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ISSN 1862-5258<br />

May/June<br />

<strong>03</strong> | <strong>2016</strong><br />

Basics<br />

PHA (update) | 38<br />

Highlights<br />

Injection Moulding | 16<br />

Joining of Bioplastics | 34<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 11<br />

Jen Owen:<br />

3D printed hands change<br />

the world | 14<br />

... is read in 92 countries


Since today’s society requires environmentally friendly packaging, Semco, a Packaging<br />

Company based in Monaco, has developed its business towards an eco-responsible<br />

approach. Beyond basic standards, Semco’s goal is also to support, guide and advise<br />

its clients on how to minimize the environmental impact of the products and to<br />

protect our natural resources. In collaboration with the Green PE producer<br />

Braskem and the supplier FKuR, Semco has successfully realized an<br />

alternative to conventional plastic raw materials.<br />

Most of Semco’s range of standard bottles and jars are now available<br />

in Green PE: up to 100 % renewable and completely recyclable.

Editorial<br />

dear<br />

readers<br />

Wow, it’s been a busy spring. It started with an outing to Orlando, Florida, where<br />

NatureWorks was organizing its successful Innovation Takes Root conference for<br />

the fifth time (pp 12). Among the many amazing people we met there was Jen Owen,<br />

whose keynote speech left an indelible stamp on everyone fortunate enough<br />

to be sitting in the audience. Impressive and heart-warming, the story of how<br />

Jen and her husband Ivan are making a difference to the lives of disabled<br />

children around the world is not to be missed. Read all about it in our cover<br />

story on page 14.<br />

Later that month, I was travelling again, this time to Shanghai for Chinaplas,<br />

where again exhibiting bioplastics companies were displaying their latest<br />

developments in a specially dedicated Bioplastics Zone (p 24). The good<br />

news? While a number of oxo-products were still on offer, my impression<br />

was that the number of companies active in this area is decreasing.<br />

A third trip took me to Nijmegen in the Netherlands. Here I learned about<br />

starch from side streams of the potato industry and its potential uses –<br />

including bioplastics (p 36).<br />

The two dedicated highlight topics in this issue are Injection Moulding<br />

and Joining Bioplastics.<br />

In the Basics section, we provide an update on PHA. A great deal has<br />

happened since our last basics article on these fascinating and versatile<br />

polyesters. Companies have disappeared and new ones have entered the<br />

stage. And whereas in the past, we focused our attention on feedstocks<br />

(besides starch, sugar or plant oils) such as tobacco, switchgrass or sewage, these<br />

days it’s Methane and CO 2<br />

that are being touted as the most promising raw materials<br />

for PHA. Read Jan Ravenstijn’s article on page 38.<br />

Just days before this issue went to print, we hosted the fourth edition of our PLA<br />

World Congress in Munich (p 9), which was a very successful event from all perspectives.<br />

And we are already focussing on the next big event this year: The K-Show in<br />

October in Düsseldorf, Germany with our 3 rd Bioplastics Business Breakfast. The call<br />

for papers is open. We are looking forward to your contributions.<br />

We hope to see you at the K-Show this autumn, or perhaps elsewhere even earlier,<br />

and until then, enjoy the summer – and of course, have a great time reading<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 11<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

Jen Owen:<br />

3D printed hands change<br />

the world | 14<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

May/June<br />

<strong>03</strong> | <strong>2016</strong><br />

Basics<br />

PHA (update) | 38<br />

Highlights<br />

Injection Moulding | 16<br />

Joining of Bioplastics | 34<br />

Follow us on twitter!<br />

www.twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Sincerely yours<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

Like us on Facebook!<br />

www.facebook.com/bioplasticsmagazine<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 3

Content<br />

Imprint<br />

<strong>03</strong>|<strong>2016</strong><br />

May / June<br />

Injection Moulding<br />

16 Injection molding of PLA cutlery<br />

20 Injection molding of wood-plastic<br />

composites<br />

22 Wall thickness dependent flow<br />

characteristics of bioplastics<br />

Report<br />

36 Co-products from potato processing<br />

Events<br />

12 Biopolymers world gathers at<br />

Innovation Takes Root<br />

24 Chinaplas Review<br />

Materials<br />

31 Sugars in wastewater become<br />

bio-based packaging<br />

32 Using biomass side-streams for<br />

bioplastics in New Zealand<br />

Joining Bioplastics<br />

34 Adhesive capacity of bioplastics<br />

Basics<br />

38 PHA – a polymer family with challenges<br />

and opportunities<br />

42 Avoiding confusion between biodegradable<br />

and compostable<br />

10 Years Ago<br />

10 First PLA bottle in Germany<br />

Cover Story<br />

45 An idea that is changing the world<br />

3 Editorial<br />

5 News<br />

28 Application News<br />

41 Brand Owner’s View<br />

46 Glossary<br />

50 Suppliers Guide<br />

53 Event Calendar<br />

54 Companies in this issue<br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr. Michael Thielen (MT)<br />

Karen Laird (KL)<br />

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)<br />

Henry Xiao (HX)<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Florian Junker<br />

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467<br />

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468<br />

f.junker@zuendgeber.com<br />

Chris Shaw<br />

Chris Shaw Media Ltd<br />

Media Sales Representative<br />

phone: +44 (0) 1270 522130<br />

mobile: +44 (0) 7983 967471<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Ulrich Gewehr (Dr. Gupta Verlag)<br />

Max Godenrath (Dr. Gupta Verlag)<br />

Print<br />

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.<br />

1004 Riga, Latvia<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

Print run: 3,300 copies<br />

bioplastics magazine<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bM is published 6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified<br />

subscribers (149 Euro for 6 issues).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in<br />

92 countries.<br />

Every effort is made to verify all<br />

Information published, but Polymedia<br />

Publisher cannot accept responsibility<br />

for any errors or omissions or for any<br />

losses that may arise as a result. No<br />

items may be reproduced, copied or<br />

stored in any form, including electronic<br />

format, without the prior consent of the<br />

publisher. Opinions expressed in articies<br />

do not necessarily reflect those of<br />

Polymedia Publisher.<br />

All articles appearing in bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE, or on the website<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com are<br />

strictly covered by copyright.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions<br />

for publication. Submissions are<br />

accepted on the basis of full assignment<br />

of copyright to Polymedia Publisher<br />

GmbH unless otherwise agreed in advance<br />

and in writing. We reserve the right<br />

to edit items for reasons of space, clarity<br />

or legality. Please contact the editorial<br />

office via mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

The fact that product names may not be<br />

identified in our editorial as trade marks<br />

is not an indication that such names are<br />

not registered trade marks.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

spelling. However, in articles based on<br />

information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Envelopes<br />

A part of this print run is mailed to the<br />

readers wrapped in BoPLA envelopes<br />

sponsored by Taghleef Industries, S.p.A.<br />

Maropack GmbH & Co. KG, and SFV<br />

Verpackungen<br />

Cover<br />

Photo: liz linder photography, inc.<br />

(Courtesy NatureWorks LLC)<br />

Follow us on twitter:<br />

http://twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Like us on Facebook:<br />


daily upated news at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

News<br />

ABA requests compostable bags into<br />

bag ban discussions<br />

The Australasian Bioplastics Association (ABA) has called for support of certified compostable bags as an alternative to single<br />

use lightweight plastic bags.<br />

The ABA welcomes discussions and the recent Australian Ministerial Roundtable regarding more states banning single use<br />

conventional polyethylene plastic bags. With South Australia, the ACT, Northern Territory and Tasmania having already banned<br />

lightweight plastic bags, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland are currently discussing their options. South Australia, the<br />

Northern Territory, the ACT and Tasmania did not ban certified compostable shopping bags.<br />

The ABA supports bans on conventional plastic bags. Conventional polyethylene plastic bags may seem useful for shopping<br />

and the like, but they are not compostable, not biodegradable, are rarely recycled at end of life, instead ending up in landfill<br />

or as unsightly litter. In a similar call to the one made by the Australian Organics Recycling Association (AORA), the ABA is<br />

requesting to have certified compostable bags exempted from a ban on conventional polyethylene plastic bags.<br />

In Australia approximately 14 million tonnes of organic waste is generated annually of which significant amount is food<br />

waste. Organic waste is the second largest volume of waste generated by industry and households. Diverting organic waste<br />

from landfills in Australia represents an immense opportunity. Used as a convenient way to capture food waste, certified<br />

compostable bags can be disposed into green waste bins and sent to composting. Certified compostable bags are digested by<br />

microorganisms in the compost, in exactly the same way as food waste. The compost can be used to improve agricultural soil<br />

quality by returning carbon and other nutrients back into the soil.<br />

Australian soils are generally carbon deficient and adding compost to these soils, solves several problems at the same<br />

time-diverting food waste from landfill, emission reduction associated with reducing organic content in landfills and improved<br />

agricultural soils with increased organic content.<br />

Rowan Williams, President of the ABA explains, “Certified compostable means compostable and biodegradable. Collecting<br />

food waste in the home in conventional plastic bags condemns the contents and the bag to landfill. Source separation of the<br />

food waste into certified compostable bags will allow the local council, processor or organics recycler to know that the bag can<br />

safely pass through their operation without having to be diverted to landfill. The bag and its contents will completely disappear<br />

in a composting environment, within the composting process cycle. Conventional polyethylene bags, no matter what additives<br />

are used which are claimed to cause biodegradation, will never achieve the required performance of these standards. Be safe,<br />

be sure, be certified.”<br />

It is important to understand that oxo-degradable, biodegradable and certified compostable are not the same thing. Unless<br />

bags are Australian Standard AS 4736-2006 certified compostable or Australian Standard AS 5810-2010 certified compostable<br />

they are not considered suitable for use in organics recycling. The ABA performs verification of claims made by individuals and<br />

companies that wish to have their claims of compostable and biodegradable products, verified. MT<br />

http://bit.ly/1Nwm7u0<br />

Innovia Group sale of Cellophane<br />

Innovia Group, the global leader in high-tech film products for industrial applications and banknotes, announced in mid April<br />

an agreement to sell its Cellophane business and assets to Futamura Chemicals Co., Ltd. The deal is expected to complete on<br />

or before 30 June, <strong>2016</strong>. Based in Nagoya, Japan, Futamura is a leading manufacturer of plastic and cellulose films, principally<br />

servicing the food packaging industry.<br />

Following the sale, Innovia will continue to deepen its focus on its fast-growing and world-leading polymer bank note business<br />

and on building on its market leading and differentiated double bubble biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films business.<br />

Mark Robertshaw, Chief Executive of Innovia Group, said: “The sale of our Cellophane business is an important strategic<br />

step for Innovia. Futamura is an excellent long term owner for Cellophane, with its core business focussed on cellulose and<br />

plastic films.”<br />

Yasuo Nagae, President of Futamura Chemical Co., Ltd, said: “The acquisition of the Innovia’s Cellophane business will<br />

enhance our product range and presence across the globe. It supports our ambition to serve our key customers through local<br />

manufacturing facilities offering the highest standards of delivery by experienced personnel. We look forward to welcoming<br />

Innovia’s Cello employees into our family.” MT<br />

www.futamura.co.jp/english<br />

www.innoviafilms.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 5

News<br />

daily upated news at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

DIN CERTCO first certification body to include<br />

newest French compostability standard<br />

DIN CERTCO is once again leading the way with NF T 51-800 - certification of home compostable products.<br />

‘We open the door for your market acceptance in France’.<br />

For the past several years, DIN CERTCO has engaged in the conformity assessment of plastic products<br />

made of compostable materials suitable for home composting. These products may then be granted DIN-<br />

Geprüft [DIN-tested] home compostable accreditation and licensed to bear the DIN-Geprüft conformity<br />

mark.<br />

In June 2015, DIN CERTCO became the first certification organization in the world to extend the range<br />

of biobased certification standards to include the International Standard series ISO 16620, which was<br />

released in April 2015:<br />

Now, the organization has done it again: in addition to the well-known Australian Standard AS 5810, it<br />

recently became the first certification body in the world to add the new French standard NF T 51-800 to its<br />

certification scheme.<br />

DIN CERTCO has now extended the range of home compostable standards with the French Standard NF T<br />

51-800 released in November 2015: the NF T 51-800:2015-11: Plastics – Specifications for plastics suitable<br />

for home composting. According to this standard, materials, intermediates and end-consumer products<br />

can now be certified. In France, even single-use carrier bags with wall thicknesses of less than 50 µm<br />

are required to comply with this standard from July 1 st <strong>2016</strong>.<br />

All certification schemes and other relevant documents can be found at the website. KL<br />

www.dincertco.de<br />

Silk coating keeps fruit fresh without refrigeration<br />

Half of the world’s fruit and vegetable crops are lost during the food supply chain, due mostly to premature deterioration of<br />

these perishable foods, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.<br />

Tufts University (USA) biomedical engineers have demonstrated that fruits can stay fresh for more than a week without<br />

refrigeration if they are coated in an odorless, biocompatible silk solution so thin as to be virtually invisible. The approach is a<br />

promising alternative for preservation of delicate foods using a naturally derived material and a water-based manufacturing<br />

process. (The work is reported in the May 6 issue of Scientific Reports.)<br />

Silk’s unique crystalline structure makes it one of nature’s toughest materials. Fibroin, an insoluble protein found in silk, has<br />

a remarkable ability to stabilize and protect other materials while being fully biocompatible and biodegradable.<br />

For the study, researchers dipped freshly picked strawberries in a solution of 1 % silk fibroin protein; the coating process was<br />

repeated up to four times. The silk fibroin-coated fruits were then treated for varying amounts of time with water vapor under<br />

vacuum (water annealed) to create varying percentages of crystalline beta-sheets in the coating. The longer the exposure, the<br />

higher the percentage of beta-sheets and the more robust the fibroin coating. The coating was 27 to 35 µm thick.<br />

The strawberries were then stored at room temperature. Uncoated berries were compared over time with berries dipped in<br />

varying numbers of coats of silk that had been annealed for different periods of time. At seven days, the berries coated with the<br />

higher beta-sheet silk were still juicy and firm while the uncoated berries were dehydrated and discolored.<br />

Tests showed that the silk coating prolonged the freshness of the fruits by<br />

slowing fruit respiration, extending fruit firmness and preventing decay.<br />

Similar experiments were performed on bananas, which, unlike strawberries,<br />

are able to ripen after they are harvested. The silk coating decreased the<br />

bananas’ ripening rate compared with uncoated controls and added firmness to<br />

the fruit by preventing softening of the peel. The thin, odorless silk coating did<br />

not affect fruit texture. Taste was not studied.<br />

“Various therapeutic agents could be easily added to the water-based silk<br />

solution used for the coatings, so we could potentially both preserve and<br />

add therapeutic function to consumable goods without the need for complex<br />

chemistries,” said the study’s first author, Benedetto Marelli, Ph.D. (MIT). KL/MT<br />

source: http://bit.ly/1symr2h<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Market study on<br />

Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers in the World<br />

Capacities, Production and Applications: Status Quo and Trends towards 2020<br />

NEW: Buy the most comprehensive trend reports on bio-based polymers – and if you are not satisfied, give it back!<br />

Bio-based polymers: Worldwide production<br />

capacity will triple from 5.7 million tonnes in<br />

2014 to nearly 17 million tonnes in 2020. The<br />

data show a 10% growth rate from 2012 to 2013<br />

and even 11% from 2013 to 2014. However,<br />

growth rate is expected to decrease in 2015.<br />

Consequence of the low oil price?<br />

million t/a<br />

Bio-based polymers: Evolution of worldwide production capacities<br />

from 2011 to 2020<br />

20<br />

actual data<br />

forecast<br />

The new third edition of the well-known 500<br />

page-market study and trend reports on<br />

“Bio-based Building Blocks and Polymers<br />

in the World – Capacities, Production and<br />

Applications: Status Quo and Trends Towards<br />

2020” is available by now. It includes consistent<br />

data from the year 2012 to the latest data of 2014<br />

and the recently published data from European<br />

Bioplastics, the association representing the<br />

interests of Europe’s bioplastics industry.<br />

Bio-based drop-in PET and the new polymer<br />

PHA show the fastest rates of market growth.<br />

Europe looses considerable shares in total<br />

production to Asia. The bio-based polymer<br />

turnover was about € 11 billion worldwide<br />

in 2014 compared to € 10 billion in 2013.<br />

http://bio-based.eu/markets<br />

©<br />

15<br />

10<br />

5<br />

2011<br />

-Institut.eu | 2015<br />

2% of total<br />

polymer capacity,<br />

€11 billion turnover<br />

2012<br />

Epoxies<br />

PE<br />

2013<br />

PUR<br />

PBS<br />

2014<br />

CA<br />

PBAT<br />

2015<br />

PET<br />

PA<br />

<strong>2016</strong><br />

PTT<br />

PHA<br />

2017<br />

PEF<br />

2018<br />

Starch<br />

Blends<br />

EPDM<br />

PLA<br />

2019<br />

2020<br />

Full study available at www.bio-based.eu/markets<br />

The nova-Institute carried out this study in<br />

collaboration with renowned international<br />

experts from the field of bio-based building<br />

blocks and polymers. The study investigates<br />

every kind of bio-based polymer and, for the<br />

second time, several major building blocks<br />

produced around the world.<br />

What makes this report unique?<br />

■ The 500 page-market study contains<br />

over 200 tables and figures, 96 company<br />

profiles and 11 exclusive trend reports<br />

written by international experts.<br />

■ These market data on bio-based building<br />

blocks and polymers are the main source<br />

of the European Bioplastics market data.<br />

■ In addition to market data, the report offers a<br />

complete and in-depth overview of the biobased<br />

economy, from policy to standards<br />

& norms, from brand strategies to<br />

environmental assessment and many more.<br />

■ A comprehensive short version<br />

(24 pages) is available for free at<br />

http://bio-based.eu/markets<br />

To whom is the report addressed?<br />

■ The whole polymer value chain:<br />

agro-industry, feedstock suppliers,<br />

chemical industry (petro-based and<br />

bio-based), global consumer<br />

industries and brands owners<br />

■ Investors<br />

■ Associations and decision makers<br />

Content of the full report<br />

This 500 page-report presents the findings of<br />

nova-Institute’s market study, which is made up<br />

of three parts: “market data”, “trend reports”<br />

and “company profiles” and contains over 200<br />

tables and figures.<br />

The “market data” section presents market<br />

data about total production capacities and the<br />

main application fields for selected bio-based<br />

polymers worldwide (status quo in 2011, 2013<br />

and 2014, trends and investments towards<br />

2020). This part not only covers bio-based<br />

polymers, but also investigates the current biobased<br />

building block platforms.<br />

The “trend reports” section contains a total of<br />

eleven independent articles by leading experts<br />

Order the full report<br />

The full report can be ordered for 3,000 €<br />

plus VAT and the short version of the report<br />

can be downloaded for free at:<br />

www.bio-based.eu/markets<br />

NEW: Buy the trends reports separately!<br />

Contact<br />

Dipl.-Ing. Florence Aeschelmann<br />

+49 (0) 22 33 / 48 14-48<br />

florence.aeschelmann@nova-institut.de<br />

in the field of bio-based polymers. These trend<br />

reports cover in detail every important trend<br />

in the worldwide bio-based building block and<br />

polymer market.<br />

The final “company profiles” section includes<br />

96 company profiles with specific data<br />

including locations, bio-based building blocks<br />

and polymers, feedstocks and production<br />

capacities (actual data for 2011, 2013 and<br />

2014 and forecasts for 2020). The profiles also<br />

encompass basic information on the companies<br />

(joint ventures, partnerships, technology and<br />

bio-based products). A company index by biobased<br />

building blocks and polymers, with list of<br />

acronyms, follows.

News<br />

Bioplastics made<br />

simple in new report<br />

from SPI<br />

As bioplastics become more popular and an emerging<br />

material of choice, The Society of the Plastics Industry - SPI’s<br />

Bioplastics Division recently released a new report “Bioplastics<br />

Simplified: Attributes of Biobased and Biodegradable Products”,<br />

which explains bioplastics in simple terms so that people can<br />

understand their benefits. The SPI Bioplastics Division defines<br />

bioplastics as “partially or fully biobased and/or biodegradable.”<br />

“We wanted to simply explain bioplastics and showcase how<br />

bioplastics support the plastic industry’s focus and commitment<br />

to reduce waste and create products that are sustainable,” said<br />

Patrick Krieger, assistant director of regulatory & technical<br />

affairs at SPI. “With our members and consumers in mind, we<br />

wanted to clarify how these innovative materials are composed,<br />

and highlight their benefits to the environment.”<br />

This report also helps educate consumers on the meaning<br />

behind company-specific claims that their products include<br />

biobased content, or are biodegradable. Under U.S. Federal<br />

Trade Commission’s Guides for the Use of Environmental<br />

Marketing Claims, companies that make these claims must<br />

ensure they have competent and reliable scientific evidence for<br />

the origin or degradability claims for their products.<br />

Biobased bioplastics can have numerous environmental<br />

benefits, including the reduction of fossil fuel usage, potential<br />

reduction of carbon footprint and/or reduction of global<br />

warming potential. Through composting, anaerobic digestion,<br />

and marine and soil environments, biodegradable bioplastics<br />

completely degrade, through biological action, into biomass,<br />

carbon dioxide or methane, and water. The benefits of biobased<br />

and biodegradable plastics reinforce the plastics industry’s<br />

commitment to creating sustainable materials. MT<br />

http://plasticsindustry.org/files/Bioplastics%20Simplified.pdf<br />

Will Metabolix sell off its<br />

PHA Business?<br />

Metabolix, Inc. has announced that the Company is exploring<br />

strategic alternatives for its specialty biopolymers business<br />

and for its Yield10 crop science program.<br />

The Company cited outside strategic interest in its biopolymers<br />

business as well as a challenging financing environment as key<br />

considerations leading to this development.<br />

Strategic alternatives may include selling the Company’s<br />

specialty biopolymers business to a third party with strategic<br />

interest in acquiring the business.<br />

Metabolix is currently engaged in discussions with interested<br />

parties regarding the potential sale of the specialty biopolymers<br />

business as an operating business and may engage in<br />

discussions with additional parties as it progresses through its<br />

strategic review. MT<br />

www.metabolix.com<br />

Winners of the<br />

“Bio-based Material<br />

of the Year <strong>2016</strong>”<br />

On April 5 th the Innovation Award Bio-based Material of<br />

the Year <strong>2016</strong> was awarded to three innovative materials<br />

in suitable applications. The competition focused on<br />

new developments in the bio-based economy, which<br />

have had (or will have) a market launch in 2015 or <strong>2016</strong>.<br />

The winners were elected by the participants of the 9 th<br />

International Conference on Bio-based Materials in<br />

Cologne, Germany.<br />

The International Conference on Bio-based Materials<br />

is a well established meeting point for companies<br />

working in the field of bio-based chemicals and<br />

materials. 200 participants, mainly from the industry<br />

and representing 25 countries, met in Cologne to discuss<br />

the latest developments in the sector. 24 companies<br />

presented their products and services at the exhibition.<br />

The discussions showed unexpected impacts of the<br />

low oil prices and a less favourable political framework<br />

on the bio-based economy: Bio-based drop-in chemical<br />

commodities fade more and more from the spotlight.<br />

On the other hand, special bio-based fine chemicals<br />

and materials for end products are more attractive<br />

than ever. Because of their new functionalities and<br />

properties, they are not in direct competition with<br />

conventional petrochemical products. This will enable<br />

them to conquer the market without the need for strong<br />

support simply because they have a lot to offer – to the<br />

industry and to the consumer. Worldwide substantial<br />

investments are being made in this sector with high<br />

added value and strong market growth. The winners of<br />

the award are nice examples of this new generation of<br />

bio-based products with improved features.<br />

Six companies were nominated by the conference’s<br />

advisory board and experts from nova-Institute. Each<br />

nominee introduced its innovation in a short 10-minute<br />

presentation to the audience. The three winners were<br />

elected by the participants of the conference and<br />

announced at the Innovation Award Ceremony.<br />

And the winners are:<br />

1) Orineo BVBA (BE): Touch<br />

of Nature – Filled biobased<br />

resin for stimulating<br />

biomaterials<br />

2) Evonik (DE): REWOFERM ® SL<br />

446 – Novel sophorolipid-type<br />

biosurfactant<br />

3) Covestro (DE): Impranil ® eco –<br />

Bio-based waterborne polyurethane<br />

dispersions for textile<br />

coatings<br />

Details about the three winners and their products can<br />

be found on the website. MT<br />

www.biowerkstoff-kongress.de/award<br />

Covestro application example<br />

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

4 th PLA World Congress<br />

24 – 25 MAY <strong>2016</strong> MUNICH › GERMANY<br />

says<br />

THANK YOU...<br />

...to all of the attendees, sponsors, and speakers<br />

who participated in the 4 th PLA World Congress<br />

organized by<br />

Gold sponsor<br />

supported by<br />

Media-Partner<br />

1st Media-Partner<br />

Silver sponsor<br />

Institut<br />

für Ökologie und Innovation<br />

Coffeebreak sponsor<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 9

posters at the point-of-sale, followed by special leaflets, will support the<br />

10 years ago<br />

Published in bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

10 YEARS AGO<br />

new<br />

series<br />

Applications<br />

Applications<br />

First PLA bottle<br />

in Germany<br />

T<br />

hree new wellness beverages were introduced under the brand<br />

name “Vitamore” on 1 September by the German drugstore chain<br />

“Ihr Platz” (which means “your place” in English) in its more than<br />

700 stores. And this launch represents three premieres at a time, as all<br />

new products, Vitamore Beauty Drink, Vitamore Energy Drink and Vitamore<br />

Memory Drink are presented in 0.5 litre bottles made of Nature-<br />

Works PLA. These are the first PLA bottles in the German market. And if<br />

that is not enough, the caps of these bottles are also made of bioplastic.<br />

With a label made of paper and a starch-based glue, the entire bottle is<br />

fully compostable.<br />

One year ago, Ihr Platz introduced organic food and body care products<br />

into its portfolio, including dairy and convenience products - not usual for<br />

drugstore chains such as Ihr Platz. “So it was another consequent step<br />

in the same direction to introduce PLA as material for our new wellness<br />

beverages”, says project manager Bernd Merzenich, a consultant with 25<br />

years of experience in bioproducts, who supports Ihr Platz in this field.<br />

“People, who consider health, wellness, beauty and “bio…” as important<br />

for them, also wish to take care for a healthy environment” he adds. “We<br />

sense a huge amount of appreciation for the commitment of Ihr Platz,<br />

because we know about all the hidden obstacles in this business”, adds<br />

Joeran Reske from Interseroh, who supported Ihr Platz with contacts and<br />

information during the development of the bottle.<br />

Cost versus advantages<br />

Drugstore chain “Ihr Platz” introduces new<br />

wellness drinks in PLA bottles<br />

Even if PLA is still more expensive than PET, “for the order of magnitude<br />

that we need for the introduction phase, it is significant”, as Bernd<br />

Merzenich comments, Ihr Platz decided however not to put the additional<br />

cost on top of the sales price. The lower margin that the drugstore accepts<br />

brings benefits in the marketing aspect when introducing and promoting<br />

the new product. “We assume that the customers appreciate the<br />

advantages of PLA, to have a material that can be 100% composted or<br />

incinerated with greenhouse gas neutrality”, says Bernd, “and, in addition,<br />

in our calculation we are undertaking steps to achieve exemption<br />

from the mandatory deposit in Germany for environmentally preferable<br />

beverage packaging”.<br />

As this is the first bottle of its kind in Germany, education of the customers<br />

is an important subject. Ihr Platz puts most emphasis on a specially<br />

created website (www.vitamore.info), as the target group of customers<br />

is considered as having strong affinity with Internet. In addition, large<br />

The compostable cap - another “world first”<br />

The cap is also a worldwide premiere: The cap of the Vitamore bottles, supplied<br />

by the Swiss company Wiedmer AG, is made of biodegradable and compostable<br />

Mater-Bi from Novamont, Italy. In combination with the rigid PLA bottle, the geometry<br />

of the cap and the elastic Mater-Bi material allow a perfectly leakproof bottle.<br />

The sealing function is inherently integrated into the geometry of the cap, without<br />

any need for additional inserted sealing from a third material, so that it can withstand<br />

even the higher internal pressures of normal carbonated beverages (CSD:<br />

carbonated soft drinks).<br />

What does a brand owner expect from the industry?<br />

First of all, Ihr Platz expects larger production capacities for PLA to improve<br />

availability to a larger number of users in the packaging and beverage industries.<br />

“And of course, more different suppliers means competition and that is good for<br />

business”, Bernd Merzenich adds, with a smile. But there is more that should be<br />

improved than just availability and price. Especially for bottles, Bernd Merzenich<br />

seeks further improvements of both blowability and stretchability. This is particularly<br />

relevant for a further reduction of the preform and bottle weight, in order<br />

to further increase the environmental advantages of PLA bottles. The shelf life of<br />

the slightly carbonised Vitamore drinks (

It’s K Time<br />

After 3 years, we’re ready to go again. K <strong>2016</strong> presents you the best that engineers, chemists and researchers<br />

currently have on offer: machinery, technology, materials, tools, applications, and forward-looking products,<br />

processes and solutions. The best basis for global business, the perfect decision-making platform for<br />

investment. With some 3,200 exhibitors in 19 exhibition halls on more than 171,000 sqm of exhibition space,<br />

the world’s premier trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry will once again be presenting the entire<br />

range of products and services that the industry has to offer. Everything that will move the world in the<br />

future. Plan your visit now.<br />

Time for Decisions<br />

k-online.com<br />

Messe Düsseldorf GmbH<br />

P.O. Box 10 10 06 _ 40001 Düsseldorf _ Germany<br />

Tel. +49 (0)2 11/45 60-01 _ Fax +49 (0)2 11/45 60-6 68<br />


Events<br />

From resin to retail<br />

Biopolymers world gathers at Innovation Takes Root<br />

For three days at the end of March, Orlando, Florida<br />

was the stomping ground for anyone and everyone<br />

in any way involved in biopolymers, and especially<br />

in NatureWorks’ Ingeo PLA. The three-day Innovation<br />

Takes Root event was hosted this year for the fifth time<br />

by NatureWorks and consisted of one day of workshops<br />

followed by two days of actual conference during which<br />

the latest developments in the biopolymers market<br />

were examined against the backdrop of the broader<br />

policy, legislative, and societal perspective.<br />

One of the issues that came up, not once but several<br />

times, was that of the challenges bioplastics were facing<br />

in the current era of low oil (prices). Yet the general<br />

feeling was – and nobody expressed this more forcefully<br />

or coherently than NatureWorks CEO Marc Verbruggen<br />

in his closing speech – that despite the abundance of<br />

bleak headlines, the outlook is not all that somber.<br />

“Oil’s been at this level before,” Verbruggen pointed<br />

out. “It was at this level when we started out. And<br />

the economics of NatureWorks function in this<br />

environment.”<br />

As long as the corn price stays low, that is. “The<br />

sugar to polymer yield – currently 1.25 kg of sugar to<br />

produce 1 kg of PLA – determines how cost competitive<br />

you can be,” added Verbruggen. Because corn is cheap,<br />

NatureWorks can compete at an oil price of USD35 a<br />

barrel, although he also conceded that achieving a<br />

sufficient economy of scale has been a critical factor.<br />

“When we started, we built a huge plant. Looking back,<br />

if our shareholders had known what they were going<br />

to encounter, I question whether they would have<br />

pressed ahead. There’s been a steep learning curve,”<br />

Verbruggen said.<br />

However, as became evident over the course of these<br />

three days that, far from fading into oblivion, bioplastics<br />

are coming increasingly into their own. Obviously, at this<br />

conference PLA in all its facets was the main focus: as<br />

a raw material used for compostable serviceware or<br />

packaging, blended with PHA, in fibers for nonwovens<br />

and as 3D printing filaments, all of which were topics<br />

discussed in the presentations held by the 43 speakers<br />

at the conference.<br />

At the plenary sessions, speakers from WWF, IKEA,<br />

Nestlé, the Green Sports Alliance and many others<br />

addressed the use of bioplastics within the wider context<br />

of sustainability, public engagement and responsible<br />

stewardship. As Per Stolz, sustainability director at<br />

IKEA, said: “IKEA is big – we have impact. And with size,<br />

comes responsibility.” Or Justin Zellner, of the Green<br />

Sports Alliance, a movement that leverages sports as a<br />

means for environmental advocacy, who talked about the<br />

huge impact on supply chain economics which sports<br />

have – in addition to an “unbelievable visibility” – and<br />

the opportunities this offers, not only for greening the<br />

supply chain, but also for greening operations and for fan<br />

engagement in program initiatives. “Using compostable<br />

serviceware, composting food waste,” he said. “We can<br />

inspire them to do this at home, as well.” Erin Simon, of<br />

WWF summarized it well: “Together we can!”<br />

The plenary sessions were followed by a program of<br />

parallel market-focused sessions centered on topics<br />

including single serve beverage delivery systems;<br />

new developments in NatureWorks’ Ingeo flexible<br />

packaging; advancements in dairy, dessert and chilled<br />

snack packaging; food serviceware; new horizons for<br />

Ingeo in 3D printing; and Ingeo fibers and nonwovens<br />

advancements. One of the keynote speakers was Jen<br />

Owen, whose presentation on the use of 3D printing<br />

technology to provide hands to children unable to afford<br />

prostheses, offered a visceral demonstration of the<br />

opportunities this new technology presents. (See cover<br />

story on pp 14).<br />

Marc Verbruggen also zeroed in on the developments<br />

in 3D printing technology in his closing presentation,<br />

pointing put that additive manufacturing or 3D printing<br />

with Ingeo PLA is one of the fastest growing markets for<br />

this biopolymer. “It’s an exciting area. Two conferences<br />

ago, it was just emerging,” he said. “One conference<br />

ago, we recognized that it was a theme. And now, at<br />

ITR <strong>2016</strong>, we’ve not only got a full-fledged 3D printing<br />

platform on the market – a range of purpose-developed<br />

filament, with full suite technical support and an inhouse<br />

development lab - we’re now also announcing<br />

the launch of a new grade that can compete directly<br />

with ABS.”<br />

He also discussed the company’s aim is to have a<br />

methane to lactic acid pilot plant in place within another<br />

three to six years, projecting that the monetization<br />

of carbon will be achieved over the next five years.<br />

“Methane is a true game changer,” he explained.<br />

“Cellulosic feedstock – if that’s what you’ve got, use it.<br />

But sugar from cellulosics is a long, hard and expensive<br />

process. Is it helpful to use plants?” he asked. “Why not<br />

forget the intermediates? Not using plants solves a lot.”<br />

He continued, pointing out that “you could never be<br />

too cost competitive”.<br />

“As a company we have to make money. Sugar from<br />

methane costs 0.02 cents a pound. From corn, it’s<br />

14 cents and sugar, 15 cents a pound,” he stressed.<br />

Another key development at NatureWorks has been<br />

the ongoing process of further diversifying, not just<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Events<br />

By<br />

Karen Laird<br />

markets, but also the product mix. “We<br />

looking beyond just PLA for packaging,”<br />

he said. “We’re rethinking the business<br />

we’re in. We’re getting into compounding<br />

and again, are specifically targeting ABS<br />

with new Ingeo formulations that can not<br />

only replace, but outperform ABS,” said<br />

Verbruggen. Another project in the pipeline<br />

concerns the development of wipes and<br />

diapers.<br />

Marc Verbruggen<br />

NatureWorks has also moved into<br />

performance chemicals, using lactidebased<br />

building blocks to develop functional<br />

initiators and phase III copolymers, to name<br />

but a few. “We’re developing a portfolio<br />

of tunable performance products,” he<br />

explained. “We realized: why not look at the<br />

monomer? We can formulate – so why let<br />

others do it?”<br />

Looking ahead, he pointed out that it<br />

took NatureWorks 15 years to get to where<br />

the company is now – “a positive EBIDTA<br />

for the past 23 consecutive months “ – and<br />

that in another 20 years, looking back at<br />

the high growth today, it will be clear that<br />

this was just the introductory stage. “What<br />

is important is that bioplastics are now in<br />

the game,” said Verbruggen. “It takes time<br />

to get to scale. The growth is ahead of us.”<br />

He continued: “The next decade,<br />

we’ll see how technological investment<br />

translates into next generation capacity<br />

(…) and if it works, no one will ever build<br />

a plant based on sugar ever again. Until<br />

we’re there, we’ll be expanding the Blair<br />

corn-based facilities, as a bridge. We need<br />

to have capacity.”<br />

Karen Laird (left), Jen Owen<br />

Concluding on an optimistic note, he<br />

declared that the mindset is changing.<br />

“And that’s how we can get on that growth<br />

curve. Brand owners are willing to make<br />

that investment in people and capital. And,<br />

as early adapters who’ve done the heavy<br />

lifting, we’re finally moving towards more<br />

competitors - which is what we want. We<br />

need competitors! Customers don’t want<br />

to be fully dependent on us as a single<br />

supplier. We welcome competitors, so we<br />

can get up that growth curve together.”<br />

www.innovationtakesroot.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 13

Cover story<br />

By<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

An idea that is<br />

changing the<br />

world<br />

(Photo courtesy Jen Owen)<br />

Info<br />

Videoclip: http://bit.ly/1TJ9tV1<br />

Michael Thielen with Jen Owen at ITR <strong>2016</strong><br />

(Photo courtesy NatureWorks)<br />

Have you ever experienced a standing ovation at a technical<br />

conference? I certainly never had – at least, not until<br />

recently. And that’s a story I now feel a need to share<br />

with you.<br />

At this year’s ITR event, organized by NatureWorks at the<br />

end of March in Orlando (see a comprehensive conference<br />

report on p 12), the second day of the conference was opened<br />

by keynote speaker Jen Owen, with a presentation on a<br />

very special project she and her husband had more or less<br />

accidentally stumbled into. So special, in fact, that she was<br />

willing to get up on stage and talk about it, even though, as<br />

she put it: “Public speaking is like my worst fear, so, I just<br />

want to put that out there, and I’m being brave today.”<br />

And with that, she launched into a story that was riveting,<br />

inspiring, heart-warming and funny, all at the same time.<br />

“I come from a home where quite often something is set on<br />

fire, launched through the air or turned into a fruit-murdering<br />

device,” she deadpanned. “If you don’t believe me, I’m going to<br />

show you what I mean.” And for readers who need convincing,<br />

right now would be a good time to check out this YouTube clip<br />

(see link on this page).<br />

Jen and Ivan Owen’s adventure started in 2011, when<br />

Ivan made himself a giant functional mechanical hand, that<br />

worked using rings and strings, to go with his costume for a<br />

Steam Punk convention. Just for fun, Ivan posted the video on<br />

YouTube – where it was seen by a carpenter in South Africa,<br />

who reached out to him with an unusual question. “Richard<br />

had lost all the fingers of his dominant hand in a woodworking<br />

accident,” Jen explained. And since a conventional prosthesis<br />

– even just for one finger – was way too expensive, he wanted<br />

to ask Ivan if he could help. And Ivan agreed. “Of course he<br />

agreed!” Jen added.<br />

The two, Ivan and Richard, spent the next year collaborating<br />

via e-mail and Skype over 10,000 miles and through different<br />

time zones. Ivan did some research and found a prosthetic<br />

hand that had been carved from whalebones in 1845 by an<br />

Australian dentist for a man who had lost his hand in a cannon<br />

accident. Using cables and pulleys, this hand worked in the<br />

same way as the one Ivan had created for himself. Inspired<br />

by the design, the first prototype of a one finger prosthesis<br />

for Richard was cobbled together from paper towel tubes,<br />

PVC-pipe, leather, rivets and the like. Almost a year after the<br />

start, Ivan was able to fly over to South Africa (somebody had<br />

donated frequent flyer miles), so that, together with Richard,<br />

the prosthesis, could be finetuned.<br />

Meanwhile, as Jen had been broadcasting the progress of<br />

the project all over the internet, it wasn’t long before a mother<br />

– also from South Africa – contacted the Owens, asking<br />

whether it would be possible to make a full set of fingers<br />

for her young son, Liam. Liam had been born with one hand<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Cover story<br />

on which all the fingers were missing. “Of course” Ivan<br />

agreed and, together with Richard the carpenter, created<br />

a prototype hand for Liam. It worked, but it was “metal,<br />

clunky and ugly”, as Jen described it. They nicknamed it<br />

the “Frankenhand”. Yet soon, a far more serious realization<br />

dawned: children grow, and therefore Liam would quickly<br />

outgrow the hand. How to solve this problem?<br />

To make a much longer story short, they decided to try<br />

3D-printing. With the help of two 3D-printers donated by<br />

MakerBot, Ivan taught himself how to code and design.<br />

They created the first PLA plastic hand, which Richard the<br />

carpenter then 3D-printed for Liam. And soon they<br />

realized, that if there was one child like Liam –<br />

there must be thousands in the world… .<br />

Now, instead of patenting the<br />

design – he felt it was too big<br />

to keep for himself – Ivan put<br />

the files online, open source,<br />

in the public domain, so<br />

that anyone, anywhere could<br />

print a hand for somebody<br />

who needed one. And from<br />

there, the project just took off.<br />

A Google+ group and an online<br />

map was created on which people<br />

willing to volunteer the use of their printer<br />

could show their location, so that people who<br />

needed hands would know who they could turn<br />

to. Thus the enable-the-future community was<br />

born.<br />

The group of volunteers quickly grew to<br />

more than 8,000 worldwide today and more<br />

than 2,000 hands have since been printed and<br />

distributed to children around the globe. The<br />

hands, made from PLA, can be scaled to fit any<br />

child’s size. The parts snap together easily. If a<br />

finger breaks, a new one can be printed to fit<br />

the hand.<br />

Then, in the course of the project, “they started<br />

getting creative”, said Jen. “There are LED light<br />

fingertips, there are laser pointers to terrify the cat,<br />

superhero hands, Star Wars hands – you name it,<br />

it’s out there,” said Jen. “The superhero hands are<br />

probably the most popular.”<br />

“These designs are basic hands. They have just a basic<br />

grasping motion. They’re nowhere near as robust as<br />

a traditional prosthetic, but for children who were born<br />

with no fingers and a palm, there was nothing available<br />

for them in the general prosthetic world. And these can<br />

be made for USD 30 to 50, versus USD 3,000 to 5,000<br />

traditional prosthetics would cost their families.” Plus,<br />

they would need a new size every 6 to 12 months.<br />

As time has gone by, families have learned to make (and<br />

repair) hands for their own kids. Children have started to<br />

make hands for other children. Schools, boy scout and girl<br />

scout troops have launched projects to make hands and<br />

ship them to clinics along the Syrian border and to Africa.<br />

Corporal Coles’ whalebone<br />

hand (Photo courtesy Royal<br />

Adelaide Hospital)<br />

“The most beautiful thing about this project is ….<br />

that people are coming together from all over the<br />

world, putting their political, religious, personal,<br />

cultural differences aside, to create a positive<br />

change in the world.”<br />

“Imagine a world where instead<br />

of using new technology destroying<br />

each other people took up the idea of<br />

the enable-community and started<br />

using this technology to give each<br />

other a helping hand. That’s who<br />

we are, and we are enabling the<br />

future.”<br />

After the well-earned standing<br />

ovation from the audience,<br />

NatureWorks’ CEO Marc<br />

Verbruggen announced that<br />

the company would donate<br />

10,000 lbs. of Ingeo filament<br />

to the cause. “It’s a global<br />

initiative, so we have to figure<br />

out how we’re going to get the<br />

filament to the right people,”<br />

he said.<br />

“I can only applaud what you<br />

have done,” he added.<br />

And, speaking from the heart, I can<br />

only say: as can we all. Well done, Jen!<br />

http://enablingthefuture.org<br />

Magnetic<br />

for Plastics<br />

www.plasticker.com<br />

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in Raw Materials, Machinery & Products Free of Charge.<br />

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from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets.<br />

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and Services.<br />

• Job Market<br />

for Specialists and Executive Staff in the Plastics Industry.<br />

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 15

Injection moulding<br />

Injection molding<br />

of PLA cutlery<br />

By:<br />

Shilpa Manjure and Michael Annan<br />

Natur-Tec - A Division of Northern Technologies<br />

International Corp. (NTIC)<br />

Circle Pines, Minnesota, USA<br />

Background<br />

Disposable plastic items are typically made out of two<br />

types of plastics: polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS).<br />

Plastic utensils, in particular, are highly regarded for the<br />

affordability and convenience. However, once these utensils<br />

are contaminated with food, recycling them becomes<br />

challenging. On the other hand, food service-ware and<br />

packaging made from compostable plastics, such as<br />

Ingeo Poly(lactic) acid (PLA), allow for easy disposal in<br />

composting, and thereby provide a viable alternative to<br />

recycling of conventional plastic-based materials. There<br />

is no need to clean the item as you would for high-quality<br />

conventional recycling. All compostable plastic products<br />

go into one bin together with the food waste, thereby<br />

making it simpler to facilitate diversion of food waste from<br />

landfill to composting. However, for manufacturers, PLA is<br />

a thermoplastic material that comes with its own unique<br />

challenges. This article examines from a manufacturer’s<br />

perspective, how the injection molding of PLA-based<br />

compounds compares with molding of PS and PP, and<br />

in particular, how the performance of cutlery made from<br />

Natur-Tec’s modified Ingeo PLA compares with cutlery<br />

made from PS or PP.<br />

Comparison of thermal properties<br />

In order to understand molding behavior and<br />

performance of a material, it is important to first<br />

understand its thermal properties. Table 1, summarizes<br />

the thermal properties of PLA, PS and PP.<br />

Commercial grade, atactic PS is an amorphous<br />

material, i.e. has 0 % crystallinity, and as such it does not<br />

have a melting point. The glass transition temperature<br />

(T g<br />

) of this PS is 100 °C (89 to 102 °C depending on the<br />

molecular weight). The glass transition temperature<br />

is an important thermal property of any polymer, and is<br />

the temperature region where the (amorphous region of)<br />

polymer transitions from a hard, glassy material to a soft,<br />

rubbery material as temperature increases. Hard plastics,<br />

such as PS, are used well below their T g<br />

or in their glassy<br />

state. The T g<br />

of PS is well above room temperature, and<br />

as such PS can be used with hot foods up to 90 °C without<br />

softening.<br />

PP, on the other hand, has a T g<br />

of 0 °C and is a more<br />

flexible polymer as compared to PS at room temperature.<br />

This is a common way to distinguish PP cutlery from PS<br />

cutlery in the market. PP cutlery tends to be bendable<br />

or pliable, whereas PS cutlery tends to be stiff and hard.<br />

PP and PLA are both semi-crystalline polymers with a<br />

melting point in the range of 160 °C. Despite having a<br />

similar melting point, PLA is different from PP. PLA has<br />

a high melting point similar to that of PP, and a T g<br />

above<br />

room temperature similar to that of PS. This makes PLA<br />

cutlery, rigid or glassy at room temperature. However,<br />

above its T g<br />

of 55 °C, PLA cutlery starts to soften and is<br />

difficult to use in high temperature applications. Although<br />

it is a semi-crystalline polymer, PLA has a much slower<br />

crystallization rate as compared to PP. Therefore, PLA<br />

parts made with a cold mold are essentially amorphous.<br />

PP food service ware is usable in hot food applications<br />

inspite of its much lower T g<br />

because of its “crystallinity”<br />

and faster rate of crystallization – achieve a crystallinity of<br />

30 – 70 % in 5 – 10 seconds [1]. When a PP part is above its<br />

T g<br />

, the amorphous regions soften, but the crystals which<br />

contribute to the morphological structure help the part in<br />

maintaining form until its melting point is reached. This<br />

same principle can be applied to PLA.<br />

Figure 1, clearly demonstrates these differences among<br />

the three materials by measuring storage modulus<br />

(stiffness) as a function of temperature. PS (orange<br />

curve) maintains its stiffness until 100 °C, above which<br />

it deforms. Amorphous Ingeo 20<strong>03</strong>D PLA (green curve)<br />

follows the same trend until it reaches its T g<br />

around 55 °C,<br />

after which it deforms. As discussed earlier, PP is a semicrystalline<br />

material and slowly decreases in stiffness<br />

(brown curve) until it reaches its melting temperature of<br />

140 °C. Crystallized PLA (Ingeo 3100HP – blue curve) is<br />

rigid at room temperature, similar to PS, and decreases in<br />

stiffness at approximately 60 °C. However, the crystalline<br />

domains of PLA hold the structure together and prevent<br />

the product from deformation till its melting point of<br />

155 °C is reached. This is very similar to PP behavior as<br />

can be seen from the brown (PP) and blue (Ingeo 3100HP<br />

PLA) curves. Thus, developing crystallinity in PLA helps<br />

increase resistance to heat in compostable foodservice<br />

ware applications. There are, of course, other ways to<br />

improve heat resistance in durable, non-compostable PLA<br />

applications.<br />

Molding and crystallization of PLA<br />

From the above discussions, it is clear that crystallization<br />

is an efficacious way to improve high-heat performance<br />

in compostable food service ware products. There are<br />

two methods in which one can develop crystallinity in a<br />

compostable part as summarized below:<br />

a) One-Step Process or In-mold annealing:<br />

Crystallization of a part by changing the mold temperature<br />

to improve performance of the molded part has been<br />

practiced and studied for traditional plastics [3]. The same<br />

can be applied to PLA, where crystallization is carried out<br />

in the mold itself by heating the mold to the crystallization<br />

temperature of the specific PLA grade, typically in the<br />

range of 100 – 130 °C. Crystallization rate is affected by the<br />

D-content present in the PLA. Lower the D-content, faster<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Injection moulding molding<br />

is the crystallization rate [4]. This is particularly important<br />

for a molding process as it directly affects the cycle times<br />

in the mold. Cycle times for an Ingeo 3100HP PLA based<br />

cutlery is on the order 30 – 45 seconds depending on<br />

the mold design, runner system and heating channels.<br />

Therefore, this method is, currently a more expensive<br />

way of crystallizing a PLA part, as the cycle times to<br />

crystallize in the mold are much higher than those for PP<br />

or PS that are only 5 – 10 seconds. The main advantage of<br />

an in-mold annealing process is that one can utilize the<br />

full capacity of the molding equipment, and the process<br />

set-up is straightforward. Additionally, the warpage of the<br />

part is minimal as compared to a post-annealing process<br />

described in the next section.<br />

b) Two-Step Process or Post-annealing:<br />

This is currently the most popular way of crystallizing<br />

PLA, especially for cutlery. The cutlery is molded in step<br />

one in a cold mold, followed by step two in which the<br />

cutlery is annealed in a convection oven set at the PLA<br />

crystallization temperature [5]. The advantage is one can<br />

get benefit from the faster cycle times of the cold mold<br />

to make almost amorphous parts in step one and keep<br />

the molding cost much lower. The disadvantages of the<br />

post-annealing method are (i) molding capacity can only<br />

be fully utilized with an upfront investment in suitable<br />

ovens or automation (ii) it can be labor intensive if not<br />

automated, and (iii) part warpage is an issue depending<br />

upon the geometry of the cutlery, as the material relaxes<br />

when reheated above its T g<br />

.<br />

Performance of cutlery made with Natur-Tec’s<br />

modified Ingeo PLA compound<br />

Natur-Tec has launched a 2-part resin solution,<br />

BF3002HT, consisting of a highly-filled, impact-modified<br />

Ingeo PLA based masterbatch, that can be blended<br />

with virgin Ingeo PLA at the time of injection molding.<br />

Competitive filled-PLA compounds that are currently<br />

available in the market do not use the masterbatch<br />

approach and typically use 100 % of the compounded<br />

resin for molding cutlery. A key advantage of the Natur-<br />

Tec 2-part solution is that only 50 % of the resin used for<br />

molding goes through two heat histories, which in turn,<br />

helps in maintaining the molecular weight, and therefore<br />

provide improved mechanical strength for the final part,<br />

as compared to a part manufactured with the 100 % fullycompounded<br />

resin.<br />

Performance Test Methods: There is no standardized<br />

quantitative test method to compare various cutleries,<br />

other than a military specification describing a method<br />

that is at best semi-quantitative [6]. As a result, to quantify<br />

the stiffness/flexibility of a cutlery and performance in<br />

hot water, Natur-Tec developed two in-house tests with<br />

standard Instron equipment used for tensile/compressive<br />

testing<br />

1. Rigidity Test: In the rigidity test, the handle of a cutlery<br />

piece was clamped to the upper jaw of the Instron and<br />

pushed down vertically until it was bent or broken.<br />

2. Hot Water Test: In the hot water test, which simulates<br />

performance in hot fluids, the cutlery was immersed in<br />

hot water at controlled temperature between 80 and 90 °C<br />

for 20 seconds before it was compressed in the vertical<br />

direction.<br />

Glass transition<br />

temperature,<br />

T g<br />

, °C<br />

Melting<br />

temperature,<br />

T m<br />

, °C<br />

% Crystallinity Crystallization<br />

rate<br />

PS 100 NA 0 NA<br />

PP 0 140 – 170 30 – 70 Fast<br />

PLA 55 160 30 – 50 Slow<br />

Table 1: Typical thermal properties of PLA, PS and PP<br />

Figure 1: Change in storage modulus (stiffness) as a function<br />

of temperature for Ingeo 20<strong>03</strong>D PLA, polystyrene,<br />

polypropylene and crystallized Ingeo 3100HP PLA [2]<br />

Storage modulus, MPa<br />

10,000<br />

1,000<br />

100<br />

10<br />

20<br />

Amorphous 20<strong>03</strong>D<br />

Crystalline 3100HP<br />

PS<br />

PP<br />

Good range<br />

60 100 140 180<br />

Temperature, °C<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 17

Injection moulding<br />

Both tests measured the force (compressive load)<br />

to break/bend a cutlery, and how much distance is<br />

compressed before the cutlery failed. The area under the<br />

curve of force vs. distance provided the toughness (energy<br />

absorbed at break) of each cutlery based on design and<br />

material performance.<br />

Cutlery made using Natur-Tec BF3002HT resin, was<br />

benchmarked against standard PS and PP cutlery sold in<br />

the market, for performance metrics such as mechanical<br />

strength, hot water resistance and warpage. The PS<br />

cutlery benchmarked was similar in weight and length as<br />

the Natur-Tec cutlery, whereas the PP cutlery was slightly<br />

smaller and lower in weight.<br />

Rigidity Performance Data: Figures 2(a) and (b) show<br />

results obtained from the Rigidity test. Figure 2(a) shows<br />

that both PS and PLA are rigid and stronger materials<br />

at room temperature and need a higher force to break/<br />

deform as compared to the PP cutlery. Figure 2(a) also<br />

shows that PS is more brittle and breaks sooner, as<br />

compared to the PP or Natur-Tec cutlery. It is noteworthy<br />

that Natur-Tec’s modified Ingeo PLA cutlery did not break<br />

and withstood more of the applied force before deforming<br />

(about 2 kg force). PP cutlery also did not break but it<br />

deformed when the applied force was only) 0.5 kg. This<br />

is evident in figure 2(b), where toughness or total energy<br />

absorbed to break was compared. Natur-Tec cutlery<br />

exhibits higher toughness as compared to both PS and PP<br />

cutlery.<br />

Performance in Hot Water: Figure 3(a) and (b) show<br />

results obtained from a Hot Water test where force to<br />

deform a cutlery was measured at two temperatures:<br />

80 °C and 90 °C. Any changes in shape after the force<br />

was applied were also noted. The PS cutlery was the most<br />

rigid cutlery at the lower temperature as shown in figure<br />

3(a). At higher temperatures of 90°C, closer to the T g<br />

of<br />

PS, the PS cutlery begins to soften and consequently the<br />

force to deform it dropped significantly – figure 3(b). Also<br />

PS cutlery deformed after being compressed in hot water<br />

as shown in picture, while Natur-Tec’s (and the PP) cutlery<br />

retained its shape as they were still flexible.<br />

Warpage in Post-Annealing: Warpage of the cutlery<br />

during the post-annealing step tends to be a major issue<br />

that affects overall yield and therefore the per-piece cost.<br />

As a result, warpage of the molded cutlery was studied<br />

as a function of masterbatch amount used in Natur-<br />

Tec’s 2-part resin system. Warpage for the spoon was<br />

measured as changes in the length of the handle, and the<br />

width of the spoon bowl. The annealing conditions used<br />

were maintained the same for all parts in a convection<br />

oven. Figure 4 shows change in width of spoon-bowl.<br />

It was found that as the percentage of highly filled<br />

masterbatch was increased, the warpage of the cutlery<br />

decreased. Warpage plateaued out at approximately 2 %<br />

at a masterbatch loading level of 50 %. The crystallinity of<br />

all the cutlery samples tested was 40 – 50 %.<br />

Summary<br />

PLA is a semi-crystalline polymer with T g<br />

of 55 °C<br />

and therefore behaves as a glassy polymer at room<br />

temperature like PS, At However at use temperatures<br />

above 55 °C, PLA cutlery will deform and will not be<br />

usable. Developing crystallinity in PLA allows use of PLA<br />

upto 90 °C because the crystalline domains hold the<br />

structure together and prevent deformation. Crystallized<br />

PLA cutlery tends to be flexible like PP cutlery at higher<br />

Figure 2: (a) Stiffness comparison of spoon made with PS, PP and Natur-Tec’s modified Ingeo PLA;<br />

(b) Toughness comparison of spoon made with PS, PP and Natur-Tec’s modified Ingeo PLA<br />

Maximum compressive load, kg<br />

3.0<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

1.0<br />

0.5<br />

0.0<br />

0.0<br />

(a)<br />

PS<br />

Natur-Tec<br />

modified<br />

Ingeo<br />

PP<br />

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2<br />

Normalized distance at break<br />

Energy at break, N-mm<br />

600<br />

500<br />

400<br />

300<br />

200<br />

100<br />

0<br />

(b)<br />

PS PP Natur-Tec modified<br />

Ingeo<br />

Figure 3: Hot water performance of spoon made with PS, PP and Natur-Tec’s modified Ingeo PLA (a) at 80 °C and (b) at 90 °C<br />

Maximum compressive load, kg<br />

16,000<br />

14,000<br />

12,000<br />

1,000<br />

800<br />

600<br />

400<br />

200<br />

0<br />

(a)<br />

PS<br />

PP<br />

Natur-Tec modified<br />

Ingeo<br />

Maximum compressive load, kg<br />

16,000<br />

14,000<br />

12,000<br />

1,000<br />

800<br />

600<br />

400<br />

200<br />

0<br />

(b)<br />

PS PP Natur-Tec modified<br />

Ingeo<br />

PS<br />

PLA<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

temperatures. Crystallization can be carried out in two ways:<br />

(1) as in-mold annealing where part is crystallized in a heated<br />

mold at 100 – 130°C and (2) as post-annealing where part is<br />

molded with a cold mold and then crystallized in a second<br />

step in an oven.<br />

Cutlery made with Natur-Tec’s modified Ingeo PLA<br />

compound has better toughness than PS cutlery of the same<br />

weight. Warpage, in post-annealed cutlery, is significantly<br />

reduced as the masterbatch is increased from 15 % to 50 %.<br />

The 2-part Natur-Tec resin solution helps retain molecular<br />

weight, and provides better mechanical performance as<br />

compared to a traditional filled-PLA compound.<br />

Acknowledgements<br />

We would like to acknowledge the strong support of<br />

NatureWorks Llc, in particular, Nicole Whiteman for her<br />

technical expertise and guidance on Ingeo PLA PLA materials.<br />

References<br />

[1] “Processing And Properties Optimization Of Dynamic Injection-Molded<br />

PP”, Wu Hongwu Zhong Lei Qu Jinping National Engineering Research<br />

Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing South China University<br />

of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China, ANTEC 2005, pp 884 – 888.<br />

[2] “High Heat Performance Ingeo for Foodservice Ware”, Nicole Whiteman,<br />

NatureWorks Llc., Innovation Takes Root Conference 2014.<br />

[3] “The Importance of Melt & Mold Temperature”, Michael Sepe from Michael<br />

P. Sepe LLC, Plastics Technology, December 2011.<br />

[4] “Impact Of Crystallization On Performance Properties And Biodegradability<br />

Of Poly(Lactic Acid)”, Shawn Shi & Ramani Narayan, Michigan State<br />

University, East Lansing MI, ANTEC 2013 Ohio.<br />

[5] “Effects Of Annealing Time And Temperature On The Crystallinity And<br />

Dynamic Mechanical Behavior Of Injection Molded Polylactic Acid (PLA)”,<br />

Yottha Srithep, Paul Nealey and Lih-Sheng Turng, University of Wisconsin–<br />

Madison, Madison, WI, Polymer Engineering & Science, Volume 53, <strong>Issue</strong><br />

3, pages 580–588, March 2013.<br />

[6] Military Spec: http://everyspec.com/COMML_ITEM_DESC/A-A-<strong>03</strong>000_A-A-<br />

<strong>03</strong>999/A-A-3109_41836/<br />

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• Film<br />

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biowaste bags or<br />

agricultural films<br />

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Such as coffee capsules,<br />

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Figure 4: Warpage of spoon as measured by decrease in width<br />

of spoon-cup for cutlery made with different levels of<br />

masterbatch blended with virgin Ingeo PLA<br />

12.0<br />

% Shrink in width of spoon<br />

10.0<br />

8.0<br />

6.0<br />

4.0<br />

2.0<br />

0.0<br />

0<br />

10 20 30 40 50 60<br />

% Highly-filled masterbatch in Natur-Tec‘s modified compound<br />

BIO-FED<br />

Branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH<br />

BioCampus Cologne · Nattermannallee 1<br />

50829 Cologne · Germany<br />

Phone: +49 221 88 8894-00<br />

Fax: +49 221 88 8894-99<br />

info@bio-fed.com<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 19

Injection moulding<br />

Injection molding of<br />

wood-plastic composites<br />

While everyone knows wood-plastic composites<br />

(WPC) e. g. for decking and fencing, now a wider<br />

range of material options for WPC formulations<br />

are opening new opportunities for molders. Recycled,<br />

biodegradable and biobased plastic feedstock can further<br />

enhance the sustainability of these materials. There are<br />

an increasing number of aesthetic options, which can be<br />

manipulated by varying the wood species and wood particle<br />

size in the composite. In short, optimization for injection<br />

molding and the growing list of options available to<br />

compounders mean wood-plastic composites are a much<br />

more versatile material than what was once thought.<br />

What injection molders should expect from<br />

suppliers<br />

A growing number of compounders are now offering<br />

wood-plastic composite pellets. Injection molders should<br />

be discerning when it comes to what to expect from<br />

compounders in two areas especially: pellet size and<br />

moisture content.<br />

Unlike when extruding wood-plastic composites for<br />

decking and fencing, uniform pellet size for even melting<br />

is crucial. Since extruders do not have to worry about<br />

fitting their wood-plastic composite into a mold, the<br />

need for uniform pellet size is not as great. Hence, it’s<br />

important to verify that a compounder has the needs of<br />

injection molders in mind specifically, and is not overly<br />

focused on the earliest and initially most prevalent uses<br />

for wood-plastic composites.<br />

When pellets are too large they have a tendency to<br />

melt unevenly, create additional friction and settle into a<br />

structurally inferior final product. The ideal pellet should<br />

be 4 – 5mm in diameter and rounded to achieve an ideal<br />

surface to volume ratio. These dimensions facilitate<br />

drying and help to ensure a smooth flow throughout<br />

the production process. Injection molders working with<br />

wood-plastic composites should expect the same shape<br />

and uniformity they associate with traditional plastic<br />

pellets.<br />

Dryness, too, is an important quality to expect from a<br />

compounder’s wood-plastic composite pellets. Moisture<br />

levels in wood-plastic composites will increase with<br />

the amount of wood filler in the composite. While both<br />

extruding and injection molding require low-moisture<br />

content for best results, recommended moisture levels<br />

are slightly less for injection molding than for extrusion.<br />

So again, it’s important to verify that a compounder has<br />

considered injection molders during manufacturing. For<br />

injection molding, moisture levels should be below 1 %<br />

for optimal results.<br />

When suppliers take it upon themselves to deliver a<br />

product already containing acceptable levels of moisture,<br />

injection molders spend less time drying the pellets<br />

themselves, which can lead to substantial saving of time<br />

and money. Injection molders should consider shopping<br />

around for wood-plastic composite pellets shipped by the<br />

manufacturer with moisture levels already below 1 %.<br />

Formula and tooling considerations for woodplastic<br />

composites<br />

The ratio of wood to plastic in the chosen formula of<br />

a wood-plastic composite will have some effect on its<br />

behavior as it goes through the production process. The<br />

percentage of wood present in the composite will have<br />

an effect on the melt flow index (MFI), for example. As a<br />

rule, the more wood that is added to the composite, the<br />

lower the MFI.<br />

The percentage of wood will also have a bearing on the<br />

strength and stiffness of the product. Generally speaking,<br />

the more wood that’s added, the stiffer the product<br />

becomes. Wood can make up as much as 70 % of the<br />

total wood-plastic composite, but the resulting stiffness<br />

comes at the expense of the ductility of the final product,<br />

to the point where it may even risk becoming brittle.<br />

Higher concentrations of wood also shorten machine<br />

cycle times by adding an element of dimensional stability<br />

to the wood-plastic composite as it cools in the mold.<br />

This structural reinforcement allows the plastic part<br />

to be removed at a higher temperature than it would if<br />

using an unfilled polymer. At temperatures where unfilled<br />

resins are still too soft to be removed from their molds,<br />

composites made with wood can successfully be ejected.<br />

If the product will be manufactured using existing tools,<br />

the gate size and general shape of the molding should<br />

factor into the discussion of optimal wood particle size.<br />

A smaller particle will likely better serve tooling with<br />

small gates and narrow extensions. If other factors have<br />

already led designers to settle on a larger wood particle<br />

size, then it may be beneficial to redesign the existing<br />

tooling accordingly.<br />

Processing wood-plastic composites<br />

Processing parameters also have a tendency to<br />

fluctuate significantly based on the final formulation<br />

of the wood-plastic composite pellets. While many of<br />

the parameters remains similar to that of conventional<br />

plastics such as PE or PP, specific wood-to-plastic<br />

ratios and other additives meant to achieve some desired<br />

look, feel or performance characteristic may need to be<br />

accounted for in processing.<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Injection moulding molding<br />

By:<br />

Mike Parker<br />

Product Development Manager<br />

GreenDot<br />

Cottonwood Falls, Kansas, USA<br />

Wood-plastic composites are also compatible with<br />

foaming agents, for example. The addition of these<br />

foaming agents can create a balsa-like material.<br />

This is a useful property when the finished product<br />

needs to be especially lightweight or buoyant. For the<br />

purpose of the injection molder though, this is yet<br />

another example of how the diversifying composition<br />

of wood-plastic composites may lead to there being<br />

more to consider than when these materials first<br />

came to market.<br />

Processing temperatures are one area where woodplastic<br />

composites differ significantly from conventional<br />

plastics. Wood-plastic composites generally process<br />

in temperatures around 10 K lower than the same,<br />

unfilled material. Most wood additives will begin to<br />

burn at around 200 °C.<br />

Shearing is one of the most common issues to<br />

arise when processing wood-plastic composites.<br />

When pushing a material that’s too hot through too<br />

small a gate, the increased friction has a tendency to<br />

burn the wood and leads to telltale streaking and can<br />

ultimately degrade the plastic. This problem can be<br />

avoided by running wood-plastic composites at a lower<br />

temperature, ensuring the gate size is adequate and<br />

removing any unnecessary turns or right angles along<br />

the processing pathway.<br />

An injection molding standard<br />

Wood-plastic composites aren’t just for decking<br />

anymore. They are being optimized for injection<br />

molding, which is opening them up to a vast array of<br />

new product applications, from furniture to car parts.<br />

The wide range of formulations now available can<br />

enhance the benefits of these materials in terms of<br />

sustainability, aesthetic diversity and features such<br />

as buoyancy or rigidity. Demand for these materials<br />

will only increase as these perks become better<br />

known.<br />

For injection molders, this means a number of<br />

variables specific to each formulation that must be<br />

accounted for. But it also means molders should<br />

expect a product that’s better suited to injection<br />

molding than feedstock that was designated primarily<br />

to be extruded into boards. As these materials<br />

continue to develop, injection molders should raise<br />

their standards for the characteristics they expect<br />

to see in the composite materials delivered by their<br />

suppliers.<br />

www.greendotpure.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 21

Injection moulding<br />

Wall thickness dependent flow<br />

characteristics of bioplastics<br />

For the plastics industry, the component weight is of<br />

critical importance for the material costs. A good<br />

way to keep it light-weight is to produce components<br />

with low wall thickness. Reducing the component weight<br />

means to save on material and costs. In addition, it helps<br />

to improve the carbon footprint, especially for products<br />

with long transportation ways. Besides, a reduced carbon<br />

footprint fits in well with the green image of bioplastics.<br />

As of now, thin-wall components present a technological<br />

challenge especially for injection moulding. The lower<br />

the wall thickness of a moulded part, the greater the requirements<br />

regarding rheological properties of the material.<br />

This applies to bioplastics as well as to conventional<br />

plastics. For bioplastics, however, the specific parameters<br />

have not yet been available, which makes it very difficult<br />

for interested manufacturers to identify bioplastics that<br />

are suitable for thin-wall technology or may serve as<br />

points of comparison.<br />

Bioplastics vs. conventional plastics<br />

For these reasons, the absence of specific information<br />

relevant to the manufacturing process is a major<br />

impediment to a wider range of applications for bioplastics.<br />

This is the background for a project entitled “Processing<br />

of Biobased Plastics and Establishment of a Competence<br />

Network within the FNR Biopolymer Network”, initiated by<br />

a research alliance as part of a larger programme funded<br />

by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture<br />

(BMEL) and managed by the German Agency for<br />

Renewable Resources (FNR). This collaborative endeavour<br />

deals with the processing technologies currently in use<br />

for plastic materials (injection moulding, extrusion, fibre<br />

production, thermoforming, extrusion blow moulding,<br />

welding etc. and examines a wide range of marketable<br />

bioplastics with respect to their process-specific data,<br />

most of which have not become available yet from the<br />

material suppliers. The entire test results generated by<br />

the research alliance can be accessed free of charge<br />

and unrestricted at www.biokunststoffe-verarbeiten.de<br />

(German language). The test outcome described here<br />

represents partial findings only. To obtain comparable<br />

data for biobased and conventional plastics, various<br />

materials from both categories were tested using identical<br />

methods. The results were evaluated according to the<br />

wall thickness of each tested material, whereby high flow<br />

length at simultaneously low wall thickness indicates high<br />

flowability. The tests were conducted in cooperation with<br />

UL TTC (Krefeld, Germany); they are based on standard<br />

values for thermal properties of polymer melts (thermal<br />

capacity, conductivity, and density), the Carreau-WLF<br />

model for viscosity, the cooling-off and shear heating at<br />

a given melt and mould temperature. An equation system<br />

is used under the parameters of isothermal mould filling<br />

and a filling pressure limited to 800 bar for a test plate<br />

(without gating system). The limitation is necessary due to<br />

the process design for high-quality moulded parts, which<br />

requires a limitation of the filling pressure because of the<br />

inherent residual stress.<br />

Flow behaviour of conventional plastics<br />

as a point of reference<br />

The first step is to establish a basis for comparison<br />

by charting the flow behaviour of conventional plastics.<br />

The examined materials represent a cross-section of<br />

commonly used plastic materials (fig. 1).<br />

Flow behaviour of bioplastics<br />

Biobased plastics meanwhile comprise a portfolio of<br />

characteristics that is nearly as broad as that of their<br />

conventional counterparts. In the case of Polylactide<br />

(PLA), which currently seems to be most suitable for mass<br />

markets, a number of optimized material variants are<br />

already available. The table 1 lists those bioplastics that<br />

have been tested in this project, along with their material<br />

class.<br />

The parameters chosen for the tests were identified<br />

by means of extensive pre-tests and can be considered a<br />

processing recommendation.<br />

PLA-based bioplastics<br />

The graph in figure 2 shows the test results for PLAbased<br />

bioplastics and illustrates these in comparison<br />

with the flow behaviour of conventional plastics. Evidently,<br />

polyester-based PLA has a flow behaviour which settles<br />

in the lower range compared with the tested conventional<br />

plastics and thus corresponds to the flow behaviour<br />

of conventional polyamide. Especially PLA filled with<br />

60 wt% natural fibres (NF) shows surprisingly good flow<br />

Table 1: List of examined bioplastics<br />

Material<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 3251D<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 6202D<br />

Material class<br />

PLA Injection moulding grade<br />

PLA Fibre spinning grade<br />

Nature Works Ingeo 3052D PLA Injection moulding grade 2<br />

Hisun Revode 190<br />

Jelu WPC Bio PLA H60-500-14<br />

Metabolix Mirel P1004<br />

FKuR Terralene HD 3505<br />

Evonik Vestamid Terra HS16<br />

Showa Denko Bionolle 1020MD<br />

Jelu WPC Bio PE H50-500-20<br />

PLLA<br />

PLA + 60 wt% NF<br />

PHB<br />

Bio PE<br />

Bio PA<br />

PBS<br />

Bio PE + 50 wt% NF<br />

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Injection moulding<br />

By:<br />

Marco Neudecker<br />

Hans-Josef Endres<br />

Institute for Bioplastics & Biocomposites (IfBB)<br />

Hanover, Germany<br />

characteristics. Due to its filler content,<br />

however, it has the highest viscosity<br />

among all PLA materials in the tests.<br />

The highest flowability is indicated, as<br />

expected, for the PLA optimised for<br />

injection moulding applications.<br />

Variety of bioplastics<br />

Considering the variety of bioplastic<br />

materials, it is evident that they cover<br />

a range comparable to conventional<br />

plastics.<br />

PBS, Bio-PA, and Bio-PE are bioplastic<br />

materials with a flow behaviour similar<br />

to that of HDPE. Low viscosity and,<br />

thus, high flowability is shown for PHB,<br />

which is a good condition for molding<br />

even large components with a low wall<br />

thickness. Bio-PE, which is combined<br />

with 50 wt% natural fibres, shows low<br />

flowability and, just like the PLA filled<br />

with natural fibres, settles at the lower<br />

end of the parameters of comparison.<br />

The fibre-filled bioplastics are therefore<br />

not recommended for use in cases<br />

where low wall thickness is desired.<br />

Another point against it is that natural<br />

fibres tend to react to high shear forces<br />

by darkening or even by denaturation.<br />

Overall, the tests have revealed<br />

that bioplastics, with respect to their<br />

flow properties, already cover quite a<br />

broad range and possess attributes<br />

comparable to those of conventional<br />

plastics. Apart from the exceptions<br />

mentioned, they are suited for use in<br />

thin-wall components. Based on the<br />

findings from these tests, it will also<br />

be possible in the future to use specific<br />

bioplastics available as a substitute<br />

for conventional plastics, selected by<br />

their wall thickness dependent flow<br />

characteristics.<br />

Acknowledgement<br />

The authors express their gratitude<br />

to the German Federal Ministry of Food<br />

and Agriculture (BMEL) for funding this<br />

project.<br />

http://ifbb.wp.hs-hannover.de/<br />

verarbeitungsprojekt/<br />

Flow length [mm]<br />

900<br />

800<br />

700<br />

600<br />

500<br />

400<br />

300<br />

200<br />

100<br />

0<br />

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5<br />

Wall thickness [mm]<br />

Fig. 1 Wall thickness dependent flow behaviour of conventional plastics<br />

Fig.2 Wall thickness dependent flow behaviour of PLA-based bioplastics<br />

Flow length [mm]<br />

Flow behaviour of conventional plastics<br />

Fig. 3 Wall thickness dependent flow behaviour of various bioplastics<br />

Flow length [mm]<br />

900<br />

800<br />

700<br />

600<br />

500<br />

400<br />

300<br />

200<br />

100<br />

Area of flow behaviour<br />

of conventional plastics<br />

0<br />

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5<br />

Wall thickness [mm]<br />

900<br />

800<br />

700<br />

600<br />

500<br />

400<br />

300<br />

200<br />

100<br />

Flow behaviour of PLA-based bioplastics<br />

Area of flow behaviour<br />

of conventional plastics<br />

Area of flow behaviour<br />

of conventional PA<br />

Flow behaviour of various bioplastics<br />

Area of flow behaviour<br />

of conventional plastics<br />

Area of flow behaviour<br />

of conventional HDPE<br />

Area of flow behaviour<br />

of conventional PP nv<br />

0<br />

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5<br />

Wall thickness [mm]<br />

Injection pressure = 645 bar<br />

PP nv<br />

T m<br />

= 200 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

PS<br />

T m<br />

= 260 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

HDPE<br />

T m<br />

= 180 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

PP hv<br />

T m<br />

= 200 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

PA<br />

T m<br />

= 260 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 80 °C<br />

Theoretical<br />

computing values<br />

In cooperation with UL TTC<br />

Injection pressure = 645 bar<br />

PLA injection moulding grade<br />

T m<br />

= 200 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

PLA fibre spinning grade<br />

T m<br />

= 200 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

PLA injection moulding grade 2<br />

T m<br />

= 200 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

PLLA<br />

T m<br />

= 200 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

PLA + 60 wt% NF<br />

T m<br />

= 200 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

Theoretical<br />

computing values<br />

In cooperation with UL TTC<br />

Injection pressure = 645 bar<br />

PHB<br />

T m<br />

= 210 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

Bio PE<br />

T m<br />

= 180 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

Bio PA<br />

T m<br />

= 250 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 90 °C<br />

PBS<br />

T m<br />

= 190 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

Bio PE + 50 wt% NF<br />

T m<br />

= 200 °C<br />

T W<br />

= 30 °C<br />

Theoretical<br />

computing values<br />

In cooperation with UL TTC<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 23

Show Review<br />

CHINAPLAS <strong>2016</strong> – Review<br />

By: Henry Xiao<br />

Celebrating its 30 th edition, CHINAPLAS <strong>2016</strong>, the 4-day-long extravaganza was held end of April at Shanghai New International<br />

Expo Centre. A myriad of eye-catchers were comprised of exhibits and concurrent events that covered every<br />

application industry and every stage in the life cycle of products along the lines of innovation, automation and green<br />

technology, including bioplastics in a special Bioplastics Zone.<br />

Having been serving the plastics and rubber industries for more than thirty years, CHINAPLAS is now the No.1 plastics<br />

and rubber trade fair in Asia. According to Ms Ada Leung, General Manager of Adsale Exhibition Services Ltd, organizer of<br />

CHINAPLAS, the number of exhibitors this year reached a record-breaking high of 3,300 in spite of the less favourable global<br />

economies. The exhibition area also boasted an 80 % increase to 240,000 m 2 compared to 2008, the last time when the economy<br />

was sluggish. Both achievements showed that CHINAPLAS and the plastics and rubber industries are capable of swimming<br />

upstream and thrive well. Among raw material and plastics and rubber machinery suppliers, those that took part in CHINAPLAS<br />

are preeminent figures in the world. So is the trade fair itself. As for visitors, in early years they were mostly manufacturers<br />

of plastic products. Now, the visitor profile has been extended to a multitude of industries, including automotive, packaging,<br />

electronics & IT communications, building & construction, medical, toys, etc..<br />

The Chinaplas Preview in the last issue of bioplastics MAGAZINE is now complemented with some impressions gathered by<br />

our staff during the event.<br />

Emery Oleochemicals<br />

Emery Oleochemicals, a global leader of naturalbased,<br />

high-performance polymer additives,<br />

headquartered in Selangor, Malaysia, showcased its<br />

solutions for the plastics and rubber industries.<br />

With an emphasis on sustainability and environmental<br />

responsibility, the Green Polymer Additives (GPA)<br />

business unit featured the following products at the<br />

exhibition:<br />

• biodegradable additive solution LOXIOL ® G 10V, a<br />

lubricant specifically developed for bioplastics<br />

• paraffin wax replacement LOXIOL ® G 24, which is<br />

100 % based on renewable resources<br />

• LOXIOL ® A4, a high-performance, food contact<br />

approved antifogging agent.<br />

Emery Oleochemicals offers a wide range of bestin-class<br />

products, including their leading EMEROX ® ,<br />

EDENOL ® and LOXIOL ® additives, that enhance<br />

processing efficiencies and improve end product<br />

quality.<br />

www.emeryoleo.com/Green_Polymer_Additives.php<br />

WooSung Chemical<br />

Headquartered in Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea,<br />

WooSung Chemical Co., Ltd. presented themselves as a<br />

supplier of masterbatches, adhesive resins and compounds.<br />

Their specialties in the field of bioplastics are PLA based<br />

compounds for film-blowing, injection moulding and<br />

extrusion. One of the highlights is Eco Foamer, a special grade<br />

for the production of EPLA, namely expanded PLA particle<br />

foam, comparable to EPS. Another bioplastics product<br />

line comprises cellulose acetate compounds, e. g. for the<br />

production of textiles, eyeglass frames and a lot more.<br />

www.wschemical.co.kr<br />

24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Show Review<br />

Anhui Tianyi<br />

Anhui Tianyi Environmental Protection Tech. Co., Ltd is a<br />

science and technology innovation enterprise focusing on<br />

eco-friendly plasticizers and biodiesel. The offices are located<br />

in Hangzhou, China. The eco-friendly plasticizers for different<br />

PVC products (film, cable compounds, artificial leather, gloves<br />

and foams) are based on epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized<br />

soybean oil is a PVC plasticizer and<br />

stabilizer with good heat resistance<br />

and flexibility. As the substitution of<br />

phthalates plasticizers it has a great<br />

significance for the aging resistance<br />

and stabilization of PVC products.<br />

Another big field of business of this<br />

company is biodiesel (fatty acid<br />

methyl ester), made from<br />

vegetable oils, animal fats<br />

and greases.<br />

www.tianyieptech.com<br />

Hairma Chemicals<br />

PLA is one of the specialties of Hairma Group, based in<br />

Suzhou, China. HM-F100 is a PLA grade which is colorless<br />

and transparent. It is suitable for film blowing blow molding<br />

cast film production and injection molding. This grade<br />

is recommended for food packaging, packaging of daily<br />

necessities, shopping bags electronic products packaging etc.<br />

HM-F200 is white and translucent, cost effective mineral<br />

filled PLA grade, whereas HM-F300 is the cost effective grade<br />

based on modified starch. All grades are USDA certified<br />

biobased products.<br />

www.hairma.com.cn<br />

Jinan Shengquan Group (SQ)<br />

Jinan Shengquan Group Share-Holding Co.,Ltd (SQ) is a<br />

high-tech enterprise which focuses on the comprehensive<br />

utilization of biomass and new composite materials. Through<br />

30 years of innovation, SQ has commercially used all three<br />

major components of biomass (hemicellulose, cellulose, and<br />

lignin). The company is the world’s largest foundry–material<br />

supplier and the largest phenolic resin supplier in Asia.<br />

The company is proud to offer high–performance<br />

biodegradable plastics. According to the company lignin is an<br />

essential ingredient for compost. When it breaks down it turns<br />

into humus or topsoil. While other compostable bags such as<br />

those containing starch are designed to only turn into carbon<br />

dioxide and water, biodegradable bags of lignin are the only<br />

compostable bags that contribute to the quality of compost. In<br />

addition, since the raw material, lignin, is from plant straw it<br />

is also renewable and thus a co-friendly.<br />

Modified lignin thermoplastic (SQLM-01A) is a brown<br />

powder that has been tested and certified to be over 96%<br />

biobased. SQLM-01A blended with PBAT can provide a film<br />

resin that is both strong and compostable. It can be used for<br />

compostable flexible films, such as trash bags, pet waste<br />

bags, agricultural films, packaging bags and shopping bags.<br />

Blended with conventional plastics such as polypropylene<br />

SQLM-01A can increase the flexural modules or stiffness<br />

of the resulting resin. The field of applications for example<br />

automotive parts, shopping baskets or turnover boxes. Of<br />

course such blends are not biodegradable.<br />

www.shengquan.com<br />

NHH Biodegradable Plastics Company<br />

Even if NHH Biodegradable Plastics Company (a subsidiary<br />

of Ngai Hing Hong Company) from Hong Kong is still offering<br />

oxo-fragmentable additives one of the other main products is<br />

Hisun<br />

Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co., Ltd is located in Zhejiang,<br />

China. It is a high-tech enterprise which is active, among<br />

other things in the field of Polylactide (PLA) production, R&D<br />

and marketing. The brand of Hisun’s PLA resin is REVODE ® .<br />

At Chinaplas <strong>2016</strong>, Hisun presented different grades of<br />

conventional PLA grades (such as Revode 101, 110, 190, 201,<br />

210, 290) and modified PLA resins (such as Revode 213, 219C,<br />

711, etc.) as well as some PLA applications. Compared with<br />

traditional plastics, Revode offers a higher food contact safety, it<br />

is non-toxic and features unique high-temperature resistance<br />

properties. Thus it is an ideal material for food packaging,<br />

tableware,etc.. The products presented at Chinaplas include<br />

fiber products, disposable products, household articles and<br />

3D printing filaments.<br />

www.hisunpharm.com<br />

a biodegradable plastic material which the company claims<br />

to be certified according to EN 13432 or ASTM D6400. The<br />

company is offering three main grades: for injection molding<br />

heat resistant and non-heat resistant grades for products<br />

such as cutlery, pregnancy test kits, electrical plugs, cuplids,<br />

telephone cases etc.. A special grade for film blowing<br />

and bottle blow molding can be used to produce various types<br />

of packaging, garbage bags, or cosmetic bottles. The third<br />

grade is for sheet extrusion and thermoforming. Potential<br />

applications are file folders, blister packaging, plates etc..<br />

www.nhh.com.hk<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 25

Show Review<br />

Dongguan Xinhai<br />

Dongguan Xinhai Environment-Friendly Materials Co.,Ltd<br />

have been engaged in production of raw materials and finished<br />

products for flexible packaging, especially biodegradable/<br />

compostable ones according to EN 13432 or ASTM D6400.<br />

Their raw materials can be distinguished into the the following<br />

two categories:<br />

1. Cornstarch based resins to be blended with PE (in order to<br />

enhance the biobased content, but NOT biodegradable)<br />

2. Bioplastics, biodegradable/compostable according to<br />

EN 13432/ASTM D6400 (certified by Vinçotte with the Ok<br />

compost certificate No. S361).<br />

Dongguan Xinhai’s raw materials offer good physical<br />

properties and processability. For companies that consider<br />

to start production of biodegradable and compostable films<br />

and bags, according to Martin Ran of Dongguan Xinhai,<br />

the company can offer the most economical and satisfying<br />

solutions.<br />

www.bioplasticxh.com<br />

Hanfeng:<br />

Suzhou Hanfeng New Material Co. Ltd. from Kunshan<br />

devote themselves to research, manufacturing and supplying<br />

of various biodegradable resins, mainly based on starch.<br />

According to the ASTMD 6866 standard, their products<br />

show a biobased content of more than 60 %. The materials<br />

derived from natural resources are 100 % compostable<br />

(EN 13432 certified). By using corn as their main raw<br />

material, they guarantee the raw material is 100 % organic<br />

with no contaminants. The materials can be used for food<br />

applications. With a temperature range of -20 °C to 120 °C<br />

they are even microwavable.<br />

www.biohanfeng.com<br />

Xinyuan packaging<br />

Xinyuan packaging Co., Ltd, from Qufu, Shandong Province,<br />

China, a company with more than 200 employees, produces<br />

100% biodegradable raw materials and finished products. It<br />

can be distinguished into four categories: film products, nonwoven<br />

products, foaming products and moulding products.<br />

Samyang<br />

Samyang, headquartered in Soeul, Korea, is a chemical<br />

company that among other things makes essential materials<br />

for a broad range of industrial sectors, including electric and<br />

electronic material, automobiles, textiles, environmental<br />

engineering, foods and agriculture. Samyang’s chemical<br />

operations are developing special purpose products and<br />

alternative materials to ensure that life in the future to<br />

be convenient and plentiful. Areas of endeavor include<br />

engineering plastics, industrial fibers, PET bottles, PET bottle<br />

recycling, ion exchange resins, TPA, and electronic materials.<br />

At Chinaplas Samyang presented for example their biobased<br />

isosorbide, which can be used to make Bio-Polycarbonate (by<br />

combining isosorbide, diphenyl carbonate and comonomers)<br />

or PEIT (Polyethylene isosorbide terephthalate, see picture)<br />

and other products such as plasticizers or bio-polyester as<br />

bio-powder-coatings.<br />

www.samyang.com<br />

The products can be degraded into water and CO 2<br />

within<br />

90 days in a compostable environment without any pollution.<br />

The biodegradable products, which are certified to the various<br />

worldwide standards including the American Standard ASTM<br />

D6400, the European Standard EN13432, and the Australian<br />

Standard AS4736, currently are all exported to Australia,<br />

England, Italy, and America, etc. At present the company is one<br />

of the leading enterprises in the field, as of a spokesperson.<br />

One of the new products is – as they claim it - the world’s<br />

first and only 100 % compostable non-woven bags, certified<br />

as to ASTM D6400 (BPI), EN13432 (Vinçotte OK compost), and<br />

the Australian Standard AS4736. The bags are made from PLA<br />

non-woven fabric.<br />

kevin@xinyuanpak.com<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Polylactic Acid<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer has expanded its product portfolio to include the innovative stateof-the-art<br />

PLAneo ® process. The feedstock for our PLA process is lactic acid, which can<br />

be produced from local agricultural products containing starch or sugar.<br />

The application range of PLA is similar to that of polymers based on fossil resources as<br />

its physical properties can be tailored to meet packaging, textile and other requirements.<br />

Think. Invest. Earn.<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH<br />

Holzhauser Strasse 157–159<br />

13509 Berlin<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 43 567 5<br />

Fax +49 30 43 567 699<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG<br />

Via Innovativa 31<br />

7013 Domat/Ems<br />

Switzerland<br />

Tel. +41 81 632 63 11<br />

Fax +41 81 632 74 <strong>03</strong><br />

marketing@uhde-inventa-fi scher.com<br />

www.uhde-inventa-fi scher.com<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer

Application News<br />

Snickers wrapped in<br />

bioplastics<br />

At the recent ITR conference (see more at pp 12) Thijs<br />

Rodenburg, CEO of the Dutch company Rodenburg Biopolymers<br />

announced it: The family owned company has partnered with<br />

global confectionary company Mars to develop new biobased<br />

wrappers for their candy bars. And as a result the first Snickers<br />

bars with biobased wrappers were introduced to the European<br />

market last fall.<br />

Rodenburg Biopolymers from Oosterhout started about 70<br />

years ago as one of the first pioneers in bioplastics. Being part<br />

of the potato industry they started to utilize the industrial waste<br />

derived from the French fry production. By turning this waste<br />

into cattle feed they still had a potato starch waste product,<br />

which they could not use. A few decades later Rodenburg found<br />

a way of using this waste as feedstock for a new bioplastic.<br />

Early in the 2000’s Rodenburg presented their first generation<br />

Solanyl product. Today they are offering the third generation of<br />

Solanyl. The material<br />

is available in a<br />

thermoforming, an<br />

injection molding and<br />

a film grade.<br />

A few years ago Rodenburg was approached by<br />

Dennis van Eeten, packaging innovation manager at Mars in<br />

Veghel, the Netherlands. Van Eeten was looking for a biobased<br />

packaging material for Mars’ candy bars that was just as<br />

good as the current one. The new material would have to be<br />

biobased, not necessarily biodegradable, non-polluting when<br />

disposed of, not harm the environment in any way, be based on<br />

second generation feedstock as not to compete with the food<br />

supply, be scalable and have a smaller carbon footprint than<br />

the currently used material.<br />

“We told him we could do all that,” said Thijs Rodenburg.<br />

“But then we had to do it.”<br />

An EU-funded project was performed by Rodenburg to<br />

develop the material, film specialist Taghleef Industries to<br />

produce the film and Mondi (based in Poland) to manufacture<br />

the actual packaging.<br />

“The first version, a film compound based on starch with<br />

additives, did not have a good enough performance,” said Thijs.<br />

“So we kept trying and at a certain point, by calculated trial and<br />

error came up with an acceptable film. However, when Taghleef<br />

produced the film and Mondi used it for printing, it was found to<br />

wrinkle. Modifications were able to solve that problem.”<br />

As a result the project team presented a food grade polymer<br />

film compound based on TPS Solanyl and PLA that meets the<br />

specified requirements. It is compostable, biodegradable and<br />

takes only a third of energy to produce compared to oil-based<br />

alternatives such as polypropylene. The starch is derived from<br />

an industrial waste stream, thus the raw material it is a secondgeneration<br />

biomass that in no way competes with food crops.<br />

The feedback from the market has been excellent. And even<br />

though the initiative started in Europe, Thijs said: “Of course,<br />

we’re hoping that Mars will take it to the US,” and to the World,<br />

we might want to add. KL/MT<br />

www.biopolymers.nl<br />

Biopolymer ‘mix’ bottle<br />

is a European first<br />

RPC Promens Consumer Nordics has developed a oneliter<br />

milk bottle made entirely from a non-oil based bio<br />

polymer (bio-PE) produced from sugar cane.<br />

Uniquely, an additional feature that is now being developed<br />

and which is believed to be a first in the European market,<br />

will see the polymer mixed with a special mineral filler. This<br />

reduces the amount of polymer required for each bottle<br />

without impacting on its strength and performance, which<br />

will further enhance its positive environmental profile.<br />

In its first commercial application, the new Modul bottle<br />

has been selected by leading Swedish dairy company<br />

Skånemejerier for its range of non-homogenized milk.<br />

“Sustainability is a vital consideration throughout all<br />

our operations including our packaging, where we always<br />

seek to choose a solution with minimal impact on the<br />

environment,” said Armina Nilsson, sustainability manager<br />

at Skånemejerier.<br />

”The new bottle from RPC Promens is ideal for our milk,”<br />

confirmed Thore Bengtsson, the company’s strategic<br />

purchaser. “We have an excellent working relationship with<br />

the company and their ability to handle the tight deadlines<br />

for this project was particularly beneficial.”<br />

RPC Promens says that as consumers have taken a<br />

greater interest in the types of foods they are buying, their<br />

focus has started to switch to the packaging as well.<br />

“According to Euromonitor one of the top ten global trends<br />

in <strong>2016</strong> is greener food,” explained senior sales manager<br />

Jan Weier. “Certainly there has been strong growth in<br />

organic food products in recent years and this has now<br />

led to more attention being paid to how they are packed.<br />

By using this new material, we can offer our customers a<br />

renewable and sustainable solution.”<br />

The 1-liter white blow-molded Modul bottle is available<br />

with a choice of closures and features a four-sided label<br />

applied by RPC Promens. MT<br />

www.rpc-group.com<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Application News<br />

Sustainable Office<br />

Products<br />

Just in time for Earth Day <strong>2016</strong>, Solegear Bioplastic<br />

Technologies (Vancouver, Canada) announced the official<br />

launch of its newly branded, plant-based office accessory<br />

line, Good Natured, and its first B2B partnership with also<br />

Vancouver-based Mills Office Productivity to distribute<br />

the products to business customers in British Columbia.<br />

“We’re proud to team with another Vancouver-based<br />

success story, Mills Office Productivity, to be able to more<br />

effectively reach customers with an innovative plantbased<br />

product that is bound to be a conversation starter<br />

and source of pride.”<br />

Solegear’s Good Natured office product line, colours<br />

and packaging are designed to bring a lighthearted,<br />

modern spirit to a sometimes overlooked and traditional<br />

category of consumer products. Made from the<br />

company’s 85 % plant-based Polysole ® LV1250 PLAbioplastic<br />

– which contains no BPAs, phthalates or other<br />

hazardous additives, and has been certified by the USDA<br />

BioPreferred program – the office accessory line includes<br />

a paper clip dispenser, pencil/pen holder, self-stacker<br />

desk tray, stacking legal desk tray and vertical file holder<br />

available in four designer colours: raspberry, frosting,<br />

licorice and mojito. The products are injection molded<br />

by Columbia Plastics, a local Solegear manufacturing<br />

partner since 2015.<br />

“Being a B Corp, our environmental performance is<br />

very important to Mills’ overall valuesGood-Natured<br />

and mission,” said Brad Mills, CEO of Mills Office<br />

Productivity. B Corps are for-profit companies certified<br />

by the nonprofit B Lab to meet rigorous standards of<br />

social and environmental performance, accountability,<br />

and transparency. The B Corp movement places the<br />

focus on using business as a force for good, and is<br />

striving to redefine the meaning of success in business.<br />

“This is just the tip of the iceberg for Solegear and<br />

the innovations it plans to deliver to consumers in the<br />

coming years, all designed to lower carbon emissions,<br />

reduce reliance on fossil fuels and remove toxicity<br />

typically associated with traditional petroleum-based<br />

plastics,” said Paul Antoniadis, CEO of Solegear. “We<br />

are excited to continue to disrupt and push the market<br />

to think differently about what’s possible with bioplastics<br />

by reformulating, rebranding and re-launching everyday<br />

products for major brands and retailers. KL/MT<br />

www.mills.ca | www.solegear.ca<br />

Compostable bread bags<br />

In line with its stated commitment<br />

to environmental<br />

sustainability, U2, a large<br />

Italian supermarket chain,<br />

has fitted out its bakery<br />

points of sale with 100 %<br />

bio degradable and compostable<br />

bags made of paper<br />

and a transparent bioplastic<br />

window made from NATIVIA<br />

film.<br />

These biodegradable bags<br />

are the latest development<br />

in the U2 supermarkets’<br />

ongoing campaign against<br />

waste. The aim is to<br />

encourage consumers to<br />

reduce waste, reuse and<br />

recycle the bag. The new bags are available in over 100<br />

supermarkets, which are alerting customers to the use<br />

of the new bag with the help of leaflets and posters with<br />

information on how it works: customers put the fresh<br />

bread in the bag and then re-use it as a biodegradable bag<br />

for the organic waste disposal (after removing the noncompostable<br />

price tag).<br />

NATIVIA is a biobased range of films made of PLA,<br />

produced by Dubai-based Taghleef Industries (Ti). A<br />

truly sustainable biobased film, it offers various end of<br />

life options: products made from PLA are suitable for<br />

incineration, recycling and composting. The new bread<br />

bags supplied at the U2 supermarkets can be used as<br />

a container for the organic waste that ends up in the<br />

industrial composting facilities. In addition, NATIVIA can<br />

be recycled within the paper recycling stream.<br />

Environmental protection has become an integral part<br />

of the U2 supermarket chain’s policy. The chain launched<br />

its campaign in 2014 promoting sustainable solutions<br />

and initiatives that influenced consumer’s behaviours,<br />

attitudes and lifestyles. The introduction of the paper/PLA<br />

100 % biodegradable and compostable bread bags, U2<br />

accomplishes, is a further step towards waste reduction.<br />

As the slogan of the campaign says: “It’s stupid to waste,<br />

It’s good to discover it”.<br />

Taghleef Industries (TI) is proud to provide the<br />

marketplace with a sustainable material that is<br />

comparable to the traditional ones by its quality and<br />

feature. The company has committed to the supermarket<br />

chain’s “against waste” campaign for the period of a<br />

year. NATIVIA represents a remarkable contribution<br />

to improving sustainability of modern packaging. Ti<br />

position itself as one of the value-chain partners and<br />

the use of such packaging material supports the work of<br />

companies that take an integrated approach: economical,<br />

environmental and social.<br />

The new bread bags are made by Italian Turconi SpA<br />

and they are certified (EN 13432) for industrial composting<br />

by Vinçotte (certificate code S565). MT<br />

www.nativia.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 29

Application News<br />

New clear Mater-Bi packaging film for<br />

cosmetics overwrap<br />

Aethic, the London-based skincare company that launched Sôvée, world’s only scientifically proven ecocompatible sunscreen,<br />

is to be the first cosmetics company to use a clear packaging film specially developed by Italian MATER-BI manufacturer<br />

Novamont. The material is to debut with Aethic’s next production run of its sunscreens and face creams.<br />

The transparent thin film material used to protect packaged products from tampering and surface damage and to make<br />

them look shiny is now also available in an eco-sustainable version. The material was originally derived from cellulose and was<br />

biodegradable, yet the polluting effects of carbon disulfide and other by-products of the process used to make viscose made it<br />

less popular and other lower-cost petrochemical materials supplanted cellulose.<br />

Being based on an efficient use of renewable resources and presenting sustainable end-of-life options, MATER-BI packaging<br />

now represents an environmentally-friendly alternative to the existing products.<br />

The new MATER-BI grade developed for Aethic is in fact made from sustainably-sourced base ingredients, promoting the<br />

setting up of innovative agro-industrial value chains and the use of local raw materials cultivated on marginal land. Moreover,<br />

its production process adopts a “cascading” approach to biomass and has low carbon emissions and the end material is<br />

biodegradable and compostable according to the European standard EN 13432.<br />

Aethic initiated the collaboration after it had already adopted a sugar cane-derived material for its bottles.<br />

Says Allard Marx, CEO of Aethic: “I vividly remember holding a bio-plastic Mickey Mouse watch made from this material in<br />

my hand when consulting for Novamont in 1989. I never forgot the company and had recently heard that their material was now<br />

used for magazine wraps and disposable carrier bags. I asked them to develop a MATER-BI grade that would hold its fold, heatseal<br />

easily, be sustainable, biodegradable and look great. They promptly and successfully rose to the challenge. I am absolutely<br />

delighted that we can now protect our products responsibly.”<br />

MATER-BI is used successfully in a variety of other applications and<br />

Novamont’s revenues are in excess of EUR 145 million worldwide.<br />

Aethic’s skincare range is stocked at leading retailers and its Sôvée<br />

sunscreen was recently announced as the official sunscreen of UK’s<br />

America’s Cup challenger Land Rover BAR.<br />

Adds Alessandro Ferlito, Novamont Sales Manager: “Consumer<br />

brands like Aethic are the future. We have no choice but to take care of<br />

the only planet we have and Aethic leads the way in preventing damage<br />

to skin and the ocean. It is a pleasure to have developed this version<br />

of MATER-BI with them and we hope other cosmetics companies will<br />

soon follow their lead and adopt this material”. MT<br />

www.aethic.com | www.novamont.com<br />

Casing of the Fair Mouse based on<br />

PLA material developed by IfBB<br />

The IfBB, Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Hannover, Germany,<br />

developed a bio-based material for the Fair Computer Mouse project initiated by Nager IT, an association focussed on encouraging<br />

humane working conditions in the factories of the electronic industries by developing socially and environmentally sustainable<br />

electronics. The casing of the computer mouse is based on a PLA material that<br />

has been developed by a research team at IfBB in collaboration with Nager IT<br />

since autumn 2014. The main criteria for the new material was its sustainability<br />

as well as suitable technical properties. Currently 80 % of the material developed<br />

by IfBB is based on renewable resources derived from sugarcane. The research<br />

team said it will continue to optimise the material by increasing the bio-based<br />

content and exploring the use of residual materials. Products like the fair mouse<br />

hopefully raise public awareness and acceptance of bioplastics and sustainable<br />

and fair produced goods further. MT<br />

www.ifbb-hannover.de | www.nager-it.de<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Materials<br />

Sugars in wastewater<br />

become bio-based packaging<br />

After more than four years of research, the international<br />

consortium of the PHBOTTLE project has<br />

achieved the first worldwide prototype packaging<br />

made from a waste water derived bioplastic material –<br />

PHB – obtained from the organic matter, primarily sugars,<br />

present in the wastewater of the juice industry.<br />

Specifically, it is a bottle made from polyhydroxybutyrate<br />

(PHB), a polymer produced by bioproduction (microbial<br />

fermentation) in which certain bacteria use the sugars in<br />

the wastewater and synthesize this type of bioplastic.<br />

During the fermentative processes performed with the<br />

juice industry wastewater, it was possible to convert up to<br />

30 % of the sugars contained in this effluent into PHB.<br />

Bioplastic PHB is already available in the market, but<br />

this is the first time PHB is obtained from the sugars in the<br />

wastewater of the fruit juice industry.<br />

The results of the R&D project PHBOTTLE, funded<br />

by the European Union, were presented in mid-April in<br />

Brussels/Belgium at an international workshop organized<br />

by AINIA Technology Centre and the European Fruit Juice<br />

Association (AIJN).<br />

The application of the latest advances in biotechnology,<br />

packaging technology, microencapsulation and<br />

compounding made possible the development of this<br />

innovative package. Moreover, this project demonstrated<br />

the value of organic waste from the juice industry as raw<br />

material to produce packaging for its products.<br />

Antioxidant-containing package as a result of<br />

microencapsulation<br />

The bioplastic material obtained has improved<br />

properties, such as antioxidants, which extend the shelflife<br />

of the juice. Concretely, microencapsulation technology<br />

was used to produce capsules with antioxidants such as<br />

limonene, which is an active compound present in orange<br />

peel.<br />

These capsules were incorporated into the PHB<br />

compound used to manufacture the final bottle, thus<br />

obtaining an active packaging whereby the antioxidant<br />

agent is slowly released, delaying the oxidation of the juice.<br />

Rice hulls to improve packaging strength<br />

In addition, other types of food industry waste were used<br />

to improve the strength and other mechanical properties<br />

of the material. Cellulose microfibers were produced from<br />

rice hulls and used to improve the rigidity of the packaging.<br />

From waste generator to beneficiary of a new<br />

bio-based package<br />

The PHB bottle prototype obtained was used to package<br />

the juice produced by the wastewater generating industry<br />

itself, thus providing an innovative and comprehensive<br />

solution to the problems of waste management and<br />

environmental impact of this sector. A solution for the<br />

future based on the circular economy.<br />

Furthermore, this bioplastic can be used in other<br />

industrial sectors such as cosmetics, ophthalmology,<br />

footwear, computer parts, pharmaceutical or automotive.<br />

Biodegradability and composting<br />

The various biodegradability and compostability tests<br />

carried out throughout this R&D project have shown<br />

that, under the study conditions, 60 % of the PHB bottle<br />

obtained is degraded over a period of 9 weeks. A complete<br />

biodegradation has yet to be shown. If this can be proven,<br />

the PHB bottles can be decomposed in composting plants,<br />

producing compost and CO 2<br />

.<br />

The EU’s commitment for more sustainable<br />

packaging<br />

The PHBOTTLE project, coordinated by AINIA, is a<br />

pioneer in its field in the development of the Circular<br />

Economy concept promoted by the EU in its commitment<br />

for innovation and sustainable technological development,<br />

under the 7 th Framework Programme. It is composed of<br />

an international consortium that includes: the European<br />

Fruit Juice Association (AIJN), the Spanish company<br />

Citresa (part of the multinational Suntory), Logoplaste<br />

Innovation Lab (Portugal), Logoplaste (Brazil), Omniform<br />

(Belgium), Sivel Ltd (Bulgaria) and the company Mega<br />

Empack (Mexico) as well as the technology centres TNO<br />

(The Netherlands), Aimplas (Spain) and INTI (Argentina).<br />

The results of the PHBOTTLE project represent an<br />

innovative and sustainable response to the needs of the<br />

juice industry, thanks to the opportunities offered by new<br />

technologies and the development of new packaging<br />

materials obtained from organic sources as an alternative<br />

to oil. With these new applications the waste generator, in<br />

this case the juice industry, becomes the recipient of a new<br />

bio-based product. MT<br />

www.phbottle.eu/<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 31

Materials<br />

Using biomass side-streams<br />

for bioplastics in New Zealand<br />

Biomass side streams are finding their way into<br />

novel bioplastic composites in New Zealand<br />

thanks to local industries and innovative and imaginative<br />

scientists at Scion.<br />

Biomass side-streams and bioplastic applications are<br />

often mentioned in the context of circular economies<br />

and bioeconomy, two concepts that enable and complete<br />

each other. With circular economies promoting the<br />

maintenance of resources at their highest possible level<br />

of value at all times, waste becomes a resource fuelling<br />

economic growth. The bioeconomy becomes a perfect<br />

illustration of circularity when it builds on sustainably<br />

sourced and produced biomass for fuel, chemicals and<br />

other materials by using waste streams to underpin<br />

development of new sustainable products.<br />

A key element to both systems is considering the<br />

full potential of waste. Scion, a New Zealand research<br />

institute that concentrates on biomass production<br />

and utilisation, is continuously seeking new ways to<br />

convert primary industry side-streams into value-added<br />

products, contributing to the circular economy and<br />

the bioeconomy. The following case studies from New<br />

Zealand demonstrate how biomass side-streams can be<br />

successfully incorporated into bioplastic materials and<br />

products.<br />

Pomace has promise<br />

The fibrous mass that remains after the first step<br />

in winemaking, pressing the grapes, is called grape<br />

pomace or marc. Five tonnes of grapes produce one<br />

tonne of pomace. In 2015, the New Zealand grape<br />

harvest was 326,000 tonnes leaving the wine industry<br />

with around 60,000 tonnes of pomace to dispose of.<br />

Pomace is generally composted, but Scion has found<br />

one more use for this resource before it regenerates<br />

carbon back into the environment.<br />

Many wine makers have a strong desire to use<br />

sustainable practices to ensure the longevity of their<br />

industry. Scion discussed possible applications for<br />

using biodegradable products with a local winemaker.<br />

The polystyrene clips used to secure the netting that<br />

protects the ripening grapes from birds were identified<br />

as an ideal candidate for replacement. Millions of the<br />

clips are used every year. When the nets are removed,<br />

the clips break easily and litter the ground, where they<br />

persist for years.<br />

In response to this, scientists at Scion have produced<br />

bio-clips from rigid films containing red grape pomace<br />

and biodegradable polymers. The fibre from the skins<br />

both stiffens the clips and makes them easier to break.<br />

Four different bio-formulations were trialled at Villa<br />

Maria vineyards in Hawkes Bay during the run up to the<br />

<strong>2016</strong> harvest. None of the clips holding the nets gave way<br />

prematurely and the clips were all brittle enough to break<br />

when the nets were removed. The next step is to monitor<br />

the biodegradation of the clips in the vineyard.<br />

Scion is also working on other applications for grape<br />

pomace in biocomposites such as spray guards to protect<br />

newly planted vines.<br />

A future for dairy farm effluent<br />

Between 10 and 20 % of a dairy cow’s poo production<br />

is deposited in the area of the milking shed. A farmer<br />

milking an average herd of 420 cows deals with more<br />

than 200 kg of solids and 20,000 litres of effluent a day.<br />

Storing and managing dairy farm effluent (DFE) is a<br />

significant cost. DFE is usually contained in ponds and<br />

treated. A proportion can be used as fertiliser, although<br />

the amount has to be carefully managed to prevent<br />

contaminating waterways and ground water and preserve<br />

soil structure. The problem of managing and disposing<br />

of DFE is likely to worsen as New Zealand’s dairy herd<br />

increases and farming becomes more intensive and<br />

closer to international practice.<br />

In 2015, the national herd of just over five million<br />

milking cows produced around 2,800 tonnes of DFE solids<br />

daily. The solids contain a high proportion of cellulosic<br />

fibres. Applying circular economy thinking, this waste<br />

by-product of milk production – biomass processed<br />

(digested) via cow – is a fibre resource with potential for<br />

use in bioplastics.<br />

A grape pomace biocomposite clip holding netting to protect<br />

ripening grapes in place.<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Materials<br />

By:<br />

Florian H. M. Graichen, Science Leader, Biopolymers and Chemicals<br />

Stefan J. Hill, Research Leader, Advanced Chemical Characterisation<br />

Dawn Smith, Research Leader, Polymers and Composites<br />

Scion, Rotorua,New Zealand<br />

The premier<br />

trade show<br />

for all<br />

biobased<br />

industries<br />

Objects made from 3D filament printing stock containing New Zealand paua<br />

(abalone) shell.<br />

Work at Scion has found that unique combinations of DFE biomass and<br />

additives results in bioplastics with an attractive balance of processability<br />

and mechanical properties. Polylactic acid (PLA)/DFE biocomposites have<br />

been shown to weather and disintegrate faster than PLA alone.<br />

Bioplastics with DFE are a win-win solution. Raw material processing<br />

via cow is free, the supply is large and continuous, value is added to a side<br />

stream that is costly to make safe and dispose of, the overall cost of the<br />

bioplastics is lowered and carbon is returned to the soil. Applications for<br />

the use of DFE bioplastics on dairy farms are being explored.<br />

Paua Power<br />

Paua is the New Zealand Maori name for abalone (Haliotis iris). Maori<br />

and later settlers value black-fleshed paua as a seafood and its beautiful<br />

iridescent, blue, green and pink shell, which is widely used in arts and<br />

crafts.<br />

Abalone is considered a delicacy in many countries, and it commands<br />

high prices. New Zealand exports paua harvested both from the wild and<br />

from aquaculture farms. The shells remain after paua processing. While<br />

one shell is a beachcomber’s delight, the tens of thousands of tonnes<br />

produced by the paua export industry becomes a management problem.<br />

Paua is a New Zealand treasure. Paua processors would like options to<br />

add value to the shells in New Zealand rather than selling them cheaply to<br />

off shore processors, as is currently the case.<br />

Materials scientists at Scion have been experimenting with adding<br />

ground shell (which is mostly calcium carbonate) to bioplastics to produce<br />

3D printing filament stock.<br />

The next step in the development process is to develop bioplastics that<br />

capture the iridescence and colour of the original paua shells. Scion is<br />

also working with local designers and manufacturers to develop products<br />

that exploit both paua shell and the possibilities of 3D printing.<br />

www.scionresearch.com<br />

Showcase your expertise<br />

in bio economy at the<br />

trade show that takes<br />

the bioeconomy from<br />

“let’s talk about it”<br />

to “let’s do it”<br />

15 – 16 February 2017<br />

Cologne · Germany<br />

industrial biotechnology · algae<br />

·biomass · biorefinieries · biopolymers<br />

· bioenergy · biofuels<br />

· biobased chemicals · biobased<br />

lubricants · biobased surfactants<br />

· biobased materials<br />

www.biobasedworld.de<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 33

Joining Bioplastics<br />

Adhesive capacity<br />

of bioplastics<br />

By:<br />

Diana Syperek<br />

University of Applied Sciences and Art Hannover<br />

Dept. of Mechanical and Bio-Process Engineering<br />

Hannover Germany<br />

The aim of bioplastics is using them as an alternative<br />

solution for conventional plastics. Therefore, to a<br />

large extent, they should be compatible with the existing<br />

technologies. Moreover, biobased products gain value in<br />

terms of reducing the carbon footprint. Now, when it comes<br />

to bonding technologies for bioplastics, the same conditions<br />

apply bioplastics as for conventional plastics. In both, joining<br />

of the same materials as well as in hybrid constructions the<br />

demands on the connection shall prevail.<br />

Classification of bioplastics<br />

Bioplastic does not necessarily mean that it must<br />

be biodegradable. European Bioplastics suggests the<br />

classification of bioplastics as shown in figure 1 [1]. There are<br />

also bio-based plastics that do not degrade biologically but are<br />

resistant, as polyethylene produced of bioethanol or polyamide<br />

made of castor oil. Biodegradability, in turn, is not only confined<br />

to bio-based plastics. The biodegradability is resulting from<br />

the chemical structure of the plastic. Also, crude-oil based<br />

plastics can degrade such as polycaprolactone. This must be<br />

taken into account when bioplastics are bonded together. If<br />

the connection has a biodegrading character, the adhesive<br />

should meet this as well. In this case, protein or plant oilbased<br />

adhesives are suitable [2, 3]. They are non-toxic and<br />

can be either biodegradable or non-degradable. Often, they<br />

are obtained as by-products from other processes.<br />

Bonding of bioplastics and surface treatment<br />

On surface treatment and adhesive technology of bioplastics,<br />

there is only a little literature available. The reason for this<br />

might be that for bioplastics the same conditions apply<br />

as for conventional plastics. It is not possible to tell<br />

whether bioplastics or crude-oil based plastics<br />

are more suitable for adhesive bonding since<br />

the chemistry and the surface structure,<br />

as well as the surface composition of<br />

the adherends, is crucial. For highstrength<br />

bonds, a pre-treatment<br />

of plastics is often necessary.<br />

For printing, there are<br />

different requirements.<br />

Crudeoil-based and<br />

PLA, for example, can biodegradable<br />

be printed quite well<br />

plastics<br />

without any pre-treatment. e. g.: PCL, PVA<br />

Although adhesive bonding<br />

of plastics is not as significant<br />

as that of metals, in the industry<br />

it plays a significant role, because not all parts are completely<br />

manufactured by primary shaping. While only thermoplastics<br />

can be bonded by welding, adhesive bonding has much larger<br />

applications. This especially is true with regard to connecting<br />

different plastics with different melting temperatures. Since<br />

in the packaging industry mainly thermoplastics are used, it<br />

is common to weld them. Through the influence of heat or<br />

ultrasound and slight pressure, the parts or plastic films<br />

Biobased and<br />

biodegradable<br />

plastics<br />

e. g.: PLA, PHA<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Figure 1<br />

are joined together. For plastics having a short life cycle and<br />

similar melting temperatures, it is appropriate to weld them<br />

unless it is a high-strength bond. Provided the weld is not<br />

interrupted, high load capacities can be obtained and usually,<br />

no welding consumables are required.<br />

The advantage of adhesive bonding, however, is that<br />

different types of materials can be firmly bonded. Adhesive<br />

bonding technology is used in all industrial sectors (figure 2<br />

[1] shows those sectors where bioplastics are already in<br />

use). In dentistry, ceramics are bond with metal or plastic<br />

by means of UV curing adhesives. In the automobile or<br />

aircraft construction adhesive technology plays a more<br />

important role concerning weight reduction and fuel saving.<br />

Wherever high forces are acting adhesive bonding has a<br />

decisive advantage comparing to other bonding techniques.<br />

Besides the adherends, the adhesive itself also affects the<br />

force transfer in the adhesive bond. Ductile adhesives like<br />

polyurethanes are more flexible and thus, forces impacts are<br />

distributed better over the adhesive area. Thus, higher bond<br />

strengths are achieved comparing to those adhesives, which<br />

have a higher inherent strength but are less flexible [4]. Biobased<br />

polyurethanes are also already available. In addition,<br />

curing and application temperatures must be considered. The<br />

adhesive curing extends the process time. If the operating<br />

temperature is low, this must be considered for the selected<br />

adhesive as well as for the adherends. The purpose is to<br />

consider whether the bond is dynamically loaded because<br />

here it can come to embrittlement and thus the bond fails.<br />

Stress peaks on brittle parts lead to failure or a lower loadbearing<br />

capacity. In addition, a difference in stiffness of<br />

the adherents causes a notch effect whereby the force<br />

transfer on the adhesive area is compromised [4].<br />

A good adhesion of the bonding parts precludes<br />

separation of the adhesive bonds which in<br />

turn makes it difficult to recycle. However,<br />

this is necessary for the mechanical<br />

recycling of different materials. At the<br />

end of their life cycle, biodegradable<br />

bonds can be composted. For<br />

non-degradable bioplastics,<br />

Biobased and<br />

non-degradable<br />

plastics<br />

e. g.: PE, PA<br />

this is not that easy. However,<br />

they can be used to produce<br />

energy through incineration<br />

because the adhesive bond<br />

cannot be separated into their<br />

individual components.<br />

Other issues are the creep behaviour and ageing which also<br />

occur in bioplastics and bio-based adhesives. They do not<br />

withstand to long-lasting stress. Ageing is caused by diffusion<br />

of substances into and out of the plastic or the adhesive<br />

respectively. Ambient conditions such as temperature also<br />

have an adverse effect on the bond. The adhesion in the bond<br />

decreases due to ageing which can cause the bond to fail,<br />

particularly under dynamic stress. Furthermore, adhesive<br />

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Joining Bioplastics<br />

Figure 2<br />

Global production capacities of bioplastics 2014 (by market segment)<br />

in 1,000 tonnes<br />

800<br />

600<br />

400<br />

359<br />

790<br />

Biodegradable<br />

PLA & PLA-blends<br />

Starch blends<br />

Other 1 (biodegradable)<br />

Biobased/non-biodegradable<br />

Bio-PET30 2<br />

Bio-PE<br />

Other 3 (biobased/non-biodegradable)<br />

1<br />

Contains regenerated cellulose and biodegradable cellulose<br />

ester; 2 Biobased content amounts to 30 %;<br />

3<br />

Contains durable starch blends, Bio-PC, Bio-TPE, Bio-PUR<br />

200<br />

0<br />

6.7 7.6<br />

Electrics &<br />

electronics<br />

Others<br />

20<br />

Building &<br />

construction<br />

94<br />

Automotive &<br />

transport<br />

107<br />

Agriculture &<br />

horticulture<br />

126<br />

Consumer<br />

goods<br />

186<br />

Textiles<br />

Flexible<br />

packaging<br />

Rigid<br />

packaging<br />

(except thermosets), Bio-PA, PTT<br />

Source: European Bioplastics, Institute for Bioplastics and<br />

Biocomposites, nova-Institute (2015)<br />

More information: www.bio-based.eu/markets and<br />

www.downloads.ifbb-hannover.de<br />

bonds generally do not resist to peeling stresses.<br />

In principle, it should be kept in mind that bond<br />

strengths are depending on the technique with<br />

which they are tested [4]. Therefore, a transfer to<br />

real conditions is difficult and should be tested<br />

separately.<br />

Despite that, in an automobile non-degradable<br />

bioplastics are already used. From polyamide<br />

exterior parts such as engine hood or trunk lid can<br />

be manufactured. For the interior and trunk trim<br />

polyurethane foams and polyolefin are applied.<br />

Since polyolefins poorly adhere to other surfaces<br />

they must be pre-treated first. For this corona<br />

treatment has been proven successful. This<br />

process has a high degree of automation and all<br />

plastics can be pre-treated that way. Through the<br />

corona treatment, the upper atomic layers of the<br />

plastic surface are functionalised, so that wetting<br />

of the adhesive is improved. This technique is<br />

also suitable for reinforced plastics such as wood<br />

fibre plastics since the fibres are embedded in<br />

the polymeric matrix and do not stick out of the<br />

surface.<br />

Summary<br />

Bioplastics are equally well suited for adhesive<br />

bonding as conventional plastics. However, when<br />

it comes to high-strength bonds, most plastics<br />

as well as bioplastics adhere poorly to other<br />

substances. The surface, however, can be pretreated<br />

with existing methods. Whether and to<br />

what extent this is necessary, also depends on<br />

the respective type of bioplastics, the scope of<br />

application and type of loading.<br />

Since the demand for sustainable materials<br />

is constantly rising, bioplastics come to the fore.<br />

Many manufacturers already use plastics on a<br />

large scale for their products. For more complex<br />

implementations and in terms of lightweight<br />

applications adhesive bonding becomes more<br />

and more important in the field of bioplastics. It is<br />

expected that this further increases in the future.<br />

References<br />

[1] european bioplastics. European Bioplastics e.V. Available at:<br />

http://www.european-bioplastics.org/. (Accessed: 12 th May <strong>2016</strong>)<br />

[2] Kim, S. in Biopolymers (ed. Elnashar, M.) (Sciyo, 2010).<br />

[3] Clark, J. H. Green Materials from Plant Oils. (The Royal Society of Chemistry).<br />

[4] Rasche, M. Handbuch Klebtechnik. (Carl Hanser Verlag, 2012).<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 35<br />

Bio4pak-adv-BioPlastick-Magazine105x148_5.indd 1 18-05-16 11:04

Report<br />

Co-products from<br />

potato processing<br />

Dutch company converts a co-product into high value technical grade<br />

potato starch<br />

Most of our readers certainly know that certain bioplastics<br />

can be made from plant starches of different<br />

sources, for example PLA from corn starch or<br />

TPS from potato starch etc..<br />

And you probably also know that besides food and feed<br />

starch has been used for multiple technical applications<br />

for decades. Now, besides using starch directly derived<br />

from plants, those mentioned above and others, there is<br />

also a lot of waste starch available that can be used for<br />

such purposes.<br />

However, “we don’t call it waste, we call it side streams<br />

or co-products,” as Roel van Haeren, Sales Director of the<br />

Dutch company Novidon explains. In order to get as much<br />

as possible first-hand information on this topic bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE visited Novidon in Nijmegen in mid May. Here is<br />

our report:<br />

During the industrial processing of potatoes, for<br />

example into French fries, potato crisps or other products<br />

a lot of so-called side stream potato starch is coming free.<br />

In most cases the starch is in the process water. “We take<br />

Figure 1<br />

Figure 2<br />

this starch out of the process water and bring it to our factory,”<br />

says Christiaan Oei, Area Sales Manager of Novidon.<br />

Novidon is part of the Duynie Group, specialized on the<br />

utilization of co-products of different agricultural product<br />

industries. Their slogan is “Care for co-products”, well<br />

explained in a YouTube-clip on their website. Duynie Group<br />

itself is owned by Royal Cosun, a cooperative of 9,500<br />

sugar beet farmers and the only one sugar company in<br />

the Netherlands. Novidon runs plants in Nijmegen (The<br />

Netherlands), Wrexham (UK), Veurne (Belgium) and Hodiskov<br />

(Czech Republic).<br />

In the past the starch containing process water of the potato<br />

industry went to wastewater treatment plants, landfill or was<br />

converted into animal feed. But Novidon thought that there<br />

was too much value in the starch and decided to upgrade<br />

the co-product into high value technical grade potato starch.<br />

Today Novidon is utilizing this raw material all year round. The<br />

company collects the side stream starch from more than 75<br />

different suppliers spread all over Europe. And while Novidon<br />

is specialized on potato starch, the Duynie Group also collects<br />

other co-products such as potato peels, sugar beet pulp,<br />

wheat distillery syrup, potato flakes or peas that are out of<br />

specs for human consumption etc. “A total of ± 4.5 million<br />

tonnes a year, which represents one truckload per 4 minutes”,<br />

Roel says. These co-products are converted by different<br />

Duynie Group companies into feed, pet-food and other uses<br />

including the energy recovery through anaerobic digestion in<br />

biogas plants as a last step.<br />

The products of Novidon are native and modified potato<br />

starch. Basically these products can be distinguished into<br />

three major groups.<br />

The first group is native starch. This starch goes into<br />

applications such as the paper industry (paper mills), textiles<br />

and also into the bioplastics industry.<br />

The second product group is drilling starches. These<br />

products are used for oil and gas drilling in many countries<br />

in the Middle East, North and West Africa, for example. In<br />

oil and gas drilling a so-called drilling mud is being used<br />

e. g. for cooling, cleaning and lubricating the drill bit and for<br />

maintaining the walls of the borehole. Water based drilling<br />

muds can consist of starch and 30 to 35 other ingredients<br />

such as bentonite (clay). Starch in combination with bentonite<br />

provides very good properties in terms of preventing process<br />

water (fluid loss reducing) from entering the surrounding soil.<br />

And the last group are adhesives for various applications.<br />

This includes wall paper paste, glue for paper sacks or<br />

labelling glues.<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Report<br />

Potato starch in – high value starch out<br />

About 100,000 tonnes per year of side stream starch<br />

could be generated in Europe as co-products of the potato<br />

converting industries. More than 50 % of that amount is<br />

being collected by Novidon and converted into technical<br />

grades for the different applications.<br />

The starch is partly collected by an own fleet of ± 8 trucks<br />

and delivered to the different locations of Novidon. In order<br />

not to transport too much water, the company tries to get<br />

the starches as dry as possible. So starch can be delivered<br />

in a rather dry, powdery format (fig. 1) or in form of a slurry<br />

that is dumped into a bunker by a tanker truck (fig. 2).<br />

This slurry is then processed in several steps. In<br />

different cyclones heavier contaminations such as sand,<br />

protein and fibres, e. g. from potato peels are centrifuged<br />

off. This is followed by a drying process. Figure 3 shows<br />

the filling of the final dried and cleaned product into big<br />

bags. But the starches can also be filled in paper sacks.<br />

Only at this stage the starch is being evaluated in<br />

Novidon’s modern laboratory. Depending on certain<br />

properties a decision for the final field of applications is<br />

made.<br />

Native potato starch to bioplastics<br />

One of Novidon’s customers is BIOTEC in Emmerich,<br />

Germany, about 45 kilometers away. Biotec converts<br />

the native potato starch of Novidon to high quality<br />

bioplastics called BIOPLAST, which are biodegradable and<br />

compostable, and can be used for different applications<br />

such as film blowing (for the production of different<br />

kinds of bags – figure 4) or injection moulding. “This was<br />

something very interesting for us to learn”, says Roel van<br />

Haeren. “Together with Biotec, Novidon achieved to use<br />

their potato starch as a raw material for Bioplastics.” And<br />

Johannes Mathar, Project Manager R&D at Biotec amends<br />

that “potato starch showed to be the best starch for our<br />

bioplastics.” A few years ago Biotec made an evaluation<br />

and compared starches from corn, cassava, wheat, peas<br />

and other sources.<br />

While about 6,000 – 13,000 tonnes (depending on<br />

annually changing availability) of starch are converted into<br />

adhesives, 3,000 – 15,000 tonnes go to oil- and gas drilling<br />

approx. 20,000 – 35,000 tonnes are sold as high value native<br />

starch. 5 – 7 % of this amount goes into the bioplastics<br />

industry, for example to Biotec. With these figures in mind<br />

– in addition to the fact that Novidon’s potato starch is<br />

derived from co-products – it can be clearly stated, that<br />

such bioplastics from starch are in no competition to<br />

food and feed, an extremely durable solution ready for<br />

expansion.<br />

www.novidon-starch.com<br />

www.duyniegroup.com<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

By: Michael Thielen<br />

Figure 3 Figure 4<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 37

Basics<br />

PHA – a polymer family with<br />

challenges and opportunities<br />

At the beginning of the 21 st century the chemical industry<br />

undergoes an accelerated and revolutionary change in<br />

the conversion from hydrocarbons to carbohydrates as<br />

feedstock.<br />

In <strong>2016</strong> it is still small (about 12 % of the chemical industry<br />

is based on carbohydrates feedstock), but growing very fast.<br />

New chemical platforms are being brought to the market, but<br />

still have to prove themselves (like succinic acid, levulinic acid<br />

and CO 2<br />

as examples). Both industrial biotechnology (biocatalytic<br />

conversion, fermentation, downstream processing)<br />

and traditional chemo-catalytic conversion are applied<br />

to convert renewable feedstock to useful chemicals and<br />

polymers.<br />

In this process one sees significant changes in the traditional<br />

value chains for chemicals and polymers. Companies in the<br />

wood, paper, potato, other-agricultural and sugar industries<br />

with strong positions in carbohydrate feedstock and expertise<br />

in industrial biotechnology started to diversify into these<br />

traditional chemical value chains. Also companies active in<br />

waste management (both solid waste, waste water and gas<br />

effluents) work to upgrade the value of their waste streams<br />

(CH 4<br />

biogas, fatty acids, CO 2<br />

and also waste cooking oil),<br />

thus starting to set up after-use value chains for a circular<br />

economy. A challenge at the start of it all is that:<br />

Value chains combine competencies that have<br />

never been associated before<br />

Switching to carbohydrates as feedstock implies a<br />

tremendous innovation promise for the chemical industry.<br />

On the other hand it takes 15 – 20 years for new chemicals<br />

or polymers to become very significant in size, since new<br />

applications come one at the time, while drop-ins penetrate<br />

much faster if they are cost competitive.<br />

An industrial PHA polymer family platform is being<br />

developed since about 25 years now. The platform consists<br />

of a large variety of polymers, each with completely different<br />

properties and based on all raw material sources mentioned<br />

above. Figure 1 shows several PHA polymer examples.<br />

The simplest member, PHB, and its building block 3HB have<br />

apperared in nature for more than 3 billion years already and<br />

are part of the metabolism of many organisms for energy<br />

storage and nutritional value.<br />

PHA products range from amorphous to highly crystalline<br />

and go from high-strength, hard and brittle to low-strength,<br />

soft and elastic, so there is a large property design space<br />

for PHAs. In figure 2 a few differences between some PHA<br />

products are illustrated. However, there are more than<br />

hundred different known building block compositions for<br />

PHAs.<br />

The 3HA building blocks in PHA create sensitivity for<br />

molecular chain scission starting at 160 °C and accelerating at<br />

higher temperatures causing a loss of mechanical properties.<br />

This limits the polymer melt temperatures for processing like<br />

compounding, extrusion and injection moulding. There are<br />

also 4HA building blocks, like 4HB and 4HV, which might have<br />

a positive effect on this temperature sensitivity and so on the<br />

polymer processing window, but that still is hypothetical at<br />

this stage.<br />

During the last decade large scale PHA manufacturing<br />

plants have been built, varying in size between 5,000 and<br />

50,000 tonnes/annum, but it has been troublesome to build<br />

demand for them and to get them base loaded. In 2009<br />

PHA capacity expansion plans for 2015 totaled 920,000<br />

tonnes/annum for all players together, but global sales<br />

volume was still about 1,000 tonnes/annum in 2013.<br />

scl-PHAs P3HB, P4HB, PHBV, P3HB4HB, PHB3HV4HV.<br />

CH 3<br />

O<br />

CH 3<br />

O<br />

CH 3 O C 2 H 5 O<br />

O O<br />

O<br />

x<br />

x<br />

O<br />

O<br />

O y<br />

x<br />


y<br />

mcl-PHAs PHBH, PHBO, PHBD.<br />

CH 3 O C 3 H 7 O<br />

PHBH:<br />

O<br />

O<br />

x<br />

y<br />

lcl-PHAs Many varieties possible.<br />

scl: short chain length<br />

mcl: medium chain length<br />

lcl: long chain length<br />

In addition PHAs have been<br />

designed with aromatic or C=C<br />

groups in the side chain.<br />

Figure 1:<br />

The PHA products<br />

platform is very diverse.<br />

O<br />

C 7 H 15<br />

O<br />

65<br />

O<br />

C 5 H 11<br />

O<br />

15<br />

O<br />

C 15 H 31<br />

O<br />

O<br />

10<br />

C 9 H 19<br />

O<br />

10<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Basics<br />

By:<br />

Jan Ravenstijn<br />

Senior consultant Biopolymers and<br />

Industrial R&D management<br />

Meerssen, The Netherlands<br />

In 2015, however, the PHA scene began to turn around:<br />

more players became active at an industrial level, lower PHA<br />

prices were being offered, sales volume began to develop<br />

and a large number of value chain alliances across the whole<br />

value chain came about. All these accelerated the global<br />

market acceptance and penetration of PHA products.<br />

Today there are more than 30 companies active in<br />

development, manufacturing and scale-up of PHA products.<br />

Several of those decided to make and market their own PHAcompounds<br />

since they do not always have good experiences<br />

working with compounding companies. A CEO of one of the<br />

companies mentioned: “Most compounders do not properly<br />

process my PHA polymers, despite instructions on how to do<br />

it, so I decided to develop and to produce compounds myself<br />

and bring those to the market”.<br />

The PHA polymer platform development has been<br />

dominated by Technology Push for a long time based on a<br />

“Look what we can do” attitude and backed by local and by<br />

country governments appreciating the environmental benefits<br />

and often the start of an after-use value chain, but without<br />

sufficient understanding of the requirements for Market Pull.<br />

Often the golden rule for a new polymer was ignored:<br />

Build demand before you build capacity<br />

The last five years also several players came to the market<br />

demonstrating the understanding for the need of a broad<br />

range of applications at a competitive market price. Although<br />

they admit that their cost position will not be optimal in the first<br />

years, they show faith in where they can be when the technology<br />

is at large industrial scale, like 100,000 tonnes/annum plants.<br />

Manufacturing cost quotes of EUR 1.20/kg have already been<br />

given based on which PHA polymer pricing could be between<br />

EUR 1.60 and EUR 2.00/kg in such case.<br />

Prices of the fossil-based polymers PHA competes with<br />

currently run between EUR 1.10 and EUR 2.00/kg. So the<br />

PHA prices are still high in the range, but close enough to get<br />

significant market penetration from a polymer cost perspective.<br />

However, there are also PHA suppliers who are more careful to<br />

indicate where they think the ultimate market price can go.<br />

Although the PHA product family cannot fully substitute<br />

any of the traditional fossil-based polymer families, it can<br />

partly substitute many of them, so the accessible market for<br />

PHA is very large and could become hundreds of kilotonnes<br />

per annum, provided the cost/performance balance is OK.<br />

Depending on the PHA type and grade it can be used for<br />

injection moulding (see figure 3), sheet and film extrusion,<br />

thermoforming, foam, non-wovens, fibers, 3D-printing,<br />

paper coating, glues, binders, adhesives, as additive for<br />

reinforcement or plasticization or as building block in UPRs<br />

for paint or in PUR for foam. Most of these application<br />

developments (see figure 4) are embryonic or early-growth.<br />

PHAs can be used in most thermoplastic and<br />

thermoset market segments<br />

A new value chain is created for PHA polymers. Often, but<br />

not always it’s based on an after-use value chain utilizing<br />

components of a variety of waste streams. Also in other<br />

cases we see that the first few positions in the value chain<br />

(raw material, fermentative polymer production) are taken by<br />

parties who are unfamiliar with the plastics business. During<br />

the last two years about 5 companies have made significant<br />

progress in forming alliances across the entire value<br />

chain in order to accelerate their product and application<br />

developments.<br />

Companies developing PHA manufacturing technology<br />

formed alliances with OEMs, both for thermoplastics<br />

70<br />

Figure 2:<br />

Differences between<br />

several PHA<br />

products.<br />

Melt Temperature (°C)<br />

200<br />

190<br />

180<br />

170<br />

160<br />

150<br />

140<br />

130<br />

120<br />

110<br />

100<br />

0<br />

PHB<br />

PHBD<br />

PHBV<br />

PHBHx<br />

PHBO<br />

PHBHx<br />

PHBO<br />

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20<br />

3HA Content (mol%)<br />

Crystallinity (%)<br />

60<br />

PHB<br />

PHBV<br />

50<br />

PHBO<br />

40<br />

PHBHx<br />

30<br />

PHBOd<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

0 5 10 15 20 25<br />

3HA Content (mol%)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 39

Basics<br />

and thermoset applications, plastic formulators and<br />

compounders, plastic part converters, distributors and<br />

raw material suppliers, but also with universities, research<br />

institutes, PHA competitors and engineering companies. It<br />

is understood that the market potential for PHA products is<br />

large enough and that some competitive intensity is required<br />

for significant penetration.<br />

Such alliances take many forms: technology licenses, toll<br />

manufacturing, product distribution agreements, broadening<br />

the product offering and joint development agreements often<br />

combined with supply contracts.<br />

Figure 3: Injection moulded PHA beach toys<br />

(photo: Zoë B / Metabolix)<br />

Customers always ask questions about supply security and<br />

price development over time when new polymeric materials<br />

are offered to them. This becomes even more relevant when<br />

these new offerings are important for their brand image.<br />

Paying a premium price compared to their fossil-based<br />

alternatives is usually no problem, but within limits and<br />

based on the understanding that the price will become costcompetitive<br />

in the end. It is important to have a solid supply<br />

security plan for the market if a PHA supplier would be the<br />

single source for his specific product, which today often is the<br />

case.<br />

In summary PHA can be described as follows:<br />

Figure 4: Examples of PHBH applications.<br />

top: PHBH bed-pan (cf. bM 06/2013, 01/2014)<br />

bottom: PHBH particle foam, (photo: Kaneka, bM 01/2010)<br />

Strengths:<br />

• Versatile biodegradability, unlike most other bio-based<br />

polymers.<br />

• Fully based on renewable feedstock, including waste<br />

streams.<br />

• Can be bioresorbable.<br />

• The platform has a very large design space for property<br />

tuning.<br />

• Good in-use heat resistance, hydrolysis resistance and<br />

oxygen permeability.<br />

Weaknesses:<br />

• Crystalline products show very slow crystallization from<br />

the melt.<br />

• Molecular chain scission above 160 °C.<br />

• The cost/performance balance is still a challenge for some<br />

suppliers.<br />

Opportunities:<br />

• Very suitable for use in marine or sweet-water<br />

environments, because of degradability.<br />

• PHA containing debris less of a problem in a marine<br />

environment.<br />

• High potential for food contact and biomedical<br />

applications.<br />

• Strong value chain alliances for accelerated market<br />

penetration.<br />

Threats:<br />

• Inability to bring the manufacturing cost down to a<br />

competitive level.<br />

• Lack of competitive intensity.<br />

• Underestimation of requirements for certifications,<br />

registrations and regulatory approval processes.<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

new<br />

series<br />

Brand Owners<br />

Brand-Owner’s perspective on bioplastics<br />

and how to unleash its full potential<br />

In this issue we continue our new series with statements<br />

of representatives of well known brand owners.<br />

We are grateful that Tim Guy Brooks of LEGO System A/S,<br />

Billund, Denmark is sharing his thoughts with us:<br />

For the LEGO Group, sustainable materials contribute to our vision of<br />

positive impact and reduces our environmental footprint.<br />

We are looking for a sustainable material that meets our high quality<br />

and safety standards; have no non-desirable chemicals; has key<br />

environmental and social sustainability attributes and maximize the<br />

play value of our products.<br />

With the guidance of World Wildlife Fund, we have established<br />

comprehensive criteria for a sustainable material, which considers<br />

the entire lifecycle; everything from sourcing feedstock, minimizing<br />

waste in the value chain, and ensuring durability to last generations.<br />

We will continue our work to further improve our approach to<br />

bioplastics and our environmental sustainability.<br />

Tim Guy Brooks,<br />

Vice President Environmental Sustainability at LEGO<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 41

Basics<br />

Avoiding confusion between<br />

biodegradable and<br />

compostable<br />

By:<br />

Pau Balaguer<br />

Project manager<br />

ITENE Research Center<br />

Paterna, Spain<br />

The terms biodegradable and compostable can be quite<br />

confusing words. Both words define biological processes<br />

but these concepts have often been misused in the<br />

field of marketing, leading to confusion. Any new products<br />

claimed to be compostable should be certified according to<br />

standardized testing methods and need to be identified with<br />

well-recognized logos promoted by several well-positioned<br />

entities.<br />

In recent years and mainly in the packaging sector, there<br />

has been a rising trend in replacing traditional plastics such<br />

as polyethylene and polypropylene by biodegradable materials<br />

in order to reduce the generation of packaging waste. With<br />

this regard certain bioplastics and cellulosic materials can be<br />

used.<br />

Bioplastics encompasses a whole family of materials which<br />

differ from conventional plastics insofar as that they are<br />

biobased, biodegradable, or both (fig. 1).<br />

Biobased means that the material or product is (partly)<br />

derived from renewable resources. According to their origin,<br />

biobased polymers can be grouped into three classes [2, 3]:<br />

(i) Polymers extracted directly from biomass, (ii) polymers<br />

synthesized from monomers obtained from biomass, and (iii)<br />

polymers produced by microorganisms.<br />

The first type of biobased polymers includes those based<br />

on polysaccharides (starch, cellulose…), and proteins (wheat<br />

gluten, soy protein, gelatin…). The second group of biopolymers<br />

covers a wide range of materials, such as poly (lactic acid)<br />

(PLA), produced from lactic acid obtained by fermentation of,<br />

for example, sugar cane; biopolyethylene (BioPE), from the<br />

polymerization of ethylene produced from bioethanol; and<br />

bio-polyurethanes, incorporating polyols of vegetable origin.<br />

The third type refers to biopolymers that are produced directly<br />

by microorganisms, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) [4].<br />

However, not all of them are biodegradable.<br />

The term biodegradable refers to a chemical process during<br />

which microorganisms that are available in the environment<br />

convert materials into natural substances such as water,<br />

carbon dioxide and biomass. There are diverse environments<br />

for biodegradation of materials, such as soil, water, marine<br />

environment, digester plants, household composting units,<br />

and industrial composting facilities.<br />

Regarding packaging waste, composting appears to be<br />

a feasible solution for its recovery reducing the need for<br />

final disposal (e. g. in landfill) of used packaging of those<br />

materials that meet specific requirements. To be considered<br />

as compostable a material or product have to undergo<br />

degradation by biological processes during composting<br />

to yield carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and<br />

biomass at a rate consistent with other known compostable<br />

materials, and must not leave any (visible or invisible) or even<br />

toxic residues.<br />

Following the definition of the terms biodegradable<br />

and compostable, any product can be biodegradable, but<br />

what really matters is the time frame in which a material<br />

is biodegraded and in which environment. Compostable<br />

thus restricts the term fixing both aspects, and deals with<br />

other important aspects such as material characteristics,<br />

disintegration degree, and quality of the resulting compost.<br />

Then it is important to remark that all compostable<br />

materials are biodegradable, but not all biodegradable<br />

materials are compostable.<br />

Many unsubstantiated claims to biodegradability and<br />

compostability were made in the past as a consequence of<br />

Figure 1. Biobased and biodegradable plastics [1]<br />


Figure 2. Compostability logos given by<br />

Vinçotte and DIN-Certco: OK COMPOST and Seedling and by<br />

DIN-Certco: Industrial Compostable.<br />

The Seedling is a trademark owned by European Bioplastics<br />


bio-PE, bio-PA<br />

cellulose-acetate<br />

bio-polyisoprene<br />

PLA<br />

PHA (PHB...)<br />

TPS<br />

Celluloseregenerates<br />



no bioplastics<br />

PE-LD, PE-HD<br />

PP, PA, PS<br />

PVC, EVOH,<br />

oxo-fragmentable<br />

blends<br />

certain Co-<br />

Polyesters<br />

(e.g. PBAT),<br />

Polycaprolacton,<br />

PVA,...<br />


42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Basics<br />

the lack of well-identified environmental requirements, and<br />

inexistence of well-established testing methods. However,<br />

since year 2000 there are standard methodologies to<br />

evaluate the suitability of a material for its organic recovery<br />

by composting. EN 13432 [5] is one of the most recognized<br />

standard norms that defines the procedure and the criteria to<br />

determine the compostability of a material. Logos (fig. 2) and<br />

certificates issued by several certification bodies such as DIN<br />

CERTCO and VINÇOTTE in Europe, BPI in USA, and JBPA in<br />

Japan, allow demonstrating the conformity of final products,<br />

materials, intermediates, and additives with the specified<br />

criteria in the standard compostability norms. Moreover, false<br />

and misleading environmental claims are being pursue by<br />

diverse organizations, such as Federal Trade Commission in<br />

the USA, which imposed recently a USD 450,000 civil penalty<br />

[6].<br />

In order to obtain the different compostability logos<br />

the testing must be conducted in laboratories which are<br />

recognized by the certification bodies [7, 8].<br />

Compostability testing<br />

The different tests to be performed in order to determine<br />

if a material, intermediate, additive or product can be<br />

recovered through composting according to EN 13432 [5] (and<br />

if applicable, in connection with ASTM D 6400 [9], ISO 18606<br />

[10], ISO 17088 [11], EN 14995 [12]) are compiled in table 1 and<br />

described in the next subsections.<br />

Material characterization:<br />

Each product shall be identified and characterized including<br />

at least:<br />

1. Information and identification of the constituents,<br />

2. presence of regulated metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr,<br />

Mo, Se, As, Co [13]) and other hazardous substances to the<br />

environment (F), and<br />

3. content in total dry and volatile solids.<br />

Biodegradation<br />

Biodegradability is determined by measuring the carbon<br />

dioxide produced by the sample under controlled composting<br />

conditions following ISO 14855-1:2012 [16]. For this the<br />

sample is mixed with compost and placed in bioreactors at<br />

58 °C under continuous flow of humidified air. At the exit the<br />

CO 2<br />

concentration is measured and related to the theoretical<br />

amount that could be produced regarding the carbon content<br />

of the sample.<br />

The biodegradability should be determined for the whole<br />

material and individually for the constituents present at levels<br />

between 1 and 10 % [17].<br />

The minimum duration of the test is 45 days, in which a<br />

positive control (cellulose) has to be biodegraded at least in<br />

a 70 %, and the maximum duration set out in the standard<br />

is 6 months, in which the sample has to be biodegraded in a<br />

90 % to be considered as biodegradable in compost [18].<br />

Figure 3 shows the different phases observed during<br />

biodegradation tests. Phase A corresponds to the lag time<br />

sometimes observed for initiate the biodegradation; Phase<br />

B corresponds to the active biodegradation of molecules<br />

into CO 2<br />

and H 2<br />

O; Phase C is the plateau zone reached<br />

after biodegradation has taken place, and D determines<br />

the ultimate level of biodegradation. After the first 45 days,<br />

continuation of the biodegradation test could be necessary or<br />

not depending on the biodegradation rate of the material and<br />

the phase achieved.<br />

Figure 3. Typical biodegradation curve.<br />

Biodegradation, %<br />

100<br />

90<br />

80<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

10<br />

0<br />

0<br />

A<br />

A Lag phase<br />

B Degradation phase<br />

C Stationary phase<br />

D Degree of biodegradation<br />

B<br />

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44<br />

Time, days<br />

C<br />

D<br />

Table 1. Summary description of tests to be performed under EN 13432:2000.<br />

Test Standard Test duration Sample weight<br />

Chemical characterization of material:<br />

- Dry and volatile solids<br />

- Regulated metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Mo,<br />

Se, As, Co [13])<br />

- Hazardous substances (F)<br />

- Infrared transmission spectrum<br />

Biodegradation under industrial<br />

composting conditions<br />

Disintegration under ind. composting<br />

conditions and physico-chemical Pilot-scale<br />

properties of compost (total dry<br />

solids, volatile solids, pH, N-NH 4<br />

,<br />

N-NO 2<br />

, N-NO 3<br />

, N, P, K, Mg, salt<br />

content, density, and maturity level)<br />

Ecotoxicity in 2 plant species:<br />

- Garden cress (Lepidium sativum)<br />

- Summer barley (Hordeum vulgare)<br />

EN 13432:2000<br />

PT-04-63<br />

EN 13432:2000<br />

ISO 14855-1:2012<br />

EN 13432:2000<br />

ISO 16929:2013<br />

2 weeks 20 g in powder<br />

6 weeks – 6 months 100 g in powder<br />

12 weeks 2 kg in final form, 14 kg in powder<br />

Lab-scale ISO 20200:2004 [15] 90 days (+ 90 days) 500 g in final form<br />

EN 13432:2000<br />

OECD 208 (2006)<br />

3 weeks,<br />

after disintegration test<br />

(compost samples from pilot-scale<br />

disintegration)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 43

Basics<br />

Disintegration<br />

Disintegration is evaluated at pilot-scale by simulating a<br />

real composting environment following ISO 16929:2013 [19].<br />

In this case, samples in their final form [20, 21] are mixed with<br />

fresh artificial bioresidue. Oxygen concentration, temperature<br />

and humidity are regularly controlled. After 12 weeks, the<br />

resulting composts are sieved and the remaining amount of<br />

material in pieces > 2 mm, if any, is determined. Photographs<br />

are taken in order to follow the physical disappearance of<br />

materials (fig. 4).<br />

Pass level to be considered disintegrable under composting<br />

conditions is > 90 % in ≤ 2 mm. If this pass level is achieved<br />

a physico-chemical characterization of resulting composts<br />

(blank and with sample) is conducted in order to determine<br />

that the quality of the compost is not affected. Parameters<br />

such as: total dry solids, volatile solids, pH, ammonium<br />

nitrogen (N-NH 4<br />

), nitrite nitrogen (N-NO 2<br />

), nitrate nitrogen<br />

(N-NO 3<br />

), total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K),<br />

magnesium (Mg), salt content, density, and maturity level<br />

(Rottegrad) are determined.<br />

Ecotoxicity:<br />

Ecotoxicity of the resulting compost is evaluated in plants<br />

following OECD 208 (2006) [22]. For this purpose, material<br />

in powder is added to the bioreactor with fresh bioresidue<br />

following the same procedure than in the disintegration test<br />

[23]. A comparison is made with the compost resulting from<br />

blank bioreactors and bioreactors containing the material<br />

tested with regards to plant seedling emergence and growth.<br />

Both parameters should be higher than 90 % with respect<br />

to the blank compost to pass the test. Two different species<br />

are evaluated such as garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and<br />

summer barley (Hordeum vulgare).<br />

Finally, in order to fulfill the requirements stated in the<br />

European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC on<br />

packaging and packaging waste, an end-of-life option has to<br />

be selected before placing a packaging product in the market.<br />

Composting is one of the diverse recovery options available<br />

to reduce and recycle packaging waste. However, because<br />

of the increasing number of new compostable materials in<br />

the market and in development, it is necessary to certify that<br />

these new products are compostable following standardized<br />

testing methods and identifying them with well-recognized<br />

logos promoted by several well-positioned entities. This will<br />

also help final consumers to properly manage packaging<br />

when it achieves its end-of-life and becomes waste.<br />

www.itene.com<br />

References and Remarks<br />

[1] Thielen, M.: Bioplastics: Basics. Applications. Markets, Polymedia<br />

Publisher GmbH, 2012<br />

[2] Mensitieri, G., Di Maio, E., Buonocore, G. G., Nedi, I., Oliviero, M.,<br />

Sansone, L., and Iannace, S. 2011. Processing and shelf life issues<br />

of selected food packaging materials and structures from renewable<br />

resources. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 22(2–3), 72-80.<br />

[3] Queiroz, A. U. B., and Collares-Queiroz, F. P. 2009. Innovation and<br />

industrial trends in bioplastics. Polymer Reviews, 49(2), 65-78.<br />

[4] Balaguer, M. P. 2015. Doctoral Thesis. Development of active<br />

bioplastics based on wheat proteins and natural antimicrobials for food<br />

packaging applications.<br />

[5] EN 13432. Packaging. Requirements for packaging recoverable<br />

through composting and biodegradation. Test scheme and evaluation<br />

criteria for the final acceptance of packaging.<br />

[6] http://www.packworld.com/sustainability/green-marketing-ampclaims/ftc-cracks-down-biodegradable-marketing-claims<br />

[7] VINÇOTTE: http://www.okcompost.be/data/pdf-document/okc-labe.pdf<br />

[8] DIN-CERTCO: http://www.dincertco.de/media/dincertco/dokumente_1/<br />

verzeichnisse/FirstSpirit_14406522318292015-08-26_Liste_<br />

Prueflaboratorien_List_of_testing_laboratories_BAW.pdf<br />

[9] ASTM D 6400. Standard Specification for Labeling of Plastics Designed<br />

to be Aerobically Composted in Municipal or Industrial Facilities<br />

[10] ISO 18606. Packaging and the environment - Organic recycling.<br />

[11] ISO 17088. Specifications for compostable plastics.<br />

[12] EN 14995. Plastics. Evaluation of the compostability. Program of<br />

testing and specification<br />

[13] Co is only needed for Canadian certification.<br />

[14] Taking into account a material similar to PLA, 3 months could be<br />

enough.<br />

[15] Does not follow EN 13432, but it is accepted for certification in some<br />

specific cases.<br />

[16] ISO 14855-1:2012. Determination of the ultimate aerobic<br />

biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting<br />

conditions - Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide - Part 1:<br />

General method.<br />

[17] Constituents which are present at the concentrations of less than 1%<br />

do not need to demonstrate biodegradability. However, the sum of such<br />

constituents shall not exceed 5%.<br />

[18] Also 90% with respect to a reference (cellulose) is considered as valid.<br />

However, the sum of such constituents shall not exceed 5%.<br />

[19] ISO 16929:2013. Plastics - Determination of the degree of<br />

disintegration of plastic materials under defined composting conditions<br />

in a pilot-scale test.<br />

[29] Large materials are reduced in pieces of 5 cm x 5 cm or 10 cm x 10 cm<br />

for films.<br />

[21] For products and materials that are made in several thicknesses only<br />

the thickest need to be tested.<br />

[22] OECD 208 (2006). Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and<br />

Seedling Growth Test.<br />

[23] The compost that has to be used for this test is produced at the same<br />

time that disintegration tests are performed.<br />

Figure 5. Climatic chamber with photoperiod used for the evaluation<br />

of ecotoxic effects in plants.<br />

Figure 4. Disintegration of a sample under simulated composting<br />

conditions in a pilot-scale test.<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

compounding<br />

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Basics<br />

Glossary 4.2 last update issue 02/<strong>2016</strong><br />

In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again<br />

the same expressions appear that some of our readers<br />

might not (yet) be familiar with. This glossary shall help<br />

with these terms and shall help avoid repeated explanations<br />

such as PLA (Polylactide) in various articles.<br />

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics<br />

e.V.) is a term used to define two different<br />

kinds of plastics:<br />

a. Plastics based on → renewable resources<br />

(the focus is the origin of the raw material<br />

used). These can be biodegradable or not.<br />

b. → Biodegradable and → compostable<br />

plastics according to EN13432 or similar<br />

standards (the focus is the compostability of<br />

the final product; biodegradable and compostable<br />

plastics can be based on renewable<br />

(biobased) and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources).<br />

Bioplastics may be<br />

- based on renewable resources and biodegradable;<br />

- based on renewable resources but not be<br />

biodegradable; and<br />

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.<br />

1 st Generation feedstock | Carbohydrate rich<br />

plants such as corn or sugar cane that can<br />

also be used as food or animal feed are called<br />

food crops or 1 st generation feedstock. Bred<br />

my mankind over centuries for highest energy<br />

efficiency, currently, 1 st generation feedstock<br />

is the most efficient feedstock for the production<br />

of bioplastics as it requires the least<br />

amount of land to grow and produce the highest<br />

yields. [bM 04/09]<br />

2 nd Generation feedstock | refers to feedstock<br />

not suitable for food or feed. It can be either<br />

non-food crops (e.g. cellulose) or waste materials<br />

from 1 st generation feedstock (e.g.<br />

waste vegetable oil). [bM 06/11]<br />

3 rd Generation feedstock | This term currently<br />

relates to biomass from algae, which – having<br />

a higher growth yield than 1 st and 2 nd generation<br />

feedstock – were given their own category.<br />

It also relates to bioplastics from waste<br />

streams such as CO 2<br />

or methane [bM 02/16]<br />

Aerobic digestion | Aerobic means in the<br />

presence of oxygen. In →composting, which is<br />

an aerobic process, →microorganisms access<br />

the present oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere.<br />

They metabolize the organic material<br />

to energy, CO 2<br />

, water and cell biomass,<br />

whereby part of the energy of the organic material<br />

is released as heat. [bM <strong>03</strong>/07, bM 02/09]<br />

Since this Glossary will not be printed<br />

in each issue you can download a pdf version<br />

from our website (bit.ly/OunBB0)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is grateful to European Bioplastics for the permission to use parts of their Glossary.<br />

Version 4.0 was revised using EuBP’s latest version (Jan 2015).<br />

[*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)<br />

Anaerobic digestion | In anaerobic digestion,<br />

organic matter is degraded by a microbial<br />

population in the absence of oxygen<br />

and producing methane and carbon dioxide<br />

(= →biogas) and a solid residue that can be<br />

composted in a subsequent step without<br />

practically releasing any heat. The biogas can<br />

be treated in a Combined Heat and Power<br />

Plant (CHP), producing electricity and heat, or<br />

can be upgraded to bio-methane [14] [bM 06/09]<br />

Amorphous | non-crystalline, glassy with unordered<br />

lattice<br />

Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch<br />

molecule with very high molecular weight<br />

(biopolymer, monomer is →Glucose) [bM 05/09]<br />

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch<br />

molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer,<br />

monomer is →Glucose) [bM 05/09]<br />

Biobased | The term biobased describes the<br />

part of a material or product that is stemming<br />

from →biomass. When making a biobasedclaim,<br />

the unit (→biobased carbon content,<br />

→biobased mass content), a percentage and<br />

the measuring method should be clearly stated [1]<br />

Biobased carbon | carbon contained in or<br />

stemming from →biomass. A material or<br />

product made of fossil and →renewable resources<br />

contains fossil and →biobased carbon.<br />

The biobased carbon content is measured via<br />

the 14 C method (radio carbon dating method)<br />

that adheres to the technical specifications as<br />

described in [1,4,5,6].<br />

Biobased labels | The fact that (and to<br />

what percentage) a product or a material is<br />

→biobased can be indicated by respective<br />

labels. Ideally, meaningful labels should be<br />

based on harmonised standards and a corresponding<br />

certification process by independent<br />

third party institutions. For the property<br />

biobased such labels are in place by certifiers<br />

→DIN CERTCO and →Vinçotte who both base<br />

their certifications on the technical specification<br />

as described in [4,5]<br />

A certification and corresponding label depicting<br />

the biobased mass content was developed<br />

by the French Association Chimie du Végétal<br />

[ACDV].<br />

Biobased mass content | describes the<br />

amount of biobased mass contained in a material<br />

or product. This method is complementary<br />

to the 14 C method, and furthermore, takes<br />

other chemical elements besides the biobased<br />

carbon into account, such as oxygen, nitrogen<br />

and hydrogen. A measuring method has<br />

been developed and tested by the Association<br />

Chimie du Végétal (ACDV) [1]<br />

Biobased plastic | A plastic in which constitutional<br />

units are totally or partly from →<br />

biomass [3]. If this claim is used, a percentage<br />

should always be given to which extent<br />

the product/material is → biobased [1]<br />

[bM 01/07, bM <strong>03</strong>/10]<br />

Biodegradable Plastics | Biodegradable Plastics<br />

are plastics that are completely assimilated<br />

by the → microorganisms present a defined<br />

environment as food for their energy. The<br />

carbon of the plastic must completely be converted<br />

into CO 2<br />

during the microbial process.<br />

The process of biodegradation depends on<br />

the environmental conditions, which influence<br />

it (e.g. location, temperature, humidity) and<br />

on the material or application itself. Consequently,<br />

the process and its outcome can vary<br />

considerably. Biodegradability is linked to the<br />

structure of the polymer chain; it does not depend<br />

on the origin of the raw materials.<br />

There is currently no single, overarching standard<br />

to back up claims about biodegradability.<br />

One standard for example is ISO or in Europe:<br />

EN 14995 Plastics- Evaluation of compostability<br />

- Test scheme and specifications<br />

[bM 02/06, bM 01/07]<br />

Biogas | → Anaerobic digestion<br />

Biomass | Material of biological origin excluding<br />

material embedded in geological formations<br />

and material transformed to fossilised<br />

material. This includes organic material, e.g.<br />

trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, algae and<br />

waste of biological origin, e.g. manure [1, 2]<br />

Biorefinery | the co-production of a spectrum<br />

of bio-based products (food, feed, materials,<br />

chemicals including monomers or building<br />

blocks for bioplastics) and energy (fuels, power,<br />

heat) from biomass.[bM 02/13]<br />

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at<br />

least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly<br />

distributed base polymers<br />

Bisphenol-A (BPA) | Monomer used to produce<br />

different polymers. BPA is said to cause<br />

health problems, due to the fact that is behaves<br />

like a hormone. Therefore it is banned<br />

for use in children’s products in many countries.<br />

BPI | Biodegradable Products Institute, a notfor-profit<br />

association. Through their innovative<br />

compostable label program, BPI educates<br />

manufacturers, legislators and consumers<br />

about the importance of scientifically based<br />

standards for compostable materials which<br />

biodegrade in large composting facilities.<br />

Carbon footprint | (CFPs resp. PCFs – Product<br />

Carbon Footprint): Sum of →greenhouse<br />

gas emissions and removals in a product system,<br />

expressed as CO 2<br />

equivalent, and based<br />

on a →life cycle assessment. The CO 2<br />

equivalent<br />

of a specific amount of a greenhouse gas<br />

is calculated as the mass of a given greenhouse<br />

gas multiplied by its →global warmingpotential<br />

[1,2,15]<br />

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Basics<br />

Carbon neutral, CO 2<br />

neutral | describes a<br />

product or process that has a negligible impact<br />

on total atmospheric CO 2<br />

levels. For<br />

example, carbon neutrality means that any<br />

CO 2<br />

released when a plant decomposes or<br />

is burnt is offset by an equal amount of CO 2<br />

absorbed by the plant through photosynthesis<br />

when it is growing.<br />

Carbon neutrality can also be achieved<br />

through buying sufficient carbon credits to<br />

make up the difference. The latter option is<br />

not allowed when communicating → LCAs<br />

or carbon footprints regarding a material or<br />

product [1, 2].<br />

Carbon-neutral claims are tricky as products<br />

will not in most cases reach carbon neutrality<br />

if their complete life cycle is taken into consideration<br />

(including the end-of life).<br />

If an assessment of a material, however, is<br />

conducted (cradle to gate), carbon neutrality<br />

might be a valid claim in a B2B context. In this<br />

case, the unit assessed in the complete life<br />

cycle has to be clarified [1]<br />

Cascade use | of →renewable resources means<br />

to first use the →biomass to produce biobased<br />

industrial products and afterwards – due to<br />

their favourable energy balance – use them<br />

for energy generation (e.g. from a biobased<br />

plastic product to →biogas production). The<br />

feedstock is used efficiently and value generation<br />

increases decisively.<br />

Catalyst | substance that enables and accelerates<br />

a chemical reaction<br />

Cellophane | Clear film on the basis of →cellulose<br />

[bM 01/10]<br />

Cellulose | Cellulose is the principal component<br />

of cell walls in all higher forms of plant<br />

life, at varying percentages. It is therefore the<br />

most common organic compound and also<br />

the most common polysaccharide (multisugar)<br />

[11]. Cellulose is a polymeric molecule<br />

with very high molecular weight (monomer is<br />

→Glucose), industrial production from wood<br />

or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and<br />

fibres [bM 01/10]<br />

Cellulose ester | Cellulose esters occur by<br />

the esterification of cellulose with organic<br />

acids. The most important cellulose esters<br />

from a technical point of view are cellulose<br />

acetate (CA with acetic acid), cellulose propionate<br />

(CP with propionic acid) and cellulose<br />

butyrate (CB with butanoic acid). Mixed polymerisates,<br />

such as cellulose acetate propionate<br />

(CAP) can also be formed. One of the most<br />

well-known applications of cellulose aceto<br />

butyrate (CAB) is the moulded handle on the<br />

Swiss army knife [11]<br />

Cellulose acetate CA | → Cellulose ester<br />

CEN | Comité Européen de Normalisation<br />

(European organisation for standardization)<br />

Certification | is a process in which materials/products<br />

undergo a string of (laboratory)<br />

tests in order to verify that the fulfil certain<br />

requirements. Sound certification systems<br />

should be based on (ideally harmonised) European<br />

standards or technical specifications<br />

(e.g. by →CEN, USDA, ASTM, etc.) and be<br />

performed by independent third party laboratories.<br />

Successful certification guarantees<br />

a high product safety - also on this basis interconnected<br />

labels can be awarded that help<br />

the consumer to make an informed decision.<br />

Compost | A soil conditioning material of decomposing<br />

organic matter which provides nutrients<br />

and enhances soil structure.<br />

[bM 06/08, 02/09]<br />

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are<br />

→ biodegradable under →composting conditions:<br />

specified humidity, temperature,<br />

→ microorganisms and timeframe. In order<br />

to make accurate and specific claims about<br />

compostability, the location (home, → industrial)<br />

and timeframe need to be specified [1].<br />

Several national and international standards<br />

exist for clearer definitions, for example EN<br />

14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability -<br />

Test scheme and specifications. [bM 02/06, bM 01/07]<br />

Composting | is the controlled →aerobic, or<br />

oxygen-requiring, decomposition of organic<br />

materials by →microorganisms, under controlled<br />

conditions. It reduces the volume and<br />

mass of the raw materials while transforming<br />

them into CO 2<br />

, water and a valuable soil conditioner<br />

– compost.<br />

When talking about composting of bioplastics,<br />

foremost →industrial composting in a<br />

managed composting facility is meant (criteria<br />

defined in EN 13432).<br />

The main difference between industrial and<br />

home composting is, that in industrial composting<br />

facilities temperatures are much<br />

higher and kept stable, whereas in the composting<br />

pile temperatures are usually lower,<br />

and less constant as depending on factors<br />

such as weather conditions. Home composting<br />

is a way slower-paced process than<br />

industrial composting. Also a comparatively<br />

smaller volume of waste is involved. [bM <strong>03</strong>/07]<br />

Compound | plastic mixture from different<br />

raw materials (polymer and additives) [bM 04/10)<br />

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different<br />

monomers.<br />

Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of an environmental →Life Cycle<br />

Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities<br />

from the cradle (i.e., the extraction of raw materials,<br />

agricultural activities and forestry) up<br />

to the factory gate<br />

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated<br />

as C2C): Is an expression which communicates<br />

the concept of a closed-cycle economy,<br />

in which waste is used as raw material<br />

(‘waste equals food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not<br />

a term that is typically used in →LCA studies.<br />

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of a full →Life Cycle Assessment<br />

from manufacture (cradle) to use phase and<br />

disposal phase (grave).<br />

Crystalline | Plastic with regularly arranged<br />

molecules in a lattice structure<br />

Density | Quotient from mass and volume of<br />

a material, also referred to as specific weight<br />

DIN | Deutsches Institut für Normung (German<br />

organisation for standardization)<br />

DIN-CERTCO | independant certifying organisation<br />

for the assessment on the conformity<br />

of bioplastics<br />

Dispersing | fine distribution of non-miscible<br />

liquids into a homogeneous, stable mixture<br />

Drop-In bioplastics | chemically indentical<br />

to conventional petroleum based plastics,<br />

but made from renewable resources. Examples<br />

are bio-PE made from bio-ethanol (from<br />

e.g. sugar cane) or partly biobased PET; the<br />

monoethylene glykol made from bio-ethanol<br />

(from e.g. sugar cane). Developments to<br />

make terephthalic acid from renewable resources<br />

are under way. Other examples are<br />

polyamides (partly biobased e.g. PA 4.10 or PA<br />

6.10 or fully biobased like PA 5.10 or PA10.10)<br />

EN 13432 | European standard for the assessment<br />

of the → compostability of plastic<br />

packaging products<br />

Energy recovery | recovery and exploitation<br />

of the energy potential in (plastic) waste for<br />

the production of electricity or heat in waste<br />

incineration pants (waste-to-energy)<br />

Environmental claim | A statement, symbol<br />

or graphic that indicates one or more environmental<br />

aspect(s) of a product, a component,<br />

packaging or a service. [16]<br />

Enzymes | proteins that catalyze chemical<br />

reactions<br />

Enzyme-mediated plastics | are no →bioplastics.<br />

Instead, a conventional non-biodegradable<br />

plastic (e.g. fossil-based PE) is enriched<br />

with small amounts of an organic additive.<br />

Microorganisms are supposed to consume<br />

these additives and the degradation process<br />

should then expand to the non-biodegradable<br />

PE and thus make the material degrade. After<br />

some time the plastic is supposed to visually<br />

disappear and to be completely converted to<br />

carbon dioxide and water. This is a theoretical<br />

concept which has not been backed up by<br />

any verifiable proof so far. Producers promote<br />

enzyme-mediated plastics as a solution to littering.<br />

As no proof for the degradation process<br />

has been provided, environmental beneficial<br />

effects are highly questionable.<br />

Ethylene | colour- and odourless gas, made<br />

e.g. from, Naphtha (petroleum) by cracking or<br />

from bio-ethanol by dehydration, monomer of<br />

the polymer polyethylene (PE)<br />

European Bioplastics e.V. | The industry association<br />

representing the interests of Europe’s<br />

thriving bioplastics’ industry. Founded<br />

in Germany in 1993 as IBAW, European<br />

Bioplastics today represents the interests<br />

of about 50 member companies throughout<br />

the European Union and worldwide. With<br />

members from the agricultural feedstock,<br />

chemical and plastics industries, as well as<br />

industrial users and recycling companies, European<br />

Bioplastics serves as both a contact<br />

platform and catalyst for advancing the aims<br />

of the growing bioplastics industry.<br />

Extrusion | process used to create plastic<br />

profiles (or sheet) of a fixed cross-section<br />

consisting of mixing, melting, homogenising<br />

and shaping of the plastic.<br />

FDCA | 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF.<br />

The dicarboxylic acid can be used to make →<br />

PEF = polyethylene furanoate, a polyester that<br />

could be a 100% biobased alternative to PET.<br />

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled<br />

by → microorganisms or → enyzmes (e.g.<br />

the transformation of sugar into lactic acid).<br />

FSC | Forest Stewardship Council. FSC is an<br />

independent, non-governmental, not-forprofit<br />

organization established to promote the<br />

responsible and sustainable management of<br />

the world’s forests.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 47

Basics<br />

Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,<br />

colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless<br />

and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside<br />

animals‘ connective tissue.<br />

Genetically modified organism (GMO) | Organisms,<br />

such as plants and animals, whose<br />

genetic material (DNA) has been altered<br />

are called genetically modified organisms<br />

(GMOs). Food and feed which contain or<br />

consist of such GMOs, or are produced from<br />

GMOs, are called genetically modified (GM)<br />

food or feed [1]. If GM crops are used in bioplastics<br />

production, the multiple-stage processing<br />

and the high heat used to create the<br />

polymer removes all traces of genetic material.<br />

This means that the final bioplastics product<br />

contains no genetic traces. The resulting<br />

bioplastics is therefore well suited to use in<br />

food packaging as it contains no genetically<br />

modified material and cannot interact with<br />

the contents.<br />

Global Warming | Global warming is the rise<br />

in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere<br />

and oceans since the late 19th century<br />

and its projected continuation [8]. Global<br />

warming is said to be accelerated by → green<br />

house gases.<br />

Glucose | Monosaccharide (or simple sugar).<br />

G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar)<br />

in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or<br />

hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.<br />

Greenhouse gas GHG | Gaseous constituent<br />

of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic,<br />

that absorbs and emits radiation at<br />

specific wavelengths within the spectrum of<br />

infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface,<br />

the atmosphere, and clouds [1, 9]<br />

Greenwashing | The act of misleading consumers<br />

regarding the environmental practices<br />

of a company, or the environmental benefits<br />

of a product or service [1, 10]<br />

Granulate, granules | small plastic particles<br />

(3-4 millimetres), a form in which plastic is<br />

sold and fed into machines, easy to handle<br />

and dose.<br />

HMF (5-HMF) | 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is an<br />

organic compound derived from sugar dehydration.<br />

It is a platform chemical, a building<br />

block for 20 performance polymers and over<br />

175 different chemical substances. The molecule<br />

consists of a furan ring which contains<br />

both aldehyde and alcohol functional groups.<br />

5-HMF has applications in many different<br />

industries such as bioplastics, packaging,<br />

pharmaceuticals, adhesives and chemicals.<br />

One of the most promising routes is 2,5<br />

furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), produced as an<br />

intermediate when 5-HMF is oxidised. FDCA<br />

is used to produce PEF, which can substitute<br />

terephthalic acid in polyester, especially polyethylene<br />

terephthalate (PET). [bM <strong>03</strong>/14, 02/16]<br />

Home composting | →composting [bM 06/08]<br />

Humus | In agriculture, humus is often used<br />

simply to mean mature →compost, or natural<br />

compost extracted from a forest or other<br />

spontaneous source for use to amend soil.<br />

Hydrophilic | Property: water-friendly, soluble<br />

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used<br />

in conjunction with a plastic which is not water<br />

resistant and weather proof or that absorbs<br />

water such as Polyamide (PA).<br />

Hydrophobic | Property: water-resistant, not<br />

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is water<br />

resistant and weather proof, or that does not<br />

absorb any water such as Polyethylene (PE)<br />

or Polypropylene (PP).<br />

Industrial composting | is an established<br />

process with commonly agreed upon requirements<br />

(e.g. temperature, timeframe) for transforming<br />

biodegradable waste into stable, sanitised<br />

products to be used in agriculture. The<br />

criteria for industrial compostability of packaging<br />

have been defined in the EN 13432. Materials<br />

and products complying with this standard<br />

can be certified and subsequently labelled<br />

accordingly [1,7] [bM 06/08, 02/09]<br />

ISO | International Organization for Standardization<br />

JBPA | Japan Bioplastics Association<br />

Land use | The surface required to grow sufficient<br />

feedstock (land use) for today’s bioplastic<br />

production is less than 0.01 percent of the<br />

global agricultural area of 5 billion hectares.<br />

It is not yet foreseeable to what extent an increased<br />

use of food residues, non-food crops<br />

or cellulosic biomass (see also →1 st /2 nd /3 rd<br />

generation feedstock) in bioplastics production<br />

might lead to an even further reduced<br />

land use in the future [bM 04/09, 01/14]<br />

LCA | is the compilation and evaluation of the<br />

input, output and the potential environmental<br />

impact of a product system throughout its life<br />

cycle [17]. It is sometimes also referred to as<br />

life cycle analysis, ecobalance or cradle-tograve<br />

analysis. [bM 01/09]<br />

Littering | is the (illegal) act of leaving waste<br />

such as cigarette butts, paper, tins, bottles,<br />

cups, plates, cutlery or bags lying in an open<br />

or public place.<br />

Marine litter | Following the European Commission’s<br />

definition, “marine litter consists of<br />

items that have been deliberately discarded,<br />

unintentionally lost, or transported by winds<br />

and rivers, into the sea and on beaches. It<br />

mainly consists of plastics, wood, metals,<br />

glass, rubber, clothing and paper”. Marine<br />

debris originates from a variety of sources.<br />

Shipping and fishing activities are the predominant<br />

sea-based, ineffectively managed<br />

landfills as well as public littering the main<br />

land-based sources. Marine litter can pose a<br />

threat to living organisms, especially due to<br />

ingestion or entanglement.<br />

Currently, there is no international standard<br />

available, which appropriately describes the<br />

biodegradation of plastics in the marine environment.<br />

However, a number of standardisation<br />

projects are in progress at ISO and ASTM<br />

level. Furthermore, the European project<br />

OPEN BIO addresses the marine biodegradation<br />

of biobased products.[bM 02/16]<br />

Mass balance | describes the relationship between<br />

input and output of a specific substance<br />

within a system in which the output from the<br />

system cannot exceed the input into the system.<br />

First attempts were made by plastic raw material<br />

producers to claim their products renewable<br />

(plastics) based on a certain input<br />

of biomass in a huge and complex chemical<br />

plant, then mathematically allocating this<br />

biomass input to the produced plastic.<br />

These approaches are at least controversially<br />

disputed [bM 04/14, 05/14, 01/15]<br />

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic<br />

size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast.<br />

Molecule | group of at least two atoms held<br />

together by covalent chemical bonds.<br />

Monomer | molecules that are linked by polymerization<br />

to form chains of molecules and<br />

then plastics<br />

Mulch film | Foil to cover bottom of farmland<br />

Organic recycling | means the treatment of<br />

separately collected organic waste by anaerobic<br />

digestion and/or composting.<br />

Oxo-degradable / Oxo-fragmentable | materials<br />

and products that do not biodegrade!<br />

The underlying technology of oxo-degradability<br />

or oxo-fragmentation is based on special additives,<br />

which, if incorporated into standard<br />

resins, are purported to accelerate the fragmentation<br />

of products made thereof. Oxodegradable<br />

or oxo-fragmentable materials do<br />

not meet accepted industry standards on compostability<br />

such as EN 13432. [bM 01/09, 05/09]<br />

PBAT | Polybutylene adipate terephthalate, is<br />

an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester that has the<br />

properties of conventional polyethylene but is<br />

fully biodegradable under industrial composting.<br />

PBAT is made from fossil petroleum with<br />

first attempts being made to produce it partly<br />

from renewable resources [bM 06/09]<br />

PBS | Polybutylene succinate, a 100% biodegradable<br />

polymer, made from (e.g. bio-BDO)<br />

and succinic acid, which can also be produced<br />

biobased [bM <strong>03</strong>/12].<br />

PC | Polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyester,<br />

petroleum based and not degradable, used<br />

for e.g. baby bottles or CDs. Criticized for its<br />

BPA (→ Bisphenol-A) content.<br />

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil<br />

based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as<br />

a blend component.<br />

PE | Polyethylene, thermoplastic polymerised<br />

from ethylene. Can be made from renewable<br />

resources (sugar cane via bio-ethanol) [bM 05/10]<br />

PEF | polyethylene furanoate, a polyester<br />

made from monoethylene glycol (MEG) and<br />

→FDCA (2,5-furandicarboxylic acid , an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF). It<br />

can be a 100% biobased alternative for PET.<br />

PEF also has improved product characteristics,<br />

such as better structural strength and<br />

improved barrier behaviour, which will allow<br />

for the use of PEF bottles in additional applications.<br />

[bM <strong>03</strong>/11, 04/12]<br />

PET | Polyethylenterephthalate, transparent<br />

polyester used for bottles and film. The<br />

polyester is made from monoethylene glycol<br />

(MEG), that can be renewably sourced from<br />

bio-ethanol (sugar cane) and (until now fossil)<br />

terephthalic acid [bM 04/14]<br />

PGA | Polyglycolic acid or Polyglycolide is a biodegradable,<br />

thermoplastic polymer and the<br />

simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. Besides<br />

ist use in the biomedical field, PGA has been<br />

introduced as a barrier resin [bM <strong>03</strong>/09]<br />

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) or the<br />

polyhydroxy fatty acids, are a family of biodegradable<br />

polyesters. As in many mammals,<br />

including humans, that hold energy reserves<br />

in the form of body fat there are also bacteria<br />

that hold intracellular reserves in for of<br />

of polyhydroxy alkanoates. Here the microorganisms<br />

store a particularly high level of<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Basics<br />

energy reserves (up to 80% of their own body<br />

weight) for when their sources of nutrition become<br />

scarce. By farming this type of bacteria,<br />

and feeding them on sugar or starch (mostly<br />

from maize), or at times on plant oils or other<br />

nutrients rich in carbonates, it is possible to<br />

obtain PHA‘s on an industrial scale [11]. The<br />

most common types of PHA are PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate,<br />

PHBV and PHBH. Depending<br />

on the bacteria and their food, PHAs with<br />

different mechanical properties, from rubbery<br />

soft trough stiff and hard as ABS, can be produced.<br />

Some PHSs are even biodegradable in<br />

soil or in a marine environment<br />

PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA), a<br />

biodegradable, thermoplastic, linear aliphatic<br />

polyester based on lactic acid, a natural acid,<br />

is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar<br />

or starch with the help of micro-organisms.<br />

Lactic acid comes in two isomer forms, i.e. as<br />

laevorotatory D(-)lactic acid and as dextrorotary<br />

L(+)lactic acid.<br />

Modified PLA types can be produced by the<br />

use of the right additives or by certain combinations<br />

of L- and D- lactides (stereocomplexing),<br />

which then have the required rigidity for<br />

use at higher temperatures [13] [bM 01/09, 01/12]<br />

Plastics | Materials with large molecular<br />

chains of natural or fossil raw materials, produced<br />

by chemical or biochemical reactions.<br />

PPC | Polypropylene Carbonate, a bioplastic<br />

made by copolymerizing CO 2<br />

with propylene<br />

oxide (PO) [bM 04/12]<br />

PTT | Polytrimethylterephthalate (PTT), partially<br />

biobased polyester, is similarly to PET<br />

produced using terephthalic acid or dimethyl<br />

terephthalate and a diol. In this case it is a<br />

biobased 1,3 propanediol, also known as bio-<br />

PDO [bM 01/13]<br />

Renewable Resources | agricultural raw materials,<br />

which are not used as food or feed,<br />

but as raw material for industrial products<br />

or to generate energy. The use of renewable<br />

resources by industry saves fossil resources<br />

and reduces the amount of → greenhouse gas<br />

emissions. Biobased plastics are predominantly<br />

made of annual crops such as corn,<br />

cereals and sugar beets or perennial cultures<br />

such as cassava and sugar cane.<br />

Resource efficiency | Use of limited natural<br />

resources in a sustainable way while minimising<br />

impacts on the environment. A resource<br />

efficient economy creates more output<br />

or value with lesser input.<br />

Seedling Logo | The compostability label or<br />

logo Seedling is connected to the standard<br />

EN 13432/EN 14995 and a certification process<br />

managed by the independent institutions<br />

→DIN CERTCO and → Vinçotte. Bioplastics<br />

products carrying the Seedling fulfil the<br />

criteria laid down in the EN 13432 regarding<br />

industrial compostability. [bM 01/06, 02/10]<br />

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or<br />

carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family.<br />

Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar<br />

units. For example, there are known mono-,<br />

di- and polysaccharose. → glucose is a monosaccarin.<br />

They are important for the diet and<br />

produced biology in plants.<br />

Semi-finished products | plastic in form of<br />

sheet, film, rods or the like to be further processed<br />

into finshed products<br />

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction<br />

of glucose changing the aldehyde group<br />

to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as<br />

a plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch.<br />

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate)<br />

consisting of → amylose and → amylopectin,<br />

gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca<br />

etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains<br />

in definite way the result (product) is<br />

called starch. Each molecule is based on 300<br />

-12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection,<br />

there are two types → amylose and →<br />

amylopectin known. [bM 05/09]<br />

Starch derivatives | Starch derivatives are<br />

based on the chemical structure of → starch.<br />

The chemical structure can be changed by<br />

introducing new functional groups without<br />

changing the → starch polymer. The product<br />

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the<br />

hydrophilic character is not the same.<br />

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every<br />

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When<br />

every hydroxyl group is connected with an<br />

acid one product is starch-ester with different<br />

chemical properties.<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate |<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate can be<br />

synthesised by treating the → starch with propane<br />

or butanic acid. The product structure<br />

is still based on → starch. Every based → glucose<br />

fragment is connected with a propionate<br />

or butyrate ester group. The product is more<br />

hydrophobic than → starch.<br />

Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best<br />

outcomes for the human and natural environments<br />

both now and into the indefinite future.<br />

One famous definition of sustainability is the<br />

one created by the Brundtland Commission,<br />

led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister<br />

G. H. Brundtland. The Brundtland Commission<br />

defined sustainable development as<br />

development that ‘meets the needs of the<br />

present without compromising the ability of<br />

future generations to meet their own needs.’<br />

Sustainability relates to the continuity of economic,<br />

social, institutional and environmental<br />

aspects of human society, as well as the nonhuman<br />

environment).<br />

Sustainable sourcing | of renewable feedstock<br />

for biobased plastics is a prerequisite<br />

for more sustainable products. Impacts such<br />

as the deforestation of protected habitats<br />

or social and environmental damage arising<br />

from poor agricultural practices must<br />

be avoided. Corresponding certification<br />

schemes, such as ISCC PLUS, WLC or Bon-<br />

Sucro, are an appropriate tool to ensure the<br />

sustainable sourcing of biomass for all applications<br />

around the globe.<br />

Sustainability | as defined by European Bioplastics,<br />

has three dimensions: economic, social<br />

and environmental. This has been known<br />

as “the triple bottom line of sustainability”.<br />

This means that sustainable development involves<br />

the simultaneous pursuit of economic<br />

prosperity, environmental protection and social<br />

equity. In other words, businesses have<br />

to expand their responsibility to include these<br />

environmental and social dimensions. Sustainability<br />

is about making products useful to<br />

markets and, at the same time, having societal<br />

benefits and lower environmental impact<br />

than the alternatives currently available. It also<br />

implies a commitment to continuous improvement<br />

that should result in a further reduction<br />

of the environmental footprint of today’s products,<br />

processes and raw materials used.<br />

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or<br />

melt when heated and solidify when cooled<br />

(solid at room temperature).<br />

Thermoplastic Starch | (TPS) → starch that<br />

was modified (cooked, complexed) to make it<br />

a plastic resin<br />

Thermoset | Plastics (resins) which do not<br />

soften or melt when heated. Examples are<br />

epoxy resins or unsaturated polyester resins.<br />

Vinçotte | independant certifying organisation<br />

for the assessment on the conformity of bioplastics<br />

WPC | Wood Plastic Composite. Composite<br />

materials made of wood fiber/flour and plastics<br />

(mostly polypropylene).<br />

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,<br />

garden residue.<br />

References:<br />

[1] Environmental Communication Guide,<br />

European Bioplastics, Berlin, Germany,<br />

2012<br />

[2] ISO 14067. Carbon footprint of products -<br />

Requirements and guidelines for quantification<br />

and communication<br />

[3] CEN TR 15932, Plastics - Recommendation<br />

for terminology and characterisation<br />

of biopolymers and bioplastics, 2010<br />

[4] CEN/TS 16137, Plastics - Determination<br />

of bio-based carbon content, 2011<br />

[5] ASTM D6866, Standard Test Methods for<br />

Determining the Biobased Content of<br />

Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using<br />

Radiocarbon Analysis<br />

[6] SPI: Understanding Biobased Carbon<br />

Content, 2012<br />

[7] EN 13432, Requirements for packaging<br />

recoverable through composting and biodegradation.<br />

Test scheme and evaluation<br />

criteria for the final acceptance of packaging,<br />

2000<br />

[8] Wikipedia<br />

[9] ISO 14064 Greenhouse gases -- Part 1:<br />

Specification with guidance..., 2006<br />

[10] Terrachoice, 2010, www.terrachoice.com<br />

[11] Thielen, M.: Bioplastics: Basics. Applications.<br />

Markets, Polymedia Publisher,<br />

2012<br />

[12] Lörcks, J.: Biokunststoffe, Broschüre der<br />

FNR, 2005<br />

[13] de Vos, S.: Improving heat-resistance of<br />

PLA using poly(D-lactide),<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol. 3, <strong>Issue</strong> 02/2008<br />

[14] de Wilde, B.: Anaerobic Digestion, bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE, Vol 4., <strong>Issue</strong> 06/2009<br />

[15] ISO 14067 onb Corbon Footprint of<br />

Products<br />

[16] ISO 14021 on Self-declared Environmental<br />

claims<br />

[17] ISO 14044 on Life Cycle Assessment<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 49

Suppliers Guide<br />

1. Raw Materials<br />

AGRANA Starch<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Conrathstraße 7<br />

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria<br />

technical.starch@agrana.com<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

Jincheng, Lin‘an, Hangzhou,<br />

Zhejiang 311300, P.R. China<br />

China contact: Grace Jin<br />

mobile: 0086 135 7578 9843<br />

Grace@xinfupharm.com<br />

Europe contact(Belgium): Susan Zhang<br />

mobile: 0<strong>03</strong>2 478 991619<br />

zxh0612@hotmail.com<br />

www.xinfupharm.com<br />

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.<br />

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou<br />

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,<br />

Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663<br />

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696<br />

info@ecopond.com.cn<br />

www.ecopond.com.cn<br />

FLEX-162 Biodeg. Blown Film Resin!<br />

Bio-873 4-Star Inj. Bio-Based Resin!<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be present among top suppliers in<br />

the field of bioplastics.<br />

For Example:<br />

Showa Denko Europe GmbH<br />

Konrad-Zuse-Platz 4<br />

81829 Munich, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 89 93996226<br />

www.showa-denko.com<br />

support@sde.de<br />

PTT MCC Biochem Co., Ltd.<br />

info@pttmcc.com / www.pttmcc.com<br />

Tel: +66(0) 2 140-3563<br />

MCPP Germany GmbH<br />

+49 (0) 152-018 920 51<br />

frank.steinbrecher@mcpp-europe.com<br />

MCPP France SAS<br />

+33 (0) 6 07 22 25 32<br />

fabien.resweber@mcpp-europe.com<br />

1.1 bio based monomers<br />

Corbion Purac<br />

Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21<br />

4200 AA Gorinchem -<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 (0)183 695 695<br />

Fax: +31 (0)183 695 604<br />

www.corbion.com/bioplastics<br />

bioplastics@corbion.com<br />

62 136 Lestrem, France<br />

Tel.: + 33 (0) 3 21 63 36 00<br />

www.roquette-performance-plastics.com<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

39 mm<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 issues) and<br />

extends automatically if it’s not canceled<br />

three month before expiry.<br />

www.facebook.com<br />

www.issuu.com<br />

www.twitter.com<br />

www.youtube.com<br />

DuPont de Nemours International S.A.<br />

2 chemin du Pavillon<br />

1218 - Le Grand Saconnex<br />

Switzerland<br />

Tel.: +41 22 171 51 11<br />

Fax: +41 22 580 22 45<br />

www.renewable.dupont.com<br />

www.plastics.dupont.com<br />

Tel: +86 351-8689356<br />

Fax: +86 351-8689718<br />

www.ecoworld.jinhuigroup.com<br />

ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com<br />

Evonik Industries AG<br />

Paul Baumann Straße 1<br />

45772 Marl, Germany<br />

Tel +49 2365 49-4717<br />

evonik-hp@evonik.com<br />

www.vestamid-terra.com<br />

www.evonik.com<br />

1.2 compounds<br />

API S.p.A.<br />

Via Dante Alighieri, 27<br />

36065 Mussolente (VI), Italy<br />

Telephone +39 0424 579711<br />

www.apiplastic.com<br />

www.apinatbio.com<br />

BIO-FED<br />

Branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH<br />

BioCampus Cologne<br />

Nattermannallee 1<br />

50829 Cologne, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 221 88 88 94-00<br />

info@bio-fed.com<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

NUREL Engineering Polymers<br />

Ctra. Barcelona, km 329<br />

50016 Zaragoza, Spain<br />

Tel: +34 976 465 579<br />

inzea@samca.com<br />

www.inzea-biopolymers.com<br />

PolyOne<br />

Avenue Melville Wilson, 2<br />

Zoning de la Fagne<br />

5330 Assesse<br />

Belgium<br />

Tel.: + 32 83 660 211<br />

www.polyone.com<br />

1.3 PLA<br />

Shenzhen Esun Ind. Co;Ltd<br />

www.brightcn.net<br />

www.esun.en.alibaba.com<br />

bright@brightcn.net<br />

Tel: +86-755-26<strong>03</strong> 1978<br />

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11

Suppliers Guide<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />


Tel: +86 527 88278888<br />

WeChat: supla-168<br />

supla@supla-bioplastics.cn<br />

www.supla-bioplastics.cn<br />

1.4 starch-based bioplastics<br />

BIOTEC<br />

Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32<br />

46446 Emmerich/Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Grabio Greentech Corporation<br />

Tel: +886-3-598-6496<br />

No. 91, Guangfu N. Rd., Hsinchu<br />

Industrial Park,Hukou Township,<br />

Hsinchu County 3<strong>03</strong>51, Taiwan<br />

sales@grabio.com.tw<br />

www.grabio.com.tw<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

TianAn Biopolymer<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

Metabolix, Inc.<br />

Bio-based and biodegradable resins<br />

and performance additives<br />

21 Erie Street<br />

Cambridge, MA 02139, USA<br />

US +1-617-583-1700<br />

DE +49 (0) 221 / 88 88 94 00<br />

www.metabolix.com<br />

info@metabolix.com<br />

1.6 masterbatches<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

PolyOne<br />

Avenue Melville Wilson, 2<br />

Zoning de la Fagne<br />

5330 Assesse<br />

Belgium<br />

Tel.: + 32 83 660 211<br />

www.polyone.com<br />

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

3. Semi finished products<br />

3.1 films<br />

Infiana Germany GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Zweibrückenstraße 15-25<br />

91301 Forchheim<br />

Tel. +49-9191 81-0<br />

Fax +49-9191 81-212<br />

www.infiana.com<br />

Taghleef Industries SpA, Italy<br />

Via E. Fermi, 46<br />

33058 San Giorgio di Nogaro (UD)<br />

Contact Emanuela Bardi<br />

Tel. +39 0431 627264<br />

Mobile +39 342 6565309<br />

emanuela.bardi@ti-films.com<br />

www.ti-films.com<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

Bio4Pack GmbH<br />

D-48419 Rheine, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 5975 955 94 57<br />

info@bio4pack.com<br />

www.bio4pack.com<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, Marketing Manager<br />

No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City,<br />

Taichung County<br />

411, Taiwan (R.O.C.)<br />

Tel. +886(4)2277 6888<br />

Fax +883(4)2277 6989<br />

Mobil +886(0)982-829988<br />

esmy@minima-tech.com<br />

Skype esmy325<br />

www.minima-tech.com<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

4201 Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.404.8700<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@natur-tec.com<br />

www.natur-tec.com<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.<strong>03</strong>21.699.601<br />

Tel. +39.<strong>03</strong>21.699.611<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

President Packaging Ind., Corp.<br />

PLA Paper Hot Cup manufacture<br />

In Taiwan, www.ppi.com.tw<br />

Tel.: +886-6-570-4066 ext.5531<br />

Fax: +886-6-570-4077<br />

sales@ppi.com.tw<br />

6. Equipment<br />

6.1 Machinery & Molds<br />

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey<br />

Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic<br />

Container Industry<br />

284 Pinebush Road<br />

Cambridge Ontario<br />

Canada N1T 1Z6<br />

Tel. +1 519 624 9720<br />

Fax +1 519 624 9721<br />

info@hallink.com<br />

www.hallink.com<br />

6.2 Laboratory Equipment<br />

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer<br />


143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka,Japan<br />

Tel:+81-54-624-6260<br />

Info2@moda.vg<br />

www.saidagroup.jp<br />

EREMA Engineering Recycling<br />

Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH<br />

Unterfeldstrasse 3<br />

4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA<br />

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0<br />

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23<br />

erema@erema.at<br />

www.erema.at<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH<br />

Holzhauser Strasse 157–159<br />

D-13509 Berlin<br />

Tel. +49 30 43 567 5<br />

Fax +49 30 43 567 699<br />

sales.de@uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG<br />

Via Innovativa 31, CH-7013 Domat/Ems<br />

Tel. +41 81 632 63 11<br />

Fax +41 81 632 74 <strong>03</strong><br />

sales.ch@uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

www.uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

9. Services<br />

Osterfelder Str. 3<br />

46047 Oberhausen<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227<br />

Fax: +49 (0)208 8598 1424<br />

thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

Institut für Kunststofftechnik<br />

Universität Stuttgart<br />

Böblinger Straße 70<br />

70199 Stuttgart<br />

Tel +49 711/685-62814<br />

Linda.Goebel@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

narocon<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb<br />

Tel.: +49 30-28096930<br />

kaeb@narocon.de<br />

www.narocon.de<br />

nova-Institut GmbH<br />

Chemiepark Knapsack<br />

Industriestrasse 300<br />

5<strong>03</strong>54 Huerth, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40<br />

E-Mail: contact@nova-institut.de<br />

www.biobased.eu<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 51

Suppliers Guide<br />

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9. Services (continued)<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

10117 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Department of Chemical<br />

Engineering & Materials Science<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be present among top suppliers in<br />

the field of bioplastics.<br />

UL International TTC GmbH<br />

Rheinuferstrasse 7-9, Geb. R33<br />

47829 Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2151 5370-333<br />

Fax: +49 (0) 2151 5370-334<br />

ttc@ul.com<br />

www.ulttc.com<br />

10. Institutions<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10019, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts Hanover<br />

Faculty II – Mechanical and<br />

Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

30453 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69<br />

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69<br />

lisa.mundzeck@fh-hannover.de<br />

http://www.ifbb-hannover.de/<br />

10.3 Other Institutions<br />

Biobased Packaging Innovations<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

IJburglaan 836<br />

1087 EM Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 6-24216733<br />

http://www.biobasedpackaging.nl<br />

For Example:<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 issues) and<br />

extends automatically if it’s not canceled<br />

three month before expiry.<br />

39 mm<br />



wdk-Branchenbericht, Teil 1<br />

Service life of NBR in hydraulic fluids<br />


Low emission PU foams<br />

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Concrete rehabilitation with PU<br />

Renewable source polyols<br />



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Die weltweite PU-Industrie 2015/<strong>2016</strong><br />

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ist exklusiver Distributionspartner von<br />

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Foto: Copyright www.istockphotocom/nd3000<br />

EPDM mit Treibmittel<br />

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52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 11<br />

Basics<br />

Design for Recyclability | 44<br />

Highlights<br />

Thermoforming / Rigid Packaging | 12<br />

Marine Pollution / Marine Degradation | 16<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 11<br />

Preview<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

Jen Owen:<br />

3D printed hands change<br />

the world | 14<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

PHA (update) | 38<br />

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Joining of Bioplastics | 34<br />

BioBased Re-Invention of Plastic<br />

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bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/16] Vol. 11 53

Companies in this issue<br />

Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert<br />

ABA 5<br />

Aethic 30<br />

Agrana Starch Thermoplastics 50<br />

AINIA Technology Centre 31<br />

Anhui-Tianyi 25<br />

API 50<br />

Bio4Pack 35, 52<br />

Biobased Packaging Innovations 52<br />

BIO-FED 19, 50<br />

bioplastics.online 41<br />

BIOTEC 36 51<br />

BMEL 22<br />

BPI 52<br />

Corbion 50<br />

Covestro 8<br />

DECHEMA 34<br />

DIN Certco 6<br />

Dongguan Xinhai 26<br />

DuPont 50<br />

Duynie Group 36<br />

Emery Oleochemicals HK 24<br />

EREMA 43,51<br />

European Bioplastics 34 52<br />

European Fruit Juice Ass. (AIJN) 31<br />

Evonik 8 50<br />

FNR 22 2, 50<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 51<br />

Futamura Chemical 5<br />

GRABIO Greentech Corporation 51<br />

Grafe 50,51<br />

Green Sports Alliance 12<br />

GreenDot 20<br />

Hairma Chemicals (GZ) 25<br />

Hallink 51<br />

Ikea 12<br />

Infiana Germany 51<br />

Innovia 5<br />

Institut für Bioplastics & Biocomposites 22, 30 52<br />

ITENE 42<br />

JinHui ZhaoLong 50<br />

K'<strong>2016</strong> (Messe Düsseldorf) 11<br />

Kaneka 40<br />

Kingfa 50<br />

Lego 41<br />

Mars 28<br />

Metabolix 8, 40 51<br />

Michigan State University 52<br />

Mills Office Productivity 29<br />

Minima Technology 51<br />

Nager IT 30<br />

narocon 51<br />

NatureWorks 3,12,15,16<br />

Natur-Tec 16 51<br />

Nestlé 12<br />

NHH 25<br />

Nordics 28<br />

nova-Institute 8 7, 51<br />

Novamont 30 51,56<br />

Novidon 36<br />

NTIC 16<br />

NUREL Engineering Polymers 50<br />

Orineo 8<br />

PolyOne 50,51<br />

President Packaging 51<br />

PTT MCC Biochem 45,51<br />

Roayal Cosun 36<br />

Rodenburg Biopolymers 28<br />

Roquette 28 50<br />

RPS Promens 28<br />

Saida 51<br />

Samyang Corporation 26<br />

Scion 32<br />

Shenzhen Esun Industrial 50<br />

Showa Denko 50<br />

Solegear 29<br />

SPI 8<br />

Suzhou Hanfeng 26<br />

Taghleef Industries 29 51<br />

TianAn Biopolymer 51<br />

Tufts University 6<br />

U2 Supermarkets 29<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer 27,51<br />

UL International TTC 22 52<br />

Univ. App. Sc. Hannover 34<br />

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 51<br />

WooSung Chemicals 24<br />

WWF 12<br />

Xinyan Packaging 26<br />

Zeijang Hisun Biomaterials 25<br />

Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical 50<br />

Zoë B 40<br />

Editorial Planner<br />

<strong>2016</strong><br />

<strong>Issue</strong> Month Publ.-Date<br />

edit/advert/<br />

Deadline<br />

Editorial Focus (1) Editorial Focus (2) Basics<br />

04/<strong>2016</strong> Jul/Aug 01 Aug <strong>2016</strong> 01 Jul <strong>2016</strong> Blow Moulding Toys Additives<br />

Trade-Fair<br />

Specials<br />

05/<strong>2016</strong> Sep/Oct 04 Oct <strong>2016</strong> 02 Sep <strong>2016</strong> Fiber / Textile /<br />

Nonwoven<br />

Polyurethanes /<br />

Elastomers/Rubber<br />

Co-Polyesters<br />

K'<strong>2016</strong> preview<br />

06/<strong>2016</strong> Nov/Dec 05 Dec <strong>2016</strong> 04 Nov <strong>2016</strong> Films / Flexibles /<br />

Bags<br />

Consumer & Office<br />

Electronics<br />

Certification - Blessing<br />

and Curse<br />

K'<strong>2016</strong> Review<br />


download free of charge*<br />

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/16] Vol. 11<br />

* Contents may become restricted to subscribers<br />

or subject to additonal fees at a later stage.


<strong>2016</strong><br />




Call for proposals<br />

Enter your own product, service or development, or nominate<br />

your favourite example from another organisation<br />

Please let us know until August 31 st<br />

1. What the product, service or development is and does<br />

2. Why you think this product, service or development should win an award<br />

3. What your (or the proposed) company or organisation does<br />

Your entry should not exceed 500 words (approx. 1 page) and may also<br />

be supported with photographs, samples, marketing brochures and/or<br />

technical documentation (cannot be sent back). The 5 nominees must be<br />

prepared to provide a 30 second videoclip<br />

More details and an entry form can be downloaded from<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/award<br />

The Bioplastics Award will be presented during the<br />

11 th European Bioplastics Conference<br />

November 29-30, <strong>2016</strong>, Berlin, Germany<br />

supported by<br />

Sponsors welcome, please contact mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com

www.novamont.com<br />


CONTROLLED, innovative, GUARANTEED<br />

EcoComunicazione.it<br />


Using the MATER-BI trademark licence<br />

means that NOVAMONT’s partners agree<br />

to comply with strict quality parameters and<br />

testing of random samples from the market.<br />

These are designed to ensure that films<br />

are converted under ideal conditions<br />

and that articles produced in MATER-BI<br />

meet all essential requirements. To date<br />

over 1000 products have been tested.<br />



MATER-BI is part of a virtuous<br />

production system, undertaken<br />

entirely on Italian territory.<br />

It enters into a production chain<br />

that involves everyone,<br />

from the farmer to the composter,<br />

from the converter via the retailer<br />

to the consumer.<br />



MATER-BI has unique,<br />

environmentally-friendly properties.<br />

It is biodegradable and compostable<br />

and contains renewable raw materials.<br />

It is the ideal solution for organic<br />

waste collection bags and is<br />

organically recycled into fertile<br />

compost.<br />


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