environmental<br />

impact compared to currently available PHA bioplastic and<br />

other benefits (non-GMO and no competition with food and<br />

feed nor land use).<br />

“The project showed that a high quality<br />

PHBV can be produced for less than EUR<br />

3.50 per kg on a 5,000 ton/year scale.<br />

Further cost reductions are possible, we<br />

need industrial participation”, says Mr.<br />

Martijn Bovee, business developer.<br />

Road to demonstration phase in 2019: open to<br />

partners<br />

Within the Phario project a large set of material data<br />

(thermal, mechanical) was generated, that made it possible<br />

for investors and end-users to evaluate the potential of<br />

the material. Now, higher volumes are needed. Pilot scale<br />

application tests are the key to commercialization.<br />

Various European compounders and end-users have shown<br />

their interest in Phario. Especially the content of up to 40%<br />

HV (amorphous, high polymer weight) and its ability to steer<br />

mechanical and thermal properties are key benefits. For this<br />

reason, Phario consortium will scale up to demonstration<br />

phase in 2019 with a larger role for the private sector. The<br />

project will cost approx. 5.5 million euro. Private sector<br />

involvement and EU-subsidies are expected to reduce net<br />

costs. During the project a few thousands of kilogrammes<br />

PHA/PHBV will be produced and evaluated to verify more<br />

extensively with application partners. The results of these<br />

tests will form the guarantees for the next development<br />

stage: a commercial reference facility with approx. 5,000 ton/<br />

year capacity [1].<br />

“Phario really combines ‘doing good’ with<br />

‘doing well’: it is beneficial to the water<br />

authorities, the industry and the environment”,<br />

says Mr. Berenst, executive of one of the Phario<br />

consortia members.<br />

Mr. Egbert Berenst, executive of Wetterskip Fryslân:<br />

“Our commitment is high. We believe we enable and boost<br />

biodegradable applications. It is one of the solutions to reduce<br />

the severe effects of micro plastics and plastic soup, and it<br />

is supportive to good governance and recycling as major<br />

solutions too. We also play another role in this market:<br />

we encourage all suppliers of biopolymers to supply biodegradable<br />

applications and solutions we can use in our<br />

water system. Phario really combines ‘doing good’ with ‘doing<br />

well’: we focus on both strong business and value cases.”<br />

www.phario.eu<br />

[1] Public report: https://tinyurl.com/phario<br />

Partners of PHARIO:<br />

Waterschap Brabantse Delta, Waterschap de Dommel, Wetterskip<br />

Fryslân, Waterschap Hollandse Delta, Waterschap Scheldestromen,<br />

HVC, SNB, STOWA, TUDelft, Wetsus, Paques, EFGF<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Report<br />

By:<br />

Martijn Bovée<br />

Business Developer<br />

Energie- & Grondstoffenfabriek<br />

Tiel, The Netherlands<br />

rethinking<br />

plastic<br />

PHARIO claims the following value proposition for<br />

applications:<br />

• High purity due to green solvent extraction<br />

• Design polymer: consistent quality and composition control options<br />

• Up to 40% HV content and high molecular weight (>1.000 kDA)<br />

• Lower melting points, amorphous<br />

• No use of raw materials and land; only waste/residues, non GMO<br />

• Cost competitive and 70% better LCA than classic PHA from monoculture<br />

Produced<br />

exclusively from<br />

pure plant-based,<br />

renewable<br />

resources!<br />

Figure 2: 1 kg of PHBV biopolymer from<br />

waste water<br />

Figure 3: Alternative to fishing lead<br />

Our premium range from<br />

renewable raw materials<br />

Figure 4: Festival tokens<br />

With Joma Nature® we offer a select<br />

range of our Spice Grinders and our<br />

Securibox® as an environmentally<br />

conscious alternative to conventional<br />

products – sustainable and CO 2-<br />

neutral.<br />

For our environment, we aim to<br />

protect our natural surroundings<br />

and secure a livable world for our<br />

children.<br />

www.joma.at<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 29


From Science & Research<br />

The French project PolyOil2Industry aimed at the development<br />

of a new biobased polymer based on renewable<br />

polyol intermediates. This 4 year research project<br />

has recently been completed. It was an inspiring collaboration<br />

between several French industrial partners which finally<br />

resulted in new renewable building blocks.<br />

These green polyols needed to answer the current<br />

demand of the different markets with new technical<br />

performance. Three main areas of applications were<br />

targeted in the project: building, packaging and cosmetics<br />

with the respective companies Soprema, Vegeplast and<br />

Polymerexpert. The project partner ITERG as well as LCPO<br />

(the joint research unit of the University of Bordeaux,<br />

CNRS and Bordeaux National Polytechnic Institute) have<br />

first developed the building blocks and prepolymers on<br />

laboratory scale, answering the specifications for each of<br />

the targeted applications. Of the most promising building<br />

blocks, ITERG scaled up the different protocols. The biobased<br />

1,3-propanediol developed by Metabolic Explorer made it<br />

possible to synthesize 100% renewably sourced polyols.<br />

Oleon, also project leader, was in charge of the further<br />

upscaling to the final production on an industrial scale of<br />

the selected molecules after the technical screening in the<br />

different applications.<br />

Along with the project, the different partners have<br />

been supplied with several building blocks obtained from<br />

vegetable triglycerides (from high oleic sunflower oil to<br />

castor oil) for an extensive evaluation of the performance<br />

in the applications. One molecule per applications has been<br />

selected, namely, a polyester polyol derived from ricinoleic<br />

acid for use in insulating foam (building), a diol prepolymer<br />

as a precursor for gelling of an oil phase for cosmetic<br />

application and a polymer additive as impact modifier for<br />

poly-L-lactide (PLA) for packaging.<br />

At this stage, tests in real production conditions are still<br />

necessary in the case of insulating foams for construction,<br />

but the results so far are promissing. For the other<br />

applications, commercial development perspectives are<br />

quite achievable. The invention of the gelling agent has<br />

been secured by a patent and commercialisation is started.<br />

With respect to the polymer additive for packaging, a<br />

wide range of polyricinoleates have been tested in PLAblends.<br />

Toughness of the blends has been significantly<br />

improved, elongation at break reached values of 100%, with<br />

no decrease of the tensile maximum strength as shown in<br />

Fig. 1. The PLA impact resistance has been doubled thanks<br />

to the addition of 3 %wt of the polyricinoleate additive. This<br />

mayor improvement of the properties offers the possibility<br />

to inject new flexible and impact-resistant bioinspired<br />

packagings (tray, tops) based on PLA.<br />

The results of the project is therefore very satisfactory.<br />

Molecules from vegetable lipid resources can be just as<br />

powerful as petrochemical molecules. They give access<br />

to new performances and this thanks to environmentally<br />

friendly processes.<br />

Breaking<br />

barrier for<br />

clean<br />

&<br />

green<br />

BioPolyols<br />

Fig. 1: PLA-polymer dumbbell-shaped specimen after tensile<br />

testing, v = 5mm/min (top specimen: before testing, middle: PLA<br />

without polyricinoleate, bottom: PLA with 3% polyricinoleate)<br />

Fig.: 2: Examples of PLA packaging materials with polyricinoleate<br />

additive as impact modifier:<br />

www.oleon.com | www.iterg.com | www.lcpo.fr | www.soprema.fr |<br />

www.vegeplast.com | www.polymerexpert.fr | www.metabolic-explorer.com<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


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bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 31


Report<br />

Compostable sanitary napkins<br />

for India’s girls and women<br />

Menstruation, the most natural bio-physiological phenomenon<br />

in a woman’s life cycle, is considered dirty<br />

and impure throughout India. This is reflected in the<br />

way the entire concept of Menstrual Hygiene gets handled.<br />

The shame, the secrecy, lack of access to clean pads or<br />

toilet facilities further adds to the challenges. The implications<br />

are deeper and more pervasive than any statistic can<br />

attempt to portray.<br />

<strong>Issue</strong>s such as lack of awareness, lack of access, and<br />

un-affordability force approximately 300 million women<br />

to rely on old rags, plastic, sand, and ash to address their<br />

sanitation needs during their menstrual cycle.<br />

The 12 % that do have access will throw away approximately<br />

433 million napkins every month (which equates to nearly<br />

150 kg of waste per woman/girl over her lifetime). Studies<br />

show that each sanitary pad could take 500-800 years to<br />

decompose.<br />

According to a report, it is estimated that these 433<br />

million pads annually generate a potential of 9,000 tonnes<br />

of sanitary waste in India. Furthermore, more than 80 %<br />

of this waste is either flushed down the toilet or ending up<br />

dumped in a landfill. Sanitary waste disposal is not merely<br />

a waste management issue, it’s a health and human rights<br />

issue that affects the entire country. As there is currently<br />

no standardized method of sustainable sanitary waste<br />

disposal, every menstrual product disposed contributes to<br />

either soil, air or water contamination. Any soiled sanitary<br />

products is a breeding ground for infections and diseases.<br />

Stagnant menstrual blood accumulates bacteria such as<br />

Escherichia coli, or E coli, which multiplies at an alarming<br />

rate.<br />

Through the Aakar Model, Aakar Innovations endeavour<br />

to break the silence around the issue of menstrual hygiene<br />

and provide knowledge and guidance to all stakeholders,<br />

especially adolescent girls. The idea is that something as<br />

natural as menstruation does not become a thing of shame,<br />

adolescent girls have access to pads, know how to use<br />

and dispose them, while the community and institutional<br />

systems are sensitised and support them in this process.<br />

Aakar is a hybrid social enterprise that enables women<br />

to produce and distribute affordable, high-quality, 100 %<br />

compostable sanitary napkins within their communities<br />

while simultaneously raising awareness and sensitization<br />

of menstrual hygiene management. In 2013, Aakar became<br />

India’s first company to launch a 100 % compostable<br />

sanitary pad under the brand name Anandi.<br />

To increase the efficiency of fluid (menstrual blood)<br />

absorption and make the pad thin, most of the sanitary<br />

napkins as produced by the MNCs (Multi National<br />

Companies) utilize gel-sheet of super absorbent polymer<br />

(SAP), dioxane, and other hazardous chemicals. SAP can<br />

sometimes suck the useful fluid which may cause serious<br />

infections and can lead to various diseases like cancer, skin<br />

diseases, etc. In fact, India is one of the countries with the<br />

highest rates of cervical cancer (it accounts for almost 23 %<br />

of all cancer in Indian women), and the studies shows a<br />

direct link between HPV (Human papillomavirus infection)<br />

infections (cause of cervical cancer) and poor menstrual<br />

hygiene.<br />

This situation necessitates the development of user and<br />

environmental friendly menstrual health products. ‘Anandi’<br />

Fig 1 +2: Women produce compostable sanitary napkins<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


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bioplastic. The root sources of the material used is from<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 33


From Science & Research<br />

Biobased filler for SMC<br />

Introduction and motivation: In the market of glass-fiberreinforced<br />

polymer composites (GFRPC), Sheet Molding<br />

Compound (SMC) has high market relevance, as 20 % of<br />

all the glass fibers produced in Europe are handled in SMC<br />

processes [1]. Normally, SMC consists of a highly filled thermoset<br />

resins system, mostly based on unsaturated polyester<br />

resin, glass fi-bers, application specific additives and<br />

filler materials, see Figure 1. SMC is, based on its me-chanical<br />

properties, predestinated for the use in semi-structural<br />

parts or hang-on parts – e.g. for automotive applications.<br />

By a variation of the specific additives and the directly linked<br />

change of the composition of the semi-finished product, the<br />

scope of application can be diversified. The properties of the<br />

material itself can be changed from e.g. electrical applications<br />

for cabi-nets to parts with an equal thermal expansion<br />

coefficient as steel. Further advantages of the material are<br />

the advantageous price for the semi-finished product and<br />

the possibility for cost-efficient large-scale processing of<br />

the material in a parallel regulated compression molding<br />

pro-cess.<br />

Project approach: In a standard SMC, based on UP resin<br />

systems, approximately 40 % of the total weight of the SMC<br />

semi-finished product consists of mineral filler materials<br />

(Figure 1). These fillers can be divided into functional filler<br />

materials, e.g. aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3 as flame<br />

retardant with a density of 2.4 g/cm³) and non-functional<br />

filler materials, e.g. calcium carbonate ((CaCO3) with a<br />

density of 2.71 g/cm³). Within the scope of this research<br />

work, which was carried out at the Institute for Composite<br />

Materials (IVW) and the Institute for Bio-technology and<br />

Drug Research (IBWF) (both Kaiserslautern, Germany), the<br />

use of renewable and biobased filler materials replacing<br />

conventional filler materials was examined. Here, attention<br />

was paid to the fact that the biobased materials are a<br />

by-product of food industry and for-estry and should not be<br />

in direct contradiction. As biobased filler materials, wood<br />

flour out of regional soft- and hardwood, rapeseed meal,<br />

rice hulls and sunflower hull meal were used. The different<br />

fillers were subjected to different test series regarding their<br />

density, particle size distri-bution, dispensability, wettability,<br />

influence to resin paste viscosity and their tendency to<br />

fungus growth. This work will show an extract of the<br />

results which were achieved using grinded sun-flower<br />

hulls as a filler material for a standard SMC. In different<br />

test series, the non-functional filler material was replaced<br />

by an increasing proportion of biobased filler materials.<br />

Hereby, the focus was on the processability of the semifinished<br />

products. The semi-finished products should be<br />

processable with a conventional SMC production line and<br />

pressed with a conven-tional press cycle, see Table 1.<br />

Liquid<br />

components<br />

Figure 1:<br />

Composition of<br />

a typical SMC<br />

formulation (data<br />

in weight percent)<br />

Production and processing of SMC with biobased filler<br />

materials: The production of the SMC resin paste was<br />

carried out on a laboratory scale circular disc dissolver. The<br />

amount of biobased filler materials, replacing conventional<br />

filler materials, was raised in different test se-ries by steps<br />

of 25 %. The resin paste was processed to a SMC semi-<br />

Thermoplastic<br />

additiv 8 %<br />

UP-resin<br />

15 %<br />

Glass<br />

fibers<br />

30 %<br />

Application<br />

specific<br />

additives 7 %<br />

Filler<br />

materials<br />

40 %<br />

Powedery<br />

compomets<br />

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


From Science & Research<br />

By:<br />

Florian Gortner 1 ; Anja Schüffler 2 ,<br />

Jochen Fischer 2 , Peter Mitschang 1<br />

1: Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH (IVW)<br />

2: Institut für Biotechnologie und Wirkstoff-Forschung gGmbH (IBWF)<br />

(both) Kaiserslautern, Germany<br />

finished material on the institutes’ own SMC production<br />

line under industry-oriented processing parameters. After<br />

a maturing time of 4 to 6 days, the semi-finished material<br />

was processed to specimen plates with conventional SMC<br />

processing parameters, see Table 1.<br />

Fungus/microorganism growth testing: All material<br />

samples with differing biobased filler concentrations<br />

were cut into square pieces (15 x 15 mm). The samples<br />

were photographed using a reflected-light microscope<br />

and afterwards incubated in microbiological growth<br />

medium inoculated with a Trichoderma species (Figure 2<br />

A1), a mixture of airborne organisms (Figure 2 A2) and a<br />

standardized humus soil (Figure 2 A3), respectively. All<br />

samples were incubated at 27°C in a laboratory incubator<br />

at 40 rpm to ensure oxygen supply. The samples were<br />

surface-analyzed for possible degradation after 6 weeks.<br />

Additionally the square pieces were incubated based on<br />

the “Mildew Resistance Test Procedure GMW3259” but<br />

incubation temperature was 37 °C, 45 ml PS tubes with<br />

lamella stopper as containers and supports made of plastic<br />

were used.<br />

Results of mechanical properties and density reduction:<br />

By the replacement of the con-ventional non-functional<br />

fillers with biobased fillers, a reduction of the density of the<br />

semi-finished products up till 9,4 % could be realized. The<br />

mechanical properties given in this work were determined<br />

on tensile test according to DIN EN ISO 527-4 specimen<br />

type 2 (250x15x4 mm³) and decrease slightly with increasing<br />

share of the biobased filler materials. With a content of<br />

biobased filler materials of 75 %, Young’s modulus was<br />

decreased by 18 %, tensile strength was decreased by 20 %<br />

(Figure 2). Taking the specific mechanical properties into<br />

account, the new materials are very well comparable to<br />

standard SMC.<br />

Results of fungus/microorganism growth testing:<br />

Although the cut edges of all material samples were covered<br />

with a biofilm (Figure 2 C) in the cultures inoculated with<br />

Trichoderma, airborne microorganisms and humus soil<br />

sample, no degradation was observed even when 100 % biofiller<br />

were used (exemplarily a sample with 75 % bio-filler is<br />

shown before (Figure 2 B) and after incubation with airborne<br />

organisms for six weeks (Figure 2 D)). Furthermore, the<br />

mate-rial samples incubated based on “GMW3259” did not<br />

possess any fungal growth nor moldy odor after two weeks.<br />

Conclusion: The good mechanical results and the<br />

biological durability show that the use of biobased materials<br />

as filler materials for SMC is a realistic option. By using<br />

a former by-product of food industry or forestry as a raw<br />

material in a composite material an ecological useful upcycling<br />

is enabled.<br />

www.ivw.uni-kl.de | www.ibwf.de<br />

Table 1: Processing parameter<br />

for the production and processing of SMC<br />

Figure 2: Influence of the biobased filler materials to the<br />

mechanical properties according to DIN EN ISO 527<br />

Manufacturing:<br />

14.000 —<br />

Tensile strength<br />

Young‘s Modulus<br />

— 100<br />

Resin paste viscosity for the<br />

processing on a SMC-line<br />

Processing:<br />

15 – 45 Pa∙s<br />

Tool temperature 135 – 145 °C<br />

Cycle time<br />

approx. 1 min per mm<br />

thickness of the part<br />

Pressure inside the mold 100 – 120 bar<br />

Young‘s Modulus [MPa]<br />

12.000 —<br />

10.000 —<br />

8.000 —<br />

6.000 —<br />

4.000 —<br />

2.000 —<br />

0 —<br />

100 % CaCO 3<br />

0 % bio-filler<br />

75 % CaCO 3<br />

25 % bio-filler<br />

50 % CaCO 3<br />

50 % bio-filler<br />

Variation of filler materials<br />

— 100<br />

— 80<br />

— 60<br />

— 40<br />

— 20<br />

— 0<br />

25 % CaCO 3<br />

75 % bio-filler<br />

Tensile strength [MPa]<br />

A B C D<br />

1 2 3<br />

Figure 3: Material samples incubated with Trichoderma sp. (A1), airborne organisms (A2) and humus soil (A3); magnification of a sample<br />

with 75 % bio-filler before (B), with biofilm after (C) and washed after incuba-tion with airborne organisms for 6 weeks<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 35


Report<br />

Spanish project will develop<br />

customized materials<br />

New customized compostable materials for the manufacture<br />

of tableware, packages and single-use bags<br />

In recent years, the legislation regulating waste management<br />

has focused on reducing the environmental impact<br />

of packaging and its waste with specific provisions that<br />

foster the use of compostable bags, such as the French directive<br />

that, since the beginning of 2020, will ban the use of<br />

disposable tableware if not a minimum amount of 50 % of<br />

the material used for its man- ufacture is derived<br />

from renewable<br />

sources<br />

and the<br />

materials are<br />

not compostable<br />

in home<br />

composting. In<br />

Spain, a Royal<br />

Decree project will<br />

force to spread the<br />

concept of biodegradable<br />

to<br />

compostable.<br />

In this<br />

legislative<br />

context and<br />

a lack of a<br />

sufficiently<br />

w i d e<br />

range of<br />

materials<br />

covering<br />

the needs<br />

required by the<br />

(Generic picture)<br />

market and being<br />

an adequate alternative to conventional<br />

plastic materials, the Spanish project BIO+ will<br />

develop customized materials responding to these needs.<br />

The project Bio+ companies manufacturing singleuse<br />

products, led by the bag manufacturer PICDA and<br />

coordinated by AIMPLAS (both from Valencia, Spain)<br />

collaborate with other centres and universities.<br />

The main objective of the project is to develop customized<br />

compostable materials for mass-market single-use<br />

products complying with the current legislation and with<br />

the same functional requirements as products made<br />

from traditional plastic materials and at competitive cost.<br />

For that purpose, tasks are being carried out to realize<br />

the biodegradation of different products with view to their<br />

end of life. Thus, for single-use packages and disposable<br />

tableware, which are normally contaminated with food<br />

scraps, a compostability in ‘home compost’ conditions is<br />

to be achieved. For single-use bags that wrongly managed<br />

may end in the environment, rivers and subsequently the<br />

oceans, a biodegradability in marine environment is to be<br />

sought.<br />

The consortium of the project is led by PICDA specialized<br />

in extrusion of plastic bags of different formats, and<br />

Granzplast (Corbera, Valencia, Spain), engaged in the<br />

manufacture of customized plastic compounds for injection<br />

and extrusion technologies. In order to tackle<br />

the developments in disposable household<br />

items developed, the companies<br />

Nupik (Polinyà, Barcelona, Spain),<br />

leader in the manufacture of<br />

disposable household items and<br />

Perez Cerdá Plastics<br />

(Castalla, Alicante,<br />

Spain), specialized<br />

in tasks of plastics<br />

injection applied their<br />

knowledges in singleuse<br />

injected household<br />

items (cutlery and<br />

cups). The consortium<br />

is completed with<br />

companies addressing<br />

the developments in<br />

single-use packaging,<br />

such as Indesla (Biar,<br />

Alacant, Spain),<br />

manufacturer<br />

of packages<br />

for the fruit and<br />

vegetable and food<br />

sectors and Thermolympic<br />

(Utebo, Zaragoza, Spain), a company dedicated<br />

to the injection of thermoplastics that, in this project, will<br />

tackle the development of packages for catering. Moreover,<br />

the consortium has the support of three technology centres<br />

such as Aimplas, AITIIP and CETIM and the University of<br />

Santiago de Compostela (USC), which will provide scientific<br />

and technical support to the companies taking part in R&D<br />

tasks.<br />

The project BIO+ has been funded by the Spanish Ministry<br />

of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness through the<br />

Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI)<br />

through the call aimed at funding the strategic programme<br />

for national business research consortia (CIEN 2017<br />

programme) and with grant number SOL-00103164. MT<br />

www.aimplas.net<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Materials<br />

Sun protection<br />

cosmetics made with<br />

PHB bioplastic<br />

Save the date<br />

see page 10-11 for details<br />

Bio-on (Bologna, Italy), recently presented a brand-new<br />

line of cosmetic ingredients for sun protection made<br />

from its 100% natural and biodegradable PHB bioplastic.<br />

The new products are part of the minerv bio cosmetics<br />

family of bioplastic micro powders presented in spring<br />

2017 and designed for cosmetics that respect the environment<br />

and human health. This latest innovation is a series<br />

of high-performing SPF (Sun Protection Factor) Boosters<br />

designed to improve sun protection products.<br />

Increased awareness of the harm caused by exposure<br />

to sunlight is accelerating the number of products with UV<br />

filters released on the market. Their purpose is to screen<br />

against UV radiation: UV-B rays, the most common cause<br />

of sun erythema and sunburn, and UV-A rays, which are<br />

responsible for more serious long-term effects: blood<br />

vessel damage, photoaging, photocarcinogenesis.<br />

What people ignore is that, unfortunately, organic<br />

UV filters can be phototoxic and photounstable. The<br />

main goal of the scientific community is to find a way to<br />

limit their concentration in cosmetics formulas without<br />

compromising performance. This is where the new SPF<br />

Booster line developed for the minerv bio cosmetics brand<br />

comes in. These ingredients (micro powders made from<br />

biodegradable PHB microscopic spheres or capsules) are<br />

designed to significantly reduce the percentage<br />

of UV filters used in the sun protection product<br />

and boost waterresistance.<br />

The minerv bio cosmetics portfolio, which<br />

already includes texturizing powders for skin<br />

care and make-up, mattifiers, scrubs, and<br />

micro capsules for the controlled release<br />

of active substances, ideal for anti-ageing<br />

treatments, is now extended to include:<br />

• minervPHB Riviera an SPF Booster<br />

suitable for all solar formulations<br />

• minervPHB Riviera Plus an innovative<br />

SPF Booster, enriched with antioxidants,<br />

ideal for total care products (skin care,<br />

make-up, hair care).<br />

“Riviera represents another building<br />

block in our green cosmetics revolution,”<br />

says Marco Astorri, Bio-on Chairman and<br />

CEO, “to make the personal care market<br />

truly sustainable and fully respect the<br />

ocean and the land. By continuing to find<br />

new solutions for the cosmetics sector, our<br />

company is setting a new standard thanks<br />

to our PHBs bioplastic.”<br />

“The Riviera line is a success story from our Powder<br />

Boutique,” explains Paolo Saettone, Managing Director<br />

of the Bio-on CNS Business Unit, “a site dedicated to<br />

advanced research, where our scientists play with our<br />

versatile biopolymer like tailors play with fabrics, seeking<br />

out the perfect morphology and technology to maximise<br />

performance. This fine work has created the Riviera micro<br />

particles, which are the perfect scattering centre element<br />

for UV rays.”<br />

All the PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoates) developed by Bio-on<br />

are made from renewable plant sources with no competition<br />

with food supply chains. They can replace a number of<br />

conventional polymers currently made with petrochemical<br />

processes using hydrocarbons; they guarantee the same<br />

thermo-mechanical properties as conventional plastics<br />

with the advantage of being completely eco-sustainable and<br />

100% naturally biodegradable.<br />

Starting in summer <strong>2018</strong>, all minerv bio cosmetics<br />

products will be made by Bio-on Plants, Bio-on’s first<br />

industrial plant dedicated to the production of cosmetic<br />

ingredients. Located in Castel San Pietro Terme (Bologna),<br />

it will produce 1000 tons/year of PHB micro powders over<br />

an area of 3,000 m2 with an overall investment of 20 million<br />

Euro. MT<br />

www.minerv-biocosmetics.com | www.bio-on.it<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 37


From Science & Research<br />

Astroplastic – 3D-printable PHB<br />

from human waste for<br />

use in space<br />

Governments and private enterprises alike are gearing<br />

up for travel across our Solar System. Plans to<br />

colonize nearby planets are underway, with Elon<br />

Musk spearheading the initiative to put a human colony on<br />

Mars by 2030. In a parallel vein, NASA is planning a manned<br />

exploratory mission to Mars as early as the 2030s. Several<br />

other space agencies have similar plans and timelines for<br />

their own Mars explorations. This exciting time in our history<br />

nonetheless comes with the challenges of long-term space<br />

travel. Two ecological and economic challenges arise: the<br />

sustainable management of waste produced on a spaceship<br />

and the high cost of shipping materials to space [1].<br />

A current University of Calgary’s project involves using<br />

genetically engineered E. coli to turn human waste into<br />

bioplastics. The project is envisioned as a start-to-finish<br />

integrated system that can be used in space to generate<br />

items useful to astronauts during early Mars missions. This<br />

will solve the problem of waste management by upcycling<br />

solid human waste into a usable product. It will also reduce<br />

astronautical costs, as expensive fuel routinely used to ship<br />

materials to space can be saved.<br />

For the team of students testing a breakthrough<br />

biological plastic for 3D printing in space, the formula was<br />

the difference between using fake feculence or finding a<br />

volunteer to provide the real deal [2].<br />

“We actually tried to pursue the route of using the real<br />

thing, but no one wanted to have it inside the lab,” laughs<br />

Alina Kunitskaya, a fourth-year chemical engineering<br />

student at the Schulich School of Engineering.<br />

UCalgary’s project, entitled Astroplastic: From Colon<br />

to Colony, tests the theory of using human waste as the<br />

foundation for a bioplastic that can then be used in 3D<br />

printers to build tools — a process that would be especially<br />

useful to astronauts on deep-space missions.<br />

The bioplastic material meant here is Poly(3-<br />

hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a linear polyester and is a product<br />

of bacterial fermentation of some sugars or lipids. PHB is<br />

used by certain bacteria as carbon and energy storage.<br />

“With space travel, such as a three-year mission to<br />

Mars, there are major challenges to overcome,” explains<br />

Kunitskaya, who specializes in biomedical engineering.<br />

“Transporting material is difficult and expensive, and<br />

how do you anticipate every challenge and everything you<br />

need over three years on a trip to Mars? Recycling waste is<br />

another major challenge.”<br />

Making plastic out of poop could be the answer, and<br />

the Calgary team — composed of 14 undergraduate<br />

students from the Faculty of Science, the Cumming School<br />

of Medicine, and the Schulich School of Engineering,<br />

with mentoring from six faculty advisers from the three<br />

disciplines — decided to find out.<br />

“We got the team together at the beginning of the winter<br />

semester (2016) and started brainstorming ideas, and each<br />

person came up with their own idea,” says Kunitskaya.<br />

“The only criteria is having synthetic biology which is<br />

engineering bacteria to do something useful. And at first,<br />

our idea was to make plastic out of wastewater.”<br />

A visit to Calgary’s wastewater treatment plant and<br />

further brainstorming refined that idea into a solution for<br />

deep-space astronauts. And, armed with the advice of<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


From Science & Research<br />

Save the date<br />

see page 10-11 for details<br />

real space travellers like Chris Hadfield and University of<br />

Calgary Chancellor Robert Thirsk, the team had its mission.<br />

“This year, the University of Calgary’s project involves<br />

using genetically engineered E. coli to turn human waste<br />

into PHB,” reads the team summary of the project.<br />

“We envision our project as a start-to-finish integrated<br />

system that can be used in space to generate items useful<br />

to astronauts during early Mars missions. This will solve the<br />

problem of waste management by upcycling solid human<br />

waste into a usable product.”<br />

And yes, it works. More than just an exercise on paper,<br />

the team actually produced PHB in the Bachelor of Health<br />

Sciences laboratory, where the team worked all spring<br />

and summer, carefully documenting every detail of their<br />

collaborative work on a wiki website [1].<br />

The detailed research and stringent attention to the<br />

iGEM requirements earned the team a gold medal at the<br />

International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM)<br />

Foundation’s Giant Jamboree in Boston, where nearly 5,000<br />

students representing 330 universities presented their<br />

best ideas on synthetic biology. In addition the Astroplastic<br />

project was nominated for Best Manufacturing Project at<br />

the Boston event — the world’s premiere student team<br />

competition in synthetic biology.<br />

“The jamboree was their time to shine, and shine they<br />

did — for the University of Calgary,” says Mayi Arcellana-<br />

Panlilio, senior instructor in biochemistry and molecular<br />

biology at Cumming School of Medicine, and lead faculty<br />

adviser of the iGEM team. MT<br />

Sources:<br />

[1] Astroplastic-wiki: http://2017.igem.org/Team:Calgary<br />

[2] https://tinyurl.com/astroplastic<br />

www.ucalgary.ca<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 39


Materials<br />

Thermoplastic<br />

starch from the<br />

heart of Europe<br />

By:<br />

Gottfried Krapfenbauer (Sales Director Technical Specialities) and<br />

Barbara Fahrngruber (Teamlead R&D)<br />

AGRANA STÄRKE<br />

Vienna, Austria<br />

The need for green ingredients in bioplastics is becoming<br />

an important topic. Efficient resource management<br />

that addresses renewable materials and waste<br />

recovery is a crucial future step towards a circular economy.<br />

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) produced by AGRANA can help<br />

to fulfill these requirements.<br />

AMITROPLAST ®<br />

Starch, itself consisting of the two polymers amylose and<br />

amylopectin, is an amazing and very versatile material,<br />

making it an important base for modern bioplastics. In the<br />

production of bioplastics, Agrana uses its many years of<br />

expertise in the production and processing of starch and<br />

supplements this with the knowledge of the needs of the<br />

plastics industry.<br />

With the Amitroplast product family, Agrana provides<br />

user-friendly TPS (Thermoplastic Starch) for extrusion, film<br />

blowing, injection moulding and 3D printing.<br />

Amitroplast is bio-based, biodegradable and can be<br />

disposed of in a home or industrial composting environment.<br />

All Amitroplast products allow users to incorporate<br />

significant amounts of TPS and thus, to create tailor-made<br />

Starch TPS Blend Final Product<br />

• Nongenetically<br />

modified<br />

• Renewable<br />

raw material<br />

• Biodegradable<br />

• Compostable<br />

• Biobased<br />

• Made in<br />

Austria<br />

Material<br />

adaptation<br />

specifically to<br />

requirements<br />

by<br />

combination<br />

with other<br />

bio-polymers<br />

and additives<br />

Products with<br />

the previously<br />

customdetermined<br />

properties<br />

polymer compounds that are processable by using standard<br />

polymer equipment and capable of adding extra value to<br />

innovative products.<br />

The material properties of a 25 µm film, based on a<br />

compound that consists of 50 % Amitroplast and 50 % PBAT<br />

(polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate), results typically<br />

in an extensibility of approximately 350 % and a tensile<br />

strength of 20-25 MPa.<br />

Furthermore, the new technology of Amitroplast<br />

significantly reduces the development of fumes during film<br />

blowing.<br />

Amitroplast is produced from renewable and regional raw<br />

material. All ingredients are derived from non-geneticallymodified<br />

sources.<br />

R&D at Agrana<br />

The journey of implementing sustainable solutions to<br />

ensure the fulfillment of today´s and future demands is not<br />

yet over. Agrana employs a significant number of scientists<br />

and technicians who conduct applied research and<br />

customer-oriented product development. Strengthening<br />

sustainable partnerships is their motivation, whereby<br />

confidentiality and technical support are guaranteed.<br />

Agrana worldwide<br />

Agrana is an international company headquartered in<br />

Vienna, Austria. Founded in 1988, Agrana today achieves<br />

a turnover of 2.6 billion EUR with 8900 employees. The<br />

main areas are starch, fruit and sugar with more than 1000<br />

products across the divisions. Agrana is the leading sugar<br />

company in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the<br />

global leader in fruit preparations and a major producer of<br />

fruit juice concentrates in Europe.<br />

Agrana Starch specialises in processing and adding value<br />

to high quality agricultural commodities such as corn,<br />

potato and wheat to make a wide range of starch product.<br />

Tailored to different industrial uses from top quality<br />

foodstuffs to numerous industrial upstream products<br />

as well as bioethanol, AGRANA STARCH has a long and<br />

exceptionally successful track record in the development<br />

and marketing of starch products. More details at<br />

www.agrana.com/en/products/starch-portfolio/productsfor-technical-applications/<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Automotive<br />

PRESENTS<br />

The Bioplastics Award will be presented<br />

during the 13 th European Bioplastics Conference<br />

December 04-05, <strong>2018</strong>, Berlin, Germany<br />

THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL GLOBAL AWARD FOR<br />

DEVELOPERS, MANUFACTURERS AND USERS OF<br />

BIOBASED AND/OR BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS.<br />

Call for proposals<br />

Enter your own product, service or development,<br />

or nominate your favourite example from<br />

another organisation<br />

Please let us know until August 31 st<br />

1. What the product, service or<br />

development is and does<br />

2. Why you think this product,<br />

service or development should win an award<br />

3. What your (or the proposed) company<br />

or organisation does<br />

<strong>2018</strong><br />

Your entry should not exceed 500 words (approx. 1 page)<br />

and may also be supported with photographs, samples,<br />

marketing brochures and/or technical documentation<br />

(cannot be sent back). The 5 nominees must be prepared<br />

to provide a 30 second videoclip and come to Berlin on<br />

December 4 th , <strong>2018</strong>.<br />

More details and an entry form can be downloaded from<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/award<br />

supported by<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 41


NPE <strong>2018</strong><br />

The Plastics Show, May 7-11, Orlando, Florida, USA, was again the largest plastics show in North America that<br />

attracted plastics producers converters, scientists and otherwise involved visitors from around the world. This<br />

show was the largest in history, with more than 2,180 exhibiting companies showcasing innovations in plastics<br />

in more than 111,000 m² of exhibit space on the tradeshow floor. PLASTICS, the US Plastics Industry Association<br />

estimated a total of about 65,000 attendees.<br />

And bioplastics were again well represented. Of course, a handful of the good 50 exhibitors that we announced<br />

in the last issue didn’t have anything about bioplastics in their portfolio, although listed in the official catalogue… .<br />

But those that did show bioplastics related products and services were well known protagonists as well as<br />

newcomers in this industry. In the following paragraphs we will introduce just a few highlights.<br />

<strong>2018</strong><br />

NPE Review<br />

Danimer Scientific<br />

Danimer Scientific, Bainbridge, Georgia,<br />

USA, is a pioneer in creating more sustainable,<br />

more natural ways to make plastic products.<br />

For more than a decade, their renewable and<br />

sustainable biopolymers have helped create<br />

plastic products that are biodegradable and<br />

compostable.<br />

One product Danimer presented at NPE<br />

that, among many others, caught the attention<br />

of bioplastics MAGAZINE, was a flexible snack<br />

packaging for PepsiCo. It is the 2nd generation<br />

made of a proprietary formulation<br />

from Danimer which contains PLA and<br />

other biopolymers and it is industrially<br />

compostable.<br />

Brad Rodgers, Global R&D Director<br />

– Food Packaging Discovery of PepsiCo<br />

however mentioned that it’s working<br />

with Danimer Scientific to create a biobased<br />

film from polyhydroxyalkanoate<br />

(PHA) – the 3 rd generation – so to say.<br />

Brad stated that PepsiCo has been researching<br />

and developing biobased flexible packaging<br />

for more than 10 years. And the results of<br />

their research made them believe that PHA<br />

will have some significant performance and<br />

environmental advantages once it’s at scale.<br />

“We are pleased and honored that PepsiCo<br />

has chosen to work with Danimer Scientific for<br />

their packaging applications,” said Scott Tuten,<br />

Chief Marketing Officer at Danimer Scientific,<br />

“the future for biopolymers continues to grow<br />

tremendously with forward thinking companies<br />

like PepsiCo leading the way.<br />

Save the date<br />

c2renew<br />

c2renew Corporation (Colfax, North Dakota, USA) develops<br />

proprietary biocomposite formulations that satisfy demanding<br />

engineering specifications. With their technology customers can<br />

take advantage of lower-cost, renewable resources while meeting,<br />

maintaining, and even improving upon the mechanical properties<br />

required. With biocomposite materials made of recycled plastics and<br />

locally sourced agricultural byproducts, c2renew materials support<br />

both the environment and the community.<br />

On top of designing the material, the company also provides a range<br />

of engineering services. Their team of experienced engineers will<br />

guide businesses through every step of the design, manufacturing,<br />

and testing process, ensuring the plastic or composites components<br />

are developed effectively and to the customer’s specifications.<br />

At NPE c3renew showed, among others, a few unique formulations<br />

demonstrated with equally unique samples.<br />

c2PLA – Coffee is a PLA compound with coffee residuals (coffee<br />

chaff, the dried skin of coffee beans, the husk, which comes off during<br />

the roasting process). The compound is up to 40 % filled and provides<br />

an aromatic hint of coffee that emanates from the compound. The<br />

coffee mug on the picture is made of this material.<br />

The beer stein is made of a similar compound filled with residues<br />

from the beer brewing process. Dried Destillers Grains? “Something<br />

similar,” as CEO Corey Kratcha told bioplastics MAGAZINE at their<br />

booth.<br />

Other compounds include c2PLA-Blue (PLA/flax shive, coloured)<br />

and c2PLA-Natural (PLA/flax shive), and c2HIPS (HIPS / heat<br />

stabilized biomass), that can be used up<br />

to the degradation temperature of HIPS<br />

(high impact polystyrene) without any<br />

off-degassing.<br />

www.c2renew.com<br />

www.danimerscientific.com<br />

see page 10-11 for details<br />

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


NPE Review<br />

NatureWorks<br />

From coffee capsules to food serviceware, home<br />

appliances, and innovative 3D printing solutions,<br />

NatureWorks (Minnetonka, Minneapolis, USA) has been<br />

leading application innovations from biomaterials since<br />

1989.<br />

The products NatureWorks displayed at NPE<br />

demonstrated how Ingeo PLA can be tailored to<br />

enhance performance attributes critical to performance.<br />

These attributes include barrier properties, heat and<br />

impact resistance, and thermoformability, all while<br />

embracing the concepts of a low-carbon circular<br />

economy. Recently, NatureWorks reached the milestone<br />

of 900,000 tonnes (2 bn pounds) of Ingeo biopolymer sold<br />

globally via its comprehensive portfolio of 33 grades.<br />

These grades are converted into thousands of consumer<br />

and industrial products across dozens of industries.<br />

A project, that NatureWorks (Minnetonka, Minneapolis,<br />

USA) have worked on for a couple of years was presented<br />

at NPE: Thermoformed refrigerator liners made of from<br />

Ingeo PLA. While keeping the insulation polyurethane<br />

foam the same, Oak Ridge National Laboratories found<br />

that by replacing the HIPS-liner with a new Ingeo<br />

PLA liner, the energy consumption is reduced by 7 to<br />

13%. Over the lifetime of a refrigerator this will save a<br />

significant amount of energy. “If all refrigerators sold in<br />

the USA in <strong>2018</strong> used INGEO liners, the lifetime energy<br />

savings are equal to running an average power plant for<br />

3.2 years”, says Frank Diodato of NatureWorks.<br />

Fostag, Viappiani<br />

Viappiani Printing presented<br />

an innovative application for<br />

the production of IML labeled<br />

compostable coffee capsules.<br />

The exhibit was run on a<br />

Netstal injection machine with a mould from Fostag, a<br />

robot from Beck Automation and IML labels from Viappiani<br />

Printing.<br />

The coffee capsule is injection moulded with PLA. To close<br />

the green circle of sustainability, the capsule is decorated<br />

with an in-mould label which is printed by Viappiani on a<br />

special PLA film. This way a mono component PLA capsule<br />

is obtained, which is fully conform to the EN 13432 norm<br />

regarding industrial composting.<br />

The exhibit combines the need for a green alternative<br />

for capsules, with an improved packaging performance<br />

compared to commonly used plastic materials in terms of<br />

both mechanical and barrier properties. The combination<br />

with high-end decoration given by the IML technology fully<br />

integrates the PLA label into the frame of compostability<br />

needs, and provides 360 degree labelling with highest<br />

offset quality.<br />

Viappiani Printing is specialized in the production of IML<br />

labels which are successfully sold all over the world since<br />

more than 35 years.<br />

www.fostag.com | www.biomebioplastics.com | www.viappiani.it<br />

780<br />

[kWh/yr]<br />

Total Energy Use<br />

740<br />

700<br />

660<br />

620<br />

0 3 6 9 12 15<br />

Energy consumption was modeled under two assumptions:<br />

Unchanged (UC):The Ingeo liner unless punctured will retain a<br />

flat, low level of conductivity through the life of the refrigerator.<br />

Exponential (Exp): The Ingeo liner will eventually reach the<br />

higher level of conductivity performance associated with HIPS.<br />

In addition, there is no sacrificing of the inner capacity<br />

of the refrigerators. The PLA liner is ten times glossier<br />

than the HIPS version and it offers improved resistance to<br />

food oils and fats. The inherent stiffness of PLA provides<br />

additional structural integrity to the liners. Ingeo PLA<br />

systems do not contain styrene or any chemicals of<br />

concern.<br />

www.natureworksllc.com<br />

Years<br />

HIPS<br />

Ingeo EXP.<br />

Ingeo UC<br />

Croda<br />

Croda Polymer Additives, headquartered in Snaith, UK,<br />

presented additives for biopolymers.<br />

Depending on the polymer type and grade, biopolymers<br />

can exhibit a number of problems including high friction<br />

(adhesion), limited impact properties and heat resistance,<br />

and they can require enhancements in melt strength and<br />

other properties.<br />

Croda offer a range of additives that are suitable for<br />

use in biobased polymers that can help overcome most of<br />

these issues, including slip and anti-block, mould release,<br />

torque release, anti-static, anti-fog and UV-absorption.<br />

Croda’s slip additives for polyester based biopolymers for<br />

example can improve overall processability in PLA film<br />

and sheet manufacturing and during injection moulding<br />

by decreasing friction up to 50%, improving mould release<br />

and packaging density of moulded parts. The scratch and<br />

scuff resistance can be improved as well as the surface<br />

quality. And final also the pigment dispersion and melt<br />

flow during processing can be improved.<br />

All these additives have minimal impact on colour,<br />

clarity and physical properties of the biopolymers.<br />

www.crodapolymeradditives.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 43


NPE Review<br />

Mitsubishi Chemical<br />

Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (headquartered<br />

in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo) presented two applications for<br />

their a new grade of biobased engineering plastic<br />

DURABIO that can be applied to large automotive<br />

exterior components. One is a front grill of a Mazda<br />

vehicle and the other an interior door panel cover part.<br />

The biobased engineering plastic Durabio is made<br />

from isosorbide deriving from renewable plants. The<br />

material features superior properties compared to<br />

general biobased engineering plastics in terms of<br />

impact resistance, heat resistance and weathering,<br />

among other aspects. It also has good color-capability<br />

and, simply by adding pigments, creates a mirror-like<br />

smooth surface and deep color tone surpassing painted<br />

products with similar properties.<br />

China XD<br />

China XD Plastics Company Limited (Harbin, China), is<br />

a specialty chemical company. The Company is engaged<br />

in the research, development, manufacture and sale<br />

of modified plastics for automotive applications in<br />

China and to a lesser extent, in Dubai, the United Arab<br />

Emirates (UAE). On their big booth they also displayed<br />

different PLA grades and biocomposites.<br />

One example was an automotive dome light cover,<br />

made of PLA filled with talc.<br />

www.mcpp-global.com<br />

Automotive dome light<br />

cover (PLA/talc)<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


New<br />

wood-based<br />

biocomposite<br />

Stora Enso (Stockholm & Helsinki) is launching its<br />

wood-based biocomposites, DuraSense. This is another<br />

major step on the group’s journey to replacing fossilbased<br />

materials with renewable solutions.<br />

DuraSense enables the use of renewable fibres, such<br />

as wood, to substitute for a large portion of fossil-based<br />

plastic. The production of biocomposites began in <strong>2018</strong> at<br />

Stora Enso’s Hylte Mill in Sweden, following the EUR 12<br />

million investment announced in 2017. At full production,<br />

the mill’s annual production capacity is 15,000 tonnes,<br />

which is the largest capacity in Europe dedicated to wood<br />

fibre composites.<br />

“Reducing the amount of plastic and replacing it<br />

with renewable and traceable materials is a gradual<br />

process. With DuraSense, we can offer customers a wood<br />

fibre-based alternative which improves sustainability<br />

performance and, depending on the product, significantly<br />

reduces the carbon footprint – all the way up to 80%,” says<br />

Jari Suominen, Head of Wood Products at Stora Enso.<br />

The DuraSense product family is suitable for a wide<br />

range of applications from consumer goods to industrial<br />

applications. Typical applications include, for example,<br />

furniture, pallets, hand tools, automotive parts, beauty<br />

and lifestyle products, toys and items, such as kitchen<br />

utensils and bottle caps, among other uses.<br />

The DuraSense granules are a combination of<br />

natural wood fibres, polymers and additives offering<br />

the mouldability of plastic with the sustainability and<br />

workability of wood. With DuraSense, it is also possible<br />

to combine fibres with recycled or bio-based polymers<br />

to further enhance environmental values. For example,<br />

DuraSense Eco100, which is one of the product grades<br />

and based on wood fibres and biopolymers, is a costcompetitive<br />

way to fully replace fossil-based plastics.<br />

“Affordable sustainability and the environment are<br />

climbing upwards on consumer agendas,” says Patricia<br />

Oddshammar, Head of Biocomposites at Stora Enso.<br />

“DuraSense can reduce the consumption of plastic<br />

materials by up to 60%, ensuring less microplastics end<br />

up in the environment. Stora Enso’s biocomposites can<br />

be reused as a material up to seven times or or recycled<br />

along with other plastic materials or, alternatively, used for<br />

energy recovery at their end of life.” MT<br />

www.storaenso.com<br />

Join us at the<br />

13th European Bioplastics<br />

Conference<br />

– the leading business forum for the<br />

bioplastics industry.<br />

4/5 December <strong>2018</strong><br />

Titanic Chaussee Hotel<br />

Berlin, Germany<br />

REGISTER<br />

NOW!<br />

EARLY BIRD DISCOUNT<br />

UNTIL 30 JUNE <strong>2018</strong><br />

@EUBioplastics #eubpconf<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org/events<br />

For more information email:<br />

conference@european-bioplastics.org<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 45


Report<br />

The journey of bioplastics<br />

in the Indian subcontinent<br />

Bioplastics or biopolymers was a word never heard of<br />

on the Indian subcontinent, till a serial entrepreneur<br />

and environmentalist, Perses Bilimoria, founded<br />

Earthsoul India, in the year 2002. bioplastics MAGAZINE spoke<br />

to Perses, when he visited the editorial office in Mönchengladbach<br />

in April <strong>2018</strong>.<br />

“My task was not only challenging, but almost born to die,<br />

as Indians did not have a care in the world, in those days, for<br />

waste disposal systems and had a passionate ongoing love<br />

affair, with synthetic polymers, or plastic.”<br />

In the early days of Earthsoul India, Perses visited one of<br />

the world’s pioneering bioplastic manufacturing companies,<br />

Novamont SRL (Mater-Bi) in Italy and at his first meet with<br />

the CEO, Catia Bastioli, was told that this venture was not<br />

a model for the Indian sub-continent at all, on account of<br />

raw material costing tenfold more than comparable fossilbased<br />

plastic.<br />

However Perses’ commitment, his passion for the<br />

environment and his persistent attitude, encouraged him<br />

over the next sixteen years to educate, tutor and plant<br />

the seed of biopolymers to the members of the Ministry<br />

of Environment and Forests, Central / State Pollution<br />

Control Boards, Central Institute of Plastic Engineering &<br />

Technology (CIPET), Bureau of Indian Standards, various<br />

agricultural institutes, etc., on the merits and sustainability<br />

of this next generation material, an alternative to synthetic<br />

plastics made from fossil fuels resources and hence not<br />

renewable.<br />

“During the past sixteen years, India has witnessed a few<br />

start-ups in the bioplastic products arena,” Perses said,<br />

“and sadly a lot of fake” bioplastic and oxo-degradable<br />

product manufacturers, most of whom have tremendous<br />

political and financial clout in India to misrepresent and fool<br />

uneducated consumers.”<br />

Perses Bilimoria also mentioned that Professor Ramani<br />

Narayan of Michigan State University is one of the pioneering<br />

scientist of bioplastics globally and a company he is involved<br />

with, has its roots in India, but not yet a manufacturing<br />

facility.<br />

In the past years many states in India, today nearly 18<br />

states, have actually banned fossil-based plastics, but<br />

sadly no implementation or policing laws in place, have<br />

made the ban a tool to fight widespread corruption and<br />

misinformation.<br />

“I must however mention that Maharashtra state have<br />

taken a lead in providing a focused vision of implementing<br />

the plastic ban,” Perses said. “Furthermore, the government<br />

of India has an extremely high rate of import duties on the<br />

raw materials imported which makes the products further<br />

unviable in a developing economy.”<br />

Unlike India’s neighbours China and Thailand which<br />

have set up a bioplastics association and research and<br />

development cells, along with various raw material<br />

manufacturing facilities, India is still a laggard, “although<br />

we have all the natural resources to produce the raw<br />

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Report<br />

By:<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

Jaydeep Mandal (cf. pp.32), Perses Bilomoria, and Michael Thielen<br />

materials for biopolymers. This is extremely unfortunate<br />

and will hopefully change very soon under our current<br />

government’s make in India initiative,” he added<br />

In the year 2010 India adopted the ISO 17088 standard for<br />

compostable biopolymers through its local Bureau of Indian<br />

Standards and this has encouraged a few compostable<br />

product manufacturers to enter the market in 2012.<br />

However, the market was still uneducated and resistant to<br />

the high pricing and availability of local raw materials.<br />

Fast forward to the year 2016 and the Ministry of<br />

Environment and Forests structured a plastic waste<br />

management law, which promoted the use of compostable<br />

bags below 50 µm thickness in all Indian states.<br />

As India is a federal structure this law was viewed with<br />

suspicion and 18 states have implemented it as of yet, a few<br />

with changes in the structure.<br />

Dr. Mohanty of CIPET (Central Institute of Plastics<br />

Engineering & Technology) the only test certification agency<br />

in India for products with ISO 17088, has mentioned that<br />

there is an urgent need for test protocols to be streamlined<br />

with regards to IS/ISO 17088. “It is unbelievable that still<br />

several raw materials with 60 % starch are blended with<br />

polyethylene and sold as compostable products currently,”<br />

Perses said angrily.<br />

Large multinationals like BASF, Cargill, sought entry into<br />

the Indian market with a fair amount of spends on education<br />

and awareness on certified compostable products, but the<br />

price factor still remained a very big problem.<br />

In the year 2017 the Indian Government reduced the<br />

import duties to 15 %, from prevailing 23 % and this saw a<br />

window of opportunity for new entrepreneurs, to query the<br />

pitch.<br />

“As the pioneer of bioplastics in India, my wish would be<br />

to have multiple international raw material manufacturers<br />

set up facilities in India and invest in the infrastructure, to<br />

create a model of self-local sustainability for the long term.”<br />

However, before this is embarked upon the market must<br />

mature and be ready to embrace bioplastics in the fields of<br />

retail, agriculture, medical amongst other industry.<br />

It is also critical to have an implementation and policing<br />

policy for genuine certified compostable products, which<br />

will be key to the success of all the new entrepreneurs in<br />

this industry.<br />

It will be interesting to see one of the fastest growing<br />

economies of the world embrace bioplastics and hopefully<br />

will soon become the fastest growing bioplastics market of<br />

the world.<br />

It is noteworthy to mention the fact that June 5th, <strong>2018</strong> –<br />

World Environment Day will be celebrated in India and the<br />

focus will be Reduction and Elimination of Plastic Waste.<br />

“My dream will then be fulfilled as India’s Bioplastic man,<br />

Perses concluded, still optimistic. www.earthsoulindia.com<br />

(Photo: MichaelThielen)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 47


Brand Owner<br />

Save the date<br />

see page 10-11 for details<br />

Brand-Owner’s perspective<br />

on bioplastics and how to<br />

unleash its full potential<br />

PepsiCo continues to invest in research to help drive the development of<br />

bioplastics for use in food packaging. Last year we announced our partnership<br />

with Danimer Scientific. The companies’ agreement builds on a long-standing<br />

relationship including the development of biobased compostable packaging<br />

for PepsiCo’s snack brands and will facilitate the expansion of Danimer<br />

Scientifics’ Nodax PHA plant. Danimer Scientifics’ PHA received the first<br />

ever OK Marine Biodegradable certification from Vinçotte International,<br />

validating that the biopolymer safely biodegrades in salt water environments,<br />

leaving no toxins behind.<br />

Brad Rodgers<br />

R&D Director for Discovery & Sustainability,<br />

PepsiCo Global Foods Packaging<br />

PepsiCo’s packaging goals are to reduce our greenhouse gas<br />

footprint and to design our packaging to be recyclable, compostable or<br />

biodegradable. Snack food packaging represents an opportunity to design a film<br />

for composting along with other organic waste. Utilizing biobased feedstocks<br />

to produce the packaging material can also help us lower our GHG footprint.<br />

Use of the bioplastics under development with Danimer will help us meet both goals.<br />

www.pepsico.com<br />

How about going bio?<br />

For almost every conventional plastic, there is a bioplastic alternative.<br />

Our PLA masterbatches can help introduce PLA into your portfolio.<br />

Make the switch today.<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


©<br />

©<br />

-Institut.eu | <strong>2018</strong><br />

-Institut.eu | 2017<br />

Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/reports<br />

©<br />

-Institut.eu | 2017<br />

Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/markets<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 49


Automotive<br />

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50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13<br />

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Automotive<br />

rials<br />

10<br />

Years ago<br />

tinyurl.com/bm-add-0308<br />

„Green“<br />

packaging for electronic<br />

components<br />

Article contributed by<br />

Thomas Weigl, Managing Director,<br />

Sukano Products Ltd., Schindellegi,<br />

Switzerland<br />

E<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

Transparent antistatic masterbatch for PLA<br />

ven electronic components can be attractively packaged in<br />

compostable plastic - at least they can if Sukano‘s transparent<br />

antistatic PLA (polylactic acid) masterbatch is used.<br />

The highly transparent materials compare well, both technically<br />

and economically, with conventional alternatives, and have the added<br />

advantage of being biodegradable. And to be sure that the product<br />

in the pack is not only presented in an environmentally friendly and<br />

attractive way, but also securely protected, Sukano calls once again<br />

on its experienced research team: SUKANO ® PLA as S546 transparent<br />

antstatic masterbatch significantly reduces the surface electrical<br />

resistance and so prevents the build-up of a static charge on film,<br />

sheet and injection-moulded parts. The packaging attracts less dust<br />

and the risk of damage to any sensitive components by electrical discharge<br />

is extremely small.<br />

On PLA film extruded in the Sukano test laboratory using 4 to<br />

6% (monofilm) and also 5 to 7% (outer layer of laminated film) of<br />

SUKANO ® PLA as S546 and 2% SUKANO ® PLA dc S511 slip/antiblock<br />

masterbatch, a surface resistance of █1011 ohms was measured and<br />

any electrostatic charge was dissipated after a few seconds.<br />

In order that plastics processors can achieve optimum performance<br />

for each application Sukano offers, in addition to the antistatic<br />

masterbatch, a wide range of functional and visually enhancing<br />

masterbatches and compounds. These include the recently launched<br />

and highly successful SUKANO ® PLA im S550 impact modifier, plus<br />

slip/antiblock, UV and color masterbatches, to mention just a few. All<br />

SUKANO ® PLA masterbatches are biodegradable and the majority<br />

of them are approved for food contact. They can also be supplied by<br />

the manufacturer in combination, i.e. as special tailor-made masterbatches<br />

to provide processors with an ideal performance profile.<br />

Published in<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

In May <strong>2018</strong>, Daniel Ganz, Global R&D product<br />

leader for Bioplastics masterbatches at<br />

Sukano says:<br />

Sukano is proud to have embarked in the<br />

bioplastic challenging journey already since<br />

2005, and witness the progress over the years<br />

of our bioplastics portfolio. Back 10 years<br />

ago, Sukano was promoting its PLA transparent<br />

impact modifier, and its antistatic masterbatches<br />

for PLA electronics packaging,<br />

launched around the same period, which now<br />

became a reference in the market. Since then,<br />

Sukano´s portfolio has grown significantly<br />

with the market and its demand, from a product range for<br />

any kind of polylactic acid (PLA), as well as polybutene<br />

succinate (PBS) and bio PET.<br />

From these days till today, the company has defined<br />

its bioplastics platform of masterbatches as core and<br />

strategic, established presence and proactive engagement<br />

and collaboration with leading companies in the<br />

bioplastics supply chain for the full PLA and PBS bioplastics<br />

market (cf. p. 18).<br />

This decision has proven to be successful both in<br />

generating industry-leading technical know-how<br />

about bioplastics processing for our technical experts<br />

and dedicated R&D team, resulting in new products<br />

brought to the market.<br />

Companies can now use our masterbatches certain<br />

that the integrity of their claims, certifications<br />

on compostability and biodegradability will be supported<br />

by our products. Just as well as mechanical<br />

and visual properties will be very close to conventional<br />

oil-based plastics allowing manufacturers<br />

to use bio-materials that meet all their processing<br />

requirements and which can be adapted to each<br />

packaging and production practices.<br />

Such as for BOPLA, creating lighter weight<br />

packages with a greater proportion of biobased<br />

content.<br />

Or the launch of new PBS-based masterbatches<br />

for flexible packaging manufacturers<br />

to design new multi-layer packaging structures<br />

– addressing the consumer demand for lower<br />

environmental impact through smart product<br />

design and packaging.<br />

And we are extremely active in this field,<br />

aiming to continue to bring the bioplastics applications<br />

to more diverse markets and processing<br />

conditions.<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/08] Vol. 3<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 51


Basics<br />

Castor oil<br />

By:<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

Castor oil is the raw material of choice for the production<br />

of biobased sebacic acid. A number of biobased<br />

plastics, for example several partly or fully biobased<br />

polyamides are manufactured using sebacic acid as a monomer<br />

or as a chemical building block. Another monomer<br />

based on castor oil is 11-aminoundecanoic acid.<br />

About the castor plant<br />

The Castor plant (Ricinus communis) is from the family<br />

Euphorbiaceae and grows wild in varied climatic conditions.<br />

It produces seeds that contain up to 50 % wt castor oil.<br />

The oil can easily be extracted from castor seeds and find<br />

its use in a multitude of sectors such as a building block<br />

for bioplastics (mainly biobased polyamides), medicine,<br />

chemicals industry and in other technologies [4].<br />

India is the largest producer of Castor oil in the world.<br />

The expected harvest for <strong>2018</strong> is 1.4 to 1.5 million tonnes<br />

of castor seeds,” as K.S. Najappa, CEO of Planters<br />

International (Indiranagar Bengaluru, Karnataka, India) told<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, “which will yield to approximately<br />

700,000 tonnes of Castor oil” [5].<br />

Approximately 86% of the castor seed production in India<br />

is concentrated in Gujarat, followed by Andhra Pradesh<br />

and Rajasthan. Specifically, the regions of Mehsana,<br />

Banaskantha, and Saurashtra/Kutch in Gujarat and the<br />

districts of Nalgonda and Mahboobnagar of Andhra Pradesh<br />

are the major areas of castor oil production in India. The<br />

economic success of castor crops in Gujarat in the 1980s<br />

and thereafter can be attributed to a combination of a<br />

good breeding program, a good extension model, coupled<br />

with access to well-developed national and international<br />

markets [12].<br />

Other countries that produce castor oil include Brazil and<br />

China. China, however, “does not produce enough castor<br />

oil for their own needs,” says Najappa, “so that they import<br />

from India.”<br />

With view to bioplastics, the main derivative product<br />

of castor oil is sebacic acid. The main countries to<br />

produce sebacic acid are again India and China. Najappa:<br />

“Unfortunately India cannot seriously compete with China,<br />

because the Chinese Government gives their manufacturers<br />

a lot of incentives” [5].<br />

The world castor seed production has increased from<br />

1.055 million tons in 2003 to 1.440 million tons in 2013 with<br />

India being the leading producer and accounts for over 75<br />

% of the total production followed by China and Brazil each<br />

accounting for 12.5 and 5.5 % respectively [13]<br />

Throughout the growth season, the castor plant<br />

responds well to temperatures between 20 – 26°C with a<br />

low humidity and grows best in loamy soils with medium<br />

texture. Nonetheless, castor plants are renowned as a low<br />

maintenance crop with the ability to be cultivated especially<br />

on marginal lands and can tolerate various weather<br />

conditions.<br />

Biochemicals from castor oil do not affect food production<br />

or cause any land use change. Castor oil is toxic and thus<br />

not part of food chain, a characteristic that is drawing more<br />

and more attention lately. The castor plants grow on arid to<br />

marginal lands with little or no agrochemicals needed [7].<br />

From castor oil to bioplastic<br />

Castor oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the castor<br />

bean (or better from the castor seed as the castor plant,<br />

Ricinus communis, is not a member of the bean family<br />

Fabaceae; it is a member of the Euphorbiaceae). Castor oil<br />

ranges from colorless to very pale yellow liquid with mild or<br />

no odor or taste. Its boiling point is 313°C and its density is<br />

0.961 kg/cm3 [1].<br />

After the oil extraction, the Castor meal (also known<br />

as Castor cake) is separated and the oil is subsequently<br />

hydrolyzed to a mixture of glycerine and ricinoleic acid in<br />

the refining process.<br />

Ricinoleic acid, a monounsaturated, 18-carbon fatty acid,<br />

is unusual compared to other fatty acids due to its hydroxyl<br />

functional group on the 12th carbon. This functional group<br />

renders ricinoleic acid unusually polar, and also increases<br />

its chemical reactivity, a property that is unique when<br />

compared with most of the others vegetable oils. It is the<br />

hydroxyl group which makes castor oil and ricinoleic acid<br />

susceptible of an easy chemical derivatization, thus a<br />

valuable chemical feedstocks [2].<br />

In a next step the ricinoleic acid is converted into either<br />

undecenoic acid (monomer for PA11) or sebacic acid (one of<br />

the monomers for PA6.10 and PA10.10).<br />

This sebacic acid (or decanedioic acid (the IUPAC<br />

name), or 1,8-octanedicarboxylic acid or C10H18O4<br />

or [HOOC(CH2)8COOH]) is a dicarboxylic acid that can<br />

for example be used as monomer for different types of<br />

polyamides [3]. In the commercially available polyamides<br />

PA 4.10, 5.10 and PA 6.10, the ‘10’-component is based on<br />

this dicarboxylic acid with 10 carbon atoms.<br />

Since the other component (the diamine) in these resins<br />

usually is not made from renewable resources, these partly<br />

biobased polyamides have 63% (PA 6.10) biobased content.<br />

Polyamides 4.10, 5.10, PA 10.10 and PA 10.12 can be<br />

100% biobased as here the diamine can be derived from<br />

renewable resources as well. In the case of PA 10.10 both<br />

monomers (1,10-decamethylene diamine and sebacic acid)<br />

are derived from castor oil [8].<br />

A third example is PA 11. Here a single monomer is being<br />

used. First the ricinoleic acid from the castor oil is converted<br />

into undecanoic acid [H2C=CH-(CH2)-COOH] via a catalytic<br />

reaction (methanolysis). This is then further converted into<br />

11-aminoundecanoic acid in a subsequent catalytically<br />

supported reaction with ammonia [9]. This 100% biobased<br />

polyamide has been discovered and marketed since as far<br />

back as 1947 [3].<br />

Sebacic acid is also found as ingredient in the cosmetic<br />

industry, as thickeners for coatings and lubricants, as<br />

antifreeze for lubricants, as plastizers, stabilizers, anticorrosion<br />

chemicals or other polymers such as polyols and<br />

polyesters and many other uses.<br />

52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Basics<br />

References<br />

[1] Aldrich Handbook of Fine Chemicals and Laboratory Equipment, Sigma-<br />

Aldrich, 2003 (found in Wikipedia)<br />

[2] Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castor_oil<br />

[3] Basics of Bio-polyamides, bioplastics MAGAZINE, vol 5, issue 03/2010<br />

[4] Ogunniyi DS (2006) Castor oil: a vital industrial raw material. Bioresour<br />

Technol 97:1086–1089<br />

[5] Najappa K.S: personal information May <strong>2018</strong>, Planters International<br />

(Indiranagar Bengaluru, Karnataka, India)<br />

[6] FAOSTAT, 2006-2009, FAO data based on imputation methodology<br />

[7] Wang, M.S., Huang, J.C., 1994, Nylon 1010 properties and applications,<br />

J. Pol. Eng., 13 (2), pp155-174 & New Crop Resource Online Program,<br />

Purdue University, www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/default.html<br />

[8] VESTAMID® Terra - Because we care (brochure of Evonik, Marl<br />

Germany), 2012<br />

[9] Endres, H.-J., Siebert-Raths, Engineering Biopolymers, Carl Hanser<br />

Verlag, 2011<br />

[10] www.usitc.gov/publications/701_731/pub3775.pdf<br />

[11] Thielen, M. Castor oil, an important source for bioplastics, bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE 03/2012 (with the help of Evonik and nova-Institute)<br />

[12] Patel, V.R. et. al.: Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of<br />

Processing Parameters in Commercial Production, Lipid Insights. 2016;<br />

9: 1–12.<br />

[13] Severino L.S. et.al.: Review on the challenges for increased production<br />

of castor. Agron J 104:853–880, (2012)<br />

Castor bean<br />

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Castor plant<br />

The annual conference of the International Castor oil Association brings<br />

together major participants in the industry to exchange views and discuss<br />

latest news and trends about castor oil.<br />

The next conference will be held June 6-8, <strong>2018</strong> in<br />

Stockholm, Sweden.<br />

Visit the ICOA website for conference details.<br />

www.icoa.org<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 53


Basics<br />

Glossary 4.2 last update issue 02/2016<br />

In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again<br />

the same expressions appear that some of our readers<br />

might not (yet) be familiar with. This glossary shall help<br />

with these terms and shall help avoid repeated explanations<br />

such as PLA (Polylactide) in various articles.<br />

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics<br />

e.V.) is a term used to define two different<br />

kinds of plastics:<br />

a. Plastics based on → renewable resources<br />

(the focus is the origin of the raw material<br />

used). These can be biodegradable or not.<br />

b. → Biodegradable and → compostable<br />

plastics according to EN13432 or similar<br />

standards (the focus is the compostability of<br />

the final product; biodegradable and compostable<br />

plastics can be based on renewable<br />

(biobased) and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources).<br />

Bioplastics may be<br />

- based on renewable resources and biodegradable;<br />

- based on renewable resources but not be<br />

biodegradable; and<br />

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.<br />

1 st Generation feedstock | Carbohydrate rich<br />

plants such as corn or sugar cane that can<br />

also be used as food or animal feed are called<br />

food crops or 1 st generation feedstock. Bred<br />

my mankind over centuries for highest energy<br />

efficiency, currently, 1 st generation feedstock<br />

is the most efficient feedstock for the production<br />

of bioplastics as it requires the least<br />

amount of land to grow and produce the highest<br />

yields. [bM 04/09]<br />

2 nd Generation feedstock | refers to feedstock<br />

not suitable for food or feed. It can be either<br />

non-food crops (e.g. cellulose) or waste materials<br />

from 1 st generation feedstock (e.g.<br />

waste vegetable oil). [bM 06/11]<br />

3 rd Generation feedstock | This term currently<br />

relates to biomass from algae, which – having<br />

a higher growth yield than 1 st and 2 nd generation<br />

feedstock – were given their own category.<br />

It also relates to bioplastics from waste<br />

streams such as CO 2<br />

or methane [bM 02/16]<br />

Aerobic digestion | Aerobic means in the<br />

presence of oxygen. In →composting, which is<br />

an aerobic process, →microorganisms access<br />

the present oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere.<br />

They metabolize the organic material<br />

to energy, CO 2<br />

, water and cell biomass,<br />

whereby part of the energy of the organic material<br />

is released as heat. [bM 03/07, bM 02/09]<br />

Since this Glossary will not be printed<br />

in each issue you can download a pdf version<br />

from our website (bit.ly/OunBB0)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is grateful to European Bioplastics for the permission to use parts of their Glossary.<br />

Version 4.0 was revised using EuBP’s latest version (Jan 2015).<br />

[*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)<br />

Anaerobic digestion | In anaerobic digestion,<br />

organic matter is degraded by a microbial<br />

population in the absence of oxygen<br />

and producing methane and carbon dioxide<br />

(= →biogas) and a solid residue that can be<br />

composted in a subsequent step without<br />

practically releasing any heat. The biogas can<br />

be treated in a Combined Heat and Power<br />

Plant (CHP), producing electricity and heat, or<br />

can be upgraded to bio-methane [14] [bM 06/09]<br />

Amorphous | non-crystalline, glassy with unordered<br />

lattice<br />

Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch<br />

molecule with very high molecular weight<br />

(biopolymer, monomer is →Glucose) [bM 05/09]<br />

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch<br />

molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer,<br />

monomer is →Glucose) [bM 05/09]<br />

Biobased | The term biobased describes the<br />

part of a material or product that is stemming<br />

from →biomass. When making a biobasedclaim,<br />

the unit (→biobased carbon content,<br />

→biobased mass content), a percentage and<br />

the measuring method should be clearly stated [1]<br />

Biobased carbon | carbon contained in or<br />

stemming from →biomass. A material or<br />

product made of fossil and →renewable resources<br />

contains fossil and →biobased carbon.<br />

The biobased carbon content is measured via<br />

the 14 C method (radio carbon dating method)<br />

that adheres to the technical specifications as<br />

described in [1,4,5,6].<br />

Biobased labels | The fact that (and to<br />

what percentage) a product or a material is<br />

→biobased can be indicated by respective<br />

labels. Ideally, meaningful labels should be<br />

based on harmonised standards and a corresponding<br />

certification process by independent<br />

third party institutions. For the property<br />

biobased such labels are in place by certifiers<br />

→DIN CERTCO and →Vinçotte who both base<br />

their certifications on the technical specification<br />

as described in [4,5]<br />

A certification and corresponding label depicting<br />

the biobased mass content was developed<br />

by the French Association Chimie du Végétal<br />

[ACDV].<br />

Biobased mass content | describes the<br />

amount of biobased mass contained in a material<br />

or product. This method is complementary<br />

to the 14 C method, and furthermore, takes<br />

other chemical elements besides the biobased<br />

carbon into account, such as oxygen, nitrogen<br />

and hydrogen. A measuring method has<br />

been developed and tested by the Association<br />

Chimie du Végétal (ACDV) [1]<br />

Biobased plastic | A plastic in which constitutional<br />

units are totally or partly from →<br />

biomass [3]. If this claim is used, a percentage<br />

should always be given to which extent<br />

the product/material is → biobased [1]<br />

[bM 01/07, bM 03/10]<br />

Biodegradable Plastics | Biodegradable Plastics<br />

are plastics that are completely assimilated<br />

by the → microorganisms present a defined<br />

environment as food for their energy. The<br />

carbon of the plastic must completely be converted<br />

into CO 2<br />

during the microbial process.<br />

The process of biodegradation depends on<br />

the environmental conditions, which influence<br />

it (e.g. location, temperature, humidity) and<br />

on the material or application itself. Consequently,<br />

the process and its outcome can vary<br />

considerably. Biodegradability is linked to the<br />

structure of the polymer chain; it does not depend<br />

on the origin of the raw materials.<br />

There is currently no single, overarching standard<br />

to back up claims about biodegradability.<br />

One standard for example is ISO or in Europe:<br />

EN 14995 Plastics- Evaluation of compostability<br />

- Test scheme and specifications<br />

[bM 02/06, bM 01/07]<br />

Biogas | → Anaerobic digestion<br />

Biomass | Material of biological origin excluding<br />

material embedded in geological formations<br />

and material transformed to fossilised<br />

material. This includes organic material, e.g.<br />

trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, algae and<br />

waste of biological origin, e.g. manure [1, 2]<br />

Biorefinery | the co-production of a spectrum<br />

of bio-based products (food, feed, materials,<br />

chemicals including monomers or building<br />

blocks for bioplastics) and energy (fuels, power,<br />

heat) from biomass.[bM 02/13]<br />

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at<br />

least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly<br />

distributed base polymers<br />

Bisphenol-A (BPA) | Monomer used to produce<br />

different polymers. BPA is said to cause<br />

health problems, due to the fact that is behaves<br />

like a hormone. Therefore it is banned<br />

for use in children’s products in many countries.<br />

BPI | Biodegradable Products Institute, a notfor-profit<br />

association. Through their innovative<br />

compostable label program, BPI educates<br />

manufacturers, legislators and consumers<br />

about the importance of scientifically based<br />

standards for compostable materials which<br />

biodegrade in large composting facilities.<br />

Carbon footprint | (CFPs resp. PCFs – Product<br />

Carbon Footprint): Sum of →greenhouse<br />

gas emissions and removals in a product system,<br />

expressed as CO 2<br />

equivalent, and based<br />

on a →life cycle assessment. The CO 2<br />

equivalent<br />

of a specific amount of a greenhouse gas<br />

is calculated as the mass of a given greenhouse<br />

gas multiplied by its →global warmingpotential<br />

[1,2,15]<br />

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Basics<br />

Carbon neutral, CO 2<br />

neutral | describes a<br />

product or process that has a negligible impact<br />

on total atmospheric CO 2<br />

levels. For<br />

example, carbon neutrality means that any<br />

CO 2<br />

released when a plant decomposes or<br />

is burnt is offset by an equal amount of CO 2<br />

absorbed by the plant through photosynthesis<br />

when it is growing.<br />

Carbon neutrality can also be achieved<br />

through buying sufficient carbon credits to<br />

make up the difference. The latter option is<br />

not allowed when communicating → LCAs<br />

or carbon footprints regarding a material or<br />

product [1, 2].<br />

Carbon-neutral claims are tricky as products<br />

will not in most cases reach carbon neutrality<br />

if their complete life cycle is taken into consideration<br />

(including the end-of life).<br />

If an assessment of a material, however, is<br />

conducted (cradle to gate), carbon neutrality<br />

might be a valid claim in a B2B context. In this<br />

case, the unit assessed in the complete life<br />

cycle has to be clarified [1]<br />

Cascade use | of →renewable resources means<br />

to first use the →biomass to produce biobased<br />

industrial products and afterwards – due to<br />

their favourable energy balance – use them<br />

for energy generation (e.g. from a biobased<br />

plastic product to →biogas production). The<br />

feedstock is used efficiently and value generation<br />

increases decisively.<br />

Catalyst | substance that enables and accelerates<br />

a chemical reaction<br />

Cellophane | Clear film on the basis of →cellulose<br />

[bM 01/10]<br />

Cellulose | Cellulose is the principal component<br />

of cell walls in all higher forms of plant<br />

life, at varying percentages. It is therefore the<br />

most common organic compound and also<br />

the most common polysaccharide (multisugar)<br />

[11]. Cellulose is a polymeric molecule<br />

with very high molecular weight (monomer is<br />

→Glucose), industrial production from wood<br />

or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and<br />

fibres [bM 01/10]<br />

Cellulose ester | Cellulose esters occur by<br />

the esterification of cellulose with organic<br />

acids. The most important cellulose esters<br />

from a technical point of view are cellulose<br />

acetate (CA with acetic acid), cellulose propionate<br />

(CP with propionic acid) and cellulose<br />

butyrate (CB with butanoic acid). Mixed polymerisates,<br />

such as cellulose acetate propionate<br />

(CAP) can also be formed. One of the most<br />

well-known applications of cellulose aceto<br />

butyrate (CAB) is the moulded handle on the<br />

Swiss army knife [11]<br />

Cellulose acetate CA | → Cellulose ester<br />

CEN | Comité Européen de Normalisation<br />

(European organisation for standardization)<br />

Certification | is a process in which materials/products<br />

undergo a string of (laboratory)<br />

tests in order to verify that the fulfil certain<br />

requirements. Sound certification systems<br />

should be based on (ideally harmonised) European<br />

standards or technical specifications<br />

(e.g. by →CEN, USDA, ASTM, etc.) and be<br />

performed by independent third party laboratories.<br />

Successful certification guarantees<br />

a high product safety - also on this basis interconnected<br />

labels can be awarded that help<br />

the consumer to make an informed decision.<br />

Compost | A soil conditioning material of decomposing<br />

organic matter which provides nutrients<br />

and enhances soil structure.<br />

[bM 06/08, 02/09]<br />

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are<br />

→ biodegradable under →composting conditions:<br />

specified humidity, temperature,<br />

→ microorganisms and timeframe. In order<br />

to make accurate and specific claims about<br />

compostability, the location (home, → industrial)<br />

and timeframe need to be specified [1].<br />

Several national and international standards<br />

exist for clearer definitions, for example EN<br />

14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability -<br />

Test scheme and specifications. [bM 02/06, bM 01/07]<br />

Composting | is the controlled →aerobic, or<br />

oxygen-requiring, decomposition of organic<br />

materials by →microorganisms, under controlled<br />

conditions. It reduces the volume and<br />

mass of the raw materials while transforming<br />

them into CO 2<br />

, water and a valuable soil conditioner<br />

– compost.<br />

When talking about composting of bioplastics,<br />

foremost →industrial composting in a<br />

managed composting facility is meant (criteria<br />

defined in EN 13432).<br />

The main difference between industrial and<br />

home composting is, that in industrial composting<br />

facilities temperatures are much<br />

higher and kept stable, whereas in the composting<br />

pile temperatures are usually lower,<br />

and less constant as depending on factors<br />

such as weather conditions. Home composting<br />

is a way slower-paced process than<br />

industrial composting. Also a comparatively<br />

smaller volume of waste is involved. [bM 03/07]<br />

Compound | plastic mixture from different<br />

raw materials (polymer and additives) [bM 04/10)<br />

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different<br />

monomers.<br />

Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of an environmental →Life Cycle<br />

Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities<br />

from the cradle (i.e., the extraction of raw materials,<br />

agricultural activities and forestry) up<br />

to the factory gate<br />

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated<br />

as C2C): Is an expression which communicates<br />

the concept of a closed-cycle economy,<br />

in which waste is used as raw material<br />

(‘waste equals food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not<br />

a term that is typically used in →LCA studies.<br />

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of a full →Life Cycle Assessment<br />

from manufacture (cradle) to use phase and<br />

disposal phase (grave).<br />

Crystalline | Plastic with regularly arranged<br />

molecules in a lattice structure<br />

Density | Quotient from mass and volume of<br />

a material, also referred to as specific weight<br />

DIN | Deutsches Institut für Normung (German<br />

organisation for standardization)<br />

DIN-CERTCO | independant certifying organisation<br />

for the assessment on the conformity<br />

of bioplastics<br />

Dispersing | fine distribution of non-miscible<br />

liquids into a homogeneous, stable mixture<br />

Drop-In bioplastics | chemically indentical<br />

to conventional petroleum based plastics,<br />

but made from renewable resources. Examples<br />

are bio-PE made from bio-ethanol (from<br />

e.g. sugar cane) or partly biobased PET; the<br />

monoethylene glykol made from bio-ethanol<br />

(from e.g. sugar cane). Developments to<br />

make terephthalic acid from renewable resources<br />

are under way. Other examples are<br />

polyamides (partly biobased e.g. PA 4.10 or PA<br />

6.10 or fully biobased like PA 5.10 or PA10.10)<br />

EN 13432 | European standard for the assessment<br />

of the → compostability of plastic<br />

packaging products<br />

Energy recovery | recovery and exploitation<br />

of the energy potential in (plastic) waste for<br />

the production of electricity or heat in waste<br />

incineration pants (waste-to-energy)<br />

Environmental claim | A statement, symbol<br />

or graphic that indicates one or more environmental<br />

aspect(s) of a product, a component,<br />

packaging or a service. [16]<br />

Enzymes | proteins that catalyze chemical<br />

reactions<br />

Enzyme-mediated plastics | are no →bioplastics.<br />

Instead, a conventional non-biodegradable<br />

plastic (e.g. fossil-based PE) is enriched<br />

with small amounts of an organic additive.<br />

Microorganisms are supposed to consume<br />

these additives and the degradation process<br />

should then expand to the non-biodegradable<br />

PE and thus make the material degrade. After<br />

some time the plastic is supposed to visually<br />

disappear and to be completely converted to<br />

carbon dioxide and water. This is a theoretical<br />

concept which has not been backed up by<br />

any verifiable proof so far. Producers promote<br />

enzyme-mediated plastics as a solution to littering.<br />

As no proof for the degradation process<br />

has been provided, environmental beneficial<br />

effects are highly questionable.<br />

Ethylene | colour- and odourless gas, made<br />

e.g. from, Naphtha (petroleum) by cracking or<br />

from bio-ethanol by dehydration, monomer of<br />

the polymer polyethylene (PE)<br />

European Bioplastics e.V. | The industry association<br />

representing the interests of Europe’s<br />

thriving bioplastics’ industry. Founded<br />

in Germany in 1993 as IBAW, European<br />

Bioplastics today represents the interests<br />

of about 50 member companies throughout<br />

the European Union and worldwide. With<br />

members from the agricultural feedstock,<br />

chemical and plastics industries, as well as<br />

industrial users and recycling companies, European<br />

Bioplastics serves as both a contact<br />

platform and catalyst for advancing the aims<br />

of the growing bioplastics industry.<br />

Extrusion | process used to create plastic<br />

profiles (or sheet) of a fixed cross-section<br />

consisting of mixing, melting, homogenising<br />

and shaping of the plastic.<br />

FDCA | 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF.<br />

The dicarboxylic acid can be used to make →<br />

PEF = polyethylene furanoate, a polyester that<br />

could be a 100% biobased alternative to PET.<br />

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled<br />

by → microorganisms or → enyzmes (e.g.<br />

the transformation of sugar into lactic acid).<br />

FSC | Forest Stewardship Council. FSC is an<br />

independent, non-governmental, not-forprofit<br />

organization established to promote the<br />

responsible and sustainable management of<br />

the world’s forests.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 55


Basics<br />

Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,<br />

colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless<br />

and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside<br />

animals‘ connective tissue.<br />

Genetically modified organism (GMO) | Organisms,<br />

such as plants and animals, whose<br />

genetic material (DNA) has been altered<br />

are called genetically modified organisms<br />

(GMOs). Food and feed which contain or<br />

consist of such GMOs, or are produced from<br />

GMOs, are called genetically modified (GM)<br />

food or feed [1]. If GM crops are used in bioplastics<br />

production, the multiple-stage processing<br />

and the high heat used to create the<br />

polymer removes all traces of genetic material.<br />

This means that the final bioplastics product<br />

contains no genetic traces. The resulting<br />

bioplastics is therefore well suited to use in<br />

food packaging as it contains no genetically<br />

modified material and cannot interact with<br />

the contents.<br />

Global Warming | Global warming is the rise<br />

in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere<br />

and oceans since the late 19th century<br />

and its projected continuation [8]. Global<br />

warming is said to be accelerated by → green<br />

house gases.<br />

Glucose | Monosaccharide (or simple sugar).<br />

G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar)<br />

in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or<br />

hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.<br />

Greenhouse gas GHG | Gaseous constituent<br />

of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic,<br />

that absorbs and emits radiation at<br />

specific wavelengths within the spectrum of<br />

infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface,<br />

the atmosphere, and clouds [1, 9]<br />

Greenwashing | The act of misleading consumers<br />

regarding the environmental practices<br />

of a company, or the environmental benefits<br />

of a product or service [1, 10]<br />

Granulate, granules | small plastic particles<br />

(3-4 millimetres), a form in which plastic is<br />

sold and fed into machines, easy to handle<br />

and dose.<br />

HMF (5-HMF) | 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is an<br />

organic compound derived from sugar dehydration.<br />

It is a platform chemical, a building<br />

block for 20 performance polymers and over<br />

175 different chemical substances. The molecule<br />

consists of a furan ring which contains<br />

both aldehyde and alcohol functional groups.<br />

5-HMF has applications in many different<br />

industries such as bioplastics, packaging,<br />

pharmaceuticals, adhesives and chemicals.<br />

One of the most promising routes is 2,5<br />

furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), produced as an<br />

intermediate when 5-HMF is oxidised. FDCA<br />

is used to produce PEF, which can substitute<br />

terephthalic acid in polyester, especially polyethylene<br />

terephthalate (PET). [bM 03/14, 02/16]<br />

Home composting | →composting [bM 06/08]<br />

Humus | In agriculture, humus is often used<br />

simply to mean mature →compost, or natural<br />

compost extracted from a forest or other<br />

spontaneous source for use to amend soil.<br />

Hydrophilic | Property: water-friendly, soluble<br />

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used<br />

in conjunction with a plastic which is not water<br />

resistant and weather proof or that absorbs<br />

water such as Polyamide (PA).<br />

Hydrophobic | Property: water-resistant, not<br />

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is water<br />

resistant and weather proof, or that does not<br />

absorb any water such as Polyethylene (PE)<br />

or Polypropylene (PP).<br />

Industrial composting | is an established<br />

process with commonly agreed upon requirements<br />

(e.g. temperature, timeframe) for transforming<br />

biodegradable waste into stable, sanitised<br />

products to be used in agriculture. The<br />

criteria for industrial compostability of packaging<br />

have been defined in the EN 13432. Materials<br />

and products complying with this standard<br />

can be certified and subsequently labelled<br />

accordingly [1,7] [bM 06/08, 02/09]<br />

ISO | International Organization for Standardization<br />

JBPA | Japan Bioplastics Association<br />

Land use | The surface required to grow sufficient<br />

feedstock (land use) for today’s bioplastic<br />

production is less than 0.01 percent of the<br />

global agricultural area of 5 billion hectares.<br />

It is not yet foreseeable to what extent an increased<br />

use of food residues, non-food crops<br />

or cellulosic biomass (see also →1 st /2 nd /3 rd<br />

generation feedstock) in bioplastics production<br />

might lead to an even further reduced<br />

land use in the future [bM 04/09, 01/14]<br />

LCA | is the compilation and evaluation of the<br />

input, output and the potential environmental<br />

impact of a product system throughout its life<br />

cycle [17]. It is sometimes also referred to as<br />

life cycle analysis, ecobalance or cradle-tograve<br />

analysis. [bM 01/09]<br />

Littering | is the (illegal) act of leaving waste<br />

such as cigarette butts, paper, tins, bottles,<br />

cups, plates, cutlery or bags lying in an open<br />

or public place.<br />

Marine litter | Following the European Commission’s<br />

definition, “marine litter consists of<br />

items that have been deliberately discarded,<br />

unintentionally lost, or transported by winds<br />

and rivers, into the sea and on beaches. It<br />

mainly consists of plastics, wood, metals,<br />

glass, rubber, clothing and paper”. Marine<br />

debris originates from a variety of sources.<br />

Shipping and fishing activities are the predominant<br />

sea-based, ineffectively managed<br />

landfills as well as public littering the main<br />

land-based sources. Marine litter can pose a<br />

threat to living organisms, especially due to<br />

ingestion or entanglement.<br />

Currently, there is no international standard<br />

available, which appropriately describes the<br />

biodegradation of plastics in the marine environment.<br />

However, a number of standardisation<br />

projects are in progress at ISO and ASTM<br />

level. Furthermore, the European project<br />

OPEN BIO addresses the marine biodegradation<br />

of biobased products.[bM 02/16]<br />

Mass balance | describes the relationship between<br />

input and output of a specific substance<br />

within a system in which the output from the<br />

system cannot exceed the input into the system.<br />

First attempts were made by plastic raw material<br />

producers to claim their products renewable<br />

(plastics) based on a certain input<br />

of biomass in a huge and complex chemical<br />

plant, then mathematically allocating this<br />

biomass input to the produced plastic.<br />

These approaches are at least controversially<br />

disputed [bM 04/14, 05/14, 01/15]<br />

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic<br />

size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast.<br />

Molecule | group of at least two atoms held<br />

together by covalent chemical bonds.<br />

Monomer | molecules that are linked by polymerization<br />

to form chains of molecules and<br />

then plastics<br />

Mulch film | Foil to cover bottom of farmland<br />

Organic recycling | means the treatment of<br />

separately collected organic waste by anaerobic<br />

digestion and/or composting.<br />

Oxo-degradable / Oxo-fragmentable | materials<br />

and products that do not biodegrade!<br />

The underlying technology of oxo-degradability<br />

or oxo-fragmentation is based on special additives,<br />

which, if incorporated into standard<br />

resins, are purported to accelerate the fragmentation<br />

of products made thereof. Oxodegradable<br />

or oxo-fragmentable materials do<br />

not meet accepted industry standards on compostability<br />

such as EN 13432. [bM 01/09, 05/09]<br />

PBAT | Polybutylene adipate terephthalate, is<br />

an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester that has the<br />

properties of conventional polyethylene but is<br />

fully biodegradable under industrial composting.<br />

PBAT is made from fossil petroleum with<br />

first attempts being made to produce it partly<br />

from renewable resources [bM 06/09]<br />

PBS | Polybutylene succinate, a 100% biodegradable<br />

polymer, made from (e.g. bio-BDO)<br />

and succinic acid, which can also be produced<br />

biobased [bM 03/12].<br />

PC | Polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyester,<br />

petroleum based and not degradable, used<br />

for e.g. baby bottles or CDs. Criticized for its<br />

BPA (→ Bisphenol-A) content.<br />

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil<br />

based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as<br />

a blend component.<br />

PE | Polyethylene, thermoplastic polymerised<br />

from ethylene. Can be made from renewable<br />

resources (sugar cane via bio-ethanol) [bM 05/10]<br />

PEF | polyethylene furanoate, a polyester<br />

made from monoethylene glycol (MEG) and<br />

→FDCA (2,5-furandicarboxylic acid , an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF). It<br />

can be a 100% biobased alternative for PET.<br />

PEF also has improved product characteristics,<br />

such as better structural strength and<br />

improved barrier behaviour, which will allow<br />

for the use of PEF bottles in additional applications.<br />

[bM 03/11, 04/12]<br />

PET | Polyethylenterephthalate, transparent<br />

polyester used for bottles and film. The<br />

polyester is made from monoethylene glycol<br />

(MEG), that can be renewably sourced from<br />

bio-ethanol (sugar cane) and (until now fossil)<br />

terephthalic acid [bM 04/14]<br />

PGA | Polyglycolic acid or Polyglycolide is a biodegradable,<br />

thermoplastic polymer and the<br />

simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. Besides<br />

ist use in the biomedical field, PGA has been<br />

introduced as a barrier resin [bM 03/09]<br />

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) or the<br />

polyhydroxy fatty acids, are a family of biodegradable<br />

polyesters. As in many mammals,<br />

including humans, that hold energy reserves<br />

in the form of body fat there are also bacteria<br />

that hold intracellular reserves in for of<br />

of polyhydroxy alkanoates. Here the microorganisms<br />

store a particularly high level of<br />

56 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Basics<br />

energy reserves (up to 80% of their own body<br />

weight) for when their sources of nutrition become<br />

scarce. By farming this type of bacteria,<br />

and feeding them on sugar or starch (mostly<br />

from maize), or at times on plant oils or other<br />

nutrients rich in carbonates, it is possible to<br />

obtain PHA‘s on an industrial scale [11]. The<br />

most common types of PHA are PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate,<br />

PHBV and PHBH. Depending<br />

on the bacteria and their food, PHAs with<br />

different mechanical properties, from rubbery<br />

soft trough stiff and hard as ABS, can be produced.<br />

Some PHSs are even biodegradable in<br />

soil or in a marine environment<br />

PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA), a<br />

biodegradable, thermoplastic, linear aliphatic<br />

polyester based on lactic acid, a natural acid,<br />

is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar<br />

or starch with the help of micro-organisms.<br />

Lactic acid comes in two isomer forms, i.e. as<br />

laevorotatory D(-)lactic acid and as dextrorotary<br />

L(+)lactic acid.<br />

Modified PLA types can be produced by the<br />

use of the right additives or by certain combinations<br />

of L- and D- lactides (stereocomplexing),<br />

which then have the required rigidity for<br />

use at higher temperatures [13] [bM 01/09, 01/12]<br />

Plastics | Materials with large molecular<br />

chains of natural or fossil raw materials, produced<br />

by chemical or biochemical reactions.<br />

PPC | Polypropylene Carbonate, a bioplastic<br />

made by copolymerizing CO 2<br />

with propylene<br />

oxide (PO) [bM 04/12]<br />

PTT | Polytrimethylterephthalate (PTT), partially<br />

biobased polyester, is similarly to PET<br />

produced using terephthalic acid or dimethyl<br />

terephthalate and a diol. In this case it is a<br />

biobased 1,3 propanediol, also known as bio-<br />

PDO [bM 01/13]<br />

Renewable Resources | agricultural raw materials,<br />

which are not used as food or feed,<br />

but as raw material for industrial products<br />

or to generate energy. The use of renewable<br />

resources by industry saves fossil resources<br />

and reduces the amount of → greenhouse gas<br />

emissions. Biobased plastics are predominantly<br />

made of annual crops such as corn,<br />

cereals and sugar beets or perennial cultures<br />

such as cassava and sugar cane.<br />

Resource efficiency | Use of limited natural<br />

resources in a sustainable way while minimising<br />

impacts on the environment. A resource<br />

efficient economy creates more output<br />

or value with lesser input.<br />

Seedling Logo | The compostability label or<br />

logo Seedling is connected to the standard<br />

EN 13432/EN 14995 and a certification process<br />

managed by the independent institutions<br />

→DIN CERTCO and → Vinçotte. Bioplastics<br />

products carrying the Seedling fulfil the<br />

criteria laid down in the EN 13432 regarding<br />

industrial compostability. [bM 01/06, 02/10]<br />

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or<br />

carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family.<br />

Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar<br />

units. For example, there are known mono-,<br />

di- and polysaccharose. → glucose is a monosaccarin.<br />

They are important for the diet and<br />

produced biology in plants.<br />

Semi-finished products | plastic in form of<br />

sheet, film, rods or the like to be further processed<br />

into finshed products<br />

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction<br />

of glucose changing the aldehyde group<br />

to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as<br />

a plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch.<br />

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate)<br />

consisting of → amylose and → amylopectin,<br />

gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca<br />

etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains<br />

in definite way the result (product) is<br />

called starch. Each molecule is based on 300<br />

-12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection,<br />

there are two types → amylose and →<br />

amylopectin known. [bM 05/09]<br />

Starch derivatives | Starch derivatives are<br />

based on the chemical structure of → starch.<br />

The chemical structure can be changed by<br />

introducing new functional groups without<br />

changing the → starch polymer. The product<br />

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the<br />

hydrophilic character is not the same.<br />

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every<br />

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When<br />

every hydroxyl group is connected with an<br />

acid one product is starch-ester with different<br />

chemical properties.<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate |<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate can be<br />

synthesised by treating the → starch with propane<br />

or butanic acid. The product structure<br />

is still based on → starch. Every based → glucose<br />

fragment is connected with a propionate<br />

or butyrate ester group. The product is more<br />

hydrophobic than → starch.<br />

Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best<br />

outcomes for the human and natural environments<br />

both now and into the indefinite future.<br />

One famous definition of sustainability is the<br />

one created by the Brundtland Commission,<br />

led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister<br />

G. H. Brundtland. The Brundtland Commission<br />

defined sustainable development as<br />

development that ‘meets the needs of the<br />

present without compromising the ability of<br />

future generations to meet their own needs.’<br />

Sustainability relates to the continuity of economic,<br />

social, institutional and environmental<br />

aspects of human society, as well as the nonhuman<br />

environment).<br />

Sustainable sourcing | of renewable feedstock<br />

for biobased plastics is a prerequisite<br />

for more sustainable products. Impacts such<br />

as the deforestation of protected habitats<br />

or social and environmental damage arising<br />

from poor agricultural practices must<br />

be avoided. Corresponding certification<br />

schemes, such as ISCC PLUS, WLC or Bon-<br />

Sucro, are an appropriate tool to ensure the<br />

sustainable sourcing of biomass for all applications<br />

around the globe.<br />

Sustainability | as defined by European Bioplastics,<br />

has three dimensions: economic, social<br />

and environmental. This has been known<br />

as “the triple bottom line of sustainability”.<br />

This means that sustainable development involves<br />

the simultaneous pursuit of economic<br />

prosperity, environmental protection and social<br />

equity. In other words, businesses have<br />

to expand their responsibility to include these<br />

environmental and social dimensions. Sustainability<br />

is about making products useful to<br />

markets and, at the same time, having societal<br />

benefits and lower environmental impact<br />

than the alternatives currently available. It also<br />

implies a commitment to continuous improvement<br />

that should result in a further reduction<br />

of the environmental footprint of today’s products,<br />

processes and raw materials used.<br />

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or<br />

melt when heated and solidify when cooled<br />

(solid at room temperature).<br />

Thermoplastic Starch | (TPS) → starch that<br />

was modified (cooked, complexed) to make it<br />

a plastic resin<br />

Thermoset | Plastics (resins) which do not<br />

soften or melt when heated. Examples are<br />

epoxy resins or unsaturated polyester resins.<br />

Vinçotte | independant certifying organisation<br />

for the assessment on the conformity of bioplastics<br />

WPC | Wood Plastic Composite. Composite<br />

materials made of wood fiber/flour and plastics<br />

(mostly polypropylene).<br />

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,<br />

garden residue.<br />

References:<br />

[1] Environmental Communication Guide,<br />

European Bioplastics, Berlin, Germany,<br />

2012<br />

[2] ISO 14067. Carbon footprint of products -<br />

Requirements and guidelines for quantification<br />

and communication<br />

[3] CEN TR 15932, Plastics - Recommendation<br />

for terminology and characterisation<br />

of biopolymers and bioplastics, 2010<br />

[4] CEN/TS 16137, Plastics - Determination<br />

of bio-based carbon content, 2011<br />

[5] ASTM D6866, Standard Test Methods for<br />

Determining the Biobased Content of<br />

Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using<br />

Radiocarbon Analysis<br />

[6] SPI: Understanding Biobased Carbon<br />

Content, 2012<br />

[7] EN 13432, Requirements for packaging<br />

recoverable through composting and biodegradation.<br />

Test scheme and evaluation<br />

criteria for the final acceptance of packaging,<br />

2000<br />

[8] Wikipedia<br />

[9] ISO 14064 Greenhouse gases -- Part 1:<br />

Specification with guidance..., 2006<br />

[10] Terrachoice, 2010, www.terrachoice.com<br />

[11] Thielen, M.: Bioplastics: Basics. Applications.<br />

Markets, Polymedia Publisher,<br />

2012<br />

[12] Lörcks, J.: Biokunststoffe, Broschüre der<br />

FNR, 2005<br />

[13] de Vos, S.: Improving heat-resistance of<br />

PLA using poly(D-lactide),<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol. 3, <strong>Issue</strong> 02/2008<br />

[14] de Wilde, B.: Anaerobic Digestion, bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE, Vol 4., <strong>Issue</strong> 06/2009<br />

[15] ISO 14067 onb Corbon Footprint of<br />

Products<br />

[16] ISO 14021 on Self-declared Environmental<br />

claims<br />

[17] ISO 14044 on Life Cycle Assessment<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 57


Suppliers Guide<br />

1. Raw Materials<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be present among top suppliers in<br />

the field of bioplastics.<br />

For Example:<br />

AGRANA Starch<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Conrathstraße 7<br />

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria<br />

bioplastics.starch@agrana.com<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

BASF SE<br />

Ludwigshafen, Germany<br />

Tel: +49 621 60-9995<br />

martin.bussmann@basf.com<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.<br />

info@pttmcc.com / www.pttmcc.com<br />

Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563<br />

MCPP Germany GmbH<br />

+49 (0) 152-018 920 51<br />

frank.steinbrecher@mcpp-europe.com<br />

MCPP France SAS<br />

+33 (0) 6 07 22 25 32<br />

fabien.resweber@mcpp-europe.com<br />

Jincheng, Lin‘an, Hangzhou,<br />

Zhejiang 311300, P.R. China<br />

China contact: Grace Jin<br />

mobile: 0086 135 7578 9843<br />

Grace@xinfupharm.comEurope<br />

contact(Belgium): Susan Zhang<br />

mobile: 0032 478 991619<br />

zxh0612@hotmail.com<br />

www.xinfupharm.com<br />

1.1 bio based monomers<br />

1.2 compounds<br />

Cardia Bioplastics<br />

Suite 6, 205-211 Forster Rd<br />

Mt. Waverley, VIC, 3149 Australia<br />

Tel. +61 3 85666800<br />

info@cardiabioplastics.com<br />

www.cardiabioplastics.com<br />

API S.p.A.<br />

Via Dante Alighieri, 27<br />

36065 Mussolente (VI), Italy<br />

Telephone +39 0424 579711<br />

www.apiplastic.com<br />

www.apinatbio.com<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

Green Dot Bioplastics<br />

226 Broadway | PO Box #142<br />

Cottonwood Falls, KS 66845, USA<br />

Tel.: +1 620-273-8919<br />

info@greendotholdings.com<br />

www.greendotpure.com<br />

39 mm<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 issues) and<br />

extends automatically if it’s not canceled<br />

three month before expiry.<br />

www.facebook.com<br />

www.issuu.com<br />

www.twitter.com<br />

www.youtube.com<br />

Microtec Srl<br />

Via Po’, 53/55<br />

30030, Mellaredo di Pianiga (VE),<br />

Italy<br />

Tel.: +39 041 5190621<br />

Fax.: +39 041 5194765<br />

info@microtecsrl.com<br />

www.biocomp.it<br />

Tel: +86 351-8689356<br />

Fax: +86 351-8689718<br />

www.jinhuizhaolong.com<br />

ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe<br />

Polyester Co., Ltd.<br />

No. 316, South Beijing Rd. Changji,<br />

Xinjiang, 831100, P.R.China<br />

Tel.: +86 994 2716865<br />

Mob: +86 18699400676<br />

maxirong@lanshantunhe.com<br />

http://www.lanshantunhe.com<br />

PBAT & PBS resin supplier<br />

BIO-FED<br />

Branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH<br />

BioCampus Cologne<br />

Nattermannallee 1<br />

50829 Cologne, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00<br />

info@bio-fed.com<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

Global Biopolymers Co.,Ltd.<br />

Bioplastics compounds<br />

(PLA+starch;PLA+rubber)<br />

194 Lardproa80 yak 14<br />

Wangthonglang, Bangkok<br />

Thailand 10310<br />

info@globalbiopolymers.com<br />

www.globalbiopolymers.com<br />

Tel +66 81 9150446<br />

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.<br />

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou<br />

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,<br />

Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663<br />

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696<br />

info@ecopond.com.cn<br />

www.kingfa.com<br />

NUREL Engineering Polymers<br />

Ctra. Barcelona, km 329<br />

50016 Zaragoza, Spain<br />

Tel: +34 976 465 579<br />

inzea@samca.com<br />

www.inzea-biopolymers.com<br />

Sukano AG<br />

Chaltenbodenstraße 23<br />

CH-8834 Schindellegi<br />

Tel. +41 44 787 57 77<br />

Fax +41 44 787 57 78<br />

www.sukano.com<br />

Natureplast – Biopolynov<br />

11 rue François Arago<br />

14123 IFS<br />

Tel: +33 (0)2 31 83 50 87<br />

www.natureplast.eu<br />

58 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


Suppliers Guide<br />

TECNARO GmbH<br />

Bustadt 40<br />

D-74360 Ilsfeld. Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0)7062/97687-0<br />

www.tecnaro.de<br />

1.3 PLA<br />

Kaneka Belgium N.V.<br />

Nijverheidsstraat 16<br />

2260 Westerlo-Oevel, Belgium<br />

Tel: +32 (0)14 25 78 36<br />

Fax: +32 (0)14 25 78 81<br />

info.biopolymer@kaneka.be<br />

TIPA-Corp. Ltd<br />

Hanagar 3 Hod<br />

Hasharon 4501306, ISRAEL<br />

P.O BOX 7132<br />

Tel: +972-9-779-6000<br />

Fax: +972 -9-7715828<br />

www.tipa-corp.com<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

4201 Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.404.8700<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@natur-tec.com<br />

www.natur-tec.com<br />

Total Corbion PLA bv<br />

Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21<br />

4200 AA Gorinchem<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 183 695 695<br />

Fax.: +31 183 695 604<br />

www.total-corbion.com<br />

pla@total-corbion.com<br />

TianAn Biopolymer<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

1.6 masterbatches<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

Bio-on S.p.A.<br />

Via Santa Margherita al Colle 10/3<br />

40136 Bologna - ITALY<br />

Tel.: +39 051 392336<br />

info@bio-on.it<br />

www.bio-on.it<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.0321.699.601<br />

Tel. +39.0321.699.611<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

6. Equipment<br />

6.1 Machinery & Molds<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.97 Waisha Rd, Jiaojiang District,<br />

Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province, China<br />

Tel: +86-576-88827723<br />

pla@hisunpharm.com<br />

www.hisunplas.com<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

Bio4Pack GmbH<br />

D-48419 Rheine, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 5975 955 94 57<br />

info@bio4pack.com<br />

www.bio4pack.com<br />

Buss AG<br />

Hohenrainstrasse 10<br />

4133 Pratteln / Switzerland<br />

Tel.: +41 61 825 66 00<br />

Fax: +41 61 825 68 58<br />

info@busscorp.com<br />

www.busscorp.com<br />

weforyou PLA & Applications<br />

office@weforyou.pro<br />

www.weforyou.pro<br />

1.4 starch-based bioplastics<br />

BIOTEC<br />

Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32<br />

46446 Emmerich/Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Grabio Greentech Corporation<br />

Tel: +886-3-598-6496<br />

No. 91, Guangfu N. Rd., Hsinchu<br />

Industrial Park,Hukou Township,<br />

Hsinchu County 30351, Taiwan<br />

sales@grabio.com.tw<br />

www.grabio.com.tw<br />

Albrecht Dinkelaker<br />

Polymer and Product Development<br />

Blumenweg 2<br />

79669 Zell im Wiesental, Germany<br />

Tel.:+49 (0) 7625 91 84 58<br />

info@polyfea2.de<br />

www.caprowax-p.eu<br />

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

3. Semi finished products<br />

3.1 films<br />

BeoPlast Besgen GmbH<br />

Bioplastics injection moulding<br />

Industriestraße 64<br />

D-40764 Langenfeld, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2173 84840-0<br />

info@beoplast.de<br />

www.beoplast.de<br />

INDOCHINE C, M, Y , K BIO C , M, Y, K PLASTIQUES<br />

45, 0,90, 0<br />

10, 0, 80,0<br />

(ICBP) C, M, Y, KSDN BHD<br />

C, M, Y, K<br />

50, 0 ,0, 0<br />

0, 0, 0, 0<br />

D-09, Jalan Tanjung A/4,<br />

Free Trade Zone<br />

Port of Tanjung Pelepas<br />

81560 Johor, Malaysia<br />

T. +607-507 1585<br />

marketing@icbp.com.my<br />

www.icbp.com.my<br />

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey<br />

Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic<br />

Container Industry<br />

284 Pinebush Road<br />

Cambridge Ontario<br />

Canada N1T 1Z6<br />

Tel. +1 519 624 9720<br />

Fax +1 519 624 9721<br />

info@hallink.com<br />

www.hallink.com<br />

6.2 Laboratory Equipment<br />

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer<br />

SAIDA FDS INC.<br />

143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka,Japan<br />

Tel:+81-54-624-6155<br />

Fax: +81-54-623-8623<br />

info_fds@saidagroup.jp<br />

www.saidagroup.jp/fds_en/<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

Bio-on S.p.A.<br />

Via Santa Margherita al Colle 10/3<br />

40136 Bologna - ITALY<br />

Tel.: +39 051 392336<br />

info@bio-on.it<br />

www.bio-on.it<br />

Infiana Germany GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Zweibrückenstraße 15-25<br />

91301 Forchheim<br />

Tel. +49-9191 81-0<br />

Fax +49-9191 81-212<br />

www.infiana.com<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, COO<br />

No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City,<br />

Taichung County<br />

411, Taiwan (R.O.C.)<br />

Tel. +886(4)2277 6888<br />

Fax +883(4)2277 6989<br />

Mobil +886(0)982-829988<br />

esmy@minima-tech.com<br />

Skype esmy325<br />

www.minima.com<br />

EREMA Engineering Recycling<br />

Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH<br />

Unterfeldstrasse 3<br />

4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA<br />

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0<br />

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23<br />

erema@erema.at<br />

www.erema.at<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13 59


Suppliers Guide<br />

‘Basics‘ book<br />

on bioplastics<br />

110 pages full<br />

color, paperback<br />

ISBN 978-3-<br />

9814981-1-0:<br />

Bioplastics<br />

ISBN 978-3-<br />

9814981-2-7:<br />

Biokunststoffe<br />

2. überarbeitete<br />

Auflage<br />

This book, created and published by Polymedia<br />

Publisher, maker of bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

is available in English and German language<br />

(German now in the second, revised edition).<br />

The book is intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated<br />

introduction into the subject of bioplastics, and is aimed at all<br />

interested readers, in particular those who have not yet had<br />

the opportunity to dig deeply into the subject, such as students<br />

or those just joining this industry, and lay readers. It gives<br />

an introduction to plastics and bioplastics, explains which<br />

renewable resources can be used to produce bioplastics,<br />

what types of bioplastic exist, and which ones are already on<br />

the market. Further aspects, such as market development,<br />

the agricultural land required, and waste disposal, are also<br />

examined.<br />

An extensive index allows the reader to find specific aspects<br />

quickly, and is complemented by a comprehensive literature<br />

list and a guide to sources of additional information on the<br />

Internet.<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH<br />

Holzhauser Strasse 157–159<br />

D-13509 Berlin<br />

Tel. +49 30 43 567 5<br />

Fax +49 30 43 567 699<br />

sales.de@uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG<br />

Via Innovativa 31, CH-7013 Domat/Ems<br />

Tel. +41 81 632 63 11<br />

Fax +41 81 632 74 03<br />

sales.ch@uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

www.uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

9. Services<br />

Osterfelder Str. 3<br />

46047 Oberhausen<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227<br />

thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

narocon<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb<br />

Tel.: +49 30-28096930<br />

kaeb@narocon.de<br />

www.narocon.de<br />

9. Services (continued)<br />

nova-Institut GmbH<br />

Chemiepark Knapsack<br />

Industriestrasse 300<br />

50354 Huerth, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40<br />

E-Mail: contact@nova-institut.de<br />

www.biobased.eu<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

10117 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

Institut für Kunststofftechnik<br />

Universität Stuttgart<br />

Böblinger Straße 70<br />

70199 Stuttgart<br />

Tel +49 711/685-62831<br />

silvia.kliem@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Dept. of Chem. Eng & Mat. Sc.<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts Hanover<br />

Faculty II – Mechanical and<br />

Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

30453 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69<br />

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69<br />

lisa.mundzeck@hs-hannover.de<br />

www.ifbb-hannover.de/<br />

10.3 Other Institutions<br />

The author Michael Thielen is editor and publisher<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE. He is a qualified machinery design<br />

engineer with a degree in plastics technology from the RWTH<br />

University in Aachen. He has written several books on the<br />

subject of blow-moulding technology and disseminated his<br />

knowledge of plastics in numerous presentations, seminars,<br />

guest lectures and teaching assignments.<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

10. Institutions<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

Green Serendipity<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

IJburglaan 836<br />

1087 EM Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 6-24216733<br />

www.greenseredipity.nl<br />

Order now for € 18.65 or US-$ 25.00<br />

(+ VAT where applicable, plus shipping and handling,<br />

ask for details) order at www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/<br />

books, by phone +49 2161 6884463 or by e-mail<br />

books@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Or subscribe and get it as a free gift<br />

(see page 61 for details, outside Germany only)<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10019, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

60 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


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end a scan of your<br />

student card, your ID<br />

or similar proof ...<br />

Event<br />

Calendar<br />

7 th Biobased Chemicals and Plastics<br />

05.06.<strong>2018</strong> - 08.06.<strong>2018</strong> - Bangkok, Thailand<br />

www.cmtevents.com/main.aspx?ev=180617&pu=274110<br />

You can meet us<br />

7 th Biobased performance materials in the circular<br />

economy<br />

14.06.<strong>2018</strong> - Wageningen, Netherlands<br />

22.04.<strong>2018</strong> - Geleen, Niederlande<br />

biobasedperformancematerials.nl/en/bpm.htm<br />

Plastics Tomorrow via Biobased Chemicals & Recycling<br />

25.06.<strong>2018</strong> - 28.06.<strong>2018</strong> - New York City Area, USA<br />

http://innoplastsolutions.com/bio.html<br />

BIO World Congress<br />

16.07.<strong>2018</strong> - 19.07.<strong>2018</strong> - Philadelphia PA, USA<br />

www.bio.org/worldcongress<br />

The 15 th ISBBB<br />

24.07.<strong>2018</strong> - 27.07.<strong>2018</strong> - Guelph, Canada<br />

http://isbbb.org<br />

Mar / Apr<br />

02 | <strong>2018</strong><br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

May/June<br />

01 | <strong>2018</strong><br />

25 th Anniversary meeting of the Bio-Environmental<br />

Polymer Society (BEPS)<br />

15.08.<strong>2018</strong> - 17.08.<strong>2018</strong> - (Troy, New York)<br />

ME TO VISIT US AT<br />

https://tinyurl.com/beps<strong>2018</strong><br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

14-18 MAY <strong>2018</strong><br />

messe mÜnchen<br />

HALL 5 • stand 323<br />

1st PHA platform World Congress<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

04.09.<strong>2018</strong> - 05.09.<strong>2018</strong> - Cologne, Germany<br />

www.pha-world-congress.com<br />

Innovation Takes Root <strong>2018</strong><br />

10.09.<strong>2018</strong> - 12.09.<strong>2018</strong> - San Diego (CA), USA<br />

https://www.innovationtakesroot.com/<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 13<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Highlights<br />

Thermoforming | 10<br />

Toys | 18<br />

Basics<br />

Mechanical Recycling | 52<br />

Cover Story:<br />

Toy bricks from bio-PE<br />

| 22<br />

Preview:<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 13<br />

Basics<br />

Castor Oil | 48<br />

Highlights<br />

Injection Moulding | 10<br />

Additives/Masterbatches | 42<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Cover Story:<br />

Netherlands to prohibit<br />

Oxo-degradables | 42<br />

16 th International Symposium on Biopolymers <strong>2018</strong><br />

(ISBP <strong>2018</strong>)<br />

21.10.<strong>2018</strong> - 24.10.<strong>2018</strong> - Beijing, China<br />

http://www.isbp<strong>2018</strong>.com/<br />

r3_03.<strong>2018</strong><br />

07/03/18 12:53<br />

+<br />

or<br />

Mention the promotion code ‘watch‘ or ‘book‘<br />

and you will get our watch or the book 3)<br />

Bioplastics Basics. Applications. Markets. for free<br />

1) Offer valid until 30 July <strong>2018</strong><br />

3) Gratis-Buch in Deutschland nicht möglich, no free book in Germany<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. Vol. 13 13 61


Companies in this issue<br />

Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert<br />

Aakar Innovations 32<br />

Agrana Starch Bioplastics 40 15, 58<br />

AIMPLAS 12, 13<br />

AITIIP 36<br />

AMIBM 10<br />

API 58<br />

Archer Daniels Midland 6<br />

Arctic Biomaterials 12<br />

BASF 12, 47 58<br />

Bio4Pack 1, 3 59<br />

BioAmber 7<br />

Biomer 10, 43<br />

Bio-on 37 59<br />

BioSolutions 24<br />

Biotec 10 59, 63<br />

Bluepha 10<br />

Bordeaux National Polytechnic Inst. 30<br />

Buss 21, 59<br />

c2renew 42<br />

Cardia Bioplastics 58<br />

Caprowachs, Albrecht Dinkelaker 23 59<br />

Cardiolite Corporation 12<br />

CIPET 46<br />

CETIM 36<br />

China VX 44<br />

Clariant 22<br />

Croda Polymer Additives 43<br />

Danimer Scientific 10, 42<br />

Dr. Heinz Gupta Verlag 33<br />

DuPont 6<br />

Earthsoul India 46<br />

Ellen MacArthur Foundation 10<br />

Emery Oleochemicals 20 19<br />

Eranova 7<br />

Erema 9, 59<br />

European Bioplastics 45, 60<br />

FKuR 10, 13 2, 58<br />

Ford Motor Company 17<br />

Fostag 43<br />

Fraunhofer IGB 6<br />

Fraunhofer IVV 5<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 60<br />

Friesland Campina 27<br />

FullCycle Bioplastics 10<br />

Global Biopolymers 58<br />

Grafe 58, 59<br />

Green Serendipity 60<br />

Grieve 53<br />

Hallink 59<br />

Hasselt University 10<br />

Helian 10<br />

Hydal/Nafigate 10<br />

ICOA 53<br />

IKT, Univ. Stuttgart 10 60<br />

Indesla 36<br />

Indochine Bio Plastiques 59<br />

Infiana Germany 59<br />

InfraServ Knapsack 12<br />

Ins. Verbundwerkstoffe IVW 34<br />

Inst Biotechn. & Wirkstoffforschung 34<br />

Inst. F. Bioplastics & Biocomp. IfBB 14 60<br />

Iterg 30<br />

Jan Ravenstijn 10<br />

Jinhui Zhaolong 58<br />

Joma 29<br />

Kaneka 10 59<br />

LCPO 30<br />

LifetecVision 10<br />

M+Base Engineering 17<br />

MAIP 10<br />

Mango Materials 10<br />

Michigan State University 46 60<br />

Microtec 58<br />

Minima Technology 59<br />

Mitsubishi Chemical 44<br />

Modified Materials 10<br />

MulsiPlast Systems 21<br />

narocon InnovationConsulting 10 60<br />

Natureplast-Biopolynov 58<br />

NatureWorks 8, 43 25<br />

Natur-Tec 59<br />

Neste (Suisse) 12<br />

Netstal 43<br />

Northern Technologies 59<br />

nova Institute 10, 12 13, 49, 60<br />

Novamont 46 59, 64<br />

Nupik 36<br />

Nurel 58<br />

Oak Ridge National Laboratories 43<br />

Organic Waste Systems 10<br />

PepsiCo 10, 42, 48<br />

Perez Cerdá Plastics 36<br />

Phario 10, 28<br />

plasticker 5<br />

Plastics (SPI) 8<br />

polymediaconsult 60<br />

PolyOne 8<br />

PTT/MCC 58<br />

Sabio 10<br />

Saida 59<br />

Scion Research 10<br />

Stamicarbon 10<br />

StoraEnso 45<br />

Sukano 18, 51 48, 58<br />

Symphony Environmental 7<br />

Synvina 12<br />

Tecnaro 59<br />

Thermolympic 36<br />

TianAn Biopolymer 59<br />

TIPA 59<br />

Total-Corbion PLA 7 59<br />

Univ Bordeaux 3<br />

Univ. App. Sc. Bremen 17<br />

Univ. Calgary 38<br />

Univ. Munich 6<br />

Univ. Santiago de Compostela 36<br />

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 60<br />

Univ. Wisconsin Madison 17<br />

UPM Biomaterials 12<br />

Viappiani 43<br />

Weforyou 59<br />

Xinjiang Blue Ridge Tunhe Polyester 58<br />

Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical 58<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials 44, 59<br />

<strong>Issue</strong><br />

Editorial Planner<br />

Month<br />

04/<strong>2018</strong> Jul<br />

Aug<br />

Publ.<br />

Date<br />

edit/ad/<br />

Deadline<br />

<strong>2018</strong><br />

Edit. Focus 1 Edit. Focus 2 Edit. Focus 3 Basics<br />

06 Aug 18 06 Jul 18 Blow Moulding Coffee Pods &<br />

Capsules<br />

UK Special<br />

PEF<br />

Trade-Fair<br />

Specials<br />

05/<strong>2018</strong> Sep<br />

Oct<br />

06/<strong>2018</strong> Nov<br />

Dec<br />

01 Oct 18 28 Sep 18 Fiber / Textile /<br />

Nonwoven<br />

03 Dec 18 02 Nov 18 Films/Flexibles/<br />

Bags<br />

Polyurethanes/<br />

Elastomers/<br />

Rubber<br />

Bioplastics<br />

from Waste<br />

Streams<br />

Poland & Baltic<br />

States Special<br />

t.b.d.<br />

Industrial Composting,<br />

Challenges / Hurdles<br />

Shelf Life of Bioplastics<br />

Subject to changes<br />

62 bioplastics MAGAZINE [03/18] Vol. 13


A COMPLETE RANGE<br />

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member of the SPHERE<br />

group of companies<br />

LJ Corporate – © JB Mariou – BIOTEC HRA 1183


WWW.MATERBI.COM<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />

r1_05.2017

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