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Capturing the Zeitgeist Native German Loanwords in ... - Skemman

Capturing the Zeitgeist Native German Loanwords in ... - Skemman

Abbreviations Sources

Abbreviations Sources and Languages BNC The British National Corpus COCA The Corpus of Contemporary American English COED Concise Oxford English Dictionary Deg. of acc. Degree of acculturation G. German Gk. Greek GLIE German Loanwords in English OE Old English OED Oxford English Dictionary OHG Old High German OS Old Saxon Semantic field labels used: Admin. Administration Aeronautics Agric. Agriculture Anatomy Anthrop. Anthropology Apparel Archaeology Archit. Architecture Art Astronomy Beverages Biol. Biology Bot. Botany Chem. Chemistry Chrystal. Crystallography Commerce Currency Dance Economics Ed. Education Entomology Food Forestry Furniture Games Geogr. Geography Geol. Geology History Ichthy. Ichthyology Industry Ling. Linguistics vi Lit. Literature Math. Mathematics Med. Medicine Metall. Metallurgy Meteor. Meteorology Mil. Military Mineral. Mineralogy Mining Music Myth. Mythology Optics Ornith. Ornithology Paleon. Palaeontology Philos. Philosophy Physics Physiol. Physiology Politics Pottery Printing Psych. Psychology Sociol. Sociology Sports Tech. Technology Textiles Theatre Theol. Theology Trades Transp. Transportation Travel Zool. Zoology

1 Introduction 1 Þorsteinn Hjaltason When asked to name a few German loanwords in English, most people come only up with a few ones, perhaps angst or rucksack and many mention some stereotypes known from World War Two, such as Gestapo, U-boat or Blitzkrieg. Similarly, most scholars pay little attention to this part of English vocabulary. See for instance the discussion in Jackson and Zé Amvela (47). Further references for a detailed historical overview over the research on German loanwords are provided in Pfeffer and Cannon's German Loanwords in English 1 (xix) and in Stanforth (4). Nevertheless, in their dictionary, which is unquestionably the most comprehensive study to date on this subject, Pfeffer and Cannon collected 6,001 loanwords that have entered the English language from the 14 th century onwards (GLIE 3). The authors use the term loanword in its broadest sense, i.e. both as loan (angst), loan translation (beer garden as a translation of G. Biergarten) or even as partial translations (alpenglow). Furthermore, Pfeffer and Cannon accept all words that are standardly accepted as part of German vocabulary, thus counting numerous Greco-Latin technical terms (e.g. glycerose from Gk. glykerós 'sweet'), most of them dating from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This methodology violates the concept of etymology in my opinion for there is no distinction made between the native German loanwords, like angst and the Greco glycerose on the other hand. When doing research on the origin of words, one must tackle the task with precision and diligence, and a clear distinction must be made between cultural and etymological influences on a language. Therefore, I think the discussion about German loanwords should focus more on the etymology of the vocabulary in question, and whether they are native German or not. My intention in this paper is twofold: First to find out which German loanwords are truly standard "High German 2 ". In order to do this, I have filtered out the native German loanwords in GLIE as well as gone through some lists with German loanwords, like Knapp's German English Words (2005). If the word is attested in Early High German 1 Hereafter referred to as GLIE. 2 This does not mean that the dialectal forms are of no importance. Some dialects may give an important insight into “Germaninfluence on English, and perhaps in a different context. However, in a short essay like this, the material must be restricted and for that reason, I have chosen to restrict myself to standard High German.

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Appendix A - Alaska Native Knowledge Network - University of ...