Issue 03/2015




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ISSN 1862-5258<br />

May / June<br />

Cover Story<br />

Lovechock<br />

<strong>03</strong> | <strong>2015</strong><br />

bioplastics magazine Vol. 10<br />

Highlights<br />

Injection Moulding | 14<br />

Biocomposites | 34<br />

Thermoset | 30<br />

Basics<br />

Frequently Asked Questions | 44<br />

... is read in 92 countries

The Next Step:<br />

Biobased Packaging<br />

Choose a recyclable and sustainable container for a world focused<br />

more and more on packaging. The entire range of Lameplast Group<br />

containers are now available in biobased plastic: Green PE,<br />

polyethylene from plant origin, a renewable raw material from<br />

Brazilian sugar cane. A product that sets us free from oil use<br />

and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.<br />

For more information visit<br />

www.fkur.com • www.fkur-biobased.com

Editorial<br />

dear<br />

readers<br />

Dear Readers<br />

It was a try and it was a success. The first bio!PAC<br />

conference on biobased packaging in Amsterdam on<br />

May 12 and 13 was very well received by the almost<br />

100 attendees, speakers, exhibitors and sponsors.<br />

One presentation that most participants were excited<br />

about was the one from Laura de Nooijer from Lovechock.<br />

Although (or maybe even because) it was not<br />

the usual technical stuff. We liked it too, so we made it<br />

the cover story of this issue.<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

May / June<br />

Cover Story<br />

Lovechock<br />

<strong>03</strong> | <strong>2015</strong><br />

Other highlights are injection moulding, biocomposites<br />

and biobased thermoset. All of these topics<br />

are kind of paving the way to our next big conference<br />

event. Together with the nova-Institute we are<br />

organizing the first bio!CAR Conference on Biobased<br />

Materials in Automotive Engineering. This conference<br />

will be held within the framework of the trade<br />

fair COMPOSITES EUROPE at the end of September<br />

in Stuttgart, Germany. Please see page 8 for more<br />

details.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE Vol. 10<br />

Highlights<br />

Injection Moulding | 14<br />

Biocomposites | 34<br />

Thermoset | 30<br />

Basics<br />

Frequently Asked Questions | 44<br />

... is read in 92 countries<br />

In the Basics section we offer a little taster of the really<br />

comprehensive FAQs about bioplastics, developed by European<br />

Bioplastics. On pages 44 – 45 you find a few of those Frequently<br />

asked Questions. Go and visit EUBP’s website for the full version<br />

and download of the PDF-file.<br />

As usual this current issue is once again complemented by a<br />

number of industry and applications news items<br />

We hope you enjoy the forthcoming summer and,<br />

of course, reading bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

Sincerely yours<br />

Follow us on twitter!<br />

www.twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Michael Thielen<br />

Like us on Facebook!<br />

www.facebook.com/bioplasticsmagazine<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 3

Content<br />

Imprint<br />

<strong>03</strong>|<strong>2015</strong><br />

May / June<br />

Events<br />

8 bio!CAR announcement & programme<br />

10 bio!PAC - Review<br />

26 Chinaplas – Review<br />

Applications<br />

29 World’s first algae-based surfboard<br />

Cover Story<br />

12 Lovechock<br />

Basics<br />

44 Frequently asked Questions (FAQ)<br />

Report<br />

42 Holland Bioplastics<br />

3 Editorial<br />

5 News<br />

28 Application News<br />

46 Glossary<br />

50 Suppliers Guide<br />

52 Event Calendar<br />

54 Companies in this issue<br />

Injection Moulding<br />

14 Bioplastics Injection Moulding<br />

16 From beach toy to 100 % biodegradable<br />

18 New PLA formulations to replace ABS<br />

20 Biodegradable materials for<br />

micro-irrigation<br />

22 PHA biopolymers promise te be a game<br />

changer in marine pollution<br />

24 New heat resistand blend for thin wall<br />

injection mouldings<br />

25 New light mountaineering shoes<br />

made with bio-PA 4.10<br />

Thermoset<br />

30 Fully biobased epoxy resin from lignin<br />

33 100 % biobasedepoxy compounds<br />

Biocomposites<br />

34 Basalt fibres in biocomposites<br />

36 Carbon footprint of flax, hemp, jute and kenaf<br />

40 PowerRibs technology<br />

Publisher / Editorial<br />

Dr. Michael Thielen (MT)<br />

Samuel Brangenberg (SB)<br />

contributing editor: Karen Laird (KL)<br />

Head Office<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach, Germany<br />

phone: +49 (0)2161 6884469<br />

fax: +49 (0)2161 6884468<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Media Adviser<br />

Caroline Motyka<br />

phone: +49(0)2161-6884467<br />

fax: +49(0)2161 6884468<br />

cm@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Chris Shaw<br />

Chris Shaw Media Ltd<br />

Media Sales Representative<br />

phone: +44 (0) 1270 522130<br />

mobile: +44 (0) 7983 967471<br />

Layout/Production<br />

Ulrich Gewehr (Dr. Gupta Verlag)<br />

Max Godenrath (Dr. Gupta Verlag)<br />

Mark Speckenbach (DWFB)<br />

Print<br />

Poligrāfijas grupa Mūkusala Ltd.<br />

1004 Riga, Latvia<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is printed on<br />

chlorine-free FSC certified paper.<br />

Total print run: 3,500 copies<br />

bioplastics magazine<br />

ISSN 1862-5258<br />

bM is published 6 times a year.<br />

This publication is sent to qualified<br />

subscribers (149 Euro for 6 issues).<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is read in<br />

91 countries.<br />

Every effort is made to verify all<br />

Information published, but Polymedia<br />

Publisher cannot accept responsibility<br />

for any errors or omissions or for any<br />

losses that may arise as a result. No<br />

items may be reproduced, copied or<br />

stored in any form, including electronic<br />

format, without the prior consent of<br />

the publisher. Opinions expressed in<br />

articies do not necessarily reflect those<br />

of Polymedia Publisher.<br />

All articies appearing in bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE, or on the website www.<br />

bioplasticsmagazine.com are strictly<br />

covered by copyright.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE welcomes contributions<br />

for publication. Submissions are<br />

accepted on the basis of full assignment<br />

of copyright to Polymedia Publisher<br />

GmbH unless otherwise agreed in<br />

advance and in writing. We reserve the<br />

right to edit items for reasons of space,<br />

clarity or legality. Please contact the<br />

editorial office via mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

The fact that product names may not be<br />

identified in our editorial as trade marks<br />

is not an indication that such names are<br />

not registered trade marks.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE tries to use British<br />

spelling. However, in articles based on<br />

information from the USA, American<br />

spelling may also be used.<br />

Envelopes<br />

A part of this print run is mailed to the<br />

readers wrapped in bioplastic envelopes<br />

sponsored by Flexico Verpackungen<br />

Deutshhand, Maropack GmbH & Co. KG,<br />

and Neemann<br />

Cover<br />

Lovechock<br />

Follow us on twitter:<br />

http://twitter.com/bioplasticsmag<br />

Like us on Facebook:<br />


daily upated news at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

News<br />

20 years<br />

certification of<br />

compostability<br />

In the early 1990s a piece of legislation was<br />

published with a fairly significant impact on<br />

households: citizens had to start sorting their<br />

waste. This legislation, the European Directive<br />

94/62/EC, covering the selective collection<br />

and recycling of waste, was the first European<br />

text to feature the concept of organic<br />

recycling, better known as composting.<br />

At that time the (now obvious) standard EN<br />

13432 was only in the initial outline, yet various<br />

municipal authorities began considering<br />

the use of compostable bags for collecting<br />

green waste.<br />

In the midst of all the numerous and sometimes<br />

rather fanciful claims of the bag manufacturers,<br />

the independent body Vinçotte<br />

developed the OK compost conformity mark<br />

(now widely known but regarded as an unseen<br />

anomaly at the time).<br />

The first two certificates were signed precisely<br />

20 years ago, on 5 May 1995.<br />

20 years later, Vinçotte is the world leader in<br />

the certification of bioplastics, with 380 certificate<br />

holders in all corners of the globe,<br />

1200 certificates in circulation and a constantly<br />

growing range of conformity marks:<br />

OK biodegradable SOIL (since 2000), OK compost<br />

HOME (20<strong>03</strong>), OK biodegradable WATER<br />

(2005), OK biobased (2009) and (last but not<br />

least ?) OK biodegradable MARINE (since<br />

<strong>2015</strong>).<br />

In addition Vinçotte is recognized as a certification<br />

body for the Seedling mark of European<br />

Bioplastics since April 2012.<br />

Vinçotte wishes a happy anniversary to all its<br />

licensees, ranging from the veterans of the<br />

1990s to today’s newcomers, all of whom are<br />

pioneers in their own way. MT<br />

www.vincotte.com<br />

Kuraray acquires Plantic<br />

and expands into<br />

bio-based barrier materials<br />

Kuraray (headquartered in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan) announced on<br />

April 8 the completion of the acquisition of all of the shares in Plantic<br />

Technologies Limited (Australia), which is engaged in the bio-based<br />

barrier film business.<br />

Kuraray was the first to commercialize the high-performance barrier<br />

resin, EVAL (ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer), which it launched in<br />

1972. EVAL boasts the highest level of gas barrier properties of all<br />

plastics and is the market leading barrier resin used in food packaging<br />

and industrial barrier applications.<br />

The acquisition of Plantic enables Kuraray to provide barrier<br />

materials which meets the increasing global demand of bio-based food<br />

packaging materials. This is in line with Kuraray’s corporate mission<br />

“we in the Kuraray Group are committed to opening new fields of<br />

business using pioneering technology and contributing to an improved<br />

natural environment and quality of life”. As a world leading producer<br />

of barrier materials, Kuraray will further develop its business through<br />

the addition of Plantic’s best in class bio-based barrier material.<br />

Plantic is a global leader in bio-based barrier materials. Plantic film<br />

is used in a broad range of products in the barrier packaging sector<br />

and is supplying major supermarkets and brand owners on three<br />

continents (Australia, North America and Europe) in applications such<br />

as fresh case ready beef, pork, lamb and veal, smoked and processed<br />

meats, chicken, and fresh seafood and pasta applications. Kuraray<br />

expects that its global sales network will assist to develop the biobased<br />

barrier business in Europe, USA and Asia, responding to the<br />

global demand of improved freshness, reduced food loss and waste<br />

with the use of environmentally friendly material, Plantic film.<br />

In the Australian market Plantic film is well known and is being<br />

used by a major supermarket. In the United States, the largest meat<br />

consumer country, Plantic has commenced supply to a number of<br />

brand owners and retailers and Kuraray will further develop Plantic’s<br />

business including the potential establishment of a production base<br />

or an alliance with third parties. In Japan where the demand for<br />

extension of shelf life for fresh meat and other fresh food is increasing,<br />

Kuraray can assist its customers to reduce food loss and waste with<br />

the environmentally friendly material, Plantic film. These market<br />

developments are expected to expand the bio-based barrier material<br />

business and we expect to achieve revenue of JPY 10 billion globally<br />

over the next 3 years.<br />

In addition there are significant synergies between Kuraray’s<br />

existing barrier business and Plantic’s bio-based barrier technology<br />

which will drive new applications. Further, Kuraray’s market leading<br />

technology and global sales network is expected to accelerate the<br />

development and expansion of a barrier material business including<br />

Plantic’s technology.<br />

http://www.kuraray.co.jp/<br />

- www.plantic.com.au<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 5

News<br />

daily upated news at<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Coca Cola to show 100 % biobased<br />

PlantBottle in Milan<br />

For its PlantBottle, Coca-Cola currently uses PET that is 30 % (by weight) renewably<br />

sourced in many of its core brands. This 30 % ingredient (mono-ethylene glycol – MEG)<br />

can be produced from natural plant sources, the 70 % purified therephtalic acid (PTA)<br />

is currently not bio-based. Coca-Cola uses MEG derived from Brazilian sugar cane<br />

to make its PlantBottle 1.0. The company is also exploring the possibilities of using<br />

second-generation feedstocks for the production of bio-MEG. “That is PlantBottle<br />

1.1,” as Klaus Stadler, responsible for the Environmental Sustainability agenda in<br />

Coca-Cola’s European Business Group, called it at the 8 th International Conference<br />

on Bio-based Materials in Cologne, Germany in mid April.<br />

In order to develop a bio-derived PTA, the Coca-Cola Company has also entered<br />

into long-term commitments with industry partners Gevo and Virent. “We have that.<br />

In fact, we will be showing a 100 % biobased PlantBottle—what we call PlantBottle<br />

2.0—at the upcoming Expo Milano <strong>2015</strong>,” said Stadler. Coca-Cola is the official soft<br />

drink partner of Expo Milano <strong>2015</strong>. However, according to Stadler, it will take another<br />

five to eight years for bio-PTA to become available in commercial quantities. MT<br />

www.thecoca-colacompany.com<br />

New Initiative to Support 3D Printing Market<br />

NatureWorks recently announced a broad new initiative to support the growth of the additive manufacturing market. The<br />

company’s move to support the 3D market comprehensively is based on a three pronged approach. It includes the introduction<br />

of an entirely new series of Ingeo grades designed specifically for PLA filament for the 3D printing market; a full suite<br />

of technical support services for the additive manufacturing industry’s leading 3D printer and filament producers; and the<br />

creation of an in-house print lab, enabling the company to rapidly test new Ingeo formulations and collaborate with printer and<br />

filament producers.<br />

For the past 18 months, NatureWorks has engaged directly with 3D filament suppliers, printer manufacturers, and print<br />

operators to obtain first hand feedback on the needs of the 3D printing market. “3D printing has the rapid pace of innovation,<br />

development, and change that is normal to a new and still nascent market,” said Dan Sawyer, Global Leader, New Business<br />

Segment, NatureWorks. “Many new suppliers are entering the PLA filament market, while a breadth of experienced suppliers<br />

large and small are formulating and compounding to provide additional filament properties and options. That’s the sort of<br />

innovation that NatureWorks is aggressively moving to support and amplify with our new broad-based initiative.” With the<br />

launch of its initiative, NatureWorks is immediately offering the first grade in its new Ingeo 3D series. Denoted Ingeo 3D850,<br />

this base 3D grade takes advantage of the latest Ingeo polymer chemistries to provide a good overall balance of processability<br />

in filament production, filament consistency, and print quality. It is also designed to provide optimum performance for those<br />

looking to enhance the properties of PLA through further formulation and compounding to extend part properties beyond what<br />

base PLA grades provide.<br />

“What we learned from our market engagement,” said Sawyer, “is that a large segment of the market prefers to print with<br />

PLA and would like to replace petroleum-based ABS if PLA can rival the other material’s heat resistance and the toughness<br />

of finished parts.” To enable this substitution, NatureWorks has been working on the next offering in its new Ingeo 3D series<br />

with extended-property-range Ingeo 3D resin formulations. PLA filament produced from new higher heat and toughness Ingeo<br />

formulations are now being tested in NatureWorks’ newly established in-house print lab, with market introduction targeted for<br />

later in the year.<br />

NatureWorks has developed a full suite of filament melt processing guides, technical data sheets, and other technical<br />

service resources for printer manufacturers and filament producers. Furthermore, NatureWorks personnel are developing<br />

close working relationships with key regional suppliers. For those interested in purchasing Ingeo based PLA filament, the<br />

company has produced the NatureWorks 3D Suppliers Guide, which is now available for download.<br />

The new NatureWorks 3D printing lab employs multiple printers for assessing the performance<br />

and quality of new Ingeo formulations, both in printer operation and in the final printed part. This<br />

lab shortens time to market for new Ingeo grades in the 3D series and aids collaboration with<br />

printer and filament producers.<br />

Downloadlink<br />

http://bit.ly/1PNzYwa<br />

www.natureworksllc.com.<br />

6 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

News<br />

Bio-On and Pizzoli collaborate to build potato<br />

waste-based PHA plant<br />

Bio-on S.p.A. (San Giorgio di Piano, Italy) and Pizzoli S.p.A. (Bologna, Italy) Italian potato processor will collaborate to build<br />

Italy‘s first PHAs bioplastic production plant using waste product from the potato agro-industrial process.<br />

The collaboration, signed by the two companies in March, arises from Bio-on‘s laboratory research and Pizzoli‘s experience<br />

in potato transformation, and aims to build a plant producing 2,000 tonnes/year of PHAs, expanding to 4,000 tonnes/year in the<br />

future.<br />

“It‘s a big step forward in the world of bioplastics,“ explains Marco Astorri, Chairman of Bio-on, “because it demonstrates<br />

how waste can be converted into raw material, teaming concepts such as biodegradability and eco-sustainability with technically<br />

advanced plastics. This collaboration represents an important factor in the affirmation of PHA in the latest-generation<br />

plastics market.“<br />

“The path undertaken,“ says Nicola Pizzoli, Chairman of Pizzoli, “is part of an innovative industrial project aiming to improve<br />

and optimise potato processing technology, by transforming the by-products and waste into innovative products that will become<br />

new-generation plastics.“<br />

Following an initial study phase to optimise the integration with existing structures and check economic compatibility, the<br />

project is set to be completed within approximately two years. The new plants will start production in 2017.<br />

“We will begin with a 220,000 Euro investment for the feasibility study,“explains Pizzoli, “but the real challenge will lie with<br />

future investments in an integrated industrial facility, serving the food sector and with zero environmental impact.“<br />

“The collaboration between Bio-on and Pizzoli adds a new ingredient to the construction of the Italian green chemical industry,“<br />

says Astorri, “and it also enables us to broaden the number of raw materials from which PHAs can be made using Bio-on<br />

technology. Our bioplastic can already be produced from sugar beet and sugar cane production waste.“ MT<br />

www.bio-on.it – www.pizzoli.it<br />

Wageningen UR presents<br />

Biobased Packaging Catalogue<br />

The very first edition of the new Biobased Packaging catalogue, compiled by Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research on<br />

request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, has recently been translated into English and is now available for download.<br />

The catalogue offers a comprehensive overview of the various types of biobased packaging that are currently available on<br />

the market, including their current and potential applications. The idea behind the catalogue, which was put together in collaboration<br />

with a number of producers of biobased materials and packaging, was to boost the use of sustainable and biobased<br />

packaging by offering a clear review of the options and possibilities for commercial application.<br />

Interesting advantages of biobased plastics<br />

The most successful applications are those in which the specific properties and advantages of the biobased plastics are<br />

taken advantage of. Biobased plastic packaging often offers enhanced breathing properties, ensuring that fresh products such<br />

as lettuce or bread stay fresher, longer. A number of these plastics are naturally anti-static, which means that fewer additives<br />

are needed compared to conventional plastics. Compostable plastics are not required to be separately disposed of but can be<br />

disposed of together with the other organic household waste.<br />

The new catalogue is intended for buyers, users and producers of packaging materials,<br />

as well as for policy officers at public organizations.<br />

www.wageningenur.nl/<br />

Downloadlink<br />

http://bit.ly/1dxTiMZ<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 7

Events<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE presents:<br />

bio!CAR, the new international conference on biobased materials in automotive<br />

engineering will debut at the Exhibition Centre Stuttgart on 24 and 25 September<br />

as part of COMPOSITES EUROPE <strong>2015</strong>. The conference will be organised jointly<br />

by bioplastics MAGAZINE and the nova-Institut in cooperation with trade fair organiser<br />

Reed Exhibitions and is supported by the German Federation for Reinforced<br />

Plastics (AVK) as well as the German FNR (Agency for Renewable Resources).<br />

Conference on Biobased<br />

Materials for Automotive<br />

Applications<br />

24-25 sep. <strong>2015</strong><br />

The bio!CAR conference is aimed at reflecting the trend towards using biobased<br />

polymers and natural fibres in the automotive industry: more and more manufacturers and suppliers are betting on biobased<br />

alternatives derived from renewable raw materials such as wood, cotton, flax, jute or coir, all of which are being deployed as<br />

composites in the interior trims of high-quality doors and dashboards. According to the Hürth/Germany based nova-Institut,<br />

the European car industry most recently (2012) processed approximately 80,000 tonnes of wood and natural fibres into composites.<br />

The total volume of biobased composites in automotive engineering was 150,000 tonnes.<br />

Bioplastics are equally useful for premium applications in the automotive sector. Biobased polyamides from castor oil are used<br />

in high-performance components, PLA in door panels, soy-based foams in seat cushions and arm rests, and biobased epoxy<br />

resins in composites. In May, the nova-Institut published an updated market study on biobased polymers and their worldwide<br />

deployment (http://bio-based.eu/markets/#top).<br />

At bio!CAR, experts from all segments touching on biobased materials will present lectures on their latest developments.<br />

Among other materials, the portfolio will include conventional plastics filled or reinforced with sophisticated natural-fibre<br />

products as well as biobased, so called drop-in bioplastics, such as castor oil-based polyamides or polyolefins from sugar<br />

cane-based bioethanol. Novel bioplastics such as PLA or PTT will also be featured, as will thermoset resins from renewable<br />

resources and biobased alternatives for rubber and elastomers<br />

.<br />

www.bio-car.info<br />

Programme - bio!CAR: Conference on Biobased Materials in Automotive Engineering<br />

Christian Bonten IKT, Uni Stuttgart Keynote: Actual plastic innovations to meet current requirements and<br />

demands for the modern automotive industry.<br />

Ralf Kindervater BioPro Baden Württemberg The impact of biobased materials in the bioeconomy of tomorrow:<br />

mouse or elephant ?<br />

Michael Carus nova-Institut Biocomposites in the automotive industry, markets and environment<br />

Elmar Witten AVK Trends and developments in the composites market<br />

Maira Magnani Ford Motor Company Filling the (technology) gaps to promote the use of bio-based materials:<br />

Ford Motor Company’s example<br />

Mona Duhme Fraunhofer UMSICHT Review of ECOplast project: Research in new biomass-based<br />

composites from renewable resources with improved properties for<br />

vehicle parts moulding<br />

Hans-Jörg Gusovius Leibniz-Institute f. Agric. Eng. Novel whole-crop raw materials for automotive applications<br />

Francesca Brunori Röchling PLA compounds for automotive applications<br />

Hans-Josef Endres Inst. f. Bioplastics & Biocomp. Biobased hybrid structures for automotive applications<br />

Sangeetha Ramaswamy<br />

Institut für Textiltechnik Aachen Systematic integration of bio-materials in automotive Interiors<br />

Gareth Davies Composites Evolution Hybrid carbon-biocomposite automotive structures with reduced<br />

weight, cost, NVH and environmental impact<br />

François Vanfleteren Lineo A sandwich panel reinforced with flax fibers for the automotive industry<br />

Marc Mézailles PolyOne Lightweighting, performance and sustainability:<br />

A new material breaks the paradigm<br />

Nicolas Dufaure Arkema A long-term innovation to offer the widest range of biobased polyamides<br />

Andreas Weinmann and Anna Hoiss DSM Capturing the performance of green<br />

Lars Ziegler Tecnaro Bio-based Thermoplastic Compounds and Composites<br />

Christian Fischer Bcomp Save weight and cost with powerRibs in interior and exterior<br />

Luisa Medina and Florian Gortner<br />

Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe<br />

Univ. Kaiserslautern<br />

Development of a new test tool to measure emissions and odors from<br />

optimized NF composites<br />

Hans Hoydonckx TransFurans Chemicals Use of Polyfurfuryl Alcohol as renewable matrix in fibre reinforced products<br />

Thibaud Caulier Solvay Epicerol Biobased epichlorohydrin - A biobased building block to reduce the<br />

environmental footprint of the automotive industry<br />

Stefano Facco Novamont Renewable oils, esters and fillers for rubber compounding<br />

A concrete time table will follow soon. Visit www.bio-car.info for updates<br />

8 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

io CAR<br />


Early Bird Price<br />

EUR 799<br />

(save € 100 until June 30, <strong>2015</strong>)<br />

biobased materials for<br />

automotive applications<br />

conference<br />

24.-25. September <strong>2015</strong><br />

Stuttgart<br />

» The amount of plastics in modern cars is constantly increasing.<br />

» Plastics and composites help achieving light-weighting targets.<br />

» Plastics offer enormous design opportunities.<br />

» Plastics are important for the touch-and-feel and the safety of cars.<br />

BUT:<br />

consumers, suppliers in the automotive industry and OEMs are more and more looking for biobased<br />

alternatives to petroleum based materials.<br />

That‘s why bioplastics MAGAZINE is organizing this new conference on biobased materials for<br />

the automotive industry.<br />

co-orgnized by<br />

in cooperation with<br />

www.bio-car.info<br />

supported by<br />

VK<br />

Media Partner

Events<br />

First bio!PAC event<br />

deemed great success<br />

By Karen Laird<br />

New biobased packaging conference fills a need, say key<br />

stakeholders at bio!PAC<br />

As the newest kid on the block as far as packaging and<br />

bioplastics events are concerned, bio!PAC, the new conference<br />

on biobased packaging held on 12 – 13 May at Novotel in<br />

Amsterdam, the Netherlands, had something to prove. Jointly<br />

organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE and Biobased Packaging<br />

Innovations, the conference aimed to provide both a showcase<br />

for bio-packaging technology and a forum for industry<br />

stakeholders to meet and learn about the opportunities and<br />

developments in this area. Attendees and speakers at the<br />

event unanimously agreed: bio!PAC more than lived up to its<br />

billing in both respects.<br />

“The importance of an event like this cannot be overstated,”<br />

said Francois de Bie, chairman of European Bioplastics and<br />

bioplastics Marketing Director at Corbion, who both attended<br />

and spoke at the conference. “Biobased packaging is a young<br />

field, and there is a lot of ignorance and confusion about what<br />

it really is, and what it can do. Events like this can help get<br />

the message out by providing clear information, opening up<br />

discussion and by demonstrating the capabilities of biobased<br />

packaging.”<br />

The some 24 speakers at the conference addressed topics<br />

ranging from new materials and new applications to the need<br />

for a biobased carbon standard, presenting breakthroughs and<br />

offering updates on the latest developments. Presentations<br />

were held not only by major players in the industry, such as<br />

BASF, Innovia Films, NatureWorks and TetraPak but also by<br />

a number of lesser-known companies, whose innovations are<br />

helping to provide momentum to the field.<br />

A good example was Arjan Klapwijk of Bio4Life, a Dutch<br />

manufacturer of biobased adhesives and labels, whose<br />

presentation about his company’s development of an EN<br />

certified solution for fruit labeling created an awareness<br />

for a problem most of the attendees had never considered.<br />

“Conventional PE adhesive fruit labels end up with the<br />

peelings in the compost bin, and are a huge problem at<br />

industrial composting facilities. Compostable labels coated<br />

with a biodegradable adhesive offer a simple, highly effective<br />

solution,” he concluded.<br />

One important discussion point throughout the conference<br />

concerned the ongoing shift in emphasis regarding biobased<br />

packaging materials: from a focus on the end of life to<br />

an increasing interest in the beginning of life. As a result,<br />

biodegradability is no longer the sole property associated<br />

with biobased materials. Now, renewably sourced, durable<br />

materials are gaining in importance, a development that<br />

has been fueled by the development of drop-ins such as<br />

bio-PET and bio-PE, engineered bioplastic compounds and<br />

barrier constructions enabling the design of sophisticated<br />

packaging. Erik Lindroth, of TetraPak, presented the example<br />

of the 100 % biobased beverage carton developed by TetraPak,<br />

which is currently being rolled out in Europe. “We have to ask<br />

ourselves: where does the material come from,” he said,<br />

adding that TetraPak was participating in a project called<br />

“Locally grown bioplastics” aimed at developing sustainable<br />

local feedstock sources for bioplastics. “Results are expected<br />

within 3 to 5 years,” he said.<br />

Technology challenges are not the only issues in the<br />

biobased packaging industry. “Between 70 and 80 % of the<br />

bioplastics market today is packaging”, said Francois de Bie<br />

in his presentation. “Why is that? I think because bioplastics<br />

have been embraced by both the big brands and by small<br />

innovative companies,” he said. “Using bioplastics supports<br />

the image of the brand.”<br />

But what about the premiums on biobased materials?<br />

Are customers prepared to pay more for environmentally<br />

responsible packaging? As numerous participants pointed<br />

out, the challenge for brand owners now is how to leverage<br />

the use of biobased packaging, not only to satisfy consumer<br />

demand for responsible packaging and to build customer<br />

relationships, but also to drive profits.<br />

Next to bringing new insights and ideas, the bio!PAC<br />

conference also showed that opportunities abound for<br />

biobased packaging now and in the future. To continue the<br />

discussion, participants, packaging experts and other industry<br />

stakeholders are cordially invited to join bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

for the second edition of bio!PAC, which is now planned for the<br />

spring of 2017. The organizers are looking forward to seeing<br />

you there!<br />

www.bio-pac.info<br />

Panel discussion on “Land use for biobased materials”<br />

10 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

io PAC says<br />

THANK YOU...<br />

...to all of the attendees, sponsors, and speakers<br />

who participated in bio!pac <strong>2015</strong><br />

www.bio-pac.info<br />

Sponsors<br />

Media Partner<br />

supported by<br />

in cooperation with<br />


Cover-Story<br />

Lovechock<br />

Chocolate with love – wrapped in Natureflex<br />

With her presentation at bio!PAC in Amsterdam on<br />

the 12 th of May, Laura de Nooijer impressed many<br />

of the attendees. That’s why we share her story<br />

with our readers here.<br />

Lovechock is born out of Love. Love for excellent raw<br />

chocolate that opens the heart and uplifts the soul. As the<br />

Maya’s already knew, chocolate is something very sacred<br />

and Lovechock wants to bring people back to this essence.<br />

Lovechock as a brand was started by Laura de Nooijer in<br />

Amsterdam, The Netherlands in 2008. At that time she had<br />

her first mind-altering sacred medicine drink in a ritual<br />

and became very inspired by the wisdom of nature. She<br />

then decided that her study Psychology was quite boring<br />

compared to all the bright visuals released by those magic<br />

plants. She quitted her studies and started on a shamanic<br />

path in Brazil involving sacred medicine plants. She met<br />

David Wolfe, a USA raw food expert and was impressed<br />

by his healthy, shiny aura. From him she learned about<br />

the raw cacao bean. One can actually eat the raw cacao<br />

bean, because it is full of antioxidants and lovechemicals,<br />

goodies that make you feel happy and loving. The<br />

antioxidants in chocolate widen the blood vessels and<br />

improve overall cardio vascular function. Together with<br />

some friends Laura started the Chocolateclub, monthly<br />

dance parties all involving the intake of raw chocolate<br />

smoothies, consisting of raw cacao beans, bananas,<br />

coconut oil and other superfoods. Those parties were<br />

full of excitement, laughter and joy. Nevertheless Laura<br />

was missing the real bite of a crisp chocolate bar, so she<br />

started to order raw chocolate bars from the USA. Those<br />

bars were expensive, so she decided to make them herself.<br />

She saw her chocolate make so many people happy with<br />

Laura de Nooijer: “Our product has so many<br />

great angles to shed light on, but our main<br />

proposition is love. This is great as it is<br />

inherent to the product.”<br />

a big smile and seized the opportunity to write a business<br />

plan. In September 2009 the launch of the first Lovechock<br />

bars were a fact. Every day she was in the kitchen and the<br />

maximum of bars she could produce was 1000 a day. After<br />

1.5 years the small bakery kitchen capacity became too<br />

small and the whole enterprise moved to a social working<br />

place, where the bars were produced from that moment<br />

on.<br />

The growth of this business was a wobbly road, as<br />

chocolate making is a real art and cacao one of the<br />

most complex food commodities on the planet to work<br />

with. More and more people got involved and sales went<br />

up. Turnover doubled every year and Lovechock rapidly<br />

expanded into Germany, Austria and Switzerland.<br />

What is the success behind Lovechock ?<br />

Mainly it is the chocolate itself which is made of high<br />

quality Arriba Nacional cacao, high quality coconut<br />

blossom sugar and other superfoods. The bars of<br />

Lovechock are always full of whole pieces of fruit and nuts,<br />

which deliver the extra chew and make it unique.<br />

Being the first serious raw chocolate company in the<br />

Netherlands, Lovechock seized the opportunity to be the<br />

first mover in lots of places.<br />

The chocolate is wrapped in 100 % renewable<br />

and compostable Natureflex film<br />

12 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Cover-Story<br />

Besides the great chocolate it’s the great packaging<br />

that gives the real kick to the product. Working closely<br />

together with Prouddesign an identity and packaging<br />

for a chocolate was created that works. And one that<br />

is distinctive from the luxury brands that are out there.<br />

The concept is “Raw from the outside and Wow from the<br />

inside”. So this means an honest, eco, natural look on the<br />

outside and a world of happiness and joy on the inside (full<br />

color print on the inside of the wrapper). This is also the<br />

actual experience of raw chocolate. It is less processed<br />

chocolate, therefore a little more rough, gritty and chewy<br />

to eat, but once you eat it, a rich palette of fine flavors<br />

unfolds plus the celebrative effect of the lovechemicals<br />

(tryptophan, dopamine, PEA).<br />

What is the story behind the design ?<br />

Lovechock started with the chocolate covered in<br />

aluminum foil packed in a carton wrapper, held together<br />

by plastic, rubber look-a-like, bands. — handwrapped.<br />

Eventually the detrimental effects of aluminum on the<br />

environment and even the migration of aluminum to the<br />

chocolate became clear.<br />

Also the aluminum was looking luxurious, but a bit<br />

kitschy as well. So Lovechock looked into bioplastics and<br />

came across Innovia Films and their home compostable<br />

foil Natureflex. It is made from sustainably planted<br />

eucalyptus wood. At first a bit hesitating they were afraid<br />

that the permeability would age the chocolate more<br />

quickly, but there was already another chocolate brand<br />

that used this foil successfully. At the same time the<br />

plastic bands were replaced by a little tab on the wrapper<br />

that makes the wrapper reclosable.<br />

The result proved to be a good choice; the chocolate<br />

looks very tasty in the transparent packaging and<br />

Lovechock posted the whole eco make-over on social<br />

media.<br />

Another good news was that Innovia is still working to<br />

reduce the carbon footprint of the foil, by optimizing their<br />

production efficiency. Laura is very happy not to use fossil<br />

sources, but sustainably planted eucalyptus trees.<br />

Besides the foil, Lovechock created the wrapper<br />

in a way to make sure all the carton is PEFC certified,<br />

printed with organic ink. Also the labels (From the only<br />

certified company in Holland Autajon) are completely<br />

biodegradable as even the pigments in the ink are nonfossil<br />

fuel based.<br />

In terms of sustainability overall Lovechock is on their<br />

way but there is always things to improve. Of course is<br />

happy about the fact that by not using harmful pesticides<br />

they also not further damage the earth. They started as<br />

an organic company as a start so that is nice as they add<br />

more high quality chocolate choice in the organic store. “It<br />

is great that we pursue sustainable packaging but in total<br />

we still leave a carbon footprint on the earth”, says Laura<br />

da Nooijer, “we looked at different angles of sustainability<br />

and decided to focus first on social responsibility the<br />

coming years and focus then more on our planetary<br />

responsibility.”<br />

And she adds: “Our product has so many great angles<br />

to shed light on, but our main proposition is love. This is<br />

great as it is inherent to the product.” MT<br />

Inside view of the paper wrapper<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 13

Injection Moulding<br />

From beach toy to<br />

100 % bio-degradable<br />

Cradle to Cradle Islands project<br />

By:<br />

Sebastian Thomsen<br />

Senior Business Development Manager<br />

BIO-FED, branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH<br />

Cologne, Germany<br />

As part of a European Union support programme,<br />

22 partners from 6 different countries took part in<br />

the Cradle to Cradle Islands project, with the aim of<br />

making a contribution to sustainable development of the<br />

biosphere on the islands of the North Sea region.<br />

During this project, the islands became laboratories<br />

and testing grounds for sustainable innovations.<br />

In cooperation with the Dutch engineering firm Pezy<br />

(Eindhoven/Groningen) and the EPEA (Environmental<br />

Protection Encouragement Agency), 25 actual product<br />

concepts for innovative tourism products were developed<br />

based on the Cradle-to-Cradle philosophy. These product<br />

concepts were designed to help maintain the beauty and<br />

cleanliness of the North Sea islands.<br />

By promoting economic activity in the region in a<br />

sustainable, healthy and creative manner, they are also<br />

having a positive impact on inhabitants and visitors to the<br />

islands.<br />

Beach toy<br />

One of the 25 concepts was based on the fact that every<br />

year, many children’s toys are lost or left behind and end<br />

up in the sea, where they contribute to the pollution of<br />

the shoreline and the oceans. To solve this problem, the<br />

Superscoop was developed. The Superscoop, a multifunctional<br />

beach toy used for shovelling and carrying sand<br />

or water, makes playing at the beach even more fun for<br />

small children. The appropriate, child-friendly frog-shaped<br />

design and ergonomic details were developed for children<br />

aged three to six years old.<br />

Biological or technical metabolism<br />

The Cradle-to-Cradle principles were taken into account<br />

during all phases of development. Special care had to<br />

be taken particularly when selecting the materials to be<br />

used, since products which satisfy the requirements of the<br />

philosophy must be fully recyclable and/or biodegradable in<br />

soil, ideally in sea water, or in an industrial composting facility.<br />

Should the Superscoop happen to land in the ocean, it will bio-degrade.<br />

14 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Injection Moulding<br />

To determine which end-of-life scenario is best suited for this product, the<br />

life cycle of existing shovels and buckets was first examined. Rather than<br />

being disposed of properly at the end of their life cycle, it seems that many of<br />

these toys unintentionally went missing instead. It is therefore to be expected<br />

that the Superscoop will also frequently find its way into the maritime ecosystem.<br />

For this reason, industrial composting was ruled out, and the focus<br />

turned to an eco-friendly material with the potential to bio-degrade in sea<br />

water.<br />

Development process<br />

During development, the child-friendly frog design was first realised as an<br />

injection-mouldable concept. Bright colors or imprints are typically used for<br />

this type of toy to enhance a child’s playing pleasure and improve its easeof-identification.<br />

From the Cradle-to-Cradle perspective, however, this would<br />

require the use of 100 % innocuous pigments and materials. Both for humans<br />

and the ocean. Taking into consideration all of the desired properties in terms<br />

of texture and shape, this presented the biggest problem.<br />

Material<br />

During the entire development process, the Dutch engineering firm Pezy<br />

Product Innovation worked together with the Portuguese injection-moulder<br />

Moldes RP (Marinha Grande).<br />

Rui Pinho, Managing Director of Moldes RP, was thrilled with this project<br />

from the very start and decided to invest in the mould. Tests were conducted<br />

with this mould using various materials which were designed to be biodegradable<br />

and manufactured from renewable resources, and which met<br />

mandatory safety standards for use in children’s toys. The component had<br />

to have a certain stability when handled by children and an appropriately<br />

long durability, whilst also decomposing relatively quickly if it ended up in the<br />

ocean.<br />

The choice ultimately fell upon a biopolyester blend, mvera ® GP1001 from<br />

BIO-FED (a branch of AKRO-PLASTIC GmbH). This variant of the blend is<br />

in fact produced from fossil resources. The matrix polymer, however, is biodegradable<br />

wherever bacteria exist (e. g. in soil, and potentially in the ocean)<br />

and does not require high temperatures for decomposition as are present<br />

only in industrial composting facilities. Moreover, all monomers today could<br />

already be produced as bio-based materials in principle. And the pigments<br />

used in this product are entirely free of ecologically harmful substances. The<br />

masterbatch from Akro-Plastic GmbH branch AF-COLOR used to color the<br />

Superscoop contains only components which comply with the current DIN<br />

EN 13432 standard.<br />

These components have successfully passed both the Cress test and the<br />

Barley Plant test and have received the corresponding Vinçotte certification.<br />

Partnership<br />

Biopolymers, irrespective of which variant, either (partially) bio-based and/<br />

or bio-degradable, cannot typically serve as simple substitution products.<br />

Owing to the complexity of this matter, purchasing departments alone<br />

cannot adequately provide the selection of materials for what are frequently<br />

designated sustainable or green products. Experience has shown that<br />

product developments using biopolymers are most successful when project<br />

teams from across the supply chain (from the customer to the raw-material<br />

supplier) and involving various departments (Purchasing, Engineering, and<br />

Sales, in particular) work together to come up with solutions. This was the<br />

approach pursued by the Dutch service provider Pezy Product Innovation,<br />

an expert in the design of innovative product solutions. Thanks to this<br />

work performed in multidisciplinary teams and the successful cooperation<br />

with EPEA (sustainability consulting), Moldes RP (mould construction and<br />

injection moulding) and BIO-FED (bioplastic producer), this product is now<br />

ready for volume production.<br />

www.bio-fed.com<br />

www.pezy.nl<br />

The Superscoop is also stackable.<br />

The Cradle-to-Cradle ® concept refers<br />

to a type of cyclical resource utilization in<br />

which production processes are aimed<br />

at the preservation of added value. Like<br />

the nutrient cycle in nature, in which<br />

waste from one organism is used by<br />

another, material flows in production<br />

are planned such that waste and the<br />

inefficient use of energy are avoided.<br />

The Cradle-to-Cradle concept was<br />

developed in 2002 by Michael Braungart<br />

and William McDonough. The concept is<br />

based on a term introduced in the 1970s<br />

by the Swiss corporate and political<br />

consultant Walter R. Stahel.<br />

Just as in nature, Cradle to Cradle<br />

has no limitations, nothing is wasted<br />

and nothing is relinquished. Through<br />

the use of biological and technical<br />

nutrient cycles, the right materials are<br />

used in the right place, at the right time.<br />

And the final result is always improved<br />

quality.<br />

The Cradle-to-Cradle production<br />

method directly opposes the Cradle-to-<br />

Grave model, in which material flows<br />

are frequently established without<br />

consideration of resource conservation.<br />

Rather than minimising linear material<br />

flows in today’s products and production<br />

methods, the Cradle-to-Cradle design<br />

concept transforms these into cyclical<br />

nutrient cycles, meaning that once<br />

values are added, they are preserved<br />

for people and the environment. The<br />

Cradle-to-Cradle design concept is<br />

based on three basic principles:<br />

• Waste as nutrients<br />

• Use of renewable energy<br />

• Promotion of diversity<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 15

Injection Moulding<br />

New PLA formulations<br />

to replace ABS<br />

NatureWorks (Minnetonka, Minnesota, USA) announced<br />

in late April the availability of new ABS<br />

replacement formulations that clearly demonstrate<br />

PLA based Ingeo resins have evolved into a practical and<br />

safe alternative for a broad range of styrenics in terms of<br />

performance, price, and eco profile.<br />

Three new formulated Ingeo injection molding offerings<br />

built on NatureWorks’ heat-stable technology platform<br />

offer a range of impact and modulus performance features<br />

in tandem with excellent chemical resistance. Two<br />

formulations offer medium and high impact performance<br />

with high bio content, making them ideal for injection<br />

molding applications – particularly those currently utilizing<br />

ABS. Additionally, a high modulus Ingeo formulation for<br />

profile extrusion applications maintains excellent impact<br />

performance and, just as with the injection molding<br />

offerings, this formulation’s high stiffness (up to 50 %<br />

higher flex modulus vs. ABS) offers opportunities for<br />

downgauging and materials savings.<br />

“Our new Ingeo formulations take factors like thermal<br />

performance as a given and move beyond that to offer a<br />

comprehensive suite of properties, which in some cases<br />

exceed ABS,” said Frank Diodato, who leads NatureWorks<br />

Durables Business platform. “Compared to ABS, these<br />

Ingeo formulations also offer significantly improved<br />

resistance to many common household chemicals –<br />

including spray and wipe cleaning agents, oils, and<br />

common personal care products such as nail polish<br />

remover, sunscreen and hand sanitizer.<br />

Diodato explained that unlike legacy polymer blend<br />

approaches that often alloyed or compounded PLA with a<br />

petroleum-based polymer to achieve requisite properties,<br />

although at a reduced biobased content, these new<br />

Ingeo formulations derive their functionality from the<br />

crystallization enabled by combining NatureWorks’ newly<br />

commercialized polymer chemistries. The resulting Ingeo<br />

formulation has a renewably sourced carbon content of<br />

approximately 90 %.<br />

The new Ingeo grades possess significantly faster<br />

crystallization kinetics than conventional PLA resins<br />

currently in the market place. The rapid crystallization<br />

rate leads to high heat distortion temperatures of up to<br />

92 °C (HDT B @ 0.46 MPa). The fast crystallization also<br />

allows for the molding of crystalline parts at significantly<br />

faster cycle times than legacy products in the market.<br />

Excellent chemical resistance vs. ABS<br />

ESCR performance<br />

Solvent/chemical<br />

Ingeo medium impact formulation<br />

(884-41-1)<br />

Ingeo high impact<br />

formulation (884-41-2)<br />

1 hour 24 hours 96 hours 1 hour 24 hours 96 hours 1 hour 24 hours 96 hours<br />

ABS<br />

None<br />

Distilled vinegar<br />

(5 % acidity)<br />

Isopropanol<br />

Ajax spray &<br />

wipe cleaner<br />

Dawn liquid<br />

dish soap<br />

Bertolli extra<br />

virgin olive oil<br />

Unsalted butter<br />

Based on ASTM D543-06 standard practices for evaluating the<br />

resistance of plastics to chemical reagents. Tested under 1 % strain<br />

Excellent<br />

Very good<br />

Good<br />

Fair<br />

Poor<br />

Not tested<br />

16 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Injection Moulding<br />

Chemical resistance<br />

“An important step in development of the new<br />

formulations,” said Diodato, “was to begin to understand<br />

how Ingeo components used for consumer products would<br />

perform when exposed to common household chemicals.”<br />

The company began a focused series of Environmental<br />

Stress Crack Resistance (ESCR) tests comparing Ingeo<br />

PLA to ABS. Rather than picking from a standard laundry<br />

list of industrial solvents – irrelevant for the non-industrial<br />

markets targeted by these grades – NatureWorks used a<br />

range of common household chemicals, those typically of<br />

interest to brands in its targeted markets. The tests were<br />

based on ASTM D543-06 standard practices for evaluating<br />

the resistance of plastics to chemical reagents. Test parts<br />

were put under 1 % strain.<br />

Ingeo medium and high impact formulations and ABS<br />

were evaluated at intervals of one hour, 24 hours, and 96<br />

hours. Solvents and chemicals used in the tests included:<br />

• Distilled vinegar (five percent acidity)<br />

• Isopropanol<br />

• AJAX spray and wipe cleaner<br />

• Dawn liquid soap<br />

• Bertolli extra virgin olive oil<br />

• Unsalted butter<br />

Both Ingeo and ABS had excellent resistance to distilled<br />

vinegar. For Ajax spray, Ingeo was rated excellent at alltime<br />

intervals, while ABS was rated as poor after 96 hours.<br />

For olive oil and butter, Ingeo achieved an excellent rating<br />

at all-time intervals while ABS was rated poor at both 24<br />

and 96 hours. For isopropanol, Ingeo was rated good to<br />

very good. For dish soap, Ingeo was rated very good to<br />

excellent. ABS was not yet tested for either isopropanol<br />

or dish soap.<br />

In a further series of independent tests performed by<br />

Nypro, a Jabil Company, the chemical resistance of Ingeo<br />

and ABS was assessed using a method designed to test<br />

how plastics used in consumer electronics stand up to<br />

commonly carried items such as hand cream, sunblock,<br />

insect repellent, acetone (nail polish), and isopropyl<br />

alcohol (hand sanitizer). Ingeo passed each test. ABS<br />

failed to pass two tests – insect repellent and nail polish.<br />

After the consumer products chemical resistance<br />

tests, NatureWorks calculated that if 500,000 mobile<br />

phones were molded from Ingeo instead of from ABS the<br />

non-renewable energy saved would be equivalent to 750<br />

gallons (2,893 l) of gasoline. The reduction in greenhouse<br />

gas emissions would be significant: a savings equivalent<br />

to a car driven for 22,000 miles with no emissions. MT<br />

www.natureworksllc.com<br />

Simulating the chemical resistance of plastics used in consumer<br />

electronics (Testing performed by Nypro, a Jabil Company)<br />

Chemical Ingeo ABS<br />

Hand cream Pass Pass<br />

Sunblock Pass Pass<br />

Insect repellant Pass Fail<br />

Acetone (nail polish) Pass Fail<br />

Isopropyl alcohol (hand sanitizer) Pass Pass<br />

PLA<br />

Injection<br />

Moulding<br />

grades<br />

ABS<br />

Ingeo injection moulding formulation<br />

Medium impact<br />

(884-41-1)<br />

High impact (884-<br />

41-2)<br />

Ingeo profile<br />

extrusion<br />

formulation<br />

High modulus (821-<br />

56-2)<br />

Bio content (%) 100 0 89 88 76<br />

Specific gravity (g/m 3 ) 1.24 1.04 1.22 1.21 1.24<br />

Specular gloss 60° 125 89 72 73 77<br />

Specular gloss 20° 112 68 48 47 56<br />

Tensile modulus (Mpa) 3,400 2,316 2,850 2,850 3,125<br />

Tensile yield strength (Mpa) 64 39 37 38 33<br />

Tensile elongation at break (%) 3.6 5.5 32 21 38<br />

Notched Izod impact (J/m) 21 277 139 443 352<br />

Flexural strength (Mpa) 113 68 66 65 59<br />

Flexural modulus (Mpa) 3,640 2,381 3,140 3,100 3,550<br />

Heat distortion (HDT B @ 0,46 MPa) 55 87 92 77 85<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 17

Injection Moulding<br />

Bioplastics injection moulding<br />

Closing the knowledge gap in bioplastics<br />

injection moulding operations<br />

Bioplastics – sustainability top, processing capabilities<br />

flop. Numerous companies, upon deciding to substitute<br />

bioplastics for petrobased plastics, have had to face up<br />

to this or similar conclusions.<br />

This is deplorable, especially since bioplastics are usually<br />

in no way inferior to their petrochemical counterparts and in<br />

addition may bring to bear new and interesting properties. Yet,<br />

unresolved processing problems as well as higher prices paid<br />

for the raw materials until now have prevented widespread<br />

industrial use of bioplastics. The price is truly an impediment,<br />

mainly due to the hitherto significantly smaller production<br />

volumes. Processing problems, however, can be resolved by<br />

adapting the processing technology. Such problems often<br />

arise because of insufficient material data sheets and/or<br />

the absence of technical services to support the process<br />

adjustments necessary for producing high-quality parts from<br />

bioplastics.<br />

This is the background for a project undertaken by a<br />

research alliance as part of a larger programme funded by<br />

the German Federal Ministry of Nutrition and Agriculture<br />

(BMEL) and supported by the Agency for Renewable<br />

Resources (FNR), entitled “Processing of Biobased Plastics<br />

and Establishment of a Competence Network within the FNR<br />

Biopolymer Network”. This collaborative project takes on<br />

all processing technologies currently employed for plastic<br />

materials (injection moulding, extrusion, fibre production,<br />

thermoforming, extrusion blow moulding, welding, …) and<br />

examines a wide range of marketable bioplastics with respect<br />

to their process-specific data, most of which have not been<br />

made available yet by the material suppliers. In addition,<br />

small and medium-sized companies are offered technical<br />

support for the processing of bioplastics.<br />

Injection moulding performance of bioplastics<br />

The Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites (IfBB)<br />

within this project has taken on the task to examine injection<br />

moulding performance of bioplastics. Materials selected<br />

for the investigations included two PLA’s (polylactic acids),<br />

a PLLA (Poly-L-Lactide), a biobased PA (polyamide), and a<br />

PBS (polybutylene succinate). To determine the optimum<br />

processing parameters for bioplastics, extensive pre-tests<br />

were run first to identify process-relevant material properties<br />

such as melt viscosity, thermostability, thermal conductivity,<br />

melting point, glass transition temperature, and density.<br />

Plasticising performance<br />

Plasticising the material stands at the beginning of each<br />

moulded parts production cycle. An important factor in this<br />

process is to minimize the time needed to feed and melt the<br />

materials in order to reduce the cycle time and hence the<br />

cost of the moulded parts. In trial runs, the cavity of a test<br />

specimen (Campus type A1 (DIN EN ISO 20753) was used to<br />

produce the moulded parts.<br />

Generally, a plasticising performance here of about<br />

200 cm³/min is a good value, which indicates a stable injection<br />

moulding process. The graph in figure 1 shows several<br />

bioplastics with different melt temperatures to represent the<br />

typical scope in industrial processing. The tests performed<br />

on these bioplastics reveal that, within the appropriate<br />

temperature range, all chosen bioplastics show an adequate<br />

plasticising performance. Typically, for semi-crystalline<br />

materials, an increased melt temperature leads to reduced<br />

viscosity. Consequently, there is higher leakage flow and a<br />

significantly lower plasticising performance, as is evident with<br />

PLA 3251D and PA Vestamid Terra HS 16.<br />

Figure 1: Plasticizing performance of various bioplastics<br />

Figure 2: Melt temperature-related injection pressure<br />

Plasticizing performance (cm 3 /min)<br />

260<br />

240<br />

220<br />

200<br />

180<br />

160<br />

140<br />

120<br />

Ingeo 3251D<br />

Ingeo 6202D<br />

Hisun PLLA<br />

ShowaDenko Bionolle 1020MD<br />

Evonik Vestamid Terra HS16<br />

Injection pressure (bar)<br />

500<br />

450<br />

400<br />

350<br />

300<br />

250<br />

200<br />

150<br />

100<br />

50<br />

Ingeo 3251D<br />

Ingeo 6202D<br />

Hisun PLLA<br />

ShowaDenko Bionolle 1020MD<br />

Evonik Vestamid Terra HS16<br />

100<br />

190<br />

210 230 250 270 290 310<br />

Melt temperature (°C)<br />

0<br />

190<br />

210 230 250 270 290 310<br />

Melt temperature (°C)<br />

18 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Injection Moulding<br />

3.5<br />

3.0<br />

* Static friction (begining of demolding)<br />

** Sliding friction (during the sliding of the mold core)<br />

*** Optical shrinkage measurement: Plate with 500 bar hold pressure, measuring<br />

the longitudinal shrinkage after 16 hours (Plate 150x105x3.0mm)<br />

**** Coefficient of static friction higher than 1 are generally regarded as critical<br />

and often leads to damage to the component<br />

PA 6.10 Evonik Vestamid<br />

Terra HS16<br />

2.0<br />

1.8<br />

1.6<br />

Friction coefficient (-)<br />

2.5<br />

2.0<br />

1.5<br />

**** 1.0<br />

PLA Ingeo 3251D<br />

Static friction coefficient *<br />

Sliding friction coefficient **<br />

Longitudinal shrinkage ***<br />

PLA Ingeo 6202D<br />

Hilsun PLLA<br />

PBS Showa Denko<br />

Bionolle 1020MD<br />

1.84<br />

2.28<br />

1.648<br />

1.4<br />

1.2<br />

1.0<br />

0.8<br />

0.6<br />

Longitudinal shrinkage (%)<br />

0.5<br />

0.76<br />

0.62<br />

0.268<br />

0.69<br />

0.54 0.282<br />

0.66<br />

0.53 0.305<br />

1.32<br />

0.768<br />

1.22<br />

0.4<br />

0.2<br />

0<br />

220 °C<br />

220 °C<br />

Shrinkage<br />

220 °C<br />

220 °C<br />

Shrinkage<br />

220 °C<br />

220 °C<br />

Shrinkage<br />

220 °C<br />

220 °C<br />

Shrinkage<br />

250 °C<br />

250 °C<br />

Shrinkage<br />

0<br />

Melt temperature (°C)<br />

Figure 3: Demoulding forces and material shrinkage<br />

Injection behaviour<br />

The viscosity of the materials in a real processing<br />

environment can be characterized by means of the mouldspecific<br />

injection pressure. This was determined by derivation<br />

from maximum changes in the cavity pressure curve during<br />

the injection phase. As indicated in the graph in figure 2,<br />

Hisun PLLA shows especially high viscosity, comparable to<br />

that of Polycarbonate (PC). The measured viscosity of PLA<br />

Ingeo 6202D is lower in comparison, but still on a high level.<br />

Processing these materials is easily possible however by<br />

raising the melt temperature above 200 °C. Significantly lower<br />

is the injection pressure with the low viscosity types PLA 3251D,<br />

Bio-PA Vestamid Terra HS16 and PBS Bionolle 1020MD. As<br />

expected, all these materials show a reduction of viscosity as<br />

melt temperatures are raised. It is widely assumed that some<br />

bioplastics have a low thermo-mechanical stability range.<br />

However, all biobased materials used in these tests were<br />

showing a normal injection behavior across all processing<br />

temperature ranges. Hence they obviously possess the same<br />

process reliability as petrobased materials.<br />

Demoulding and Shrinkage<br />

After the injected part cools off in the mould, it must be<br />

ejected from the cavity by means of an ejector system. This<br />

requires special ejection forces which consist of the normal<br />

force (material acting on the mould surface, as caused<br />

by material shrinkage when cooling off) multiplied by the<br />

coefficient of static and sliding friction (the forces needed to<br />

keep the material from sticking to the mould, and the forces<br />

needed to maintain steady sliding of the material on the<br />

mould surface). A friction coefficient higher than “1” means<br />

high forces are needed, which may cause problems in the<br />

process and even create damages such as deformations or<br />

distortions to the moulded parts. As shown in figure 3, the<br />

PLA types Ingeo 3251D and 6202D as well as Hisun PLLA<br />

have increased values, but not on a critical level. PBS Bionolle<br />

1020MD and Bio-PA Vestamid Terra HS16 however show<br />

much higher ejection forces, which means that an additional<br />

release agent is recommended with this material. There is<br />

also significant variation in shrinkage. While the PLA types<br />

shrink by about 0,3 % only, there is much more shrinkage for<br />

PBS (about 0,7 %) and Bio-PA (1,6 %). These values have to<br />

be judged as neutral, since petrobased plastics have similar<br />

values. They could cause a problem, however, if the same<br />

mould is used for the biobased material as for the substituted<br />

petrobased one. Given that moulds are designed for specific<br />

material shrinkage rates, shrinkage is an important factor as<br />

well to determine beforehand whether bioplastics can replace<br />

petrobased materials.<br />

Conclusions<br />

Basically, most bioplastics are process-stable. Processing<br />

capabilities of bioplastics have improved significantly in the<br />

past few years. Once all relevant technical data are available,<br />

nothing really can get in the way of substituting bioplastics<br />

for petrobased thermoplastics. Still, processing bioplastics<br />

on existing machinery often turns out difficult due to a lack<br />

of technical data.<br />

Acknowledgement<br />

The authors express their gratitude to the Federal Ministry<br />

of Nutrition and Agriculture (BMEL) for funding this project.<br />

By:<br />

Marco Neudecker<br />

Hans-Josef Endres<br />

Institute for Bioplastics and Biocomposites (IfBB)<br />

University of Applied Sciences and Arts,<br />

Hanover Germany<br />

http://ifbb.wp.hs-hannover.de/verarbeitungsprojekt/<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 19

Injection Moulding<br />

Biodegradable materials<br />

for micro-irrigation systems<br />

FAO results published in the “World agriculture: towards<br />

<strong>2015</strong>/2<strong>03</strong>0” study, show the global increase<br />

of crops irrigated area. The study suggests that the<br />

irrigated area in the 1997 – 1999 period was 202 million<br />

hectares. This figure will rise up to 242 million hectares<br />

by 2<strong>03</strong>0.<br />

Dripping irrigation systems (micro-irrigation systems)<br />

are required due to irrigation growing needs. These<br />

systems allow a more sustainable management of the<br />

water needed for crops maintenance.<br />

Current micro-irrigation pipes, manufactured with<br />

polyethylene, are taken to a recycling plant or incinerated<br />

in situ after use, depending on each country’s legislation.<br />

The amount of plastic waste generated in agriculture<br />

by the EU-27 countries, Norway and Sweden in 2008<br />

was 1.243 million tonnes (Mt). 53.6 % of the total was<br />

thrown away. On the other hand, the remaining 46.4 %<br />

was recovered: 262.000 tonnes (21 %) were mechanically<br />

recycled and 315.000 tonnes (25.3 %) were energetically<br />

recycled. The amount of waste generated by irrigation<br />

pipes and accessories was 200.000 tonnes [1].<br />

One alternative to agricultural plastic waste management<br />

is to use biodegradable plastics. Biodegradable plastics<br />

are for example in use already for mulch films, plant<br />

pots and many more applications. However, until now<br />

no materials suitable for manufacturing of compostable<br />

micro-irrigation systems have been available.<br />

DRIUS project: compostable micro-irrigation<br />

system<br />

The European project DRIUS Industrial implementation<br />

of a biodegradable and compostable flat micro-irrigation<br />

system for agriculture applications aims to produce new<br />

biodegradable and compostable drip irrigation systems<br />

and place them on the market.<br />

The developed irrigation systems will be especially used<br />

for plant cultivations, such as strawberries and tomatoes,<br />

which have shorter growing periods.<br />

The advantages of this new system will be:<br />

• An alternative to current incinerating and recycling<br />

processes. It has to be taken into account that<br />

uncontrolled incinerating in the EU is not permitted<br />

(The Incineration Directive (Directive 2000/76/EC) (EN.<br />

2000)) and that the resulting recycling is a low quality<br />

product due to high contamination and degradation<br />

of pipes, which are in contact with soil, pesticides and<br />

fertilizers.<br />

• Economic saving: elimination of separation, removal<br />

and recycling costs, which entails an expenditure of<br />

approximately 1,050 €/hectare.<br />

Figure 1: Industrial line of micro-irrigation pipe extrusion.<br />

Figure 2: Biodegradable pipes coming out of the calibration and<br />

quenching baths.<br />

Figure 3: Flat and tubular drippers developed in DRIUS.<br />

20 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Injection Moulding<br />

• Energy saving during the elaboration process as<br />

the pipes made with these materials requires lower<br />

processing temperatures.<br />

• At the end of their lifetime, pipes would be managed as<br />

all organic wastes and they will biodegrade in less than<br />

6 months.<br />

• A new compostable product will be obtained with an<br />

additional value at the micro-irrigation systems endof-life.<br />

Its development will allow its management in a<br />

composting plant without any need to separate.<br />

Project’s results<br />

During the project’s first year, the extrusion process was<br />

optimized in order to elaborate biodegradable pipes in<br />

conventional extrusion lines (see Figures 1 and 2). These<br />

pipes can be processed at a temperature 40º C lower<br />

than polyethylene, resulting in energy saving and a lower<br />

environmental impact.<br />

In order to develop these pipes, several commercial<br />

biodegradable materials were mixed through physical<br />

compatibilisation and chemical functionalisation. At<br />

the same time, the synergy effect of these mixtures<br />

was studied. The developed pipe consists mainly of<br />

PLA (polylactic acid), modified with other biopolymers<br />

and additives to achieve the properties required. The<br />

percentage of used material from renewable sources is<br />

higher than 70 %.<br />

During this same period, new moulds were designed to<br />

inject the developed biodegradable materials for drippers.<br />

Figure 3 shows that results were satisfactory and that the<br />

new developments present suitable physical features for<br />

its injection moulding processing, creating drippers with<br />

the required geometry. Drippers’ geometry is crucial<br />

for the micro-irrigation system so that they provide the<br />

necessary amount of water for different crops.<br />

The companies involved in this project are currently<br />

working on improving not only the demoulding process but<br />

also the insertion of drippers in the pipes.<br />

The DRIUS Project began on 1 st November, 2013 and<br />

will run for 24 months. It is funded by the European<br />

Commission within the “CIP-Eco-Innovation” Programme<br />

(contract number ECO/12/332883). The consortium is<br />

formed by Spain’s Technological Institute of Plastics<br />

(AIMPLAS); Extruline Systems SL of Goñar, Spain;<br />

Metzerplas Irrigation Systems of Kibbutz Metzer, Irael;<br />

and OWS NV of Gent, Belgium.<br />

Coauthors of this article are Oded Baras, Antonio<br />

Bayonas, Steven Verstichel, Chelo Escrig, Raquel Giner.<br />

More information / sources<br />

[1] Plastic Waste in the Environment, BioIntelligence Service,<br />

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/studies/pdf/plastics.pdf<br />

By:<br />

Maria Pilar Villanueva<br />

Extrusion Department<br />

AIMPLAS (Technological Institute of Plastics)<br />

Paterna, Spain<br />

Celebrating<br />

20 YEARS<br />





www.okcompost.be<br />

Since 1995<br />


bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 21

Injection Moulding<br />

PHA - a game changer<br />

for marine plastic pollution?<br />

MHG’s emergence onto the world stage as the premier<br />

manufacturer of PHA biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates)<br />

came full circle this spring when Belgium’s Vinçotte<br />

International awarded its first ever OK Marine<br />

Biodegradable certification to the company.<br />

The award is especially judicious in light of the fact that<br />

plastic pollution in oceans, lakes and rivers has moved to<br />

the forefront as one of the most damaging and challenging<br />

environmental problems of our age.<br />

The validation is also significant in respect to the<br />

ongoing domino effect of legislative bans on plastic bags,<br />

microbeads, and polystyrene food service items in cities<br />

and states across the U.S. and internationally.<br />

Just over a year ago, MHG (Bainbridge, Georgia, USA)<br />

was basking in the afterglow of its unique position as the<br />

only biopolymer company to be awarded all six Vinçotte OK<br />

biodegradable and compost certifications available at that<br />

time, as well as U.S. FDA food contact approval.<br />

MHG’s merger of Meredian, Inc. and Danimer Scientific<br />

into a consolidated entity (Meredian Holdings Group)<br />

formalized the company’s plan to position itself as a global<br />

provider of bioplastic resins.<br />

Since then, the company has received commercial scale<br />

production validation from food ingredient provider Tate &<br />

Lyle (headquartered in London, UK).<br />

In addition to ongoing work with LC Industries (Durham,<br />

North Carolina) to produce renewable cutlery for U.S.<br />

service personnel, MHG has secured a contract to make<br />

biodegradable packaging for one of the world’s largest<br />

food and beverage companies, and has others in the<br />

works.<br />

“Historically the packaging and container world is<br />

crowded with many different shaped objects made from<br />

petroleum-based resins,” says Paul Pereira executive<br />

chairman and CEO of MHG.<br />

“More recently the introduction of bioplastic polymers<br />

made from Canola oils or any fatty acid vegetable oil has<br />

started to take center stage due to the renewable content<br />

and in some cases the degradability. This transformation<br />

will be a game changer for the world of packaging and<br />

waste disposal.”<br />

By all accounts, MHG is fully on track to expand<br />

production of its Canola based PHA to a broader<br />

commercial scale.<br />

During the fall 2014 planting season, the company’s<br />

second Canola crop was widened to 1,600 hectares (4,000<br />

acres). In early <strong>2015</strong>, MHG partnered up with Perry-McCall<br />

(Jacksonville, Florida, USA) to build out its AgroCRUSH<br />

facility to include a 6,000 tonnes (260,000-bushel) grain<br />

storage facility.<br />

Harvest time commenced in May <strong>2015</strong>. The crop is<br />

expected to yield six million pounds of PHA resin. To further<br />

accommodate new demand, MHG has acquired over<br />

19,000 m 2 (200,000 square feet) of lab and manufacturing<br />

space at its Bainbridge facility.<br />

As MHG continues on the journey to expand its mission<br />

to the world marketplace, Pereira travels from Asia to<br />

Europe and throughout the U.S. to introduce PHA to<br />

manufacturers.<br />

Due to its heat deflection temperature, UV resistance,<br />

excellent mechanical properties, and expedient<br />

biodegradability, MHG’s Nodax family of PHA serves as<br />

possibly the most viable alternative to both petrochemical<br />

plastics and less effective bioplastics.<br />

The Achilles heel of many competitive biopolymers,<br />

including those produced from cellulose, sugars and<br />

MHG’s <strong>2015</strong> Canola harvest commenced in May <strong>2015</strong> in Decatur County, Georgia, USA.<br />

22 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Injection Moulding<br />

starches, is a lack of heat and moisture tolerance. The<br />

polymers can soften when even slightly warmed, become<br />

brittle and fail when dried or left in sunlight, or become<br />

sticky in high humidity environments.<br />

Limp bottle caps, wilting coffee spoons, or toys<br />

that crumble into powder just won’t do, no matter<br />

how environmentally friendly the products seem. Any<br />

biopolymer resin used to make such articles must meet<br />

the appropriate temperature and viscosity requirements<br />

for mass production, remain durable and reasonably<br />

heat resistant while in storage or use, and decompose<br />

safely and organically in a short period of time.<br />

As a thermoplastic polyester, PHA has a heat deflection<br />

range of 125 to 170 o C (about 260 to 340 o F). The high melt<br />

temperature offers an attractive and effective solution to<br />

the problem, considering that the average temperature<br />

in a sealed, parked car is 50 °C, a hot cup of coffee can<br />

reach 75 °C, and water boils at 100 °C (212 °F).<br />

PHA also offers superior biodegradability over many<br />

other commercialized bioplastics because it decomposes<br />

aerobically in soil and water, and anaerobically in fresh<br />

water, salt water, soil and compost.<br />

The fact that it is produced by microbial organisms<br />

that feed on the Canola oil is the simple reason PHA<br />

degrades so well. The material is synthesized within<br />

the organisms as a means of fat storage. As a result,<br />

many other microbial organisms see PHA as a kind of<br />

Twinkie for bacteria.<br />

MHG PHA Compostable Spoons, before and after:<br />

MHG PHA biodegrades within three months to a year.<br />

By:<br />

Laura Mauney<br />

The Kidd Group<br />

Nodax per se is also highly adaptable to various<br />

processes and product requirements. Nodax<br />

encompasses a family of PHA polymers where each<br />

variation possesses a slightly different mix of monomer<br />

units, and can thus be customized for different<br />

mechanical properties.<br />

Explains MHG’s Chief Science Officer and Nodax<br />

inventor Dr. Isao Noda, “Various PHA polyesters are<br />

controlled by the proportion of the different building<br />

blocks (monomers) used to make the large polymeric<br />

molecules. For injection molded articles, the variation<br />

of the components gives us the very nice extra design<br />

flexibility to manipulate the softness of end products.<br />

Sometimes we want hard and tough products, while in<br />

other applications we need much more soft and flexible<br />

items.”<br />

In many ways, PHA functions as a better product than<br />

petrochemical plastics. It more effectively preserves food<br />

freshness, blocks transfer of many odors and gasses,<br />

and is toxin-free.<br />

PHA can be used successfully to make biodegradable<br />

versions of the single use plastic items notorious for<br />

polluting oceans and lakes, including plastic bags,<br />

microbeads, six pack holders, bottle caps, and all<br />

manner of other disposable goods.<br />

Though cleaning up the world’s water bodies will<br />

require strategies that go well beyond replacing plastic,<br />

the introduction of PHA to our throwaway culture has the<br />

potential to significantly deter future damage.<br />

www.mhgbio.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 23

Injection Moulding<br />

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Volume 7, March <strong>2015</strong><br />

New heat resistant blend for<br />

thin wall injection mouldings<br />

While the demand for biodegradable packaging continues<br />

to rise, injection molders are still facing challenges to process<br />

these type of polymers, especially when it comes to very thin<br />

wall packaging.<br />

BASF’s biobased and certified compostable polymer<br />

ecovio ® is proven in many applications. BASF now offers a<br />

new generation of heat resistant certified compostable blend.<br />

It is particularly suitable for injection molding and enables<br />

applications such as coffee capsules or single use cups,<br />

where thin wall geometries are required.<br />

Due to the special formulation, it enables the very thin wall<br />

production with a thickness of up to only 0.3mm while still<br />

being rigid and strong with a good toughness as well as an<br />

outstanding dimensional stability. The cycle times that can be<br />

reached with this type of polymer are comparable to those of<br />

easy flowing PP types in injection molding.<br />

With this new ecovio ® blend, packaging manufacturers also<br />

do not need to cut back on their design demands. For example,<br />

it can be colored with any biodegradable masterbatch<br />

available. It is as well suitable for in-mold labelling, a state of<br />

the art surface decoration process in which a film for surface<br />

decoration is combined with the molded part in the open<br />

mold. Tests have shown that the new generation of ecovio ®<br />

blends is processible similar to conventional polymers which<br />

means at the same cycle time. MT<br />

www.ecovio.com<br />




Foam expansion agents<br />

Third stream direct injection of blowing agents<br />

Non-halogenated FR in PIR boardstock<br />

Discontinuous panel production<br />

Rigid foam with NOPs<br />



Die weltweite PU-Industrie 2014/<strong>2015</strong><br />

Utech Europe <strong>2015</strong> Vorschau<br />

Ze lstruktur von PU-Weichschäumen<br />

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Faserverbundwerkstoffe mit PU<br />

Flammwidrige Kautschukmischungen<br />

nach EN 45545<br />

Kieselsäureverstärkte NR-Mischungen<br />

CNTs und Ruß als synergistische<br />

Fachmagazin für die Polymerindustrie<br />

Füllstoffkombination<br />

Magazine for the Polymer Industry<br />

NR filled with CNTs and carbon black<br />

Improved AEM polymers<br />

Cure time reduction<br />

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Fatigue life prediction<br />

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68. Jahrgang, Mai <strong>2015</strong><br />

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Volume 10, May <strong>2015</strong><br />

02| <strong>2015</strong><br />

1| <strong>2015</strong><br />

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24 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10<br />

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Injection Moulding<br />

New light mountaineering<br />

shoes made with bio-PA 4.10<br />

Royal DSM (Heerlen, The Netherlands) recently announced that its<br />

high performance biobased EcoPaXX ® polyamide 4.10 has been chosen<br />

for the Edging Chassis of an innovative new mountaineering shoe from<br />

sports specialist Salomon.<br />

Light mountaineering shoes fit with one of the latest trends in<br />

outdoor sports: they provide users with very comfortable lightweight<br />

equipment that lets them be quick, agile and safe. The Salomon X Alp<br />

range is at the forefront of this trend, with its innovative Edging Chassis<br />

(patented by Salomon), a special plate built into the sole with a<br />

sophisticated design that combines two opposites: flexibility<br />

and stiffness.<br />

X Alp GTX<br />

The Edging Chassis provides stability for the foot in<br />

the transverse direction – to provide good grip on narrow<br />

ledges – but also allows enough flexibility in longitudinal<br />

direction to accommodate the natural flexing of the foot.<br />

This requires a material with the right combination of<br />

appropriate mechanical properties and toughness, and which<br />

can also be processed easily.<br />

DSM’s biobased polyamide 4.10 EcoPaXX has enabled Salomon<br />

to produce a chassis with an intricate design that is light, has the<br />

necessary mix of flexibility and rigidity, retains its properties at very<br />

low temperatures typical of mountain environments, and has reduced<br />

moisture uptake, despite being a polyamide.<br />

X Alp MTN GTX<br />

The material is very suitable for injection molding and is certified as<br />

carbon neutral from cradle to gate. It is being used in the chassis of<br />

three models of Salomon’s new X Alp range of mountaineering shoes:<br />

the X Alp GTX, X Alp MTN GTX, and X Alp PRO GTX.<br />

For the Edging Chassis, a material with excellent flow characteristics<br />

is needed as the design requires the use of a mold with multiple<br />

gating, which creates multiple weld lines, which means weld line<br />

strength needs to be high. DSM bio‐PA 4.10 has these excellent flow<br />

characteristics, together with outstanding mechanical properties and<br />

also processes very well. Altogether, EcoPaXX provides a very costeffective<br />

solution that makes it stand out from the competition and a<br />

perfect fit for the Edging Chassis.<br />

Aude Derrier, project manager in Materials Footwear Department<br />

of Global Footwear at Amer Sports says: “X Alp shoe expresses<br />

the cutting edge of light mountaineering. It is the result of<br />

over two years of intensive development and field tests<br />

with professional guides, rescue teams and athletes, and<br />

is a pure expression of Salomon’s approach to product<br />

innovation and its mountain heritage. Models with the<br />

patented EcoPaXX Edging Chassis can be used from<br />

lower flanks of the mountain as well as for approach.”<br />

“Salomon, the mother company Amer Sports Group, and<br />

DSM have a long partnership history, and have worked together<br />

on other challenging EcoPaXX projects like high-end snow board<br />

bindings. We were confident that DSM could help us to create our new<br />

generation of mountaineering shoes, and our confidence has been<br />

justified.” MT<br />

www.ecopaxx.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 25

Show Review<br />

封 面 故 事<br />

CHINAPLAS <strong>2015</strong> Review<br />

CHINAPLAS <strong>2015</strong>, held from 20-23 May <strong>2015</strong> in Guangzhou, has again set new records with unprecedented scale, with<br />

a gross exhibition area exceeding 240,000 m² and over 3,200 exhibitors from 40 countries and regions. After our show<br />

preview in the last issue, our reporters did not report about significant breakthrough developemnts in the field of<br />

bioplastics at this year’s Chinaplas. Thus we just present a few news from the Bioplastics Zone, that comprised again a total of<br />

28 companies plus another 23 companies showcasing bioplastics products or services in other halls.<br />

Guangzhou Bio-plus<br />

Guangzhou Bio-plus Materials Technology Ltd<br />

(Guangzhou, China) is a high-tech company focusing on<br />

modification of bio-based and biodegradable materials.<br />

Their talented R&D team cooperates with Scientific<br />

Academia of China. Guangzhou Bio-plus successfully<br />

improved PLA in heat-resistance, impact strength and the<br />

ability to expand, which significantly widens the field of<br />

applications for PLA.<br />

The most challenging topic in PLA modification is to<br />

improve its foam ability. Recently Bioplus succeeded in<br />

developing a modified PLA for extruded foam sheet with<br />

butane or CO 2<br />

, and the material is being used commercially<br />

now. Its expansion rate can be controlled from factor 3<br />

to 20, and the structure of the foam can be open-cell or<br />

closed-cell.<br />

PLA foam sheet can be used in packaging material,<br />

disposable food boxes, trays, Hamburger boxes, coffee<br />

cups, etc. It is the best option to substitute polystyrene<br />

foam and paper products in above fields.<br />

It has been a challenging task, to foam PLA in the<br />

extrusion process over the past years. A lot of institutes<br />

and companies studied this topic for many years, without<br />

significantly overcoming the lab-scale. Bio-plus however,<br />

has now succeeded PLA foam sheet with butane or CO 2<br />

in industrial production line continuously and stably. This<br />

is a milestone that PLA foam material can be promoted<br />

in scale. In one word, Bio-plus’s success in PLA foam is<br />

revolutionary, and it will push the bio-plastics industry go<br />

forward quickly.<br />

http://www.bio-plus.cn/en/<br />

CJ Cheiljedang<br />

CJ Cheiljedang (CJ) from Seoul, South Korea, one of the<br />

largest producers of amino acids, has developed renewable<br />

chemicals for Nylons, Polyurethanes, and Resins.<br />

CJ introduced biobased diamines – Butanediamine (BDA)<br />

and pentanediamine (PDA) - which can be used for Nylon<br />

and Polyurethane. BDA is a raw material for Polyamide<br />

4X engineering plastics. PDA is for Polyamide 5X, high<br />

functional fiber, and PDI (pentamethylene diisocyanate), a<br />

raw material of urethane coating.<br />

CJ also made a great advancement in D-Lactic acid. PLA<br />

is a biodegradable polymer from renewable resources with<br />

about 200,000 tonnes market volume. PLAs made with D-LA<br />

(e.g. stereocomplex-PLA) have better heat resistance and<br />

mechanical properties than conventional PLA. Thus, they<br />

are more broadly applicable.<br />

Lignolic phenol is studied as bio-friendly chemical, but<br />

technological barrier limits its applicability.<br />

Innovative technology enables CJ to produce cost-efficient<br />

lignolic phenol, the preceding material of phenolic resins<br />

used in various industrial products.<br />

http://www.cj.co.kr/cj-en<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE for the first time introduced a special<br />

Chinese language version of the magazine (16 pages “Best<br />

of 2014”). It was printed in 1000 copies and distributed at<br />

Chinaplas in addition to the 1000 copies of the regular,<br />

international issue.<br />

山 西 金 晖 集 团<br />

<strong>2015</strong> 年 5 月<br />

A pdf-version of the complete<br />

Chinese issue can be read online at<br />

www.issuu.com/bioplastics<br />

or bit.ly/1AxH9BF<br />

www.bioplasticsMAGAZINE.COM<br />

生 物 塑 料 杂 志<br />

中 文 专 刊<br />

26 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Application News<br />

Rubber seals<br />

made<br />

of Bio-EPDM<br />

Specialty chemicals company LANXESS<br />

(Cologne, Germany) provides its innovative<br />

bio-based Keltan Eco EPDM rubber to<br />

Freudenberg Sealing Technologies. This<br />

well-known global manufacturer of seals<br />

and vibration control technology products<br />

recently started to produce rubber seals<br />

made of Keltan Eco EPDM at its North<br />

American affiliate.<br />

Keltan Eco EPDM (ethylene-propylenediene<br />

monomer) rubber contains up to 70<br />

% of ethylene obtained from sugarcane, and<br />

has an impressive set of properties that is in<br />

no way inferior to that of conventional EPDM.<br />

The bio-renewable rubber compound,<br />

for which development at Freudenberg<br />

Sealing Technologies already began in<br />

2012, addresses the constantly increasing<br />

standards on CO2 footprint reduction,<br />

especially in the automotive industry, and<br />

the overall global pull for more sustainable<br />

industrial solutions.<br />

Joe Walker, Global Director Advanced<br />

Materials Development at Freudenberg<br />

Sealing Technologies, explains: “We had<br />

been working with polymer suppliers for<br />

ways to reduce our carbon footprint, but<br />

the polymer offerings lacked the specific<br />

characteristics we needed for our advanced<br />

manufacturing processes. So we initiated a<br />

project to research the area, and we were<br />

able to develop a material that can be used<br />

in our next generation injection molding<br />

process.”<br />

Applications for the rubber compound<br />

based on Keltan Eco polymers include seals<br />

for coolants, steam, synthetic hydraulic<br />

fluids, brake fluids and aerospace hydraulic<br />

fluids. The newly developed material is<br />

capable of withstanding temperatures up<br />

to 150 °C, and the material has outstanding<br />

compressive stress force retention. MT<br />

www.lanxess.com<br />

www.fst.com<br />

The World’s first plant-based<br />

durable bottles<br />

ZAZA Bottles are the first refillable water bottles made from a plant-based<br />

polymer. They’re also the only customizable ones as they promote a fusion of<br />

fashion & sustainability. The Prague-based startup launched their Kickstarter<br />

campaign in late May.<br />

Zuzana Cabejskova, the founder of ZAZA has long been involved in the<br />

topic of sustainable hydration. She started an NGO called Czech The Tap in<br />

2010 to promote tap water among Czech restaurants and citizes. The NGO’s<br />

blind-tasting experiments were a huge success: “Over 2 thousand people<br />

participated and 80% couldn’t tell the difference between tap and bottled<br />

water.”<br />

As an Industrial Ecologist, Zuzana Cabejskova also insisted that the bottle<br />

be as sustainable as possible. “We’re introducing the first plant-based bottle<br />

to really show we’re<br />

serious about circular<br />

economy. The transparent<br />

part is made of a 50% bioC<br />

PA and we’re still looking<br />

for a supplier for the<br />

non-transparent parts,<br />

preferably that would<br />

be a close-to 100% biosolution.”<br />

www.zazabottles.com<br />

Disposable gloves<br />

B.GLOVE, disposable gloves made from a biodegradable film are a high<br />

quality product, as stated in a press release by glove machine manufacturer<br />

CIBRA from Cernusco sul Naviglio, Italy.<br />

The softness of such gloves, their breathability, the pureness of their<br />

composition make these gloves suitable for food handling, for use in<br />

pharmaceutical and chemical industries, for wellness treatments, and in<br />

many other applications.<br />

Biodegradable gloves can become organic waste and will be totally<br />

degraded in compost in a short time. The machine manufacturer states<br />

that it can be expected that the same rule could soon be applied to gloves,<br />

e.g. in the fruit/vegetable area of supermarkets, in the veterinary, medical<br />

and food handling fields, and in wellness centres, where plastic gloves are<br />

still used. The MaterBi gloves offer a perfect alternative to conventional<br />

plastic gloves because they can be collected<br />

together with other organic waste and<br />

converted into compost.<br />

B.GLOVE is a result of many years of<br />

development: from the first semiautomatic<br />

machine for disposable gloves that Cibra<br />

presented at PLAST 1968, from the first<br />

experiences on Mater-Bi films at PLAST 20<strong>03</strong>,<br />

from the last two year experience in producing<br />

full time biodegradable Mater-Bi gloves for<br />

innovative customers. MT<br />

www.cibra.it<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

28 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Applications<br />

World’s first<br />

algae-based<br />

surfboard<br />

Photo courtesy Eric Jepsen<br />

University of California San Diego’s efforts to produce<br />

innovative and sustainable solutions to the world’s<br />

environmental problems have resulted in a partnership<br />

with the region’s surfing industry to create the world’s first<br />

algae-based, sustainable surfboard. The surfboard was<br />

publicly unveiled and presented in early may, the day before<br />

Earth Day, to San Diego Mayor Kevin Faulconer at San Diego<br />

Symphony Hall.<br />

The project began several months ago at UC San Diego<br />

when undergraduate students were working on a precursor<br />

of the polyurethane foam core of a surfboard from algae oil.<br />

Polyurethane surfboards today are made exclusively from<br />

petroleum.<br />

Students from the laboratories of Michael Burkart, a<br />

professor of chemistry and biochemistry, and Robert “Skip”<br />

Pomeroy, a chemistry instructor who helps students recycle<br />

waste oil into a biodiesel that powers some UC San Diego<br />

buses, first determined how to chemically change the oil<br />

obtained from laboratory algae into different kinds of polyols.<br />

Mixed with a catalyst and silicates in the right proportions,<br />

these polyols expand into a foam-like substance that hardens<br />

into the polyurethane that forms a surfboard’s core 1 .<br />

The effort to produce the surfboard was headed by<br />

Stephen Mayfield, a professor of biology and algae geneticist<br />

at UC San Diego. To obtain additional high-quality algae oil,<br />

Mayfield, who directs UC San Diego’s California Center for<br />

Algae Biotechnology, or “Cal-CAB,” called on Solazyme, Inc.<br />

The California-based biotech, which produces renewable,<br />

sustainable oils and ingredients, supplied a gallon of algae<br />

oil to make the world’s first algae-based surfboard blank.<br />

After some clever chemistry at UC San Diego, Arctic Foam<br />

successfully produced and shaped the surfboard core and<br />

glassed it with a coat of fiberglass and renewable resin.<br />

Although the board’s core is made from algae, it is pure<br />

white and indistinguishable from most plain petroleumbased<br />

surfboards. That’s because the oil from algae, like<br />

soybean or safflower oils, is clear.<br />

Photo courtesy Arctic Foam<br />

“In the future, we could make the algae surfboards ‘green’<br />

by adding a little color from the green algae to showcase<br />

their sustainability,” said Mayfield. “But right now we wanted<br />

to make it as close as we could to the real thing.”<br />

Mayfield said that, like other surfers, he has long been<br />

faced with a contradiction: His connection to the pristine<br />

ocean environment requires a surfboard made from<br />

petroleum.<br />

“As surfers more than any other sport, you are totally<br />

connected and immersed in the ocean environment,” he<br />

explained. “And yet your connection to that environment is<br />

through a piece of plastic made from fossil fuels.”<br />

But now, he explained, surfers can have a way to surf a<br />

board that, at least at its core, comes from a sustainable,<br />

renewable source. “In the future, we’re thinking about 100 %<br />

of the surfboard being made that way – the fiberglass will<br />

come from renewable resources, the resin on the outside<br />

will come from a renewable resource,” Mayfield said.<br />

“This shows that we can still enjoy the ocean, but do so in<br />

an environmentally sustainable way,” he added. KL, MT<br />

http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu<br />

Info:<br />

1) From algae oil to polyurethane<br />

Robert “Skip” Pomeroy explains it this way:<br />

The algae oil is a chemical mixture of Triacylglycerides<br />

(TAGs). This consists of a glycerol backbone and three<br />

fatty acid chains. The fatty acid chains in algae based<br />

TAGs have points of unsaturation (double bonds). These<br />

double bonds can be reacted to create OH or alcohol<br />

functionality where the double bond used to be. Because<br />

there are multiple double bonds within the TAG, you can<br />

create multiple OH groups, hence the term polyol (many<br />

alcohols, many OHs).<br />

When a polyol is reacted with a diisocyanate you<br />

create multiple urethane bonds, hence polyurethane.<br />

The precise formula of the polyurethane foam is a trade<br />

secret of Artic foam that creates the foam with the right<br />

density, flexibility and cell size to meet there expectations<br />

as a substitute for the petroleum polyol. We control the<br />

chemistry through the reagent balance, temperature of<br />

the reaction and the time.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 29

Thermoset<br />

Fully biobased epoxy resin<br />

<br />

from lignin<br />

Thermosets<br />

Thermosets are polymeric materials generated by<br />

irreversible crosslinking of multifunctional monomers or<br />

oligomers thus forming a three dimensional network out<br />

of the initial resin system. Obviously, thermoset properties<br />

depend both on the monomer structure and on the<br />

architecture of the network. For the latter, the network<br />

density is a decisive parameter: the shorter the links,<br />

the more resistant the thermoset against mechanical,<br />

thermal, and chemical impacts. Thus the spectrum of<br />

crosslinked polymers reaches from flexible elastomers to<br />

firm resin systems for high performance composites.<br />

Lignin structure<br />

When looking for alternatives to petroleum-based resin<br />

components, lignin is a particularly interesting candidate.<br />

It is synthesized biochemically from three aromatic<br />

monomeric units, i. e. Cumaryl, Coniferyl, and Sinapyl<br />

alcohol (Fig. 1).<br />

With its highly cross-linked structure in combination<br />

with its specific functional groups (Fig. 1 B), lignin is<br />

suited as a building block in phenol formaldehyde (PF),<br />

polyurethane (PU), and epoxy (EP) resin systems. While for<br />

PU and EP systems the OH functionalities play the major<br />

role. PF resins take advantage of the free ring positions as<br />

reactive centres.<br />

Lignin is synthesized in all vascular plants and<br />

represents, after cellulose, the second most frequently<br />

occurring polymer on earth. There are three main types:<br />

hardwood (e. g. eucalyptus, birch, beech), softwood (e. g.<br />

pine, spruce), and annual plant lignin.<br />

Lignin sources<br />

Technically lignin is a by-product of the pulp and<br />

paper industry and is used almost exclusively as a fuel,<br />

in particular for running the pulping processes. Two<br />

processes dominate by far the chemical pulping to<br />

obtain cellulose: the Kraft (or sulfate) process with 90 %<br />

market share [2] and the sulfite process. Both generate<br />

sulphur containing lignins but with different chemical<br />

bonding patterns to the lignin skeleton. While the socalled<br />

lignosulfonates from the sulfite process have been<br />

available on the market for decades, this is not the case<br />

for lignins from the Kraft process. Only recently big pulping<br />

companies like Domtar, Stora Enso or Suzano began to<br />

isolate lignin from their black liquors. An important input<br />

to this development was the market introduction of the<br />

Ligno-Boost technology by Metso, which is applicable to<br />

both hard and soft wood and works with supercritical CO 2<br />

for lignin precipitation.<br />

Sulphur may cause olfactory problems in final<br />

applications of lignin as a material. Therefore sulphurfree<br />

pulping processes such as Alcell ® [3], Organocell [4],<br />

or Soda [5] could gain some importance in this respect.<br />

Also enzymatic bio-ethanol production from annual plants<br />

generates sulphur-free lignins with quite a high molecular<br />

weight. This is a disadvantage for resin formulations since<br />

it impairs the solubility of the lignin in general.<br />

Figure 1 Structure of lignin monomers (A) and a lignin fragment (B) according to Freudenberg [1]<br />

By:<br />

Gunnar Engelmann<br />

Johannes Ganster<br />

Fraunhofer-Institute for<br />

Applied Polymer Research IAP<br />

Potsdam-Golm, Germany<br />

CH 2<br />

OH<br />

HO<br />

H 2<br />

C C<br />

HO<br />

HO<br />

O<br />

CH<br />

OCH<br />

OH<br />

2<br />

3<br />

OH<br />

CH<br />

HO<br />

H 2<br />

OCH<br />

HOH 3<br />

2<br />

C C C<br />

O CH O<br />

H<br />

OH<br />

HC<br />

OH<br />

OCH 3<br />

H 3<br />

CO<br />

OCH 3<br />

OH<br />

OH<br />

Cumaryl-<br />

OCH 3<br />

H 3<br />

CO OCH 3<br />

HOH 2<br />

C<br />

O<br />

Coniferyl- OH<br />

HC<br />

HC OH<br />

A<br />

Sinapyl-<br />

O<br />

O<br />

H 3<br />

CO<br />

OH H 3<br />

C<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

HOH 2<br />

C<br />

H O<br />

HOH 2<br />

C<br />

O<br />

C C HO<br />

OH<br />

O H<br />

HC<br />

OCH<br />

CH 3<br />

OH<br />

2<br />

OH<br />

OCH 3<br />

HC HO H<br />

CH<br />

HC O<br />

HO<br />

C<br />

O<br />

O<br />

CH CH<br />

OCH 3<br />

H 3<br />

C<br />

OH<br />

H 3<br />

CO<br />

O<br />

B<br />

O<br />

H 3<br />

CO<br />

OCH 3<br />

HO<br />

30 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Thermoset<br />

Lignin utilization<br />

Apart from the use of the caloric value of lignin for<br />

energy generation mostly by directly burning the spent<br />

liquor, lignin is used in comparatively small quantities<br />

for thermoplastic processing with lignocelluloses<br />

reinforcing fibres [6] and more recently as a blend<br />

component in derivatised form in biobased packaging<br />

films in combination with biodegradable petro-based<br />

polyesters [7]. On the other hand lignosulfonates from the<br />

sulphite process have a broad spectrum of applications,<br />

e. g. as additives for briquettes, animal feed, or concrete<br />

[8]. The possibility of using lignosulfonates for PF resin<br />

formulations, substituting the increasingly expensive<br />

phenol has been known for a long time, but is not exploited<br />

commercially on a larger scale. However, detailed<br />

investigations were performed for products like plywood,<br />

oriented strand boards, and medium density fibre boards.<br />

For PU and EP resin formulations lignosulfonates are<br />

less suited owing to the different chemical structure<br />

compared to sulphur-free lignins or lignins from the<br />

Kraft process. With regard to synthetic EP resins made<br />

of bisphenol-A, (Kosbar et al.) in cooperation with IBM<br />

demonstrated the possibility to use 50 % lignin in a resin<br />

formulation for the manufacture of printed circuit boards<br />

[9]. However, the demonstrator never went into production.<br />

For resin producers the use of Kraft lignins isolated<br />

from the black liquor would be the economically most<br />

viable way. However, these lignins have a relatively high<br />

molecular weight (not to mention organosolv or enzymatic<br />

lignins) and thus impede the lignin solubility in the reactive<br />

resin formulations. To avoid an additional technological<br />

step to degrade the lignin separately, a modification of<br />

the cooking process such that a more severe degradation<br />

takes place in situ, might be an option.<br />

Biobased epoxy resins<br />

The advantages of using low molecular weight lignins<br />

can be demonstrated for a fraction of a softwood Kraft<br />

lignin in a completely biobased, bisphenol-A-free epoxy<br />

resin formulation [10]. To achieve this goal, besides<br />

the low molecular weight lignin fraction, glycerol-1,3-<br />

diglycidyl ether (1) and, as a co-cross-linker, pyrogallol (2)<br />

are used (Fig. 2).<br />

Here the glycidyl ether can be traced back to glycerol<br />

which is (also) a by-product of bio-diesel production.<br />

Pyrogallol can be prepared by thermal decarboxylation<br />

of gallic acid, a biobased building block of hydrolysable<br />

tannins [11]. Optimum compositions lead to thermosets<br />

with a tensile strength of 82 MPa, a stiffness of 3.2 GPa,<br />

and a glass transition temperature of 70 °C. These resins<br />

are suited for manufacturing fibre reinforced composites.<br />

Using 50 % of (bio-based) cellulose regenerated fibres in<br />

unidirectional composites; a bending strength of 210 MPa,<br />

a modulus of 12.5 GPa, and a heat distortion temperature<br />

of 160 °C were achieved.<br />

Further improvements can be obtained by abandoning<br />

the claim of being completely biobased and using carboxylic<br />

acid anhydrides as hardener but still being bisphenol-Afree.<br />

Approximately 65 % of biobased formulations give<br />

values of 85 MPa strength, 3.5 GPa modulus and a glass<br />

transition temperature of 80 °C, still somewhat below<br />

petroleum-based bisphenol-A containing formulations<br />

(Fig. 3).<br />

O<br />

O<br />

OH<br />

1<br />

HO<br />

2<br />

Figure 2: Main components (besides lignin) for a completely<br />

biobased epoxy resin<br />

Figure 3: Comparison between plant oil [12], lignin-, and<br />

bisphenol‐A-based [13] resins in terms of selected mechanical<br />

and thermal properties<br />

Values<br />

120<br />

100<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

Tensile strength (MPa) E-Modulus*10 (GPa)<br />

Figure 4: Prototype of light element Prachteck by<br />

Alfred Pracht Lichttechnik using lignin-based resin<br />

O<br />

O<br />

Waste vegetable oil<br />

Lignin<br />

Bisphenol-A-based<br />

OH<br />

T g<br />

(°C)<br />

OH<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 31

Thermoset<br />

However, alternative biobased solutions with epoxidized plant oils suffer from low strength, stiffness, and glass transition<br />

temperature as shown in Figure 3 and cannot compete with the lignin-containing formulations. Further on, the above partially<br />

biobased lignin system was used for prepreg formulations and bulk moulding compounds. Prepregs with 50 % jute fabric could<br />

be stored at -8 °C for 17 weeks giving 110 MPa strength and 7 GPa stiffness after curing. Bulk moulding compounds with 60 %<br />

sawdust were compression moulded to give 60 MPa strength and 5.3 GPa modulus.<br />

Application example<br />

The above mentioned jute fabric composites were used to manufacture an LED light element prototype called Prachteck in<br />

cooperation with the Institute for Plastics and Recycling (University of Kassel, Germany), and Alfred Pracht Lichttechnik (Dautphetal,<br />

Germany) [10]. This kind of light element was presented at the K show 2013 in Düsseldorf, Germany, as an application example.<br />

Conclusion<br />

A clear trend is recognized to utilize lignin as an abundant renewable resource rather than just burning it. Big pulping<br />

companies start to think in this direction and the process is flanked by industrial developments to isolate lignin from spent<br />

liquor on the one hand, and by investigating possible applications on the other. Lignin structure and reactivity makes it a<br />

promising candidate for biobased resin formulations as shown for an epoxy resin system.<br />

References<br />

[1] Freudenberg, K. und A.C. Neish (1968): „Constitution and Biosynthesis of Lignin.” Springer Verlag. Heidelberg-Berlin-New York<br />

[2] Toland J, Galasso L, Lees D, Rodden G, in Pulp Paper International, Vol. Paperloop, 2002, p. 5<br />

[3] Y. NI, Q. HU (1995) Alcell ® Lignin Solubility in Ethanol-Water Mixtures. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 57, p. 1441 – 144<br />

[4] Lindner, A., Wegener, G. (1988) Characterization of lignins from organosolv pulping according to the organocell process. 1. Elemental analysis, nonlignin<br />

portions and functional-groups. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, 8(3), p. 323 – 340.<br />

[5] Lora, Jairo; Glasser, Wolfgang (2002) Recent Industrial Applications of Lignin: A Sustainable Alternative to Nonrenewable Materials. J. of Pol. Env.10, p. 39 – 48.<br />

[6] www.tecnaro.de<br />

[7] www.cyclewood.com<br />

[8] K. H. Kleinemeier in O. Faix und D. Meier (Hrsg) 1st European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp, 1990, Verlag M. Wiedebusch, Hamburg 1991<br />

[9] Kosbar, L. L., Gelorme, J. (1997) Biobased epoxy resins for computer components and printed wiring boards. Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International<br />

Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, ISEE-1997. pp. 28 – 32.<br />

[10] Project sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture via the Specialist agency renewable raw materials e. V. (FNR), FKZ: 22025808<br />

[11] Fiege, H., Voges, H.-W., Hamamoto, T., Umemura, S., Iwata, T., Miki, H., Fujita, Y., Buysch, H.-J., Garbe, D., Paulus, W. (2000) Phenol derivatives. In: Ullmann’s<br />

Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. pp. 521 – 582.<br />

[12] Dracosa AG, personal communication<br />

[13] Composite Solutions AG; (Data sheets SR 1700, SR 5550, SR 8500)<br />

www.co2-chemistry.eu<br />

Carbon Dioxide as Feedstock<br />

for Chemistry and Polymers<br />

29 – 30 September <strong>2015</strong>, Essen (Germany)<br />

4 th<br />

Conference Team<br />

Michael Carus<br />

CEO<br />

michael.carus@nova-institut.de<br />

Barbara Dommermuth<br />

Programme, Poster session<br />

+49 (0)2233 4814-56<br />

barbara.dommermuth@nova-institut.de<br />

Dominik Vogt<br />

Conference Manager, Organisation,<br />

Exhibition, Sponsoring<br />

+49 (0)2233 4814-49<br />

dominik.vogt@nova-institut.de<br />

Jutta Millich<br />

Partners & Media Partners<br />

+49 (0)561 5<strong>03</strong>580-44<br />

jutta.millich@nova-Institut.de<br />

For the 4 th year in a row, the nova-Institute will organize the conference „Carbon Dioxide<br />

as Feedstock for Chemistry and Polymers“ on 29 - 30 September <strong>2015</strong> in the “Haus der<br />

Technik” in Essen, Germany. CO 2<br />

as chemical feedstock is a big challenge and chance for<br />

sustainable chemistry. Over the last few years, the rise of this topic has developed from several<br />

research projects and industrial applications to become more and<br />

more dynamic, especially in the fields of solar fuels (power-to-fuel,<br />

power-to-gas) – but also in CO 2<br />

-based chemicals and polymers.<br />

Several players are very active and will showcase some enhanced<br />

and also new applications using carbon dioxide as feedstock.<br />

The conference will be the biggest event on Carbon Capture and<br />

Utilization (CCU) in <strong>2015</strong>.<br />

Attending this conference will be invaluable for businessmen and<br />

academics who wish to get a full picture of how this new and<br />

exciting scenario is unfolding, as well as providing an opportunity<br />

to meet the right business or academic partners for future alliances.<br />

Free booth – only a 2-days<br />

conference entrance ticket<br />

is needed!<br />

Early Bird Reduction of<br />

15% until the end of April<br />

<strong>2015</strong>. Discount code:<br />

earlybird<strong>2015</strong><br />

More information can be found at www.co2-chemistry.eu<br />

Venue<br />

Haus der Technik e.V.<br />

Hollestr. 1<br />

45127 Essen, Germany<br />

Tel: +49 (0) 201/18 <strong>03</strong>-1<br />

www.hdt-essen.de<br />

Organiser<br />

nova-Institute<br />

Chemiepark Knapsack<br />

Industriestraße 300<br />

5<strong>03</strong>54 Hürth, Germany<br />

32 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Thermoset<br />

100 % bio-based<br />

epoxy compounds<br />

Nagase ChemteX is a Japanese chemical manufacturer<br />

and is supplying high-performance, high<br />

added-value chemical products to meet their customers’<br />

needs in a number of sectors, from electronics<br />

and life sciences to automobiles and the sustainability<br />

business.<br />

The product DENACOL has become a benchmark in the<br />

world of aliphatic epoxies and has unique characteristics<br />

of water solubility, made from epoxy compounds.<br />

Biobased Denacol GSR series are made from natural<br />

renewable resources – such as isosorbide, etc. – and show<br />

high reactivity with active hydrogen from carboxyl groups,<br />

amino groups and hydroxyl groups. Therefore, they work<br />

in textiles, paper finishing, coatings, adhesives, molding<br />

compounds and specialty polymers as a good crosslinking<br />

agent.<br />

Table 1 gives an overview about the product line-up<br />

All these products show an excellent performance,<br />

derived from their unique chemical structure of natural<br />

resources. For instance, Denacol GSR-101W is a special<br />

epoxy compound based on an isosorbide structure and<br />

epoxy resins hardened with this product exhibit various<br />

interesting features, such as good toughness, high<br />

reactivity, low viscosity and excellent light stability.<br />

Figure 1 shows the stress-strain behaviour for different<br />

formulations.<br />

Another interesting feature is the hardness of coatings<br />

made with Denacol. Coating films formulated with<br />

Denacol GSR-101W show higher pencil hardness with<br />

good adhesion compared to BPA type epoxy resin, on<br />

aluminum plate.<br />

Denacol GSR-1<strong>03</strong>W and GSR-104W have multifunctional<br />

epoxy groups and can improve adhesion<br />

performance with metal plate.<br />

All grades show a high water solubility, therefore are<br />

applicable for waterborne system and also contribute to a<br />

VOC free environment. MT<br />

http://www.nagase.co.jp/english<br />

http://www.nagasechemtex.co.jp/en/<br />

Kharchenko@nagase.de<br />

Figure 1: Stress-strain behaviour<br />

Stress / MPa<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

0<br />

Ref. Composition 1 Composition 2<br />

1 2 3 4 5 6<br />

Strain / %<br />

Composition 1 2 Ref.<br />

Denacol GSR-101 100 37 0<br />

TG-DDM 1 0 63 100<br />

DDS 2 23 27 30<br />

1<br />

Tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane type epoxy resin<br />

(WPE: 120 g/eq.)<br />

2<br />

Diaminodiphenyl sulfone<br />

Test item 3<br />

Denacol<br />

GSR-101<br />

BPA type<br />

epoxy resine 4<br />

Pencil hardness 2H B<br />

Adhesion 10 10<br />

3<br />

Substrate: Aluminium<br />

Composition: Epoxy resin/phenol novolac resin<br />

4<br />

WPR: 473 g/eq.<br />

Table 1<br />

Grade Chemical name WPE (g/eq.) Total chlorine content(%) Viscosity (mPa∙s, 25 °C) Bio-based content* (%)<br />

GSR-101W Isosorbide type epoxy resin 170 0.4 4,000 100<br />

GSR-1<strong>03</strong>W Aliphatic epoxy resin 144 10.3 302 98<br />

GSR-104W Aliphatic epoxy resin 169 12.6 3,700 98<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 33

Biocomposites<br />

Basalt fibers in<br />

biocomposites<br />

SmartCart galley cart made<br />

with FibriRock<br />

Load floor with<br />

basalt/flax/bioresin in the skins<br />

and an aramid paper core<br />

Ski’s, snowboards, hockeysticks,<br />

etc. are examples for<br />

the use of basalt fibres in the<br />

sports/leisure sector<br />

Property<br />

Basalt and furan resin<br />

give excellent abrasion<br />

performance (200,000 cycles)<br />

Value<br />

Tensile strength (ASTM D2343) 2,700 – 3,200 MPa<br />

E-Modulus (ASTM D2343)<br />

84 – 87 GPa<br />

Elongation at break 3.15 %<br />

Density 2.67 g/cm 3<br />

Melting point 1,450 °C<br />

Minimum operating temperature -260 °C<br />

Maximum operating temperature 600 °C<br />

Fire blocker Up to 1,200 °C<br />

Basaltex ® is a Belgian based company who introduced<br />

the basalt fiber to the European Market. It has many<br />

years of experience in basalt fibers and its applications.<br />

Basalt fibers are made from natural basalt rocks and<br />

unlike other materials such as glass fiber, essentially no<br />

other materials are added. The basalt stones are molten at<br />

1,400 – 1,450 °C and then extruded into continuous filaments<br />

of basalt fibers. The basalt fibers have mechanical properties<br />

that are better than glass, but are a lot cheaper than carbon<br />

or glass. However, due to good thermal properties of basalt<br />

and the fact that the fiber doesn’t burn, it is a fiber mostly<br />

used in fire resistant applications.<br />

Over the years Basaltex has been working closely together<br />

with customers to develop custom made basalt fiber solutions<br />

for primarily the technical textiles and composite sector. As<br />

like in any sector, sustainability is increasingly important<br />

and the search for sustainable and bio-solutions within<br />

composites is a constant trend.<br />

As basalt is one of the most common types of rock in the<br />

world, it has nontoxic properties and due to the very low<br />

consumption (1– 1.5 %) of chemicals during the production<br />

of basalt fibers, it is an ideal material to use in sustainable<br />

solutions.<br />

Fire resistant composite applications<br />

Within public transportation sectors regulations are only<br />

getting more stringent and this pushes towards the removal<br />

of phenolic based composites. Basaltex has developed in<br />

collaboration with Centexbel, NetComposites and TWI a<br />

bio based prepreg which outperforms E-glass/phenolic<br />

composite systems on both mechanical properties with equal<br />

to better fire performance. The basalt fabric is impregnated<br />

by a bio-resin (sugarcane-bagasse based furane resin) and<br />

can be cured in both conventional ways like vacuum bagging<br />

and compression moulding, but also more sustainable ways<br />

like micro-wave curing. The cured laminate is as such a 100 %<br />

fully bio composite (i. e. all carbon in the composite comes<br />

from renewable resources and none comes from petroleum.<br />

The basalt itself does not contain any carbon.) with excellent<br />

fire resistant properties.<br />

Tensile strength (MPa)<br />

500<br />

400<br />

300<br />

200<br />

100<br />

0<br />

326 344<br />

Basalt vs. E-glass laminate<br />

ISO 527-5<br />

441<br />

E-Modulus (GPa)<br />

20.9<br />

18.6<br />

ISO 527-5<br />

25.6<br />

E-glass/ phenolic E-glass/ bioresin Basalt-bioresin<br />

30<br />

25<br />

20<br />

15<br />

10<br />

5<br />

0<br />

34 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Biocomposites<br />

A second example is the FibriRock composite that<br />

is used in the lightweight SmartCart galley cart. This<br />

composite panel is made by EcoTechnilin and has won the<br />

Sustainability Award at JEC Composites Paris <strong>2015</strong> and<br />

the 3 rd price at the Innovation Award Bio-based Material<br />

of the Year <strong>2015</strong>.<br />

This is an example of basalt fibers used in combination<br />

with other natural fibers in a sugar-based bio-resin. Except<br />

for the aramide core, this product is fully bio-sourced. The<br />

properties of the composite panel are lightweight, robust,<br />

good fire smoke toxicity performance, good mechanical<br />

performance (9G pull test), fast manufacturing process,<br />

it is mouldable, has good abrasion resistance and is low<br />

cost. The composite panels can be used for load-floors<br />

and trim panels, for both transport and construction.<br />

Other applications<br />

Another sector where basalt is often used is Sports<br />

& Leisure. In the early days a camera tripod was made<br />

using basalt fibers and an epoxy matrix, since then<br />

manufacturers of ski’s, snowboards, hockey-sticks,<br />

etc. found basalt fibers as an ideal fiber for its better<br />

mechanical properties than E-glass and lower cost than<br />

carbon.<br />

Some boat manufacturers have been using basalt<br />

multi-axial fabrics for hull reinforcement and mainsail<br />

reinforcement and have seen excellent performance. It<br />

seems that there is a nearby inexistent osmosis degrade,<br />

but specific research has to be carried on further.<br />

Within the above mentioned applications there is a<br />

change towards bio-grade epoxy resins, choosing basalt<br />

fibers or fabrics as reinforcement is only a logical ecological<br />

consequence. Currently these changes are made especially<br />

in more luxury and high end consumer markets. These<br />

consumer segments are more passionate about sustainability<br />

when it comes to purchase considerations.<br />

Future developments<br />

Basaltex will continuously develop both customer specific<br />

solutions and own products. The company will continue<br />

offering competitive products that meet the needs of the<br />

customers while trying to enhance the environmental impact<br />

of the end product. The target will be to share the successes of<br />

fully bio-based/sourced products with other markets. Larger<br />

consumer markets like automotive will be one of the first<br />

where the potential and demand is there for green solutions.<br />

www.basaltex.com<br />

By:<br />

Jeroen Debruyne<br />

Operations Manager<br />

Basaltex NV<br />

Wevelgem, Belgium<br />

Visions become reality.<br />


22.– 24. Sept. <strong>2015</strong> Messe Stuttgart<br />

10. Europäische Fachmesse & Forum für<br />

Verbundwerkstoffe, Technologie und Anwendungen<br />

www.composites-europe.com<br />

|<br />

Organised by<br />

Partners<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 35

Biocomposites<br />

Carbon footprint of flax,<br />

hemp, jute and kenaf<br />

By:<br />

Martha Barth<br />

Michael Carus<br />

nova-Institute<br />

Hürth, Germany<br />

1 Introduction<br />

Natural fibres are an environmentally friendly<br />

alternative to glass and mineral fibres. In the last twenty<br />

years more and more natural fibres have started being<br />

used in biocomposites, mainly for the automotive sector<br />

and also as insulation material.<br />

As a first step towards supporting the development of<br />

sustainably produced and innovative biorefinery products,<br />

a carbon footprint for various natural fibres was conducted.<br />

These natural fibres include: flax, hemp, jute and kenaf.<br />

In the year 2012, 30,000 tonnes of natural fibres were<br />

used in the European automotive industry, mainly in socalled<br />

compression moulded parts, an increase from<br />

around 19,000 tonnes of natural fibres in 2005. As shown<br />

in figure 1, in 2012 flax had a market share of 50 % of the<br />

total volume of 30,000 tonnes of natural fibre composites.<br />

Kenaf fibres, with a 20 % market share, are followed by<br />

hemp fibres, with a 12 % market share, while other natural<br />

fibres, mainly jute, coir, sisal and abaca, account for 18 %.<br />

The total volume of the insulation market in Europe<br />

is about 3.3 million tonnes – the share of flax and hemp<br />

insulation material is 10,000 – 15,000 tonnes (ca. 0.5 %).<br />

Globally, cotton is the largest natural fibre produced,<br />

with an estimated average production of 25 million tonnes<br />

during recent years (2004 – 2012). Jute accounts for around<br />

3 million tonnes of production per year. Other natural fibres<br />

are produced in considerably smaller volumes. Globally,<br />

bast fibres play a rather small and specialized role in<br />

comparison to other fibres. The overview of worldwide<br />

production of other natural fibres for 1961 – 2013 based<br />

on FAO data (fig. 2) shows that jute has always been the<br />

most dominant of these materials. Apart from some fairly<br />

strong fluctuations, the overall volume of natural fibres<br />

produced globally has increased slightly over the last fifty<br />

years. The amount of jute has stayed more or less the<br />

same, coir has steadily increased its production volume,<br />

and production of flax and sisal has decreased.<br />

2 Carbon footprint<br />

The goal of this carbon footprint calculation is to evaluate<br />

the carbon footprint of the four most important natural<br />

fibres used in the automotive and insulation industry: flax,<br />

hemp, jute and kenaf.<br />

This study covers the cultivation, harvest, retting,<br />

processing and transportation of natural-bast-fibres<br />

from the northwest of Europe (flax and hemp), India and<br />

Bangladesh (jute and kenaf) to non-woven-producers in<br />

Europe. One tonne of technical fibre for the production<br />

of non-wovens for biocomposites or insulation material<br />

is used as functional unit. In particular, inventory<br />

data related to current conditions (2013/2014) of the<br />

agricultural system, fibre processing and transportation<br />

were obtained from farmers and fibre producers and<br />

where necessary complemented with bibliographic<br />

sources. Allocation was necessary as all four fibre<br />

systems provide more than one product: e. g. the fibre<br />

process also produces shives and dust. In this study<br />

mass-based allocation was used for all four investigated<br />

systems, as it is more stable than economic allocation,<br />

which fluctuates more.<br />

Fig. 2: Development of worldwide natural fibre production 1961 – 2013 in million tonnes<br />

without cotton (based on FAOSTAT <strong>2015</strong>)<br />

Fig. 1: Use of natural fibres for composites<br />

in the European automotive industry 2012<br />

(total volume 30,000 tonnes, without cotton<br />

and wood); others are mainly jute, coir, sisal<br />

and abaca<br />

7<br />

6<br />

18 %<br />

5<br />

12 %<br />

50 %<br />

4<br />

3<br />

Sisal<br />

Ramie<br />

Jute<br />

Hemp<br />

Flax<br />

Coir<br />

2<br />

20 %<br />

1<br />

Flax<br />

Kenaf<br />

Hemp<br />

Others<br />

1961<br />

1963<br />

1965<br />

1967<br />

1969<br />

1971<br />

1973<br />

1975<br />

1977<br />

1979<br />

1981<br />

1983<br />

1985<br />

1987<br />

1989<br />

1991<br />

1993<br />

1995<br />

1997<br />

1999<br />

2001<br />

20<strong>03</strong><br />

2005<br />

2007<br />

2009<br />

2011<br />

2013<br />

36 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Biocomposites<br />

2.1 Comparison of the carbon footprint of flax,<br />

hemp, jute and kenaf<br />

Figure 3 sums up the results of the greenhouse gas (GHG)<br />

emission calculation for flax, hemp, jute and kenaf. The<br />

result is that GHG emissions per tonne show no significant<br />

differences, especially when taking the uncertainty of the data<br />

into account. However there are some differences in results,<br />

which are described in more detail below:<br />

• The emissions related to the fertilizer subsystem are the<br />

most important contributors to greenhouse gas emissions<br />

of each considered bast fibre.<br />

However, the use of organic fertilizer for hemp cultivation<br />

(scenario 2) minimizes these emissions. Organic based<br />

fertilization is, however, not an option for all fibres, for<br />

different reasons (details see [1]).<br />

• Pesticides contribute relatively little to the carbon<br />

footprint of each fibre, except for the emissions stemming<br />

from pesticides used during flax cultivation. Due to its<br />

low shading capacity, flax is prone to weed infestation.<br />

Therefore, herbicides usually need to be applied for flax in<br />

higher doses.<br />

• Field operations, decortication and transportation differ<br />

for jute and kenaf and hemp and flax. Field operations<br />

and decortication of jute and kenaf are mainly done<br />

manually, which causes relatively low emissions. Since<br />

both are grown and processed outside of Europe, however,<br />

transportation must be taken into account, both overland<br />

transport from the farm to the processing site as well as<br />

marine transportation to the factory gate in Europe.<br />

• Another important contributor to overall greenhouse gas<br />

emissions for hemp and flax straw is their procession into<br />

fibres. These emissions are mainly caused by the energy<br />

consumption for decortication and fibre opening. Jute and<br />

kenaf fibre opening, is done by machines; on the other<br />

hand, decortication is done manually. Therefore the impact<br />

of fibre processing for jute and kenaf is smaller compared<br />

to hemp and flax fibre processing.<br />

2.2 Comparison with fossil based fibres<br />

In the impact category greenhouse gas emission,<br />

natural fibres show lower emissions than fossil<br />

based materials. For instance, production of 1 tonne<br />

of continuous filament glass fibre products (CFGF)<br />

extracted and manufactured from raw materials for<br />

factory export has an average impact of 1.7 tonnes<br />

CO 2-eq<br />

. Based on data from Ecoinvent 3, glass fibre<br />

production has an impact of 2.2 tonnes CO 2-eq<br />

per<br />

tonne glass fibre. Compared with natural fibres,<br />

which have greenhouse gas emissions between<br />

0.5–0.7 tonnes of CO 2-eq<br />

per tonne of natural fibre<br />

(from cultivation to fibre factory exit gate, excluding<br />

transport to the customer), impact on climate<br />

change from glass fibre production is three times<br />

higher than the impact from natural fibre production.<br />

This is also reflected in the impact category<br />

primary energy use. Figure 4 shows primary energy<br />

use for the production of hemp fibre compared to<br />

a number of non-renewable materials. With about<br />

5 GJ/t, the production of hemp fibre shows the lowest<br />

production energy of all the materials by far. For<br />

example, primary energy for producing glass fibre<br />

accounts for up to 35 GJ/t of glass fibre, which is<br />

seven times as much primary energy as hemp fibre<br />

uses.<br />

Natural fibres are used in biocomposites, among<br />

other things. Biocomposites are composed of a<br />

polymer and natural fibres, the latter of which gives<br />

biocomposites their strength. Figure 5 indicates<br />

that hemp fibre composites show greenhouse gas<br />

emission savings of 10 – 50 % compared to their<br />

functionally equal fossil based counterparts; when<br />

carbon storage is included, greenhouse gas savings<br />

are consistently higher, at 30 – 70 %. However, the<br />

great advantage of natural fibres compared to glass<br />

fibres, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, only<br />

partially remains for their final products, because<br />

further processing steps mitigate their benefits.<br />

Fig. 3: Comparison of greenhouse gas emissions per tonne natural fibre (flax, hemp, jute and kenaf)<br />

Hemp<br />

(scenario 1: mineral fertilizer)<br />

Hemp<br />

(scenario 2: organic fertilizer)<br />

Flax<br />

Jute<br />

Kenaf<br />

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900<br />

kg CO 2-eq<br />

/t natural fibre<br />

Field operations<br />

Seeds<br />

Fertilizer<br />

Fertilizer-induced N 2<br />

O-emissions<br />

Pesticides<br />

Transport I (field to processing)<br />

Fibre processing<br />

Transport II (Asia to Europe)<br />

Transport III (within Europe)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 37

Biocomposites<br />

Fig. 4: Primary energy use of different materials in GJ/t<br />

GJ/t<br />

350<br />

300<br />

250<br />

200<br />

150<br />

100<br />

50<br />

0<br />

Carbon<br />

fibre<br />

PUR PES PES PP Glass<br />

fibre<br />

Mineral Hemp<br />

wool fibre<br />

Fig. 5: GHG emissions expressed in percentages for the<br />

production of fossil based and hemp based composites for a<br />

number of studies – showing the effects of biogenic carbon<br />

storage where available<br />

100<br />

Hemp-based composites, accounted for carbon storage<br />

Hemp-based composites, not accounted for carbon storage<br />

Fossil-based composites<br />

3 Discussion on further sustainability<br />

aspects of natural bast fibres<br />

Although carbon footprints are a very useful<br />

tool to assess the climate impact of products, a<br />

comprehensive ecological evaluation must consider<br />

further environmental categories. Only taking into<br />

account greenhouse gas emissions can lead to<br />

inadequate product reviews and recommendations for<br />

action, in particular when other environmental impacts<br />

have not been considered at all. Therefore, one task of<br />

further studies is to take other impact categories into<br />

consideration.<br />

Since natural fibres are used in many industry<br />

sectors, certification is a suitable instrument to prove<br />

sustainability. At the moment there are certification<br />

systems available which insure the production of<br />

biomass in a social and environmentally sustainable<br />

way. For natural technical fibres there are two<br />

favourable systems in place which are recognized<br />

worldwide. These are (in alphabetical order):<br />

1. International Sustainability & Carbon Certification<br />

(ISCC PLUS) for food and feed products as well<br />

as for technical/chemical applications (e. g.<br />

bioplastics) and applications in the bioenergy sector<br />

(e. g. solid biomass).<br />

2. Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) is<br />

an international multi-stakeholder initiative for<br />

the global standard and certification scheme for<br />

sustainable production of biomaterials and biofuels.<br />

Natural fibres certified as sustainable have hitherto<br />

been unavailable on the market. However, the ISCC<br />

PLUS certification is currently underway for different<br />

hemp fibre producers within Europe. So it is expected<br />

that the first sustainable certificated natural fibres will<br />

be available by the end of <strong>2015</strong>.<br />

http://bio-based.eu<br />

GHG emissions in %: fossil- and hemp-based<br />

composites compared<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

4<br />

5<br />

6<br />

7<br />

8<br />

9<br />

[1] Barth, M., Carus, M.: Carbon Footprint and Sustainability of<br />

Different Natural Fibres for Biocomposites and Insulation<br />

Material, nova-Institute, Hürth, Germany, <strong>2015</strong><br />

0<br />

Hemp fibre/PP vs.<br />

GF/PP mat<br />

Hemp fibre/PP vs.<br />

GF composites<br />

Hemp fibre/PP vs.<br />

PP composite<br />

Hemp fibre/epoxy vs.<br />

ABS automotive door panel<br />

Hemp fibre/PTP vs.<br />

GF/PES bus exterior panel<br />

Hemp/PP vs.<br />

GF/PP battery tray<br />

This article is an extract from the publication<br />

“Carbon Footprint and Sustainability of Different<br />

Natural Fibres for Biocomposites and Insulation<br />

Material“ that is available for download at www.biobased.eu/ecology<br />

. The publication also includes<br />

various references which were not reproduced here<br />

in the interest of length.<br />

38 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10


<strong>2015</strong><br />




Call for proposals<br />

Enter your own product, service or development, or nominate<br />

your favourite example from another organisation<br />

Please let us know until July 30 th<br />

1. What the product, service or development is and does<br />

2. Why you think this product, service or development should win an award<br />

3. What your (or the proposed) company or organisation does<br />

Your entry should not exceed 500 words (approx. 1 page) and may also<br />

be supported with photographs, samples, marketing brochures and/or<br />

technical documentation (cannot be sent back). The 5 nominees must be<br />

prepared to provide a 30 second videoclip<br />

More details and an entry form can be downloaded from<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.de/award<br />

The Bioplastics Award will be presented during the<br />

10 th European Bioplastics Conference<br />

November 5-6 <strong>2015</strong>, Berlin, Germany<br />

supported by<br />

Sponsors welcome, please contact mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [02/15] Vol. 10 9

Biocomposites<br />

Figure 1: Reduction of weight and cost using powerRibs at a<br />

constant flexural stiffness<br />

Price (EUR/m 2 )<br />

Relative specific flexural stiffness (-)<br />

45<br />

40<br />

35<br />

30<br />

25<br />

Plates for given flexural stiffness (t CFRP<br />

= 1 mm)<br />

-27 %<br />

CFRP<br />

-40 %<br />

20<br />

CFRP + powerRibs<br />

GFRP<br />

-30 %<br />

15<br />

-43 %<br />

GFRP + powerRibs<br />

10<br />

-42 %<br />

NF Mat + powerRibs<br />

NF Mat<br />

5<br />

1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5<br />

Weight (kg/m 2 )<br />

Figure 2: Flexural stiffness increase with powerRibs at constant<br />

weight<br />

12 Bcomp<br />

powerRibs<br />

10<br />

8<br />

6<br />

4<br />

2<br />

0<br />

Aluminium<br />

Glass fibre<br />

composite<br />

Carbon fibre<br />

composite<br />

Increasing rib thickness<br />

Flax fibre<br />

composite<br />

powerRibs<br />

technology<br />

Well-known concepts<br />

Back in 2010, two PhD students from the Swiss Federal<br />

Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) were discussing<br />

a technical problem during a run in the forest. They wanted<br />

to develop a natural fibre composite tube which was lighter<br />

and stiffer than the carbon composite version. The materials<br />

engineer Christian Fischer had the idea to reinforce the<br />

tube from the inside with a ribbed structure. While the idea<br />

sounded interesting, the mechanical engineer Julien Rion<br />

demonstrated how this concept would increase the stiffness<br />

of the tube’s wall, but not of the overall tube. The intense<br />

exchange that followed lead to the invention of the powerRibs<br />

technology, and the patent was filed soon after.<br />

This technology is based on the concept of the leaf-veins,<br />

rigidifying a surface with minimum weight. Instead of the<br />

nervures we use so called ribs made with flax fibres to<br />

reinforce thin-walled structures, resulting in a pseudo mini<br />

sandwich, since no core material is involved.<br />

These ribs are easily combined with any type of base fabrics,<br />

such as natural fibre- (NF), glass fibre- (GF) or carbon fibre<br />

(CF) preforms<br />

Natural fibres in space<br />

With their high stiffness, low density and limited length, flax<br />

fibres are ideal for the use in the powerRibs technology. Their<br />

maximum fibre length of 60 cm – looking like a disadvantage<br />

at first sight – is a key factor for this technology, since the<br />

fibres need to be spun into a continuous yarn for further<br />

textile processing. Thanks to the resulting twist, the yarn has<br />

a good compression strength perpendicular to its direction,<br />

keeping its shape during composite processing, and leading<br />

to a 3D surface characteristic to the powerRibs technology.<br />

However, the mechanical properties in yarn direction rapidly<br />

decrease when the twist is too high.<br />

With this in mind, the Bcomp Ltd. engineers have been<br />

optimizing the yarn twist angle over several years. The findings<br />

have been further developed in the framework of several R&D<br />

Potential applications using powerRibs<br />

powerRibs with<br />

Duroplast<br />

powerRibs with<br />

Thermoplast<br />

Automotive Space Leisure Automotive Luggage<br />

Body parts<br />

Roof<br />

Spoiler<br />

Trunk lid<br />

Back rest<br />

Satelite Canoes &<br />

structures kayaks<br />

Star tracker<br />

Surf & SUP<br />

baffles<br />

Solid rocket<br />

booster top Bike frames<br />

cones<br />

Maintenance<br />

doors<br />

Front panel<br />

Door interior<br />

panels<br />

Loading<br />

areas<br />

Trunk lid<br />

Back rest<br />

Luggage<br />

shell parts<br />

Local reinforcement<br />

Electro<br />

casing<br />

40 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Biocomposites<br />

By:<br />

cYrille Boinay<br />

managing director, co-founder<br />

Bcomp Ltd.<br />

Fribourg, Switzerland<br />

Figure 3: Effect of powerRibs on damping properties<br />

projects, and have been applied to various customer projects<br />

within the mobility-, space- and sports & leisure industries.<br />

One example is the European Space Agency which is highly<br />

interested in the unique combination of high stiffness and<br />

damping properties offered by this technology.<br />

High relevance due to less weight and less cost<br />

The main effect of the powerRibs is that they triple the<br />

flexural stiffness of thin-walled structures without adding<br />

weight. Thus, cost and weight can be reduced when making<br />

composite parts, and damping properties can be increased<br />

by up to 250 %. For any given composite part, a large part<br />

of the synthetic fibres – such as glass or carbon – can be<br />

replaced with this novel material, increasing the part’s biobased<br />

material content. This effect adds up to the powerRibs<br />

structure’s lower weight, outperforming any given material in<br />

terms of sustainability.<br />

The powerRibs fabrics can easily be processed with the<br />

common vacuum molding techniques. Furthermore, Bcomp<br />

Ltd. has partnered with processing technology partners,<br />

to develop concepts for the mass production of powerRibs<br />

parts. Depending on the final application, two processing<br />

technologies are currently available: a sophisticated<br />

thermoplastic version for interior automotive parts and<br />

luggage shells on one hand side, and a thermoset-based<br />

version for the production of automotive body- and space<br />

parts on the other hand side.<br />

The powerRibs technology was awarded with the JEC<br />

Innovation Award <strong>2015</strong>, the Swiss Excellence Award and the<br />

Hermes Price.<br />

Normalized specific flexural stiffness (-)<br />

1.3<br />

1.2<br />

1.1<br />

1.0<br />

0.9<br />

0.8<br />

0.7<br />

0.6<br />

Carbon<br />

Carbon + powerRibs<br />

Flax + powerRibs<br />

0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014<br />

Loss factor, ξ (-)<br />

Figure 4: Eco-footprint of flax fibre composites<br />

Specific tensile modulus, E/ρ (MPa/(kg/m 3 ))<br />

90<br />

85<br />

30<br />

25<br />

20<br />

Stiffer<br />

Flax fiber composites<br />

Thermoset<br />

Carbon fiber composites<br />

Recycled<br />

Thermoplastic<br />

Glass fiber composites<br />

Wood<br />

Aluminium<br />

Greener<br />

Primary<br />

Bcomp have compiled a significant amount of data on<br />

the material‘s mechanical properties, such as static- and<br />

dynamic behaviour, thermo-mechanical characteristics and<br />

processing parameters of various production technologies<br />

which can be found on the website<br />

www.bcomp.ch.<br />

15<br />

0 1x10 5 2x10 5 3x10 5 4x10 5 5x10 5 6x10 5<br />

Embodied energy per m 3 , H m<br />

*ρ (MJ/m 3 )<br />

Technical data powerRibs:<br />

Rib thickness<br />

Yarn thickness<br />

Grid mesh size<br />

Rib stiffness<br />

1 – 2 mm<br />

1,500 – 3,000 tex<br />

15 – 28 mm<br />

20 GPa<br />

Fabric Areal Weight (FAW) 200 – 240 g/m 2<br />

Standard width<br />

Sales unit<br />

1,150 mm<br />

Roll of 50 linear meters<br />

Fibre volume ratio (vacuum infusion) 40 %<br />

Weight reduction* 25 %<br />

Damping properties* +350 %<br />

CO 2<br />

reduction* -50 %<br />

*Comparison between a 0/90° carbon composite plate of 1 mm<br />

thickness, and a plate with half the carbon quantity with<br />

powerRibs<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 41

Report<br />

Holland Bioplastics<br />

New association shares knowledge and<br />

connects parties around bioplastics<br />

Attention for bioplastics is increasing in the Netherlands. There are both national and international companies that focus<br />

on the production and processing of bioplastics. However, there is still a need for further awareness of the benefits of<br />

using bioplastics both in the public and business domain. In an attempt to increase awareness and understanding of<br />

bioplastics in the Netherlands, Holland Bioplastics was recently formed.<br />

NatureWorks, Braskem, Bio4Pack and Corbion are the founding partners who took the initiative to start Holland Bioplastics<br />

with the aim to share and provide unified, clear and objective information regarding bioplastics and their advantages. In addition,<br />

it is the aim to connect interested parties to further strengthen the bioplastics value chain.<br />

François de Bie, Marketing Director Bioplastics at Corbion: “Innovation and investments are taking place in new materials,<br />

knowledge and technologies in order to make the transition from an oil-based, linear economy to a more bio-based, circular<br />

economy. This provides an important contribution to the Dutch economy and serves to create new jobs. But to achieve this,<br />

parties need to be able to find each other.”<br />

“Until recently, The Netherlands remained behind with bioplastic developments, but now we are catching up” says Patrick<br />

Gerritsen of Bio4Pack. “Bioplastics are already widely accepted worldwide, and are being used by leading brands such as Ford,<br />

Nike, Puma, Toyota, Mercedes and The Coca Cola Company. In the Netherlands, bioplastics are a strong, upcoming market and<br />

are already being used by Albert Heijn, The Greenery, M+N, KLM, Rabobank, Desch, Heineken and Grolsch.”<br />

The association is represented by Caroli Buitenhuis, bioplastics expert, and not related to one specific bioplastics producer<br />

or convertor. “This makes it easier for entrepreneurs and brand owners to get objective information on bioplastics”, she tells.<br />

“But we have more ambitions. We also aim to clarify emotional assumptions around bioplastics with objective hard facts,<br />

proven with scientific research. Therefore we also work together with international knowledge institutes and universities.”<br />

Holland Bioplastics is also committed to streamlining processes; from crop to end-of-life, and vice versa. Therefore the<br />

association participates in a special working group Bioplastics, initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment.<br />

Within this working group there are also representatives from the composting industry, plastics recycling industry, knowledge<br />

institutes and retailers/brand owners.<br />

Participation in this new association is open to all those who are involved directly or indirectly in the production, manufacture,<br />

research and / or marketing of bioplastics and if they share the same aim.<br />

www.hollandbioplastics.nl.<br />

42 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

4 th PLA World Congress<br />


is a versatile bioplastics raw<br />

PLA material from renewable resources.<br />

It is being used for films and rigid packaging,<br />

for fibres in woven and non-woven applications.<br />

Automotive industry<br />

and consumer electronics are thoroughly<br />

investigating and even already applying PLA.<br />

New methods of polymerizing, compounding<br />

or blending of PLA have broadened the range<br />

of properties and thus the range of possible<br />

applications.<br />

That‘s why bioplastics MAGAZINE is now<br />

organizing the 4 th PLA World Congress on:<br />

May 2016 in Munich / Germany<br />

Experts from all involved fields will share their<br />

knowledge and contribute to a comprehensive<br />

overview of today‘s opportunities and challenges<br />

and discuss the possibilities, limitations<br />

and future prospects of PLA for all kind of<br />

applications. Like the three two congresses<br />

the 4 th PLA World Congress will also offer<br />

excellent networking opportunities for all<br />

delegates and speakers as well as exhibitors<br />

of the table-top exhibition.<br />

The conference will comprise high class presentations on<br />

Call for Papers<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE invites all experts<br />

worldwide from material development,<br />

processing and application of PLA to<br />

submit proposals for papers on the latest<br />

developments and innovations.<br />

Please send your proposal, including<br />

speaker details and a 300 word abstract to<br />

mt@bioplasticsmagazine.com.<br />

The team of bioplastics MAGAZINE is looking<br />

forward to seeing you in Munich.<br />

› Online registration will be available soon.<br />

Watch out for the Early–Bird discount as well<br />

as sponsoring opportunities at<br />

www.pla-world-congress.com<br />

› Latest developments<br />

› Market overview<br />

› High temperature behaviour<br />

› Barrier issues<br />

› Additives / Colorants<br />

› Applications (film and rigid packaging, textile,<br />

automotive,electronics, toys, and many more)<br />

› Fibers, fabrics, textiles, nonwovens<br />

› Reinforcements<br />

› End of life options<br />

(recycling,composting, incineration etc)<br />

organized by

Basics<br />

Frequently asked<br />

questions<br />

By Michael Thielen<br />

Even if bioplastics MAGAZINE has tried to give answers<br />

to all kind of questions from the field of biobased<br />

and biodegradable plastics for almost ten years now,<br />

there are always the same questions asked by people who<br />

just learned about these new kinds of materials. European<br />

Bioplastics has put together a comprehensive set of such<br />

FAQ which is accessible via their website or as a pdf document<br />

for download. Here bioplastics MAGAZINE presents a<br />

small and edited excerpt of these FAQ:<br />

What are bioplastics: bioplastics are biobased,<br />

biodegradable or both. The term biobased describes the<br />

part of a material or product that stems from biomass.<br />

When making a biobased claim, the unit (biobased<br />

carbon content or biobased mass content) expressed as<br />

a percentage and the method of measurement should be<br />

clearly stated. Biodegradability is an inherent property in<br />

certain materials that can benefit specific applications,<br />

e.g. biowaste bags. Biodegradation is a chemical process<br />

in which materials, with the help of microorganisms,<br />

degrade back into water, carbondioxide and biomass.<br />

When materials biodegrade under conditions and within a<br />

timeframe as defined by the EN 13432 standard, they can<br />

be labelled as industrially compostable<br />

What are the advantages of bioplastic products? Biobased<br />

plastics help reduce the dependency on limited fossil<br />

resources, which are expected to become significantly<br />

more expensive in the coming decades. Slowly depleted<br />

fossil resources are being gradually substituted with<br />

renewable resources (currently predominantly annual<br />

crops, such as corn and sugar beet, or perennial cultures,<br />

such as cassava and sugar cane).<br />

Biobased plastics also possess the unique potential<br />

to reduce GHG emissions or even be carbon neutral.<br />

Plants absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide as they grow.<br />

Using this biomass to create biobased plastic products<br />

constitutes a temporary removal of greenhouse gases<br />

(CO 2<br />

) from the atmosphere. This carbon fixation can be<br />

extended for a period of time if the material is recycled.<br />

Another major benefit offered by biobased plastics is that<br />

they can close the cycle and increase resource efficiency.<br />

This potential can be exploited most effectively by<br />

establishing use cascades, in which renewable resources<br />

are firstly used to produce materials and products prior to<br />

being used for energy recovery. This means either:<br />

1. using renewable resources for bioplastic products,<br />

mechanically recycling these products several times<br />

and recovering their renewable energy at the end of their<br />

product life or<br />

2. using renewable resources for bioplastic products,<br />

organically recycling them (composting) at the end of a<br />

product’s life cycle (if certified accordingly) and creating<br />

valuable biomass/humus during the process. This<br />

resulting new product facilitates plant growth thus closing<br />

the cycle. Furthermore, plastics that are biobased and<br />

compostable can help to divert biowaste from landfill and<br />

increase waste management efficiency across Europe.<br />

All in all, bioplastics can raise resource efficiency to its<br />

(current) best potential.<br />

Are bioplastics edible? Bioplastics are used in packaging,<br />

catering products, automotive parts, electronic consumer<br />

goods and have many more applications where<br />

conventional plastics are used. Neither conventional<br />

plastic nor bioplastic should be ingested. Bioplastics used<br />

in food and beverage packaging are approved for food<br />

contact, but are not suitable for human consumption.<br />

Can fossil-based plastics be completely substituted<br />

by biobased bioplastics? According to the PRO BIP<br />

study conducted by the University of Utrecht, bioplastics<br />

could technically substitute about 85 % of conventional<br />

plastics, though this is not a realistic short- or mid-term<br />

development. With a share of 1.6 million tonnes (2013)<br />

compared to 300 million tonnes total plastic production<br />

per year, bioplastics are still only beginning to penetrate<br />

the market. However, with increasing availability and a<br />

quickly expanding number of products in diverse market<br />

segments, bioplastics will become a significant part of the<br />

plastics market in the long run.<br />

How are costs for bioplastics developing? The cost of<br />

research and development still makes up for a share of<br />

investment in bioplastics and has an impact on material<br />

and product prices. However, prices have continuously<br />

been decreasing over the last decade. With rising demand,<br />

increasing volumes of bioplastics on the market and rising<br />

oil-prices, the costs for bioplastics will be comparable<br />

with those for conventional plastic prices.<br />

How much agricultural area is used for bioplastics? In<br />

2013, the global production capacities for bioplastics<br />

amounted to around 1.6 million tonnes. This translates<br />

into approximately 600,000 hectares of land.<br />

The surface area required to grow sufficient feedstock for<br />

today’s bioplastic production is therefore about 0.01 % of<br />

the global agricultural area of 5 billion hectares.<br />

Assuming continued high and maybe even politically<br />

supported growth in the bioplastics market, at the current<br />

stage of technological development a market of around 6.7<br />

million tonnes accounting for about 1.3 million hectares<br />

44 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Basics<br />

could be achieved by the year 2018, which equates to<br />

approximately 0.02 % of the global agricultural area.<br />

There are also many opportunities including using an<br />

increased share of food residues, non-food crops or<br />

cellulosic biomass that could lead to even less land use<br />

demand for bioplastics than the amount given above.<br />

Is the current use of food crops ethically justifiable?<br />

According to the FAO, about one third of global food<br />

production is either wasted or lost every year. European<br />

Bioplastics acknowledges that this is a serious problem<br />

and strongly supports the food industry’s efforts to reduce<br />

food waste as a key element in fighting world hunger.<br />

The main deficiencies that need to be addressed are:<br />

- logistical aspects such as poor distribution/storage of<br />

food/feed,<br />

- political instability, and<br />

- lack of financial resources.<br />

When it comes to using biomass there is no competition<br />

between food/ feed and bioplastics. About 0.01 percent of<br />

the global agricultural area is used to grow feedstock for<br />

bioplastics, compared to 97 percent used for food, feed<br />

and pastures.<br />

Food crops such as corn or sugar cane are currently the<br />

most productive and resilient feedstock available. Other<br />

solutions (non-food crops or waste from food crops) will<br />

be available in the medium and long term with second and<br />

third generation feedstock under development.<br />

There is no well-founded argument against a responsible<br />

and monitored (i. e. sustainable) use of food crops for<br />

bioplastics. Independent third party certification schemes<br />

can help to take social, environmental and economic<br />

criteria into account and to ensure that bioplastics are a<br />

purely beneficial innovation.<br />

Are GMO crops used for bioplastics? The use of GM crops<br />

is not a technical requirement for the manufacturing of<br />

any bioplastic commercially available today. If GM crops<br />

are used, the reasons lie in the economic or regional<br />

feedstock supply situation.<br />

If GM crops are used in bioplastic production, the multiplestage<br />

processing and high heat used to create the polymer<br />

removes all traces of genetic material. This means that<br />

the final bioplastic product contains no genetic traces. The<br />

resulting bioplastic is therefore well suited to use in food<br />

packaging as it contains no genetically modified material<br />

and cannot interact with the contents.<br />

What is the difference between oxo-fragmentable and<br />

biodegradable plastics? The underlying technology<br />

of oxo-degradability or oxo-fragmentation is based on<br />

special additives, which are purported to accelerate the<br />

fragmentation of the film products if incorporated into<br />

standard resins. The resulting fragments remain in the<br />

environment.<br />

Biodegradability is an inherent characteristic of a<br />

material or product. In contrast to oxo-fragmentation,<br />

biodegradation results from the action of naturally<br />

occurring microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and<br />

algae. The process produces water, carbon and biomass<br />

as end products.<br />

Oxo-fragmentable materials cannot biodegrade as<br />

defined in industry accepted standard specifications such<br />

as ASTM D6400, ASTM D6868, ASTM, D7081 or EN 13432.<br />

What are enzyme-mediated plastics? Enzyme-mediated<br />

plastics are not bioplastics. They are not biobased and<br />

they are not reported to be biodegradable or compostable<br />

in accordance with any standard. Enzyme-mediated<br />

plastics are conventional, non-biodegradable plastics (e.g.<br />

PE) enriched with small amounts of an organic additive.<br />

The degradation process is supposed to be initiated<br />

by microorganisms, which consume the additives. It is<br />

claimed that this process expands to the PE, thus making<br />

the material degradable. The plastic is said to visually<br />

disappear and to be completely converted into carbon<br />

dioxide and water after some time.<br />

Is biodegradation a solution for the littering problem?<br />

A product should be designed with an efficient recovery<br />

solution. In the case of biodegradable plastic items, the<br />

preferable recovery solution is collection with biowaste,<br />

organic recycling (e.g. composting) and the creation<br />

of compost (a type of humus which is beneficial for soil<br />

fertility). Designing a product for littering of any kind<br />

would mean encouraging the misuse of disposal, which is<br />

unfortunately widespread. Consequently, biodegradability<br />

does not constitute a permit to litter.<br />

However, the issue of pollution, especially marine pollution,<br />

is taken very seriously by the bioplastics industry; research<br />

is actively being conducted to provide further factual<br />

information in the immediate future. Generally, when<br />

advertising products as biodegradable, a clear message<br />

should be communicated to consumers, who often<br />

misunderstand this property. A clear recommendation on<br />

product recovery is therefore important.<br />

Are biobased plastics more sustainable than conventional<br />

plastics? Biobased plastics have clear advantages over<br />

conventional plastics. They provide the same and in<br />

some cases better performance while also being based<br />

on renewable resources. Thus, the plastics industry will<br />

be able to move away from finite fossil resources in the<br />

future and take its place in the bioeconomy. Saving fossil<br />

resources and reducing GHG emissions are two inherent<br />

advantages that biobased plastics offer in contrast to<br />

conventional plastics. With use cascades biobased plastics<br />

can also contribute towards closing the loop of a product<br />

thus helping to increase resource efficiency immensely.<br />

Bioplastics are either more sustainable than conventional<br />

plastics or have the potential to be so. According to a<br />

study by the German Environment Agency “bioplastics are<br />

at least as good as conventional plastics”. The study also<br />

mentions that “considerable potential is as yet untapped” .<br />

Info:<br />

The complete set of European Bioplastics’ FAQ can be found<br />

at their website:<br />

http://en.european-bioplastics.org/press/faq-bioplastics/<br />

A pdf-version of the FAQ<br />

can be downloaded from<br />

http://bit.ly/1J2y1X9<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 45

Basics<br />

Glossary 4.0 last update issue 01/<strong>2015</strong><br />

In bioplastics MAGAZINE again and again<br />

the same expressions appear that some of our readers<br />

might not (yet) be familiar with. This glossary shall help<br />

with these terms and shall help avoid repeated explanations<br />

such as PLA (Polylactide) in various articles.<br />

Bioplastics (as defined by European Bioplastics<br />

e.V.) is a term used to define two different<br />

kinds of plastics:<br />

a. Plastics based on → renewable resources<br />

(the focus is the origin of the raw material<br />

used). These can be biodegradable or not.<br />

b. → Biodegradable and → compostable<br />

plastics according to EN13432 or similar<br />

standards (the focus is the compostability of<br />

the final product; biodegradable and compostable<br />

plastics can be based on renewable<br />

(biobased) and/or non-renewable (fossil) resources).<br />

Bioplastics may be<br />

- based on renewable resources and biodegradable;<br />

- based on renewable resources but not be<br />

biodegradable; and<br />

- based on fossil resources and biodegradable.<br />

1 st Generation feedstock | Carbohydrate rich<br />

plants such as corn or sugar cane that can<br />

also be used as food or animal feed are called<br />

food crops or 1 st generation feedstock. Bred<br />

my mankind over centuries for highest energy<br />

efficiency, currently, 1 st generation feedstock<br />

is the most efficient feedstock for the production<br />

of bioplastics as it requires the least<br />

amount of land to grow and produce the highest<br />

yields. [bM 04/09]<br />

2 nd Generation feedstock | refers to feedstock<br />

not suitable for food or feed. It can be either<br />

non-food crops (e.g. cellulose) or waste materials<br />

from 1 st generation feedstock (e.g.<br />

waste vegetable oil). [bM 06/11]<br />

3 rd Generation feedstock | This term currently<br />

relates to biomass from algae, which<br />

– having a higher growth yield than 1 st and 2 nd<br />

generation feedstock – were given their own<br />

category.<br />

Aerobic digestion | Aerobic means in the<br />

presence of oxygen. In →composting, which is<br />

an aerobic process, →microorganisms access<br />

the present oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere.<br />

They metabolize the organic material<br />

to energy, CO 2<br />

, water and cell biomass,<br />

whereby part of the energy of the organic material<br />

is released as heat. [bM <strong>03</strong>/07, bM 02/09]<br />

Since this Glossary will not be printed<br />

in each issue you can download a pdf version<br />

from our website (bit.ly/OunBB0)<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE is grateful to European Bioplastics for the permission to use parts of their Glossary.<br />

This new version 4.0 was revised using EuBP’s latest version (Jan <strong>2015</strong>). All new or revised parts are printed in green<br />

[*: bM ... refers to more comprehensive article previously published in bioplastics MAGAZINE)<br />

Anaerobic digestion | In anaerobic digestion,<br />

organic matter is degraded by a microbial<br />

population in the absence of oxygen and producing<br />

methane and carbon dioxide (= biogas)<br />

and a solid residue that can be composted<br />

in a subsequent step without practically releasing<br />

any heat. The biogas can be treated<br />

in a Combined Heat and Power Plant (CHP),<br />

producing electricity and heat, or can be upgraded<br />

to bio-methane [14] [bM 06/09]<br />

Amorphous | non-crystalline, glassy with unordered<br />

lattice<br />

Amylopectin | Polymeric branched starch<br />

molecule with very high molecular weight<br />

(biopolymer, monomer is →Glucose) [bM 05/09]<br />

Amylose | Polymeric non-branched starch<br />

molecule with high molecular weight (biopolymer,<br />

monomer is →Glucose) [bM 05/09]<br />

Biobased | The term biobased describes the<br />

part of a material or product that is stemming<br />

from →biomass. When making a biobasedclaim,<br />

the unit (→biobased carbon content,<br />

→biobased mass content), a percentage and<br />

the measuring method should be clearly stated [1]<br />

Biobased carbon | carbon contained in or<br />

stemming from →biomass. A material or<br />

product made of fossil and →renewable resources<br />

contains fossil and →biobased carbon.<br />

The biobased carbon content is measured via<br />

the 14 C method (radio carbon dating method)<br />

that adheres to the technical specifications as<br />

described in [1,4,5,6].<br />

Biobased labels | The fact that (and to<br />

what percentage) a product or a material is<br />

→biobased can be indicated by respective<br />

labels. Ideally, meaningful labels should be<br />

based on harmonised standards and a corresponding<br />

certification process by independent<br />

third party institutions. For the property<br />

biobased such labels are in place by certifiers<br />

→DIN CERTCO and →Vinçotte who both base<br />

their certifications on the technical specification<br />

as described in [4,5]<br />

A certification and corresponding label depicting<br />

the biobased mass content was developed<br />

by the French Association Chimie du Végétal<br />

[ACDV].<br />

Biobased mass content | describes the<br />

amount of biobased mass contained in a material<br />

or product. This method is complementary<br />

to the 14 C method, and furthermore, takes<br />

other chemical elements besides the biobased<br />

carbon into account, such as oxygen, nitrogen<br />

and hydrogen. A measuring method has<br />

been developed and tested by the Association<br />

Chimie du Végétal (ACDV) [1]<br />

Biobased plastic | A plastic in which constitutional<br />

units are totally or partly from →<br />

biomass [3]. If this claim is used, a percentage<br />

should always be given to which extent<br />

the product/material is → biobased [1]<br />

[bM 01/07, bM <strong>03</strong>/10]<br />

Biodegradable Plastics | Biodegradable Plastics<br />

are plastics that are completely assimilated<br />

by the → microorganisms present a defined<br />

environment as food for their energy. The<br />

carbon of the plastic must completely be converted<br />

into CO 2<br />

during the microbial process.<br />

The process of biodegradation depends on<br />

the environmental conditions, which influence<br />

it (e.g. location, temperature, humidity) and<br />

on the material or application itself. Consequently,<br />

the process and its outcome can vary<br />

considerably. Biodegradability is linked to the<br />

structure of the polymer chain; it does not depend<br />

on the origin of the raw materials.<br />

There is currently no single, overarching standard<br />

to back up claims about biodegradability.<br />

One standard for example is ISO or in Europe:<br />

EN 14995 Plastics- Evaluation of compostability<br />

- Test scheme and specifications<br />

[bM 02/06, bM 01/07]<br />

Biogas | → Anaerobic digestion<br />

Biomass | Material of biological origin excluding<br />

material embedded in geological formations<br />

and material transformed to fossilised<br />

material. This includes organic material, e.g.<br />

trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, algae and<br />

waste of biological origin, e.g. manure [1, 2]<br />

Biorefinery | the co-production of a spectrum<br />

of bio-based products (food, feed, materials,<br />

chemicals including monomers or building<br />

blocks for bioplastics) and energy (fuels, power,<br />

heat) from biomass.[bM 02/13]<br />

Blend | Mixture of plastics, polymer alloy of at<br />

least two microscopically dispersed and molecularly<br />

distributed base polymers<br />

Bisphenol-A (BPA) | Monomer used to produce<br />

different polymers. BPA is said to cause<br />

health problems, due to the fact that is behaves<br />

like a hormone. Therefore it is banned<br />

for use in children’s products in many countries.<br />

BPI | Biodegradable Products Institute, a notfor-profit<br />

association. Through their innovative<br />

compostable label program, BPI educates<br />

manufacturers, legislators and consumers<br />

about the importance of scientifically based<br />

standards for compostable materials which<br />

biodegrade in large composting facilities.<br />

Carbon footprint | (CFPs resp. PCFs – Product<br />

Carbon Footprint): Sum of →greenhouse<br />

gas emissions and removals in a product system,<br />

expressed as CO 2<br />

equivalent, and based<br />

on a →life cycle assessment. The CO 2<br />

equivalent<br />

of a specific amount of a greenhouse gas<br />

is calculated as the mass of a given greenhouse<br />

gas multiplied by its →global warmingpotential<br />

[1,2,15]<br />

46 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Basics<br />

Carbon neutral, CO 2<br />

neutral | describes a<br />

product or process that has a negligible impact<br />

on total atmospheric CO 2<br />

levels. For<br />

example, carbon neutrality means that any<br />

CO 2<br />

released when a plant decomposes or<br />

is burnt is offset by an equal amount of CO 2<br />

absorbed by the plant through photosynthesis<br />

when it is growing.<br />

Carbon neutrality can also be achieved<br />

through buying sufficient carbon credits to<br />

make up the difference. The latter option is<br />

not allowed when communicating → LCAs<br />

or carbon footprints regarding a material or<br />

product [1, 2].<br />

Carbon-neutral claims are tricky as products<br />

will not in most cases reach carbon neutrality<br />

if their complete life cycle is taken into consideration<br />

(including the end-of life).<br />

If an assessment of a material, however, is<br />

conducted (cradle to gate), carbon neutrality<br />

might be a valid claim in a B2B context. In this<br />

case, the unit assessed in the complete life<br />

cycle has to be clarified [1]<br />

Cascade use | of →renewable resources means<br />

to first use the →biomass to produce biobased<br />

industrial products and afterwards – due to<br />

their favourable energy balance – use them<br />

for energy generation (e.g. from a biobased<br />

plastic product to →biogas production). The<br />

feedstock is used efficiently and value generation<br />

increases decisively.<br />

Catalyst | substance that enables and accelerates<br />

a chemical reaction<br />

Cellophane | Clear film on the basis of →cellulose<br />

[bM 01/10]<br />

Cellulose | Cellulose is the principal component<br />

of cell walls in all higher forms of plant<br />

life, at varying percentages. It is therefore the<br />

most common organic compound and also<br />

the most common polysaccharide (multisugar)<br />

[11]. Cellulose is a polymeric molecule<br />

with very high molecular weight (monomer is<br />

→Glucose), industrial production from wood<br />

or cotton, to manufacture paper, plastics and<br />

fibres [bM 01/10]<br />

Cellulose ester | Cellulose esters occur by<br />

the esterification of cellulose with organic acids.<br />

The most important cellulose esters from<br />

a technical point of view are cellulose acetate<br />

(CA with acetic acid), cellulose propionate<br />

(CP with propionic acid) and cellulose butyrate<br />

(CB with butanoic acid). Mixed polymerisates,<br />

such as cellulose acetate propionate<br />

(CAP) can also be formed. One of the most<br />

well-known applications of cellulose aceto<br />

butyrate (CAB) is the moulded handle on the<br />

Swiss army knife [11]<br />

Cellulose acetate CA | → Cellulose ester<br />

CEN | Comité Européen de Normalisation<br />

(European organisation for standardization)<br />

Certification | is a process in which materials/products<br />

undergo a string of (laboratory)<br />

tests in order to verify that the fulfil certain<br />

requirements. Sound certification systems<br />

should be based on (ideally harmonised) European<br />

standards or technical specifications<br />

(e.g. by →CEN, USDA, ASTM, etc.) and be<br />

performed by independent third party laboratories.<br />

Successful certification guarantees<br />

a high product safety - also on this basis interconnected<br />

labels can be awarded that help<br />

the consumer to make an informed decision.<br />

Compost | A soil conditioning material of decomposing<br />

organic matter which provides nutrients<br />

and enhances soil structure.<br />

[bM 06/08, 02/09]<br />

Compostable Plastics | Plastics that are<br />

→ biodegradable under →composting conditions:<br />

specified humidity, temperature,<br />

→ microorganisms and timeframe. In order<br />

to make accurate and specific claims about<br />

compostability, the location (home, → industrial)<br />

and timeframe need to be specified [1].<br />

Several national and international standards<br />

exist for clearer definitions, for example EN<br />

14995 Plastics - Evaluation of compostability -<br />

Test scheme and specifications. [bM 02/06, bM 01/07]<br />

Composting | is the controlled →aerobic, or<br />

oxygen-requiring, decomposition of organic<br />

materials by →microorganisms, under controlled<br />

conditions. It reduces the volume and<br />

mass of the raw materials while transforming<br />

them into CO 2<br />

, water and a valuable soil conditioner<br />

– compost.<br />

When talking about composting of bioplastics,<br />

foremost →industrial composting in a<br />

managed composting facility is meant (criteria<br />

defined in EN 13432).<br />

The main difference between industrial and<br />

home composting is, that in industrial composting<br />

facilities temperatures are much<br />

higher and kept stable, whereas in the composting<br />

pile temperatures are usually lower,<br />

and less constant as depending on factors<br />

such as weather conditions. Home composting<br />

is a way slower-paced process than<br />

industrial composting. Also a comparatively<br />

smaller volume of waste is involved. [bM <strong>03</strong>/07]<br />

Compound | plastic mixture from different<br />

raw materials (polymer and additives) [bM 04/10)<br />

Copolymer | Plastic composed of different<br />

monomers.<br />

Cradle-to-Gate | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of an environmental →Life Cycle<br />

Assessment (LCA) which covers all activities<br />

from the cradle (i.e., the extraction of raw materials,<br />

agricultural activities and forestry) up<br />

to the factory gate<br />

Cradle-to-Cradle | (sometimes abbreviated<br />

as C2C): Is an expression which communicates<br />

the concept of a closed-cycle economy,<br />

in which waste is used as raw material<br />

(‘waste equals food’). Cradle-to-Cradle is not<br />

a term that is typically used in →LCA studies.<br />

Cradle-to-Grave | Describes the system<br />

boundaries of a full →Life Cycle Assessment<br />

from manufacture (cradle) to use phase and<br />

disposal phase (grave).<br />

Crystalline | Plastic with regularly arranged<br />

molecules in a lattice structure<br />

Density | Quotient from mass and volume of<br />

a material, also referred to as specific weight<br />

DIN | Deutsches Institut für Normung (German<br />

organisation for standardization)<br />

DIN-CERTCO | independant certifying organisation<br />

for the assessment on the conformity<br />

of bioplastics<br />

Dispersing | fine distribution of non-miscible<br />

liquids into a homogeneous, stable mixture<br />

Drop-In bioplastics | chemically indentical<br />

to conventional petroleum based plastics,<br />

but made from renewable resources. Examples<br />

are bio-PE made from bio-ethanol (from<br />

e.g. sugar cane) or partly biobased PET; the<br />

monoethylene glykol made from bio-ethanol<br />

(from e.g. sugar cane). Developments to<br />

make terephthalic acid from renewable resources<br />

are under way. Other examples are<br />

polyamides (partly biobased e.g. PA 4.10 or PA<br />

6.10 or fully biobased like PA 5.10 or PA10.10)<br />

EN 13432 | European standard for the assessment<br />

of the → compostability of plastic<br />

packaging products<br />

Energy recovery | recovery and exploitation<br />

of the energy potential in (plastic) waste for<br />

the production of electricity or heat in waste<br />

incineration pants (waste-to-energy)<br />

Environmental claim | A statement, symbol<br />

or graphic that indicates one or more environmental<br />

aspect(s) of a product, a component,<br />

packaging or a service. [16]<br />

Enzymes | proteins that catalyze chemical<br />

reactions<br />

Enzyme-mediated plastics | are no →bioplastics.<br />

Instead, a conventional non-biodegradable<br />

plastic (e.g. fossil-based PE) is enriched<br />

with small amounts of an organic additive.<br />

Microorganisms are supposed to consume<br />

these additives and the degradation process<br />

should then expand to the non-biodegradable<br />

PE and thus make the material degrade. After<br />

some time the plastic is supposed to visually<br />

disappear and to be completely converted to<br />

carbon dioxide and water. This is a theoretical<br />

concept which has not been backed up by<br />

any verifiable proof so far. Producers promote<br />

enzyme-mediated plastics as a solution to littering.<br />

As no proof for the degradation process<br />

has been provided, environmental beneficial<br />

effects are highly questionable.<br />

Ethylene | colour- and odourless gas, made<br />

e.g. from, Naphtha (petroleum) by cracking or<br />

from bio-ethanol by dehydration, monomer of<br />

the polymer polyethylene (PE)<br />

European Bioplastics e.V. | The industry association<br />

representing the interests of Europe’s<br />

thriving bioplastics’ industry. Founded<br />

in Germany in 1993 as IBAW, European<br />

Bioplastics today represents the interests<br />

of about 50 member companies throughout<br />

the European Union and worldwide. With<br />

members from the agricultural feedstock,<br />

chemical and plastics industries, as well as<br />

industrial users and recycling companies, European<br />

Bioplastics serves as both a contact<br />

platform and catalyst for advancing the aims<br />

of the growing bioplastics industry.<br />

Extrusion | process used to create plastic<br />

profiles (or sheet) of a fixed cross-section<br />

consisting of mixing, melting, homogenising<br />

and shaping of the plastic.<br />

FDCA | 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF.<br />

The dicarboxylic acid can be used to make →<br />

PEF = polyethylene furanoate, a polyester that<br />

could be a 100% biobased alternative to PET.<br />

Fermentation | Biochemical reactions controlled<br />

by → microorganisms or → enyzmes (e.g. the<br />

transformation of sugar into lactic acid).<br />

FSC | Forest Stewardship Council. FSC is an<br />

independent, non-governmental, not-forprofit<br />

organization established to promote the<br />

responsible and sustainable management of<br />

the world’s forests.<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 47

Basics<br />

Gelatine | Translucent brittle solid substance,<br />

colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless<br />

and odorless, extracted from the collagen inside<br />

animals‘ connective tissue.<br />

Genetically modified organism (GMO) |<br />

Organisms, such as plants and animals,<br />

whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered<br />

are called genetically modified organisms<br />

(GMOs). Food and feed which contain<br />

or consist of such GMOs, or are produced<br />

from GMOs, are called genetically modified<br />

(GM) food or feed [1]. If GM crops are used<br />

in bioplastics production, the multiple-stage<br />

processing and the high heat used to create<br />

the polymer removes all traces of genetic<br />

material. This means that the final bioplastics<br />

product contains no genetic traces. The<br />

resulting bioplastics is therefore well suited<br />

to use in food packaging as it contains no genetically<br />

modified material and cannot interact<br />

with the contents.<br />

Global Warming | Global warming is the rise<br />

in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere<br />

and oceans since the late 19th century<br />

and its projected continuation [8]. Global<br />

warming is said to be accelerated by → green<br />

house gases.<br />

Glucose | Monosaccharide (or simple sugar).<br />

G. is the most important carbohydrate (sugar)<br />

in biology. G. is formed by photosynthesis or<br />

hydrolyse of many carbohydrates e. g. starch.<br />

Greenhouse gas GHG | Gaseous constituent<br />

of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic,<br />

that absorbs and emits radiation at<br />

specific wavelengths within the spectrum of<br />

infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface,<br />

the atmosphere, and clouds [1, 9]<br />

Greenwashing | The act of misleading consumers<br />

regarding the environmental practices<br />

of a company, or the environmental benefits<br />

of a product or service [1, 10]<br />

Granulate, granules | small plastic particles<br />

(3-4 millimetres), a form in which plastic is<br />

sold and fed into machines, easy to handle<br />

and dose.<br />

HMF (5-HMF) | 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is an<br />

organic compound derived from sugar dehydration.<br />

It is a platform chemical, a building<br />

block for 20 performance polymers and over<br />

175 different chemical substances. The molecule<br />

consists of a furan ring which contains<br />

both aldehyde and alcohol functional groups.<br />

5-HMF has applications in many different<br />

industries such as bioplastics, packaging,<br />

pharmaceuticals, adhesives and chemicals.<br />

One of the most promising routes is 2,5 furandicarboxylic<br />

acid (FDCA), produced as an intermediate<br />

when 5-HMF is oxidised. FDCA is<br />

used to produce PEF, which can substitute<br />

terephthalic acid in polyester, especially polyethylene<br />

terephthalate (PET). [bM <strong>03</strong>/14]<br />

Home composting | →composting [bM 06/08]<br />

Humus | In agriculture, humus is often used<br />

simply to mean mature →compost, or natural<br />

compost extracted from a forest or other<br />

spontaneous source for use to amend soil.<br />

Hydrophilic | Property: water-friendly, soluble<br />

in water or other polar solvents (e.g. used<br />

in conjunction with a plastic which is not water<br />

resistant and weather proof or that absorbs<br />

water such as Polyamide (PA).<br />

Hydrophobic | Property: water-resistant, not<br />

soluble in water (e.g. a plastic which is water<br />

resistant and weather proof, or that does not<br />

absorb any water such as Polyethylene (PE)<br />

or Polypropylene (PP).<br />

Industrial composting | is an established process<br />

with commonly agreed upon requirements<br />

(e.g. temperature, timeframe) for transforming<br />

biodegradable waste into stable, sanitised<br />

products to be used in agriculture. The criteria<br />

for industrial compostability of packaging have<br />

been defined in the EN 13432. Materials and<br />

products complying with this standard can be<br />

certified and subsequently labelled accordingly<br />

[1,7] [bM 06/08, 02/09]<br />

ISO | International Organization for Standardization<br />

JBPA | Japan Bioplastics Association<br />

Land use | The surface required to grow sufficient<br />

feedstock (land use) for today’s bioplastic<br />

production is less than 0.01 percent of the<br />

global agricultural area of 5 billion hectares.<br />

It is not yet foreseeable to what extent an increased<br />

use of food residues, non-food crops<br />

or cellulosic biomass (see also →1 st /2 nd /3 rd<br />

generation feedstock) in bioplastics production<br />

might lead to an even further reduced<br />

land use in the future [bM 04/09, 01/14]<br />

LCA | is the compilation and evaluation of the<br />

input, output and the potential environmental<br />

impact of a product system throughout its life<br />

cycle [17]. It is sometimes also referred to as<br />

life cycle analysis, ecobalance or cradle-tograve<br />

analysis. [bM 01/09]<br />

Littering | is the (illegal) act of leaving waste<br />

such as cigarette butts, paper, tins, bottles,<br />

cups, plates, cutlery or bags lying in an open<br />

or public place.<br />

Marine litter | Following the European Commission’s<br />

definition, “marine litter consists of<br />

items that have been deliberately discarded,<br />

unintentionally lost, or transported by winds<br />

and rivers, into the sea and on beaches. It<br />

mainly consists of plastics, wood, metals,<br />

glass, rubber, clothing and paper”. Marine<br />

debris originates from a variety of sources.<br />

Shipping and fishing activities are the predominant<br />

sea-based, ineffectively managed<br />

landfills as well as public littering the main<br />

land-based sources. Marine litter can pose a<br />

threat to living organisms, especially due to<br />

ingestion or entanglement.<br />

Currently, there is no international standard<br />

available, which appropriately describes the<br />

biodegradation of plastics in the marine environment.<br />

However, a number of standardisation<br />

projects are in progress at ISO and ASTM<br />

level. Furthermore, the European project<br />

OPEN BIO addresses the marine biodegradation<br />

of biobased products.<br />

Mass balance | describes the relationship between<br />

input and output of a specific substance<br />

within a system in which the output from the<br />

system cannot exceed the input into the system.<br />

First attempts were made by plastic raw material<br />

producers to claim their products renewable<br />

(plastics) based on a certain input<br />

of biomass in a huge and complex chemical<br />

plant, then mathematically allocating this<br />

biomass input to the produced plastic.<br />

These approaches are at least controversially<br />

disputed [bM 04/14, 05/14, 01/15]<br />

Microorganism | Living organisms of microscopic<br />

size, such as bacteria, funghi or yeast.<br />

Molecule | group of at least two atoms held<br />

together by covalent chemical bonds.<br />

Monomer | molecules that are linked by polymerization<br />

to form chains of molecules and<br />

then plastics<br />

Mulch film | Foil to cover bottom of farmland<br />

Organic recycling | means the treatment of<br />

separately collected organic waste by anaerobic<br />

digestion and/or composting.<br />

Oxo-degradable / Oxo-fragmentable | materials<br />

and products that do not biodegrade!<br />

The underlying technology of oxo-degradability<br />

or oxo-fragmentation is based on special additives,<br />

which, if incorporated into standard<br />

resins, are purported to accelerate the fragmentation<br />

of products made thereof. Oxodegradable<br />

or oxo-fragmentable materials do<br />

not meet accepted industry standards on compostability<br />

such as EN 13432. [bM 01/09, 05/09]<br />

PBAT | Polybutylene adipate terephthalate, is<br />

an aliphatic-aromatic copolyester that has the<br />

properties of conventional polyethylene but is<br />

fully biodegradable under industrial composting.<br />

PBAT is made from fossil petroleum with<br />

first attempts being made to produce it partly<br />

from renewable resources [bM 06/09]<br />

PBS | Polybutylene succinate, a 100% biodegradable<br />

polymer, made from (e.g. bio-BDO)<br />

and succinic acid, which can also be produced<br />

biobased [bM <strong>03</strong>/12].<br />

PC | Polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyester,<br />

petroleum based and not degradable, used<br />

for e.g. baby bottles or CDs. Criticized for its<br />

BPA (→ Bisphenol-A) content.<br />

PCL | Polycaprolactone, a synthetic (fossil<br />

based), biodegradable bioplastic, e.g. used as<br />

a blend component.<br />

PE | Polyethylene, thermoplastic polymerised<br />

from ethylene. Can be made from renewable<br />

resources (sugar cane via bio-ethanol) [bM 05/10]<br />

PEF | polyethylene furanoate, a polyester<br />

made from monoethylene glycol (MEG) and<br />

→FDCA (2,5-furandicarboxylic acid , an intermediate<br />

chemical produced from 5-HMF). It<br />

can be a 100% biobased alternative for PET.<br />

PEF also has improved product characteristics,<br />

such as better structural strength and<br />

improved barrier behaviour, which will allow<br />

for the use of PEF bottles in additional applications.<br />

[bM <strong>03</strong>/11, 04/12]<br />

PET | Polyethylenterephthalate, transparent<br />

polyester used for bottles and film. The<br />

polyester is made from monoethylene glycol<br />

(MEG), that can be renewably sourced from<br />

bio-ethanol (sugar cane) and (until now fossil)<br />

terephthalic acid [bM 04/14]<br />

PGA | Polyglycolic acid or Polyglycolide is a biodegradable,<br />

thermoplastic polymer and the<br />

simplest linear, aliphatic polyester. Besides<br />

ist use in the biomedical field, PGA has been<br />

introduced as a barrier resin [bM <strong>03</strong>/09]<br />

PHA | Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) or the<br />

polyhydroxy fatty acids, are a family of biodegradable<br />

polyesters. As in many mammals,<br />

including humans, that hold energy reserves<br />

in the form of body fat there are also bacteria<br />

that hold intracellular reserves in for of<br />

of polyhydroxy alkanoates. Here the microorganisms<br />

store a particularly high level of<br />

48 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Basics<br />

energy reserves (up to 80% of their own body<br />

weight) for when their sources of nutrition become<br />

scarce. By farming this type of bacteria,<br />

and feeding them on sugar or starch (mostly<br />

from maize), or at times on plant oils or other<br />

nutrients rich in carbonates, it is possible to<br />

obtain PHA‘s on an industrial scale [11]. The<br />

most common types of PHA are PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate,<br />

PHBV and PHBH. Depending<br />

on the bacteria and their food, PHAs with<br />

different mechanical properties, from rubbery<br />

soft trough stiff and hard as ABS, can be produced.<br />

Some PHSs are even biodegradable in<br />

soil or in a marine environment<br />

PLA | Polylactide or Polylactic Acid (PLA), a<br />

biodegradable, thermoplastic, linear aliphatic<br />

polyester based on lactic acid, a natural acid,<br />

is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar<br />

or starch with the help of micro-organisms.<br />

Lactic acid comes in two isomer forms, i.e. as<br />

laevorotatory D(-)lactic acid and as dextrorotary<br />

L(+)lactic acid.<br />

Modified PLA types can be produced by the<br />

use of the right additives or by certain combinations<br />

of L- and D- lactides (stereocomplexing),<br />

which then have the required rigidity for<br />

use at higher temperatures [13] [bM 01/09, 01/12]<br />

Plastics | Materials with large molecular<br />

chains of natural or fossil raw materials, produced<br />

by chemical or biochemical reactions.<br />

PPC | Polypropylene Carbonate, a bioplastic<br />

made by copolymerizing CO 2<br />

with propylene<br />

oxide (PO) [bM 04/12]<br />

PTT | Polytrimethylterephthalate (PTT), partially<br />

biobased polyester, is similarly to PET<br />

produced using terephthalic acid or dimethyl<br />

terephthalate and a diol. In this case it is a<br />

biobased 1,3 propanediol, also known as bio-<br />

PDO [bM 01/13]<br />

Renewable Resources | agricultural raw materials,<br />

which are not used as food or feed,<br />

but as raw material for industrial products<br />

or to generate energy. The use of renewable<br />

resources by industry saves fossil resources<br />

and reduces the amount of → greenhouse gas<br />

emissions. Biobased plastics are predominantly<br />

made of annual crops such as corn,<br />

cereals and sugar beets or perennial cultures<br />

such as cassava and sugar cane.<br />

Resource efficiency | Use of limited natural<br />

resources in a sustainable way while minimising<br />

impacts on the environment. A resource<br />

efficient economy creates more output<br />

or value with lesser input.<br />

Seedling Logo | The compostability label or<br />

logo Seedling is connected to the standard<br />

EN 13432/EN 14995 and a certification process<br />

managed by the independent institutions<br />

→DIN CERTCO and → Vinçotte. Bioplastics<br />

products carrying the Seedling fulfil the criteria<br />

laid down in the EN 13432 regarding industrial<br />

compostability. [bM 01/06, 02/10]<br />

Saccharins or carbohydrates | Saccharins or<br />

carbohydrates are name for the sugar-family.<br />

Saccharins are monomer or polymer sugar<br />

units. For example, there are known mono-,<br />

di- and polysaccharose. → glucose is a monosaccarin.<br />

They are important for the diet and<br />

produced biology in plants.<br />

Semi-finished products | plastic in form of<br />

sheet, film, rods or the like to be further processed<br />

into finshed products<br />

Sorbitol | Sugar alcohol, obtained by reduction<br />

of glucose changing the aldehyde group<br />

to an additional hydroxyl group. S. is used as<br />

a plasticiser for bioplastics based on starch.<br />

Starch | Natural polymer (carbohydrate)<br />

consisting of → amylose and → amylopectin,<br />

gained from maize, potatoes, wheat, tapioca<br />

etc. When glucose is connected to polymerchains<br />

in definite way the result (product) is<br />

called starch. Each molecule is based on 300<br />

-12000-glucose units. Depending on the connection,<br />

there are two types → amylose and →<br />

amylopectin known. [bM 05/09]<br />

Starch derivatives | Starch derivatives are<br />

based on the chemical structure of → starch.<br />

The chemical structure can be changed by<br />

introducing new functional groups without<br />

changing the → starch polymer. The product<br />

has different chemical qualities. Mostly the<br />

hydrophilic character is not the same.<br />

Starch-ester | One characteristic of every<br />

starch-chain is a free hydroxyl group. When<br />

every hydroxyl group is connected with an<br />

acid one product is starch-ester with different<br />

chemical properties.<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate |<br />

Starch propionate and starch butyrate can be<br />

synthesised by treating the → starch with propane<br />

or butanic acid. The product structure<br />

is still based on → starch. Every based → glucose<br />

fragment is connected with a propionate<br />

or butyrate ester group. The product is more<br />

hydrophobic than → starch.<br />

Sustainable | An attempt to provide the best<br />

outcomes for the human and natural environments<br />

both now and into the indefinite future.<br />

One famous definition of sustainability is the<br />

one created by the Brundtland Commission,<br />

led by the former Norwegian Prime Minister<br />

G. H. Brundtland. The Brundtland Commission<br />

defined sustainable development as<br />

development that ‘meets the needs of the<br />

present without compromising the ability of<br />

future generations to meet their own needs.’<br />

Sustainability relates to the continuity of economic,<br />

social, institutional and environmental<br />

aspects of human society, as well as the nonhuman<br />

environment).<br />

Sustainable sourcing | of renewable feedstock<br />

for biobased plastics is a prerequisite<br />

for more sustainable products. Impacts such<br />

as the deforestation of protected habitats<br />

or social and environmental damage arising<br />

from poor agricultural practices must<br />

be avoided. Corresponding certification<br />

schemes, such as ISCC PLUS, WLC or Bon-<br />

Sucro, are an appropriate tool to ensure the<br />

sustainable sourcing of biomass for all applications<br />

around the globe.<br />

Sustainability | as defined by European Bioplastics,<br />

has three dimensions: economic, social<br />

and environmental. This has been known<br />

as “the triple bottom line of sustainability”.<br />

This means that sustainable development involves<br />

the simultaneous pursuit of economic<br />

prosperity, environmental protection and social<br />

equity. In other words, businesses have<br />

to expand their responsibility to include these<br />

environmental and social dimensions. Sustainability<br />

is about making products useful to<br />

markets and, at the same time, having societal<br />

benefits and lower environmental impact<br />

than the alternatives currently available. It also<br />

implies a commitment to continuous improvement<br />

that should result in a further reduction<br />

of the environmental footprint of today’s products,<br />

processes and raw materials used.<br />

Thermoplastics | Plastics which soften or<br />

melt when heated and solidify when cooled<br />

(solid at room temperature).<br />

Thermoplastic Starch | (TPS) → starch that<br />

was modified (cooked, complexed) to make it<br />

a plastic resin<br />

Thermoset | Plastics (resins) which do not<br />

soften or melt when heated. Examples are<br />

epoxy resins or unsaturated polyester resins.<br />

Vinçotte | independant certifying organisation<br />

for the assessment on the conformity of bioplastics<br />

WPC | Wood Plastic Composite. Composite<br />

materials made of wood fiber/flour and plastics<br />

(mostly polypropylene).<br />

Yard Waste | Grass clippings, leaves, trimmings,<br />

garden residue.<br />

References:<br />

[1] Environmental Communication Guide,<br />

European Bioplastics, Berlin, Germany,<br />

2012<br />

[2] ISO 14067. Carbon footprint of products -<br />

Requirements and guidelines for quantification<br />

and communication<br />

[3] CEN TR 15932, Plastics - Recommendation<br />

for terminology and characterisation<br />

of biopolymers and bioplastics, 2010<br />

[4] CEN/TS 16137, Plastics - Determination<br />

of bio-based carbon content, 2011<br />

[5] ASTM D6866, Standard Test Methods for<br />

Determining the Biobased Content of<br />

Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous Samples Using<br />

Radiocarbon Analysis<br />

[6] SPI: Understanding Biobased Carbon<br />

Content, 2012<br />

[7] EN 13432, Requirements for packaging<br />

recoverable through composting and biodegradation.<br />

Test scheme and evaluation<br />

criteria for the final acceptance of packaging,<br />

2000<br />

[8] Wikipedia<br />

[9] ISO 14064 Greenhouse gases -- Part 1:<br />

Specification with guidance..., 2006<br />

[10] Terrachoice, 2010, www.terrachoice.com<br />

[11] Thielen, M.: Bioplastics: Basics. Applications.<br />

Markets, Polymedia Publisher,<br />

2012<br />

[12] Lörcks, J.: Biokunststoffe, Broschüre der<br />

FNR, 2005<br />

[13] de Vos, S.: Improving heat-resistance of<br />

PLA using poly(D-lactide),<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE, Vol. 3, <strong>Issue</strong> 02/2008<br />

[14] de Wilde, B.: Anaerobic Digestion, bioplastics<br />

MAGAZINE, Vol 4., <strong>Issue</strong> 06/2009<br />

[15] ISO 14067 onb Corbon Footprint of<br />

Products<br />

[16] ISO 14021 on Self-declared Environmental<br />

claims<br />

[17] ISO 14044 on Life Cycle Assessment<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 49

Suppliers Guide<br />

1. Raw Materials<br />

AGRANA Starch<br />

Thermoplastics<br />

Conrathstrasse 7<br />

A-3950 Gmuend, Austria<br />

Tel: +43 676 8926 19374<br />

lukas.raschbauer@agrana.com<br />

www.agrana.com<br />

Jincheng, Lin‘an, Hangzhou,<br />

Zhejiang 311300, P.R. China<br />

China contact: Grace Jin<br />

mobile: 0086 135 7578 9843<br />

Grace@xinfupharm.com<br />

Europe contact(Belgium): Susan Zhang<br />

mobile: 0<strong>03</strong>2 478 991619<br />

zxh0612@hotmail.com<br />

www.xinfupharm.com<br />

FKuR Kunststoff GmbH<br />

Siemensring 79<br />

D - 47 877 Willich<br />

Tel. +49 2154 9251-0<br />

Tel.: +49 2154 9251-51<br />

sales@fkur.com<br />

www.fkur.com<br />

39 mm<br />

Simply contact:<br />

Tel.: +49 2161 6884467<br />

suppguide@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Stay permanently listed in the<br />

Suppliers Guide with your company<br />

logo and contact information.<br />

For only 6,– EUR per mm, per issue you<br />

can be present among top suppliers in<br />

the field of bioplastics.<br />

For Example:<br />

Polymedia Publisher GmbH<br />

Dammer Str. 112<br />

41066 Mönchengladbach<br />

Germany<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

Fax +49 2161 631045<br />

info@bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

www.bioplasticsmagazine.com<br />

Sample Charge:<br />

39mm x 6,00 €<br />

= 234,00 € per entry/per issue<br />

Sample Charge for one year:<br />

6 issues x 234,00 EUR = 1,404.00 €<br />

The entry in our Suppliers Guide is<br />

bookable for one year (6 issues) and<br />

extends automatically if it’s not canceled<br />

three month before expiry.<br />

www.facebook.com<br />

www.issuu.com<br />

www.twitter.com<br />

www.youtube.com<br />

Showa Denko Europe GmbH<br />

Konrad-Zuse-Platz 4<br />

81829 Munich, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 89 93996226<br />

www.showa-denko.com<br />

support@sde.de<br />

DuPont de Nemours International S.A.<br />

2 chemin du Pavillon<br />

1218 - Le Grand Saconnex<br />

Switzerland<br />

Tel.: +41 22 171 51 11<br />

Fax: +41 22 580 22 45<br />

plastics@dupont.com<br />

www.renewable.dupont.com<br />

www.plastics.dupont.com<br />

Tel: +86 351-8689356<br />

Fax: +86 351-8689718<br />

www.ecoworld.jinhuigroup.com<br />

ecoworldsales@jinhuigroup.com<br />

Evonik Industries AG<br />

Paul Baumann Straße 1<br />

45772 Marl, Germany<br />

Tel +49 2365 49-4717<br />

evonik-hp@evonik.com<br />

www.vestamid-terra.com<br />

www.evonik.com<br />

1.1 bio based monomers<br />

Corbion Purac<br />

Arkelsedijk 46, P.O. Box 21<br />

4200 AA Gorinchem -<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 (0)183 695 695<br />

Fax: +31 (0)183 695 604<br />

www.corbion.com/bioplastics<br />

bioplastics@corbion.com<br />

62 136 Lestrem, France<br />

Tel.: + 33 (0) 3 21 63 36 00<br />

www.roquette-performance-plastics.com<br />

1.2 compounds<br />

API S.p.A.<br />

Via Dante Alighieri, 27<br />

36065 Mussolente (VI), Italy<br />

Telephone +39 0424 579711<br />

www.apiplastic.com<br />

www.apinatbio.com<br />

Kingfa Sci. & Tech. Co., Ltd.<br />

No.33 Kefeng Rd, Sc. City, Guangzhou<br />

Hi-Tech Ind. Development Zone,<br />

Guangdong, P.R. China. 510663<br />

Tel: +86 (0)20 6622 1696<br />

info@ecopond.com.cn<br />

www.ecopond.com.cn<br />

FLEX-162 Biodeg. Blown Film Resin!<br />

Bio-873 4-Star Inj. Bio-Based Resin!<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

PolyOne<br />

Avenue Melville Wilson, 2<br />

Zoning de la Fagne<br />

5330 Assesse<br />

Belgium<br />

Tel.: + 32 83 660 211<br />

www.polyone.com<br />

WinGram Industry CO., LTD<br />

Great River(Qin Xin)<br />

Plastic Manufacturer CO., LTD<br />

Mobile (China): +86-13113833156<br />

Mobile (Hong Kong): +852-63078857<br />

Fax: +852-3184 8934<br />

Email: Benson@wingram.hk<br />

1.3 PLA<br />

Shenzhen Esun Ind. Co;Ltd<br />

www.brightcn.net<br />

www.esun.en.alibaba.com<br />

bright@brightcn.net<br />

Tel: +86-755-26<strong>03</strong> 1978<br />

1.4 starch-based bioplastics<br />

Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients<br />

ZAC „Les Portes de Riom“ - BP 173<br />

63204 Riom Cedex - France<br />

Tel. +33 (0)4 73 67 17 00<br />

Fax +33 (0)4 73 67 17 10<br />

www.biolice.com<br />

50 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Suppliers Guide<br />

4. Bioplastics products<br />

BIOTEC<br />

Biologische Naturverpackungen<br />

Werner-Heisenberg-Strasse 32<br />

46446 Emmerich/Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2822 – 92510<br />

info@biotec.de<br />

www.biotec.de<br />

Grabio Greentech Corporation<br />

Tel: +886-3-598-6496<br />

No. 91, Guangfu N. Rd., Hsinchu<br />

Industrial Park,Hukou Township,<br />

Hsinchu County 3<strong>03</strong>51, Taiwan<br />

sales@grabio.com.tw<br />

www.grabio.com.tw<br />

Wuhan Huali<br />

Environmental Technology Co.,Ltd.<br />

No.8, North Huashiyuan Road,<br />

Donghu New Tech Development<br />

Zone, Wuhan, Hubei, China<br />

Tel: +86-27-87926666<br />

Fax: + 86-27-87925999<br />

rjh@psm.com.cn, www.psm.com.cn<br />

1.5 PHA<br />

PolyOne<br />

Avenue Melville Wilson, 2<br />

Zoning de la Fagne<br />

5330 Assesse<br />

Belgium<br />

Tel.: + 32 83 660 211<br />

www.polyone.com<br />

2. Additives/Secondary raw materials<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

Rhein Chemie Rheinau GmbH<br />

Duesseldorfer Strasse 23-27<br />

68219 Mannheim, Germany<br />

Phone: +49 (0)621-8907-233<br />

Fax: +49 (0)621-8907-8233<br />

bioadimide.eu@rheinchemie.com<br />

www.bioadimide.com<br />

3. Semi finished products<br />

3.1 films<br />

Minima Technology Co., Ltd.<br />

Esmy Huang, Marketing Manager<br />

No.33. Yichang E. Rd., Taipin City,<br />

Taichung County<br />

411, Taiwan (R.O.C.)<br />

Tel. +886(4)2277 6888<br />

Fax +883(4)2277 6989<br />

Mobil +886(0)982-829988<br />

esmy@minima-tech.com<br />

Skype esmy325<br />

www.minima-tech.com<br />

Natur-Tec ® - Northern Technologies<br />

4201 Woodland Road<br />

Circle Pines, MN 55014 USA<br />

Tel. +1 763.404.8700<br />

Fax +1 763.225.6645<br />

info@natur-tec.com<br />

www.natur-tec.com<br />

NOVAMONT S.p.A.<br />

Via Fauser , 8<br />

28100 Novara - ITALIA<br />

Fax +39.<strong>03</strong>21.699.601<br />

Tel. +39.<strong>03</strong>21.699.611<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

ProTec Polymer Processing GmbH<br />

Stubenwald-Allee 9<br />

64625 Bensheim, Deutschland<br />

Tel. +49 6251 77061 0<br />

Fax +49 6251 77061 500<br />

info@sp-protec.com<br />

www.sp-protec.com<br />

6.2 Laboratory Equipment<br />

MODA: Biodegradability Analyzer<br />


143-10 Isshiki, Yaizu,<br />

Shizuoka,Japan<br />

Tel:+81-54-624-6260<br />

Info2@moda.vg<br />

www.saidagroup.jp<br />

7. Plant engineering<br />

EREMA Engineering Recycling<br />

Maschinen und Anlagen GmbH<br />

Unterfeldstrasse 3<br />

4052 Ansfelden, AUSTRIA<br />

Phone: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-0<br />

Fax: +43 (0) 732 / 3190-23<br />

erema@erema.at<br />

www.erema.at<br />

TianAn Biopolymer<br />

No. 68 Dagang 6th Rd,<br />

Beilun, Ningbo, China, 315800<br />

Tel. +86-57 48 68 62 50 2<br />

Fax +86-57 48 68 77 98 0<br />

enquiry@tianan-enmat.com<br />

www.tianan-enmat.com<br />

Metabolix, Inc.<br />

Bio-based and biodegradable resins<br />

and performance additives<br />

21 Erie Street<br />

Cambridge, MA 02139, USA<br />

US +1-617-583-1700<br />

DE +49 (0) 221 / 88 88 94 00<br />

www.metabolix.com<br />

info@metabolix.com<br />

1.6 masterbatches<br />

GRAFE-Group<br />

Waldecker Straße 21,<br />

99444 Blankenhain, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 36459 45 0<br />

www.grafe.com<br />

Infiana Germany GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Zweibrückenstraße 15-25<br />

91301 Forchheim<br />

Tel. +49-9191 81-0<br />

Fax +49-9191 81-212<br />

www.infiana.com<br />

Taghleef Industries SpA, Italy<br />

Via E. Fermi, 46<br />

33058 San Giorgio di Nogaro (UD)<br />

Contact Emanuela Bardi<br />

Tel. +39 0431 627264<br />

Mobile +39 342 6565309<br />

emanuela.bardi@ti-films.com<br />

www.ti-films.com<br />

President Packaging Ind., Corp.<br />

PLA Paper Hot Cup manufacture<br />

In Taiwan, www.ppi.com.tw<br />

Tel.: +886-6-570-4066 ext.5531<br />

Fax: +886-6-570-4077<br />

sales@ppi.com.tw<br />

6. Equipment<br />

6.1 Machinery & Molds<br />

Molds, Change Parts and Turnkey<br />

Solutions for the PET/Bioplastic<br />

Container Industry<br />

284 Pinebush Road<br />

Cambridge Ontario<br />

Canada N1T 1Z6<br />

Tel. +1 519 624 9720<br />

Fax +1 519 624 9721<br />

info@hallink.com<br />

www.hallink.com<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer GmbH<br />

Holzhauser Strasse 157–159<br />

D-13509 Berlin<br />

Tel. +49 30 43 567 5<br />

Fax +49 30 43 567 699<br />

sales.de@uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer AG<br />

Via Innovativa 31<br />

CH-7013 Domat/Ems<br />

Tel. +41 81 632 63 11<br />

Fax +41 81 632 74 <strong>03</strong><br />

sales.ch@uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

www.uhde-inventa-fischer.com<br />

9. Services<br />

Osterfelder Str. 3<br />

46047 Oberhausen<br />

Tel.: +49 (0)208 8598 1227<br />

Fax: +49 (0)208 8598 1424<br />

thomas.wodke@umsicht.fhg.de<br />

www.umsicht.fraunhofer.de<br />

bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10 51

Suppliers Guide<br />

Events<br />

Institut für Kunststofftechnik<br />

Universität Stuttgart<br />

Böblinger Straße 70<br />

70199 Stuttgart<br />

Tel +49 711/685-62814<br />

Linda.Goebel@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

www.ikt.uni-stuttgart.de<br />

narocon<br />

Dr. Harald Kaeb<br />

Tel.: +49 30-28096930<br />

kaeb@narocon.de<br />

www.narocon.de<br />

nova-Institut GmbH<br />

Chemiepark Knapsack<br />

Industriestrasse 300<br />

5<strong>03</strong>54 Huerth, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49(0)2233-48-14 40<br />

E-Mail: contact@nova-institut.de<br />

www.biobased.eu<br />

Bioplastics Consulting<br />

Tel. +49 2161 664864<br />

info@polymediaconsult.com<br />

UL International TTC GmbH<br />

Rheinuferstrasse 7-9, Geb. R33<br />

47829 Krefeld-Uerdingen, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 2151 5370-370<br />

Fax: +49 (0) 2151 5370-371<br />

ttc@ul.com<br />

www.ulttc.com<br />

10. Institutions<br />

10.2 Universities<br />

IfBB – Institute for Bioplastics<br />

and Biocomposites<br />

University of Applied Sciences<br />

and Arts Hanover<br />

Faculty II – Mechanical and<br />

Bioprocess Engineering<br />

Heisterbergallee 12<br />

30453 Hannover, Germany<br />

Tel.: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 22 69<br />

Fax: +49 5 11 / 92 96 - 99 - 22 69<br />

lisa.mundzeck@fh-hannover.de<br />

http://www.ifbb-hannover.de/<br />

Michigan State University<br />

Department of Chemical<br />

Engineering & Materials Science<br />

Professor Ramani Narayan<br />

East Lansing MI 48824, USA<br />

Tel. +1 517 719 7163<br />

narayan@msu.edu<br />

10.3 Other Institutions<br />

Biobased Packaging Innovations<br />

Caroli Buitenhuis<br />

IJburglaan 836<br />

1087 EM Amsterdam<br />

The Netherlands<br />

Tel.: +31 6-24216733<br />

http://www.biobasedpackaging.nl<br />

Event<br />

Calendar<br />

BiobasedWorld at Achema <strong>2015</strong><br />

15.06.<strong>2015</strong> - 19.06.<strong>2015</strong> - Frankfurt, Germany<br />

www.biobasedworld.de<br />

Biopolymers and Bioplastics<br />

10.08.<strong>2015</strong> - 12.08.<strong>2015</strong> - San Francisco (CA), USA<br />

http://biopolymers-bioplastics.conferenceseries.net/<br />

ESBP<strong>2015</strong> - 8 th European Symposium on Biopolymers<br />

16.09.<strong>2015</strong> - 18.09.<strong>2015</strong> - Rome, Itlay<br />

www.esbp<strong>2015</strong>.org<br />

bio!CAR: Biobased materials in<br />

Automotive Applications<br />

organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE and nova-Institute<br />

24 - 25 September <strong>2015</strong> - Stuttgart, Germany<br />

www.bio-car.info<br />

4 th Conference on Carbon Dioxide as Feedstock for<br />

Chemistry and Polymers<br />

29.09.<strong>2015</strong> - 30.09.<strong>2015</strong> - Essen, Germany<br />

http://co2-chemistry.eu<br />

10 th European Bioplastics Conference<br />

05.11.<strong>2015</strong> - 06.11.<strong>2015</strong> - Berlin, Germany<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

3 rd Biopolymers <strong>2015</strong> International Conference<br />

14.12.<strong>2015</strong> - 16.12.<strong>2015</strong> - Nantes, France<br />

https://colloque.inra.fr/biopolymers<strong>2015</strong><br />

4 th PLA World Congress<br />

organized by bioplastics MAGAZINE<br />

May 2016 - Munich, Germany<br />

www.pla-world-congress.com<br />

You can meet us<br />

10.1 Associations<br />

BPI - The Biodegradable<br />

Products Institute<br />

331 West 57th Street, Suite 415<br />

New York, NY 10019, USA<br />

Tel. +1-888-274-5646<br />

info@bpiworld.org<br />

European Bioplastics e.V.<br />

Marienstr. 19/20<br />

10117 Berlin, Germany<br />

Tel. +49 30 284 82 350<br />

Fax +49 30 284 84 359<br />

info@european-bioplastics.org<br />

www.european-bioplastics.org<br />

52 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

The leading industry event focused on the production and manufacturing<br />

of auto-parts and components.<br />

Directed primarily to auto-part manufacturing and production engineers<br />

at OEMs and Tier-1/2/3 plants in Mexico.<br />

Organized by the leading Latin American publications Metalmecanica &<br />

Tecnologia del Plastico.<br />

August<br />

26-27<br />

2 0 1 5<br />

th<br />

4 Conference & Exhibition<br />



Queretaro Congress Center, Qro., Mexico<br />

Technical Conferences • Commercial Exhibitions • Networking Opportunities<br />

Sponsorship Sales:<br />

Daniel Céspedes,<br />

daniel.cespedes@carvajal.com<br />

USA: +1 (305) 448-6875 Ext. 15043<br />

Mex: +52 (55) 5093 0000 Ext.:15043<br />

Seminar Registrations:<br />

David Carreño,<br />

eventosb2b@carvajal.com<br />

Mex: +52 (55) 5093 0000 Ext. 47301<br />

USA: +1 (305) 448 6875 Ext. 47301<br />

Latam: +57 (1) 2 94 0874 Ext. 47301<br />

www.autopartmanufacturing.com<br />

S P E C I A L P A R T I C I P A N T S :<br />

CURRENT SPONSORS: Premium:<br />

Gold:<br />

With the support of:<br />

Organizers:<br />


Companies in this issue<br />

Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert Company Editorial Advert<br />

Agrana Starch Thermoplastics 51<br />

AIMPLAS 20<br />

Akro Plastic 16<br />

API 53<br />

Arkema 8<br />

AVK 8<br />

Basaltex 34<br />

BASF 10,24<br />

Bcomp 8,4<br />

Biobased Packaging Innovations 10 53<br />

Bio4life 10<br />

BIO-FED 16<br />

Bio-on 7<br />

Biotec 52<br />

BPI 53<br />

Center for Bioplastics and Biocomposites<br />

Centexbel 34<br />

Cibra 28<br />


Coca-Cola 6<br />

Composites Evolution 8<br />

Corbion 10 51<br />

Danimer 22<br />

DSM 8,25<br />

DuPont 51<br />

EcoTechnilin 34<br />

Erema Plastic Recycling Systems 52<br />

European Bioplastics 10,44 53<br />

Evonik 51,55<br />

Extruline Systems 21<br />

Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe<br />

FNR<br />

FKuR 2, 51<br />

Ford Motor Company 8<br />

8,1<br />

Fraunhofer IAP 30<br />

23<br />

Fraunhofer UMSICHT 8 52<br />

Freundenberg Sealing Technologies 28<br />

Gevo 6<br />

Grabio Greentech 52<br />

Grafe 51,52<br />


Hallink 52<br />

Holland Bioplastics 42<br />

Infiana Germany 52<br />

Innovia Films 10<br />

Inst. f. Textiltechnik RWTH Aachen 8<br />

Inst. Verb.Werks. Univ Kaiserlautern 8<br />

Institut for bioplastics & biocomposites<br />

(IfBB)<br />

8,14 53<br />

Jinhui Zhalolong 51<br />

Kingfa 51<br />

Kuraray 5<br />

Lanxess 28<br />

Leibniz Inst. Agr. Eng. 8<br />

Limagrain Céréales Ingrédients 51<br />

Lineo 8<br />

Lovechock 1, 12<br />

Meredian 22<br />

Metabolix 52<br />

Metzer Irrigation Systems 21<br />

MHG 22<br />

Michigan State University 53<br />

Minima Technology 52<br />

Moldes RP 17<br />

Nagase Chemtex 33<br />

narocon 53<br />

NatureWorks 6,8,18<br />

Natur-Tec 52<br />

NetComposites 34<br />

nova Institute 8,36 53<br />

Novamont 8,28 52, 56<br />

OWS 21<br />

Pizzoli 7<br />

Plantic 5<br />

polymediaconsult 53<br />

PolyOne 8 51,52<br />

PSM 52<br />

President Packaging 52<br />

ProTec Polymer Processing 52<br />

Prouddesign 12<br />

Reed Exhibitions 8 35<br />

Rhein Chemie 52<br />

Roechling Automotive 8<br />

ROQUETTE 51<br />

Saida 52<br />


Showa Denko 51<br />

Solazyme 29<br />

Solvay Epicerol 8<br />

Taghleef Industries 52<br />

Tecnaro 8<br />

Tetra Pak 10<br />

TianAn Biopolymer 52<br />

TransFuran Chemicals 8<br />

TWI 34<br />

Uhde Inventa-Fischer 52<br />

UL International TTC 53<br />

Univ Calif San Diego 29<br />

Univ. Stuttgart (IKT) 8 53<br />

Vincotte 5<br />

Virent 6<br />

Wageningen (WUR) 7<br />

WinGram 51<br />

ZAZA Bottles 28<br />

Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical<br />

51<br />

Editorial Planner <strong>2015</strong><br />

<strong>Issue</strong><br />

Month<br />

Publ.-<br />

Date<br />

edit/ad/<br />

Deadline<br />

Editorial Focus (1) Editorial Focus (2) Basics Fair Specials<br />

04/<strong>2015</strong> Jul/Aug <strong>03</strong> Aug 15 <strong>03</strong> Jul 15 Blow Moulding Bioplastics in Building<br />

& Construction<br />

05/<strong>2015</strong> Sept/Oct 05 Oct 15 04 Sep 15 Fiber / Textile / Barrier Materials<br />

Nonwoven<br />

06/<strong>2015</strong> Nov/Dec 07 Dec 15 06 Nov 15 Films / Flexibles /<br />

Bags<br />

Consumer & Office<br />

Electronics<br />

Foaming of<br />

Bioplastics<br />

Land use (update)<br />

Plastics from CO 2<br />

(Update)<br />

Magnetic<br />

for Plastics<br />

www.plasticker.com<br />

• International Trade<br />

in Raw Materials, Machinery & Products Free of Charge.<br />

• Daily News<br />

from the Industrial Sector and the Plastics Markets.<br />

• Current Market Prices<br />

for Plastics.<br />

• Buyer’s Guide<br />

for Plastics & Additives, Machinery & Equipment, Subcontractors<br />

and Services.<br />

• Job Market<br />

for Specialists and Executive Staff in the Plastics Industry.<br />

Up-to-date • Fast • Professional<br />

54 bioplastics MAGAZINE [<strong>03</strong>/15] Vol. 10

Green up your vehicle<br />

High performance naturally<br />

Biobased polyamides employed in automotive applications can improve the overall environmental<br />

sustainability of the transport sector. Typically used in under-the-hood applications requiring outstanding<br />

mechanical and physical properties, VESTAMID® Terra can be spread to a wider range of<br />

automotive components. Evonik offers a variety of technical longchain polyamides suchs as PA610,<br />

PA1010 and PA1012. They all share a similar to improved technical performance compared to<br />

conventional engineering polyamides while also having a significantly lower carbon footprint.<br />


A real sign<br />

of sustainable<br />

development.<br />

There is such a thing as genuinely sustainable<br />

development.<br />

Since 1989, Novamont researchers have been working<br />

on an ambitious project that combines the chemical<br />

industry, agriculture and the environment: “Living Chemistry<br />

for Quality of Life”. Its objective has been to create products<br />

with a low environmental impact. The result of Novamont’s<br />

innovative research is the new bioplastic Mater-Bi ® .<br />

Mater-Bi ® is a family of materials, completely biodegradable and compostable<br />

which contain renewable raw materials such as starch and vegetable oil<br />

derivates. Mater-Bi ® performs like traditional plastics but it saves energy,<br />

contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect and at the end of its life cycle,<br />

it closes the loop by changing into fertile humus. Everyone’s dream has<br />

become a reality.<br />

Living Chemistry for Quality of Life.<br />

www.novamont.com<br />

Within Mater-Bi ® product range the following certifications are available<br />

284<br />

The “OK Compost” certificate guarantees conformity with the NF EN 13432 standard<br />

(biodegradable and compostable packaging)<br />


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