SikoWuri kalmaxuri

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SikoWuri kalmaxuri

vitali qenqaZe

SikoWuri kalmaxuri


vitali qenqaZe

SikoWuri

kalmaxuri

(iqTiologia)

Tbilisi

2011


UDK (uak) 597.2/5(479.22)

q-41

CanCqerebidan dabla, viwro WalebSi, lodebze morbenali

mdinaris kalmaxisadmi siyvarulma da gadaSenebuli

oragulis `nostalgiam~ Seqmna winamdebare wigni. misma avtorma

pirvelad fexSiSvelma, ferad kenWebze gavliT SeigrZno

samSoblos siyvaruli. SeigrZno nemskavze da badeSi

mofarTxale kalmaxis rokviT da ara deniT daxocili, gulaRma

wyalwaRebuli Tevzis daWeriT.

sayovelTaod aris aRiarebuli mdinaris kekluci kalmaxi

da orbunebovani, `orad rguli~ oraguli. maTi ufxo

xorci xasiaTdeba maRali cximianobiT, SesaniSnavi gemoTi,

kargi yuaTianobiT da samkurnalo TvisebebiT. swored am

Tvisebebis gamoa, rom esoden didi yuradReba eTmoba kalmaxisa

da oragulis mecnierul kvlevas da moSenebas.

winamdebare wignSi ganxilulia mtkvris auzis mTis mdinareebis

binadari ZiriTadi saxeobis Tevzebi da maTi mopovebis

xerxebi, rac vfiqrobT saintereso iqneba bunebis

moyvarul meTevze-monadireTa wrisTvis.

redaqtori da recenzenti: ekologiur mecnierebaTa

akademiis akademikosi,

biologiur mecnierebaTa

doqtori venera stefaniSvili

mxatvari: konstantine varSaniZe

ISBN 978-9941-0-3332-2

© vitali qenqaZe, 2011


wigni eZRvneba udrood daRupul qsnis xeobel

goCa tatunaSvilis xsovnas

3


wigni gamoica belgiaSi moRvawe qvelmoqmed gela gvritiSvilis

dafinansebiT, risTvisac uRrmes madlobas vuxdiT

xeobadakarguli Tanamemamule qsnelebi.

4


sarCevi

winasityvaoba .................................................................................................. 6

pirvelyofidan ............................................................................................... 9

ankesiT Tevzaoba .......................................................................................... 25

ankesiT TevzWeris dro da adgili: ......................................................... 29

Tevzis mosatyuebeli ................................................................................. 33

badiT Tevzaoba ............................................................................................. 39

saTevzao badeebis religiuri mniSvneloba ......................................... 43

xelaoba ............................................................................................................ 44

oCxi ................................................................................................................... 45

fSebSi Tevzaoba ............................................................................................ 50

TovliT Tevzoba ........................................................................................... 55

godriT anu pirqceuliT Tevzaoba ......................................................... 56

facris Cadgma ................................................................................................ 57

CangliT, barjiT da kaviT Tevzaoba ....................................................... 58

wylis mowamvliT Tevzis daWera .............................................................. 62

Tevzis morfologia .................................................................................... 62

mdinaris kalmaxi ........................................................................................... 65

tbis kalmaxi .................................................................................................. 72

cisartyela kalmaxi .................................................................................... 72

kalmaxis etimologia .................................................................................. 76

oraguli .......................................................................................................... 77

oragulis etimlogia .................................................................................. 84

murwa ................................................................................................................ 85

mtkvris wvera (dedali murwa) .................................................................. 86

fiCxuli (kapoeti, cocxali, xramuli, lurja) .................................. 87

Wanari .............................................................................................................. 89

gvelana (mkbenara) ........................................................................................ 91

mtkvris cimori (fetvia, RomRoma, CoCia) ............................................. 92

aRmosavluri frita-nafota ..................................................................... 93

mtkvris goWala (Cxira) ............................................................................... 94

kavkasiuri mdinaris Rorjo, Rvana ......................................................... 95

mtkvris TaRliTa ......................................................................................... 96

Tevzebis migracia ........................................................................................ 98

Tevzebis zrunva STamomavlobaze ......................................................... 100

Tevzis mtrebi .............................................................................................. 102

Tevzeuli da misi roli kvebis racionSi ............................................. 105

teqstSi naxmari terminebis ganmarteba .............................................. 114

5


winasityvaoba

6

`buneba CvenSia da Cven bunebaSi varT.~

dasabamidanve brZola arsebobisaTvis adamianis cxovrebis

umTavres amocanas warmoadgenda. rogorc winare istoriul xanaSi

ise istoriulSi arsebobisaTvis brZola gulisxmobda upirvelesad

sakvebis mopovebas da Semdgom Tavdacvas. swored

neandertalel, moazrovne adamians gamokvebis instiqtma aaRebina

xelSi joxi, qva. moapovebina cecxli, riTac daiwyo sakvebis

momzadeba da mogvianebiT liTonis gamodnoba. Semdgom kvebiTi

resursebis meti da meti moTxovnilebis gaCenam, uzrunveli, gabatonebuli

cxovrebis survilma warmoSva tomobrivi SuRli da

mtroba. pirdapir rom vTqvaT, sakvebis mopovebis mizani Seiqmna

mizezi omebis dawyebisa.

jer kidev uZveles droidan qarTvelTa miTologiaSi aisaxa

adamianTa warmodgenebi cxovelTa samyaroze, ciur sxeulebze,

bunebis kanonzomierebaze. im droidan moyolebuli cocxlobs

qarTvelTa cnobierebaSi nadirTa mfarveli RvTaebani dali da

oCopintre. isev adamianTa sakeTildReod bunebas dacva sWirdeboda.

Tavisi saqcielis msjavrdasadebad Seqmna xalxma am RvTaebaTa

saxelebi.

Tu raoden Segnebuli hqonda qarTvel kacs bunebis dacvis

aucilebloba iqidanac Cans, rom 1078 wlis sigelSi moxseniebulni

arian `tyis mcvelTa uxucesni~. mcvelni ixsenieba me-14 saukunis

`xelmwifis karis garigebaSi~, me-18 saukunis `dastur lama-

Si~. vaxtang VI-is kanonTa wignSi gaTvaliswinebulia saZovrebis,

wylebisa da sxvaTa dacva. ioane bagrationis sjuldebaSi weria:

`agreTve iyos sanadiroTa, tyeTa da mdinareTa ufrosi kaci~.

Cveni Soreuli winaprebis cxovrebaSi Tevzeulis did mniSvnelobaze

metyvelebs uZvelesi qristianuli, oriaTaswlovani

simboloebi _ Tevzi da xomaldi. xomaldi simbolurad aRniSnavs

am cxovrebis mRelvare zRvaSi wynari navsayudelisaken maval

eklesias.

berZnulad Tevzi aris ichthys, (ixTus) romlis pirveli asoebi

Seadgenen gamoTqmas `ieso qriste Ze RmrTisa, macxovari~. (`isus

xrisTus Teus huios soter~).

sagulisxmoa Tevzis Sublis erT-erTi Zvlis msgavseba jvar-

Tan, rac winaparTa TqmiT asocirdeba qristianobasTan. `ixTus~-


idan unda momdinareobdes agreTve Tevzebis

Semswavleli dargis `iqtiologiis~ saxeli, romelic

aris biologiasTan gaerTianebul zoologiis

nawili.

axali Tevzis nedlad gamoyenebasTan erTad

CvenSi amzadebdnen damarilebul, gamomSral

Tevzs anu doSs. amzadebdnen Sebolilsac. gansakuTrebiT

saukeTeso kaloriul Tevzeulad

iTvleboda xizilala, zurgieli (damarilebuli da mzeze gamSrali

oragulis, zuTxis da sxva Tevzis zurgis anaWeri). lori da

SaSxi, wela _ romelic mzaddeba Tevzis grZel, gamxmar welebisagan.

garda amisa Tevzisgan amzadebdnen gemriel konservebs da

muJuJs, saWmel da teqnikur cxims. gamoiyenebdnen Tevzis buSts

da zurgis sims. yovelive amis saSualebas iZleoda da iZleva rogorc

Savi ise kaspiis zRvis binadari tarRani da sxva bevri jiSis

Tevzi. magaliTad, kaparWina Tevzis cximianoba SemodgomiT 8,7%,

sqelSublasi ki 23,5%-ia rac saSualebas iZleva gamoviyenoT

maTi narCenebi sasursaTo da teqnikuri cximis, webos da fqvilis

dasamzadeblad.

kaspiis zRvis binadari TeTrulas Tevzis qerclisgan akeTeben

xelovnur margalits. garda amisa, saukuneebis iqiT kataklizmebisa

da sawesCveulebo ritualebisas micvalebulTa samarxebSi

damarxuli da Semdgom arqeologTa mier napovn Tevzebis

zeTisgan Cveni farmacevtebi amzadeben antiseptikur, anTebis

sawinaaRmdego Tvisebebis mqone `iqTiolis malamos~.

adamianebisaTvis didi sikeTisa da keTildReobis motana Seu-

Zlia gambuziis jiSis Tevzs, romelic italiidan saqarTveloSi

1924 wels Semoiyvana eqimma ruxaZem. aRniSnuli Tevzi masobrivad

anadgurebs malariis gadamtan koRos matlebs, riTac Tavis

droze didad Seuwyo xeli das. saqarTveloSi malariis mospobas.

Cveni saTevze meurneobisaTvis didi sikeTis momtania cimbiridan

saqarTveloSi 1962 wels aklimatizirebuli `amuris Te-

Tri~. igi gamoiyeneba rogorc sakvebad aseve wyalsatevebis da

xelovnuri arxebis mcenareulobisagan gasawmendad.

dRes warmoudgenlad didia Cvens cxovrebaSi Tevzis roli da

misi ekonomikuri mniSvneloba. arc gasul saukuneebSi iyo umniSvnelo

da angariSgauweveli. sakmarisia aRiniSnos, rom msoflio

bazarze yovelwliurad 17 milioni tona Tevzis xorci gamodis.

sarewao Tevzebs Soris umTavresia qaSayisnairni, oragulisnair-

7


ni, kobrisnairni, zuTxisa da virTevzasnairni da sxva. yvelaze

meti raodenobiT mzaddeba qaSayisnairni. didi Rirebuleba aqvs

oragulisnairebs. maT Soris Zvirfas xorcs iZleva kalmaxi, oraguli,

siga, TevzTeTra (beluga).

sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis periodSi ZiriTad Tevzmeurneobis

raionebs warmoadgendnen 1. kaspiis zRvis raioni, iZleoda

mTel kavSirSi damzadebuli Tevzis daaxloebiT 30%-s. 2. azovi

_ Savi zRvis raioni, misi xvedriTi wona daaxloebiT 15%-s.

saqarTveloSi aRricxulia 25075 didi da patara mdinare,

romelTa saerTo sigrZe 8 aTasi kilometria, aqedan didi nawili

kaspiis zRvis auzs Caudis dedamdinaris _ mtkvris eSxiani RelviTa

da duduniT. winamdebare wignSic am auzis mdinareTa magaliTzea

ganxiluli iq binadarTagan 12 saxeobis wamyvani Tevzis

jiSi, romlebic bunebis umSvenieres kalmaxTan erTad, saqarTvelos

mtknar wylebSi gavrcelebul 80-ze met saxeobis Tevzebidanaa

amorCeuli da silamazesTan erTad did sicxoveles aniWebs

Cveni samSoblos mTisa da baris mdinareebs.

mtkvris umTavresi Senakadebis ZiriTadi

hidrografiuli monacemebi

mdinare ras erTvis

borjomula

das. frone

aRm. frone

Zama

didi liaxvi

patara liaxvi

mejuda

tana

TeZami

lexura

qsani

aragvi

qcia-xrami

iori

alazani

mtkvars

suramulas

mtkvars

_

_

did liaxvs

_

mtkvars

_

_

_

_

_

mingeCauris

wyalsacavi

mdinaris

sigrZe

km-Si

19

48

50

28

115

73

54

46

63

53

84

112

201

320

351

8

auzis

farTobi

kv km-Si

165

398

252

342

2311

468

656

380

394

289

885

2740

8340

4650

16920

auzis

saSualo

simaRle

m-iT

1800

960

1040

1430

1590

1815

1040

1400

1460

1070

1470

1600

_

840*

940

vardna

metrebiT

1737

1175

1096

1489

2450

2248

1468

1424

1541

1506

2447

2681

2162

2752

2741s


pirvel yofidanve adamianisTvis erTaderT saarsebo

wyaros buneba warmoadgenda, materialur Tu sulier

sazrdos igi gare samyarosgan iRebda.

udavoa, rom pirveli `nanadirevi~ adamianma romelime

mtaceblisgan Tavdacvisas misi mokvliT moipova da amavdroulad

sakvebadac gamoiyena. faunis did da patara

mxe-cebis Semdeg frinvelebamde, adamianma wylis binadar

gemriel TevzTa saxeobebs miakvlia. wyaldidobebi, mdinareTa

kalapotebis Secvla, totebis gadavardna, SemodgomiT

wyaroebsa da fSebSi Tevzis qviriToba cxadia ar

gamoepareboda SimSiliT aforiaqebul adamians da igi TandaTanobiT

iTvisebda gonebis ganviTarebisaTvis saWiro

yuaTian Tevzeulis mopovebis xerxebs da saSualebebs.

Cveni qveynis geografiuli pirobebi: 1 Savi zRva, tbebisa

da mdinareebis siuxve xels uwyobda meTevzeobis ganvi-

Tarebas da mis erT-erT uZveles dargad Camoyalibebas,

ris Sesaxebac mogviTxroben istoriuli wyaroebi. Zv. ber-

Zeni istorikosis strabonis cnobiT (I s. Zv.w.) Savi zRvispireTSi

mosaxle qarTveluri tomebis sameurneo saqmianobis

erT-erT dargs meTevzeoba Seadgenda.

raoden mosawyeni da uferuli iqneboda qarTvel mefe-

Ta cxovreba, nadiroba da nadimoba Tevzis gareSe. istoriuli

wyaroebiT irkveva, rom mefe-didebulebi nadirobisgan

gansxvavebiT naklebad iRebdnen monawileobas Tevzis

WeraSi, ufro metad maT TavianTi mebadureebi da maTi uxucesi

mekoneebi hyavdaT dargis gamrigeebad.

Semonaxulia wyalobis wigni saqarTvelos patriarqis

anton II-isa zaza soloRaSvilisadmi mcxeTis mekoneTuxucesobis

daniSvnaze.

`q. yovlisa saqarTvelos patriarxisa, mefis iraklis

Zis, antonis keTilad saxsovaro soloRaSvilo zazav.

mere radgan Cveni namsaxuri iyav da mraval rigad Tavdadebuli,

amisTvis Cvenc wyaloba giyaviT _ mcxeTis me-

1. CvenSi, rogorc mTagorian qveyanaSi mTis wili bevrad metia.

teritoriis saSualo simaRle 1300 metrs aRwevs. teritoriis

mxolod 17% ganlagebulia 600-dan _ 1000 metramde, xolo naxevarze

meti ki 1000-3000 metris simaRleze mdebareobs.

9


koneT-uxucesoba; rom SenTan sadaoT xeli aravisa aqvs.

Sen mixvidode da Tavs daadgebodes da konsa ise Caadgmevinebde.

da romelic Seni ganweseba iyos imas aiRebde da

Cvens saqmeze bejiTad maiqceode.

noembersa 3, welsa CRpÀ (1788w. 6 dekemberi) 2

mefeTa cxovrebaSi Caxeduli kacisTvis Zneli warmosadgenia

sufrasTan mjdari `zaqiWamia~ _ giorgi XII, romlis

win ar yofiliyo TevzeuliT damZimebuli ficarnagi.

cxonebuls gansakuTrebiT `gelaqnuri~ 3 yvarebia.

cnobili qarTveli istorikosi da geografi vaxuSti

batoniSvili, Tavis uzarmazar naSromSi `aRwera samefosa

saqarTvelosa~-Si bevr saintereso cnobas gvawvdis saqarTvelos

florasa da faunaze, bunebriv simdidreebze.

aRwers rogorc did mdinareebs aseve zRvis donidan maRal

mTaTaSoris dakidebul, momcro mdinareebs da xevebs.

iZleva maT daxasiaTebebs. aRwers gavrcelebul nadir-frinvels

da mdinareebSi arsebul TevzTa saxeobebs. samefos

aRweraSi vkiTxulobT:

`kualad mdinareni mravalni da wyaroni did-didni,

civni. gemoianni da Semrgoni, da mkurnalni senTani, da

tbani didni da mcireni, aramed vieTni TevziTa tkbiliTa

savseni da vieTni uxmarni.

xolo wyalTa Sina Tevzni arian: oraguli, zuTxi, andakia,

goWa, Wanari, loqo, 4 kapoeti, karCxana, mweri, kalmaxi,

fiCxuli, da wvrili Tevzni mravalni da sxuanic 5 ~.

vaxuSti qarTlis calkeuli mdinareebis daxasiaTebisas

saubrobs maTSi Tevzis sxvadasxva saxeobis arsebobaararsebobaze.

ganixilavs mdinareTa toponimebs, maTze

mowyobil sarwyav sistemebs. mecniers aRwerisas TevzebSi

pirveli oraguli da zuTxi uweria, xolo bunebis marT-

2. qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi t. III Tb. 1970. gv. 975.

3. `gelaqnuri~ _ erTi gagebiT niSnavs sevanis tbis kalmaxs anu

iSxans, meore gagebiT ki fSavsa da mTiuleTSi mdinaris kalmaxs

gelaqnursac eZaxdnen.

4. loqo ars somxuri, xolo qarTulad ewodebis Rlavi (daviT

rektori)

5. v. batoniSvili `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~. qarT.

cxovreba t. IV. Tb. 1973. gv. 43

10


lac saocreba, ulamazesi da ugemrielesi _ kalmaxi me-10

adgilze TiTqmis bolos yavs dayenebuli.

gamorCeulad, qarTveli batoniSvilisgan, germanel

mkvlevars da mecniers iohan anton giuldenStedts saqarTveloSi,

kerZod qsnis xeobaSi mogzaurobisas mTis

wylebis damamSvenebeli wiTelvarskvlavebiani kalmaxi

yuradRebis centrSi mouqcevia, moswonebia da saTanado

Canaweric gaukeTebia `raportSi~, romelic 1772 wlis zafxulSi

gaugzavnia peterburgis saimperatoro mecniereba-

Ta akademiisTvis, CanawerSi vkiTxulobT:

`zemo qsnidan me miviRe Salmo fario _ kalmaxi da Cuprinus

gobins (cimori v.q.) monadireebma momitanes Hirundo apus

da Motoclla phoencicurus. aq Tevzaoben patara erTi saJeni 6

sigrZisa da siganis badiT, romelsac amZimebs dakiduli

liToni~ 7 .

qarTl-kaxeTis samefos sapatio stumars, germanel

naturalists, mecnier-mkvlevars, medicinis doqtors,

ruseTis mecnierebaTa akademiis namdvil wevrs i. giulden-

Stedts, romelic didi pativiT miiRo saqarTvelos mefem

erekle II da aseve didi pativiscemiT miiwvia axalgorSi

`saqarTvelos yvelaze mZlavrma magnatma~, imxanad avadmyofma

daviT qsnis erisTavma, cxadia, araferi moakldeboda.

mis saameblad (Cans qsnis erisTavis miTiTebiT.) zemo

qsnidan miarTves yvelaze ugemrielesi Tevzi _ kalmaxi da

cimori. magram ar ixsenieba aseve Tavisi gemoTi cnobili

oraguli. uTuod oraguls largvisSic daiWerdnen da gansxvaveba

ar eqneboda qarCoxs anu `zemo qsnur~ oragulTan.

kalmaxi ki udavoa, rom rogorc axla ise 240 wlis winaTac

gemoTi da feriT gansxvavebuli iqneboda qvemo qsnurisagan.

mecnieris mier Tqmul `zemo qsnidan me miviRe...~ e. i.

vgulisxmobT qarCoxidan... ratom qarCoxidan?! maS said-

6. rusuli zomis erTeuli, udris 3 arSins; 2, 134 metria, ixmareboda

metruli sistemis SemoRebamde (erTi arSini udris daaxloebiT

71 sm-s)

7. giuldenStedtis mogzauroba saqarTveloSi Tb. 1962. gv 97. t. I.

11


an? zemo qsnurSi cxrazmis xeoba ar unda igulisxmebodes,

Jamuris xeobaSi ki cimori arc Sedis da arc mravldeba.

qsanTan lomisis xevis SesarTavis zeviT vidre gorgamde

erTpirovnulad liderobs mxolod kalmaxi. gamodis, rom

giuldenStedtis eqspedicias qarCoxelma meTevzeebma

saCuqrad miarTves ugemrielesi Savi kalmaxi da cimori.

aq uintereso ar iqneba Sida qarTlis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani

mdinaris qsnis toponimi, rameTu winamdebare

wignis Tematika dakavSirebulia mdinare mtkvarTan da mis

marcxena SenakadebTan qsnaTan, aragvTan da liaxvTan.

md. qsani zRvis donidan 2921 metris simaRleze `nefiskalos~

mTebSi arsebul zurmuxtisfer, kamkama yelis tbidan

iRebs saTaves. CanCqerebad dakidebuli, JangbadiT

mdidari mTis civi wyali nasoflar gorgas win RorRianeb-

Si kldeebs exeTqeba da `cecxlwakidebuli~ kalmaxiT galamazebuli,

swrafi dinebiT, duJmoreuli 84 km-s sigrZis

Tavisive gaWril kalapotSi, samxreTiT, mtkvrisken miedineba

da sof. qsanTan erTvis dedamdinares. iqve maxloblad,

maRal mTaze amayad dgas istoriuli cixe-simagre,

romelsac xalxi erTdroulad qsnis, mtkvris, mtvris cixesac

eZaxis. gadmocemis Tanaxmad am cixes konstantinelabadis

saxeliTac moixsenieben, razec mogvianebiT qvemoT

gveqneba saubari.

qsnis saxelwodeba qarTul samecniero literaturaSi

dRemde gaurkvevelia. arsebobs mecnier-mkvlevarTa

urTierTgamomricxavi mosazrebebi. maTgan ufro sando

vaxuSti batoniSvili migvaCnia. Tavis cnobil aRweraSi is

Semdgnair ganmartebas iZleva:

`xolo mdinareman qsanman moigo saxeli esreT, rameTi

mdinare es ars sxuaTa mdinareTa erTi qsani da ars sargebliani

mdinare Tevziani~ 8 . xolo rac Seexeba Zvel qarTul

enaSi Sesul hidronim `qsans~ ixmareboda veluris, gareulis

mniSvnelobiT 9 .

8. qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV. gv. 352, Tb. 1973.

9. v. RunaSvili `qsnis saerisTavos politikuri istoria~. Tb.

2005. gv. 3

12


qsani ixsenieba sakmevlis, nigvzis da erbos sawonad 10 .

sabas leqsikonSi qsani Tuxti da Tuxtis naoTxalia (ix. s.

orbelianis `leqsikoni qarTuli~ Tb. 1993. gv. 234) qsans

aqvs Tu ara raime kavSiri somxur `qsanikasTan~, rac niSnavs

patara parks, qisas, jer gamosarkvevia.

mkvlevar v. sidamoniZis ganmartebiT _ dResac guriaSi

qsani udris 20 kvercxis wonas, xolo 1772 wlis

CanawerebSi germaneli mkvlevari giuldenStedti imereT-

Si gavrcelebul wonis erTeulad afiqsirebs. `qsani udris

rusul naxevar funts (naxevar girvanqas); Careqi udris 4

qsans anu 2 funts~. 11

zemoT moyvanil vaxuStiseul ganmartebas qsanze v.

sidamoniZe Semdegnairad xsnis: `aq igulisxmeba, rom qsani

pataraa mtkvarTan, liaxvTan, aragvTan da sxva mdinareebTan

SedarebiT~.

sawinaaRmdegos adasturebs qsnis sidideze aragvTan

mimarTebaSi germaneli mecnieri. mdinare aragvis daxasiaTebis

mere exeba md. qsans da dasZens, rom: `qsani aragvze

didia, magram sxva yvelaferSi misi msgavsia; masze da mis

Senakadebze zemoT arian osur-qarTuli, qvemoT qarTuli

mxareebi~. 12 asea Tu isea, Cvenis azriT sityva qsani saerTo

qarTuli terminia.

saqarTvelo mTiani qveyanaa, sadac wylis resursebis

farTo speqtria warmodgenili. es aris mdinareebi, tbebi,

myinvarebi, Waobebi da miwisqveSa wylebi. gansakuTrebiT

bevria mdinareebi, romelTa saerTo raodenoba, saqarTvelos

hidrometeorologiuri institutis monacemebiT

Seadgens 26060 erTeuls, aqedan 99,4% Zalian mcirea,

romelTa sigrZe 25 km/s ar aRemateba. 13

10. iv. javaxiSvili, safas-sazomi, Tb. 1955. gv. 68

11. giuldenStedtis mogz. saqarTveloSi, gelaSvilis redaqciiT.

Tb. 1962. gv. 287

12. iqve. gv. 223

13. saqarTvelos yvelaze uxvwyliani mdinare rionia. mas yovel

wamSi Sav zRvaSi Caaqvs saSualod 403 m 3 wyali. aRm. saqarTveloSi

ki mtkvaria, romelic qveynis yvelaze grZeli (1364 km) da didi

auzis mqone mdinarea.

13


qsani saSualo sididis mdinareebs miekuTvneba. misi

sigrZe 84 km-ia. cnobili mecnieri roman kverenCxilaZe

1968 wels gamocemul Tavis naSromSi `samxreT oseTi~

aRniSnavs, rom mdinare uxvTevziani ar aris da dasZens

mizezebsac: `Cqari dineba iwvevs mdinareSi TevzisaTvis

saWiro sakvebis simcires~. sinamdvileSi ki mTavari mizezi

mtacebluri, imdroindeli SxamqimikatebiT da sxva drakonuli

meTodebiT TevzWera warmoadgenda, rasac zed erTvoda

me-20 saukunis 80-iani wlebis bolos Seqmnili denis

aparatiT Tevzaoba. (cnobilia, rom denis aparati Seiqmna

TevzsaSeni meurneobis mecnier-TanamSromelTa mier).

md. qsani da misi Senakadebi met-naklebad Cqari wylebia.

wvimebisa da Tovlis dnobis dros xSirad ician adideba da

kalapotidan gadmosvla. didi xmauriT axeTqeben lodebs,

moaqvT tonobiT RorRi da qviSa, Tovlis zvavebisgan WalebSi

gamotanili xeebi da maTi namsxvrevebi, aqa-iq Camowolil

mewyerebs gamoyolili fesvebdawyvetili tyisa

da buCqnaris didi koromebi. ivnisis meore naxevarSi zed

erTvis yelis tbis yinulis lRoba da mtvreva, rac iwvevs

mdinaris azvriTebas. aseT amindebSi Tevzi qsnis wylidan

xevebsa da patar-patara xeobebSi: oxirSi, ZaburTxevSi,

cxrazmulaSi, WurTulaSi, cxavaturaSi (rexvaSi), yanCeuraSi

da naxidis wylebSi afarebs Tavs. miuxedavad amisa Zlieri

wyaldidobebi da swrafi dineba mainc ver CaiTvleba

qsanSi Tevzis Semcirebis mTavar mizezad.

XIX saukunis TbilisSi gamomavalma qarTulma gazeTma

`cnobis furclema~ dabeWda patara korespodencia, romelic

gvawvdis cnobas imdroindeli soflis _ monasteris

(largvisis) meduqneebze Tu rogor iafad yiduloben

qsnis oraguls:

`s. monasterSi Tevzis nadirobis amindia, radgan `yelis

tbis~ yinuli Catyda da qsanic aimRvra. iqaurebi marjved

isvrian bades da amoaqvT: oraguli, fiCxuli, kapueti

romlebsac monastris duqnebSi naxevar Tung 14 Rvinoze

14. Tungi sparsuli sityvaa, igi Rvinis Zveleburi sawyaoa da

udris 2 xeladas. naxevari Tungi aris 1 xelada. qarTuli xelada

_ sawyao ori litrisa da 1 Cais Wiqis tevadobisaa.

14


hyidian, TiTo oraguli xuTi maneTi Rirs da am usindiso

zogierT vaWrebs arc ki rcxveniaT xalxis amgvari motyueba.

qarTuli andaza mainc gaixsenon, `qaTami wyals dalevs

da RmerTs Sexedavso~ 15

am patara werilSi korespodents uTuod gamorCa kalmaxis

aRniSvna, romelsac oragulTan, fiCxulTan, kapuetTan

da sxva gemriel TevzTan erTad mebadureebi iWerdnen,

moixmardnen da nawils yiddnen korinTa-saZeguris,

axalgoris, largvisisa da qarCoxis duqnebSi. XIX saukunis

rogorc mTis ise barisa da qalaqis mosaxleoba didi raodenobiT

moixmarda Tevzeuls. miuxedavad moijaradeebisa

da CarC-vaWrebisgan xelovnurad fasebis zrdisa.

msxvili kapitalistebis da maTi xelisSemyure gaiZvera,

vaWar-meduqneTa Tavgasuloba, Tevzze fasebis zrda,

meti da meti simdidris xelSi Cagdebis survili da sazogadoebis

guliswyroma kargad Cans gazeT `droebis~ erTerT

korespondenciaSi, romelic sergi mesxs miuwodebia

redaqciisaTvis.

_ `Tu romelsame saganze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es sagani

xalxis cxovrebisaTvis `aucilebel saWiroebas~ Seadgenso,

ueWvelia, eseve unda iTqvas Tevzzedac. es iTqmis

gansakuTrebiT Cveni xalxisa da kidev ufro Cveni qalaqis

Sesaxeb. qalaqs uTevzod gaZleba ar SeuZlian, imas uyvars

Tevzi, qalaqis qarTvelebisa da somxebisaTvis Tevzi ise-

Tive sakvebi da sazrdoa, rogorc puri. maSasadame pirvel

movaleobas im dawesebisas, romelsac xalxis bedze zrunva

aqvs mindobili sxvaTa Soris isic unda Seadgendes, rom es

aucilebeli sazrdo Cvens xalxs ar moakldes, imdenad ar

gauZvirdes, rom imiT sazrdooba gauWirdes.

rogorc mogexsenebaT, qalaqi da TiTqmis mTeli kavkasia

im TevziT ikvebeba, romelsac salianSi da sazogadoT

baqosken iWeren. mogexsenebaT agreTve, rom yvela es Tevzis

saWeri wylebi (kaspiis zRvis napirebi, salianis tba,

gogCa, araqsi da sxva mdinareebi) saxazinoa da xazina imaT-

Si Tevzis daWeris uflebas ijariT aZlevs, kantraqtiT.

15. gaz. `cnobis furceli~. 1897w. 4 ivl. №244. gv.3

15


ogorc buzebi Tafls, ise exvevian, ise Senatrian

xolme Cveni mdidari vaWrebi da kapitalistebi am ijaris

aRebas. adviladac gasagebia es: marTla, Tavidanve _ visac

ki es Tevzis daWerisa da yidvis ufleba ijariT auRia, yvela

gamdidrebula, yvela milionerebad Seqmnilia. u. mirzoevebi

am ijaram wamoayena pirvelad fexze uf. arSakunim

Tevzis wyalobiT aaSena is `kruJokis~ saxli, romlis simSveniere

da simdidre Cven gvakvirvebs. TamamSevi _ aman gaakeTa

da sxvebi. axla es ijara onanovisa da amxanagebs aqvT

da, rogorc amboben, weliwadSi ukanaksneli 80 000 Tumani

naRdi mogeba rCebaT, erTi sityviT Cveni vaWrebisTvis

salianis Tevzi kaliforniad aris qceuli.

Cvens xalxs Tevzi da xizilala uyvars, is uTevzod ver

gasZlebs, amboben Tavis gulSi ijaradrebi, erTi Sauri,

abazic rom moumatoT girvanqaze, mainc kidev iyidiano!~

da umateben fass, umateben, magram am momatebasac rom

bolo aRara aqvs! u. mirzoevebis dros erTi girvanqa gamxmari

Tevzi or Saurad Rirda da kargi xizilala _ abazad;

axla gamxmar Tevzss girvanqas _ abazzs, eqvs Saurs nakleb

ver iSovni da xizilalas 14 Saur, maneT nakleb!

Cven SevityveT, rom qalaqis mcxovreblebi qaRalds

amzadeben, amJamad kavkasiis samoqalaqo mTavrobisTvis

misacemad, romelSiac isini ganmarteben TavianT gaWirebas,

am Tevzis siZviris gamo, da Txouloben, rom mTavrobam

taqsa daniSnos da sazogadoT sxva raime RonisZieba ixmaros

Tevzis gaiafebisaTvis...~ [mesxi sergi] 16

me-19 saukunis bolos Tbilisis guberniaSi Tevzze

moTxovnilebis zrdam gamoiwvia Tevzis Semcireba mtkvris

auzSi. rasac bunebrivad mohyva masze fasebis zrda. am

arasaxarbielo mdgomareobas Cans naTlad xedavda imdroindeli

xelisufleba da saTanado RonisZiebebic gautarebia

mdgomareobis gamosasworeblad. manamde ki interesiT

gamoukvleviaT Tu ra unda yofiliyo mtkvris auzSi Tevzis

gawyvetisa da misi gaZvirebis mizezi.

16. gaz. `droeba~. 1876. 10 dekemberi. №134. gv.1.

16


gazeT `droebis~ furclebidan vgebulobT, rom mtkvris

auzSi Tevzis katastrofulad Semcirebis mizezi yofila

mtkvris gadaketva moijaradeebisagan kanonebis uxe-

Si darRveviT. naTlad ikveTeba msxvil vaWar-moijaradeTa

oTxi erTmaneTisadmi moqiSpe dajgufeba: 1. mirzoevebi; 2.

onanovebi; 3. arSakunebi da 4. TamamSevebi 17 . am oTx sagvareulo

klans aqvs xelSi Cagdebuli amierkavkasiaSi Tevzis

mopovebisa da gasaRebis sadaveebi. amitomacaa, rom xalxi

Txoulobs saTanado reagireba moaxdinos mTavrobam ma-

Tze. 140 wlis ukan (1880w.) dabeWdili gazeTi iuwyeba:

`... CvenSi ukanasknel xanebSi wylebi TiTqmis daicala

Tevzisagan. mizezi pirveli is iyo, rom did wylebSi mtkvarSi,

arezSi (araqsSi) da sxvebi moijareebma SemoiRes

rkinis koni (zaboika) mTels wylebsa kravdnen, Tevzs amwyvdevdnen

da arc zemoT uSvebdnen da arc qvemoT. amis

gamo mmarTvelobam akrZala konis gamarTva, ase rom moijaradeebs

gaRmiT napiridan da gamoRmidan wylis mesamedis

Sesvlamdis SeuZliaT Tevzis dasaWeri iaraRebi ixmaron.

maSasadame Sua wylis mesamedi nawili srulebiT Tavisufalia

da Tevzs gza aqvs zRviTgan amosvlisa saTavemdis

da ukan dabruneba qviriTidam gamosvlis Semdeg.

wreuls axali wesiT mieca ijariT gatexili xidamdis

tkvari zRvidgan amoyolebuli 29 nawilad dayofilia da

TiTo moijarades ori wilis aRebis meti ar SeuZlia. erTi

nawilis Sua carieli adgilebia asi saJeni (1 saJ=213 sm da

4 mm.) darCenili, romelSiac akrZalulia daWera. esec Tevzis

gasamravleblad aris, rom bina gaiCinos. amas garda

dasaWeri iaraRebi, badeebi, facrebi da sxva iseTi zomis

unda iyos, romelic damtkicebulia mmarTvelobisagan.

iaraRebi imgvaria, rom wvrili Tevzi badeSi ar darCes da

gavides.

17. TamamSevebis ojaxidan iyo qsnis erisTavebis bolo warmomadgenlis

kola erisTavis meuRle ekaterine mixeilis asuli Tamam-

Seva, romlis mziTvis fuliT kolam ganaaxla xanZriT ganadgurebuli

sagvareulo cixe-sasaxle axalgorSi.

17


wylebze ijaradebis moqmedebisa da Tevzis dasaWeri

zedamxvedelobisaTvis gamgeoba aris daniSnuli da

yaraulebi iqnebian. wesis darRvevisaTvis didi jarimaa

dadebuli da ijarads CamoerTmeva ijara.

am zafxuls TandaTan Cndeba Cven mtkvarSi Tevzeuloba

da imedia, am wels wina wlebze TandaTan gamravldes.

jer gasayidaT bazarSi ar Cans, radganac zafxulis TveebSi

qviriTis debis dros, kanoniT Tevzis Wera akrZalulia

im azriT, rom Tevzi gamravldes da ar gamoilios~. 18

mmarTvelobisagan droulad gatarebuli RonisZiebebis

miuxedavad, saSualo da mcire sididis mdinareebze

(qsani, aragvi, lexura, narekvavi) ar formdeba saijaro

xelSekruleba, amitomac maTze kontroli da Tevzis dacva

evaldeboda, rogorc adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobebs

ise mosaxleobas, ojaxs, sofels, Tems. romelTaganac samwuxarod

xSirad gulgrilobas da daudevrobas hqonda adgili,

gansakuTrebiT wlis im periodSi, rodesac mdinareebSi

Tevzi zRvidan Sedioda gasamravleblad. adamianTagan

aseT gulgrilobaze Sewuxebuli wers ori saukunis winandeli

gazeTi `iveria~.

`erTs metad samwuxaro ambavs gvweren aragvis xeobidan.

mogexsenebaT am dros, Semodgomaze hyris oraguli

qviriTs. amis gamo muceli stkiva, Sewuxebulia, gamodis

napiras da exaxuneba da iq hyris qviriTs. xalxi wara-mara

hxocavs Turme am dros oraguls da amnairad wyvets am gemoTi

ganTqmuls Tevzs aragvisas, radgan xSirad maSina hxocaven

xmliTa da xanjlebiT, roca qviriTi arc-ki dauyriaT.

yovlad mavnebelia aseTi qceva xalxisao. imis garda,

rom Tevzi wveba wyalSi, imiTia kidev cudi es Cveuleba,

rom qviriTis dayris dros, oraguli sruliad ar aris gemrieli

da CalasaviT xorci aqvso. amis gamo amgvarad daxocilis

Tevzs arc fasi aqvs, TiTo uSvelebs oragulSi aTs

Saurze mets ar iZlevian meduqneebi da CarCebio.~ 19

18. gaz. `droeba~. 1880. 13 agvisto. №170. gv.3

19. gaz. `iveria~ 1886. №213.gv.1

18


zemoTxsenebuli da aucilebeli RonisZiebis gatarebis

garda (mtkvris napirebidan wylis mxolod erT mesamedze

TevzWeris daknoneba, rkinis konebis Cagebisa da mdinaris

gadaketvis akrZalva) mTavrobis gadawyvetilebiT specialistebi

muSaoben da eZeben adgils TevzsaSenis mosawyobad;

qveyanaSi aseT siaxleebze, meurneobis asaRorZineblad

win gadadgmul progresul nabijebs tradiciulad

exmaureba gazeTi `iveria~ da `tfilisis sazogadoebas amcnobs

rom: `miwad moqmedebisa da saxelmwifo mamulebis saministros

azrad aqvs amierkavkasiaSi gamarTos oragulis

mosaSenebeli adgili. am azriT saministrom gahgzavna b-ni

kavroiski da inJineri gidravliki psarevi im adgilebis gamosakvlevad,

sadac SesaZlebeli iqneba misi gamarTva. b-ni

kavroiskim da psarevma ukve gamoikvlies yvela adgilebi

da kidec dabrundnen tfilisSi. maTis azriT saukeTeso

adgili md. patara aragvia fasanauris maxloblad, gudamayris

xeobaSi~. 20

qveynis xelisufalTagan TiTqos idgmeba nabijebi kavkasiis

regionSi meTevzeobis ganviTarebisaTvis. dedaqalaqis

gazeTebi aqveyneben sxvadasxva cnobebs am dargis

gasaumjobeseblad, kerZod qonebis saministrosagan

dagegmil RonisZiebebze: `1895 wels saqarTveloSi inspeqtoris

_ vinme grimis movlinebisa raTa moamzados piroba

mtkvarSi xelovnurad loqos moSenebisa da Tevzis qarxnis

daarsebisaTvis~. 21

zemo aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, 5 wlis Semdeg,

1900 wlis gazeT `cnobis furclidan~ vgebulobT, rom:

`sax. qonebis saministros gadaudvia 8050 maneTi mtkvris

SesarTavSi Tevzis qarxnis mosawyobad; ganzraxva aqvT,

gaamrvalon mtkvarSi zuTxi da TarTi. am qarxanaSi qviri-

Tidan yovelwliv unda gamoiyvanon milion naxevarze meti

Tevzis WiWyina~. 22

20. gaz. `iveria~ 1897 №165. gv.1

21. gaz. `iveria 1895. №115. gv.2

22. gaz. `cnobis furceli~ 1900 №1171. gv.3

19


aRniSnuli gancxadebidan gadis ramdenime Tve da

tfilisSi arsdeba `kavkasiis tbebSi Tevzis Werisa da Tevzis

moSenebis sazogadoeba~. 1902 wlisTvis, zemoaRniSnuli

sazogadoebisagan gansxvavebiT, realurad ukve Seqmnilia

TevzeulobiT vaWrobis komisia, romlis moTxovniT,

radgan kavkasiaSi meTevzeebis mometebuli nawili mahamdiania,

uqmdeba kvira dRiT Tevzis daWeris akrZalva, radgan

maT wes-Cveulebas ar esadageba qristianuli kviraZali.

amasTanave dgindeba axali umniSvnelo wesebi meTevzeobas-

Tan dakavSirebiT.

1897w. gazeTi `cnobis furceli~ (№216) aqveynebs novatorul

ideas `amierkavkasiis rkinigziT cocxali Tevzebis

gagzavna-gamogzavnaze, albaT momdinares isev qonebis

saministrosagan. im saministrosagan, romelsac arc saqarTveloSi

da arc mTlianad amierkavkasiaSi meTevzeobis

ganviTarebisaTvis kapiki ar gauRia, Tu ar CavTvliT oriode

specialistis mivlinebis xarjebs. idea idead darCa,

fiqri, mosazreba, survili _ mogonebad, Tevzi ki Cvens

dedamdinare mtkvarSi da mis civ, JangbadiT, sakvebiT uxv

SenakadebSi RmerTisa da met-naklebad gergiliani adamianebis

amara.

Zveli naTqvamia, yvelafers Tavisi mteri hyavso. marTlac

rom asea TevzisTvis, Tanac erTi mteri ki ara mravali.

maTgan angariSgasawevia wyaldidobebi, Rvarcofebi

da mewyerebi. aTasobiT tona qva da talaxi CaexeTqeboda

qsnis da aragvis WalebSi, damewyril-daglejil-daxeTqil

mTis ferdobebidan. gazafxulze gabmul wvimebs Tu cota

siTbo daerTo, maRal da saSualo mTebSi iwyeba ori-sami

metri Tovlisa da Rrma Rrante xevebSi datkepnili, ramdenime

aTeuli metris sisqis zvavebis dnoba. am dros mTis

midinareebi gacofebulebi da gadareulebi moedinebian

barisken, angreven, Slian zRudeebs da sul raRac wuTebSi

qreba glexkacis mier wlidan-wlamde nanoliavebi baRi da

bostani, zvari da maRlari. miagorebs qvebs guguniT, dga-

20


funiT da xocavs uamrav Tevzs: qviriTians da uqviriTos,

didsa da pataras. spobs maT sakveb Wia-Ruas da damfrTxali

Tevzi Tavis gadasarCenad awydeba aqeT-iqiT, xSirad

rCeba aqa-iq morevebSi da ixoceba. aboboqrebuli qsani da

aragvi mxolod mtkvarTan CaxutebiT wynardebian da ise

Zvrebian mis kalTis qveS rogorc dedasTan bavSvebi.

mdinare mtkvrisa da qsnis `xerTvisi~

1963 wels lamisyanaSi garayanisZisgan g. xorguaSvilis

mier Cawerili xalxuri leqsic udavod qsanze erT-erTi

wyaldidobis merea Seqmnili.

`lomisa, Zliero patrono,

Sen gagviZliere qsani da aragvi:

me Tqveni gaZliereba rad minda

me Cem Tavad gavZlierdebi.

am wineebzec davglije

midelaanT wisqvilebi,

vakeze, rom Camovedi

21


atiSvils SemovuTvale: 23

movrbivar, movxuvi,

fexzed ar makravs nalebi

Sen vin mogca mand mamuli

rodis mogiwere xeli?

davglijo Seni kaklebi

Tan gavatano vazebi

sul Cavzido kowaxurazeda

sadac mtkvars verTvi~ 24

wyaldidobebis garda uamravi Tevzi ewireboda sarwyav

sistemebs. md. qsnidan saTaves iRebda ramdenime arxi,

romelTa daniSnuleba rogorc morwyva, aseve wisqvilebis

dabruneba iyo. pirveli didi ru qsnis Suawelze `walkotidan~

miedineboda gaRma saZegurSi, meore ru sof. wirqvilis

pirdapir `berikoanT wisqvilebidan~ ikoTSi, axSadurze,

dolianSi. aseve qsnidan, didi ru iRebda saTaves ikoTis

boloSi `bunelisa~ da qsnis SesarTavTan (qsnis marcxena

mxare). arxi miedineboda axalgor-fiWvnaramde. igi dRevandeli

axalgoris centrSi wmindanTa memorialis dasavleTiT

abrunebda samTvlian wisqvils25 , rwyavda asobiT

heqtar baR-venaxs. ueWvelia sakmaod mozrdili da mowesrigebuli

wylis ru eqnebodaT Tavis droze gayvanili axalgorSi

qsnis erisTavebs.

Sida qarTlis vake SedarebiT Raribia atmosferuli

naleqebiT da wlis manZilze maTi ganawileba xelsayreli

ar aris sagazafxulo sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebisTvis;

zafxulis meore naxevarSi aq icis gvalvebi, amitom,

sakmaod mravali saxnav-saTesebi didad iyo damokidebuli

sarwyav arxebze. komunistebma arxebi gaiyvanes qsnis marjvena

sanapirodan axmaji-lamisyana-Tezi-okami-igoeTis

23. qsnis erisTavebis ganayari ratiSvilebi cxovrobdnen mdinare

qsnis marcxena sanapiroze sof. qsovrisSi, sadac dRemde

SemorCenilia maTi nasaxlarebi.

24. g. xorguaSvili, namcvrevi. Tb. 1989. gv. 138

25. aRniSnuli arxis fragmentebi axalgorSi bolodromde

SemorCenili iyo stalinis quCaze mcxovrebi gogi zaqarias Ze

gaTenaSvilis ezoSi.

22


gavliT, romliTac moqmedebda agreTve hidroeleqtro

sadguri. (2008 w. omis dros, axalgoris okupaciis gamo zemoaRniSnuli

arxi aRar funqcionirebs).

rogorc cnobilia, morwyva saqarTvelos mdinareTa

gamoyenebis erT-erT Zvel da gavrcelebul saxed iTvleba.

irkveva, rom Sida qarTlis mdinareebze: liaxvze, mejudaze,

qsanze, aragvze meTvramete saukuneSi yofila gayvanili

ramdenime arxi. arsebobs cnoba, rom saqarTveloSi

uZvelesi sarwyavi arxi gayvanili unda yofiliyo md. qsnidan

al. makedonelis mier. Cv.w. aR-mde me-4 saukuneSi.

Tevzi gamudmebiT eZebs sakvebs, mignebis SemTxvevaSi

moTxovnileba ufro izrdeba, amitom iyo, rom qsnidan wasul

arxebs, mudam gasdevda didi raodenobiT rogorc

msxvili, aseve wvrili Tevzi. maTi Sesvla arxebSi ganadgurebis

tolfasi iyo.

mkiTxvels, oZisidan qvemoT _ muxranis velisken gayvanil

sarwyavi sistemis arxebze da iq moxvedril Tevzze

warmodgena rom Seeqmnas moviyvanT i. WavWavaZis gaz. `iveriaSi~

oZiseli erisTavebis mier miwodebul da gamoqveynebul

korespodencias:

`...qsani retiani cxvariviT gamoqandeba sarwyav arxebs

da ruebs erTmaneTSi arevs xolme domxaliviT.

sarwyavi arxebis dacva wyaldidobebisagan aqauris

`mirabis~ movaleobas Seadgens erTis mxirv, da meores

mxriv misive movaleobaa sarwyavi arxebis gamravleba da

sarwyavad wylebis momateba, radgan zafxulobiT sarwyavi

wylebis Zala mcirdeba, mcxovrebTa umravlesobas aw

arsebuli sarwyavi wyali ar yofnis da Tav-piris mtvreva

astydeba xolme. es sagani jer-jerobiT uyuradRebod

aris mitovebuli. Cven gvaxsovs Zveli droiTgan marto 3

sarwyavi arxi: 1. `saoZiso wisqvilebis ru~ romlidganac

sarwyavad Zlier mciredi wyali rCeba, radgan isev wisqvilebs

sWiria da arc ki yofnis; 2. `saglaxao ru~; 3. `nadikvaris

wyali~ es ukanaksneli sazafxulod imdenad mcirdeba

rom `muxraniani~ gulSeRonebulTa mosabrunebladac ki

23


`wilknelebs~ wyals ar uTmoben da xSirad `Zalis~, `wilkans~

da `muxranianTa~ Soris sisxlis Rvra moxdeba xolme.

Tu amJamad arsebul sarwyav arxebs mcireoden Sromas

davadebT; Tu wylebis mmarTvelobac keTils inebebs xalxisaTvis,

maSin `saoZiso wisqvilebis ru~ gaganierdeba, qsnidan

wyali moemateba da amasTanave gamagrdeba qsanTan um-

Tavresi saTave, rom mdinarem kvlav ar gaWamos. s. qsovrisidan

gaiWreba calke arxi `wilknelebis~ sulis mosagebad,

radgan mdinare qsani borotebasTan mowyalec aris da yvelas

uxvad miawvdis sarwyav wyals: unayofo miwas nayofs

gamovaRebinebT da `wilknelebsac~ samudamod davixsniT

`muxranianTa~ mtarvalobisagan~. 26

qsnis Tavadis werilidan Cans Tu rogori mzardi

moTxovnaa mosaxleobisagan sarwyavi sistemebis gaumjobesebasa

da ganviTarebaze, ukeTesi mosavlis misaRebad.

drois msvlelobam gviCvena, rom wliTi-wlobiT izrdeboda

sarwyavi arxebis qseli ara marto mdinare qsanze aramed

aragvze, liaxvze da mtkvarze. Cans ver akmayofilebda

burJuaziis relsebze Semdgar qarTvel Tavadebs aragvidan

wilkan-Zalisze gavliT muxranSi Camavali arxis wyali,

romelic Tavis dros ise wilknels Camouyvania. `tyvilianidam~

iso wilknelma, i ~ g (12) mamaTaganman, warmoiRo yavarjnis

TreviT ru, romelsa mosdevda umuSakod wyali~ 27 .

rogorc zemoT avRniSneT, sarwyav arxebs, romlebic

wisqvilebsac abrunebdnen, uamravi Tevzi gasdevda da

iRupeboda. amitom yvela mewisqvile meTevze iyo da naziarebi

im sixarulis mazandas, romelsac adamianebi Tevzis

daWerisas ganicdian.

sof. muxranSi mcxovrebma lado oqroaSvilma,

romelsac adre wylis wisqvilSi umuSavia gviTxra, rom

bevrjer wisqvilis saRoredan 100 kilogramamde Tevzi

amouRia da megobar-amxanagebisaTvis daurigebia:

`Cemi papebi qsans da arxebs aSrobdnen da TevziT urmebs

26. gaz. `iveria~ 1897. №90. gv.3.

27. vaxuSti batoniSvili. `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~ _ qarTlis

cxovreba (yauxCiSviluis redaqciiT) t. IV Tb. 1973. gv. 351

24


avsebdnen~. misive TqmiT TevzeuliT sakmaod mdidari yofila

aragvidan wamosuli arxi, romelic muxranis Tavze

gadioda da sof. rozentalis bolos qsans uerTdeboda.

(aRniSnuli arxi gaiWra meore msoflio omis Semdeg 50-ian

wlebSi, Zalisel da muxranel glexTa erToblivi ZalisxmeviT.

ganawesis Tanaxmad TiToeuli ojaxi valdebuli iyo

30-metriani monakveTi gaeWra.) muxranis velze gamavali

erT-erTi TevziT mdidari arxi `nadikvaris wyali~ saTaves

iRebda iltozis qveviT, irwyveboda: qsovrisi, rozentari,

muxrani, qanda, sadac or, sam da oTx Tvliani wisqvilebsac

abrunebda.

saqarTveloSi uxsovar droidan meurneobis erT-erT

tradiciul dargs meTevzeoba warmoadgenda. Tevzis mopovebis

iaraRebi da xerxebi Tavdapirvelad martivi iyo.

Tevzss iWerdnen erTsa da imave dros sanadiro da sabrZolo

daniSnulebis iaraRebiT: Svild-isriT, SubiT, satevriT.

sabrZolo iaraRebis (xmlis, xanjlis) gamoyeneba XIX

saukunis mTiuleTSic aris dafiqsirebuli (ix. gaz. `iveria~

№213)

saerTod eTnografiisaTvis cnobili saTevzao iara-

Rebi da xerxebi metad mravalferovania, rac orive erTad

ganapirobebda warmatebul Tevzaobas. isini SeiZleba Semdegnairad

CamovayaliboT. 1. ankesiT Tevzaoba; 2. badiT

Tevzaoba; 3. xelaoba; 4. oCxi; 5. fSebSi Tevzaoba; 6. TovliT

Tevzaoba; 7. godriT anu pirqceuliT Tevzaoba; 8. facris

Cadgma; 9. CangliT, barjiT da kaviT Tevzaoba; 10. wylis

mowamvliT Tevzis daWera.

ankesiT Tevzaoba

_ upriania cal-calke ganvixiloT TevzWeris es iara-

Rebi da xerxebi, romlebic Tavis mxirv imdenad gansxvavdebian

erTmaneTisagan Tavisi formiT, moculobiT da

terminologiiT, ramdenadac TviT mdinareTa da wyalsatevarTa

adgilmdebareoba da xasiaTi.

25


vertikalur zonalobasTan mimarTebaSi arqeologiuri

kvlevebiT dasturdeba, rom Tevzis mopvebis uZvelesi

saSualeba ankesi yofila. igi gvian _ paleoliTidan

gvxvdeba. `sagvarjiles eneoliTis fenebSi napovnia Tevzis

Zvlebi, Zvlisa da liTonis ankesebi. aqve neoliTur

fenebSi aRmoCnda bolomokauWebuli Zvlis ankesebi, aseve

cxovelis Zvlisgan gakeTebuli WvilTi~. 28

sazogadoebis ganviTarebis sxvadasvxa safexurze

ankesi mzaddeboda qvisgan, Zvlisgan, liTonisgan. droTa

ganmavlobaSi icvleboda aramarto saankese masala, aramed

TviT ankesic. igi ufro rTuli da daxvewili xdeboda.

aRm. saqarTveloSi ankess nemskavs veZaxiT, xolo didi

zomisas ki Cangals, Savi zRvispireTSi berZnuli dasaxelebebis

zegavleniT iq mcxovrebTa leqsikaSi damkvidrda

berZnuilidan Semosuli sityva `ankasi~. (am sityvis ber-

Znul warmomavlobaze miuTiTebs TviT sabac.)

ankesis joxze amagrebdnen kanafisa da abreSumis Zafs,

vinaidan Tevzaobdnen dRisiT, wminda wyalSi meTevzeebs

unda SeerCiaT iseTi Zafi, romelic TevzisTvis SeumCneveli

iqneboda. metad sainteresoa abreSumis Wiidan saankese

Zafis damzadeba samegreloSi. aseve sainteresoa abreSumis

Zafis damzadebis xalxuri wesi lazebSi. abreSumis parks

roca is meoTxe kanSi iyo aTavsebdnen ZmarSi, Tavsa da bolos

moaWridnen, Zafs amoiRebdnen da dagrexavdnen. am xerxiT

miRebuli Zafi wylisferia da Tevzi ver amCnevda mas.

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumSi eTnografiis ganyofilebis

fondSi daculia erTi lazuri ankesi (№44-

40/65). sainventaro davTarSi vkiTxulobT: `ankesi grZelia,

lerwmis wverSi mibmulia abreSumis Zafi, romelsac

gansakuTrebiT akeTeben. ZmarSi moaTavseben, rom Sesaferi

feri miiRos. am Zafis bolosve mibmulia ankesi da mis

garSemo mikrulia yverulis (dakodili qaTmis mamali)

bumbuli. `kvanwila~, romelic wyalSi gadasrolis dros

pepelas emsgavseba. 29

28. saq. arqeologia, Tb. 1959. gv.64

29. q. mirianaSvili, TevzWeris iaraRebis SeswavlisaTvis. wignidan

masalebi saq. eTnografiisTvis. t. 28. 1975. gv.102.

26


tbis ankesi

wynar wylebSi ankesis Zuaze tyviebis klasikuri

ganawileba xdeba satyuaradan Sors, xolo erTi

cali safantis da aseve sasignalo safantis damontaJeba

xdeba nemskavTan axlos. simZimeebis

aseTi ganawileba xels uwyobs mgrZnobiare kontaqts

satyuarasa da tivtivas Soris (nax. 1)

sainteresoa, rom rogorc Zvel ise Tanamedrove TevzWeraSi

farTod gamoiyeneboda da gamoiyeneba xmauri,

(musika) razec qvemoT gveqneba saubari.

mTels saqarTveloSi icodnen Tokze ramdenime ankesis

Camokideba da Rame mdinareSi maTi Cafena erTi napiridan

meoremde. mas guriaSi `lari an `erTi yra ankesi~ ewodebo-

27

arxis ankesi

wynar wylisTvis sxvadasxva zomis safants aTavseben

jaWviseburad. safantis zoma da maT Soris

manZili mcirdeba satyuaradan nemskavamde.

yvelaze patara safanti TiTqmis dacuravs

fskerTan axlos da ar uwevs winaaRmdegobas Tevzs

mokidebisas (nax. 2)

nax. 1 nax. 2


da. qarTlSi grZelToka ankesi, imereTSi `gageba~, mesxeTSi

`olTi~ (Zvelad) axleburad Snuri. 30 iq olTiT Tevzaoba

iseTive Zveli Cans, rogor nemskaviT da aRniSnul sityvas

TiTqmis aRaravin xmarobs. olTas eZaxdnen rogorc qarTvelebi,

aseve mesxeTSi mcxovrebi sxva tomis warmomadgenlebi.

olTiT did mdinareebSi Tevzaoben. mTis patara

mdinareebi am tipisaTvis gamousadegria.

mtkvris auzSi qarTlis mdinareebi: qsani, aragvi, didi

da patara liaxvi, nemskaviT Tevzaobis saukeTeso pirobebs

gviqmnian, miuxedavad maTi siswrafisa, tyian-Cirgviani

Walebisa, uzarmazari megaliTuri, qvebisa, lodyrilebisa

da nariyTa barikadebisa, rac gansakuTrebiT zemo dinebebzea

TvalSisacemi.

nax. 3

mdinaris ankesi

mdinaris dinebis siRrmeSi satyuara tyviebma unda

Caitanon, amav dros isini advilad unda gadaadgildebodnen

wyalSi. amitom ZiriTadi simZime unda Sedgebodes

tyviebis jaWvisagan da maTi sidide unda mcirdebodes

zemodan qvemoT.

ZiriTadi simZimis qveda safanti unda iyos mcire zomis,

aseve ufro mcire unda iyos sasignalo safanti,

romelic nemskavTan axlos unda damagrdes. (nax. 3)

30. n. beriZe, mebaduroba, Tevzebi, saxelebi. Tb. 2005. gv.16.

28

swrafi dinebis ankesi

Zlieri dinebis dros wyalze srialis karg

Tvisebebs avlens burTi, amitom ZiriTadi simZimis

saxiT iyeneben msxvil burTismagvar simZimes,

romelic SuaSi aris gaxvretili. ZiriTadi

simZime (burTi) Tav-boloSi SeiZleba dafiqsirdes

wvrili safantiT. (nax. 4)

nax. 4


ankesiT TevzWeris dro da adgili:

_ zafxulobiT TiTqmis yvela mdinare Tu wyalsacavi

savsea sakvebiT, Tevzi am dros maZRari da wuniaa. amitom

uxvi TevzWeris winapirobaa zustad mivagnoT Tevzis

adgil-samyofels. wyalSi Tevzebis yofnis maniSnebelia:

mkvdari planqtonis, benTosis da sxva motivtive sxeulis

Tavmoyra. mTis mdinareebSi Tevzebi wynar gubeebSi,

umetesad RamiT Sedian, dRisiT ufro Cqar, qvian, RvinWian

fskerian adgilebSi arian, rac ufro gamoirCeva mdinaris,

wyalsacavis romelime monakveTi saerTo formisgan, miT

ufro meti Tevzi grovdeba iq. magaliTad, vrcel mdinareSi

_ siviwrove, viwroSi _ farTo yure, Rrma wyalSi _

meCeCi, TavTxelSi _ ormo da a. S.

dabal temperaturaze Tevzebs umcirdebaT Jangbadis

moTxovnileba. agvistos bolodan agrilebisTanve Tevzebi

aqtiurdebian _ mniSvneloba aqvs mTvaris ciklebsac:

mag. gvelTevza maqsimalurad moZraobs axal, minimalurad

savse mTvareze, radgan sibneleSi kargad nadirobs loqos

msgavsad.

`Weqa-quxilis win dagrovebuli eleqtromuxtebi, wnevis

cvalebadoba, cxeli teniani haeri awuxebs Tevzebs

(rogorc sxva sulierebs) da amitomac aRar aqtiuroben.

Zlier nislSic cudad mosdevs Tevzi. amindis mosalodneli

cvlilebebisas Tevzebis momentaluri reaqcia ufro

ganpirobebulia infrabgerebis, ultraiisferi sxivebis,

magnituri talRebis, mzis radiaciis cvliT, rac maT axlo

momavalSi usiamovno siurpirzebs uqadis da frTxiloben

(xSirad amaodac). zogjer am dros, arc wylis temperatura,

wneva, gamWvirvaloba, arc sakvebi baza ar icvleba, Tevzebi

ki mainc instiqtiT Tadarigs iWeren. albaT, amitomac

nebismieri cvlilebebis win TevzWera umjobesdeba mcire

xniT, Semdeg ki neldeba da wydeba~. 31

wnevis cvalebadobas Tevzebi sacurao buStiT grZnoben,

kargad aRiqvamen rezonatul sxivebs. sinoptikuri

miznebiTac iyeneben gvelanas, karCxanas, guwus.

31. Jurn. `nadiroba~ 2000w. ivlisi. №7. gv.38.

29


avdris win Tevzebi wylidan xtebian, Cqafunoben, infrabgerebiT

SeigrZnoben avdris moaxloebas, jer Riziandebian,

Semdeg iRlebian da wyveten kvebas.

xangrZlivi avdris Semdeg

Tbil amindSi ankess

saukeTesod mosdevs Tevzi

da piriqiT _ gaavdrebis

win frTxebian. kargi Weraa

Tu susti qari SuadRemde

zomierad Zlierdeba da

saRamos Cadgeba. Tevzi

saerTod moyveba dila-saRamos.

mTis swraf da JangbadiT

mdidar, mcire debitian

wylebSi kalmaxi ZiriTadad

mosdevs gaTenebidan dilis

10 saaTamde da saRamos 5

saaTidan dabindebamde. TevzWerisaTvis

yvelaze xelsayrelia

unaleqo, cvalebadi moRrubluloba, dRisiT mcire

qariani, saRamos wynari amindi. arc Tu xelis SemSlelia

naxevarsaaTiani Sxapuna wvima. igi wyals agrilebs da

JangbadiT amdidrebs. xanmokle wvima da zogjer sakmaod

Zlieric, subalpur da alpur zolSi iwvevs cxvar-Zroxis

sadgomebidan fekaluri masis wamoRebas, Tavisi WiayelebiT,

rac aseve xels uwyobs rogorc JangbadiT, aseve sakvebiT

mdinareebis gamdidrebas. mTis patara mdinareebSi wylis

gaciebisa da JangbadiT gamdidrebis TvalsazrisiT

Sxapuna wvimis procesi umniSvneloa, radgan mTaSi viwro

xeobebis kldovan kalapotSi morbenal xevebs arc Jangbadi

akliaT da arc sigrile. Tevzi kargad mohyveba xangrZlivi

wvimebis Semdeg, radgan wylis donis momatebisas rogorc

wesi Tevzi Tavis adgilsamyofels tovebs da Senakadebsa

da patar-patara totebSi ifanteba, amitom Cveul adgilze

TevzWera mcirdeba da SeiZleba mTlianad Sewydes.

30


mdinaresa da wyalsatevebSi, rodesac wyali TandaTan

an swrafad iwyebs klebas, Tevzi mRelvarebas iwyebs da amcirebs

an saerTod wyvets kvebas, igi mcirewylian adgilsamyofels

tovebs da qvemoT dinebis mimarTulebiT Rrma

wylisken micuravs.

meteorologiuri movlenebi saerTod cxovelTa samyaroze,

maT Soris Tevzebis cxovrebazec axdens gavlenas.

zogjer Tevzi aqtiuria, zogjer ki piriqiT _ pasiuri, an

saerTod uZravia. `TevzWerisaTvis yvelaze xelsayreli

pirobebi gamdinare da Camdinare wylebSia. rac ufro didxans

grZeldeba uamindoba, gamodarebis Semdeg miT ufro intensiuria

TevzWera. cxel,

mzian amindSi Tevzi dRisiT

mcenareulobiT dafarul

adgilebSi Cerdeba da saRamos

Txel, sufTa adgilebs

etaneba, sadac wyali grili

da JangbadiT mdidaria. zafxulobiT

cvrianobisas, Tevzi

wylis zedapirze Cerdeba

sanapiroze. buCqebisa

da xeebis mzardi totebis

qveS, sadac foTlebidan

Camorecxili mwerebiTa da

matlebiT ikvebeba~ 32

meTevzem uyuradRebod

ar unda datovos iseTi

adgilebi, sadac saqoneli

midis wylis dasalevad.

Tevzis qaravani am dros

saqonlis mier amRvreul

da sufTa wylis sazRvarzea

xolme gaCerebuli. aseve

angariSgasawevia Tevzis

32. baxtaZe r. `TevzWeris amindi da dro~. Jur. `nadiroba~ 2010w.

№2. gv. 23.

31


adgilsamyofelis Zebnisas

monakveTebi sadac mRvrie

mdinares gamWirvale, sufTa

wyali erTvis, an piriqiT dawmendil

mdinares romelime

sxva patara: wvimiT, mewyeriT,

intensiuri Tovlis dnobiT

amRvreuli Senakadi. Tevzis

samyofelis saukeTeso

mignebaa swraf mdinareze giganturi

lodebis win gaCenili

morevebi da ukudinebiani

morevebi, sadac Semdegnairi

wesi moqmedebs: rac mcirea

manZili ZiriTad nakadsa da

ukudinebas Soris, miT ufro

mimzidvelia TevzisaTvis.

Tevzaobis dawyebis win meTevzem unda Seiswvalos mdinaris

an wyalsatevis reliefi, wylis siRrme, dinebis siZliere

da xasiaTi. garda amisa, aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinos

yovelgvari bunebrivi movlena, romlebic Tevzze kompleqsurad

moqmedebs.

patara da saSualo mdinareebze Tevzaobisas mizan-

Sewonilia meTevze dinebis mimarTulebiT gadaadgildes

vinaidan, damfrTxali Tevzi yovelTvis dinebis sawinaaRmdegod

miiCqaris, amitom dinebis qvemoT Tevzi damfrTxalia.

zafxulobiT dilis saaTebSi Tevzi sakvebs wylis Sua

da zedapirTan axlos dinebaSi eZebs, mzis amosvlisas ki

fskerTan axlos. sadac ar unda viyoT mTis patara xevze

Tu did mdinareze maqsimaluri siCume unda davicvaT, unda

moveridoT napirs, miTumetes Tu mze zurgidan gvirtyams.

amisaTvis SeumCnevlad naxevrad Camjdar mdgomareobaSi

vuaxlovdebiT da frTxilad vagdebT rogorc ankess ise

bades, CvenSi erTi aseTi xalxuri gamoTqmac ki arsebobs:

`wyals Crdili daeca, meTevzes Tevzi gaeqca~.

gaxosvdeT! saxlSi imdeni Tevzi waiReT, ramdenic

Tqvens ojaxs erT jerze eyofa, wvrili da saSualo zomis

Tevzi ki daWerisTanave gauSviT, gansakuTrebiT qviriTobis

dros.

32


Tevzis mosatyuebeli:

33

`vinc endoba alal beds

is daiWers arafers~

_ yvela saxeobis Tevzs Taviseburi bilogiuri xasiaTi,

siTbo, sicivis moTxovnileba da kvebis manera aqvs,

romlis codna didad mniSvnelovania. tempataraturas,

romlis meryeoba wylis garemoSi gacilebiT ufro naklebia

vidre xmeleTze didi roli eniWeba Tevzebis cxovrebaSi.

Tevzebi warmoadgenen egreT wodebul `civsisxlian~

cxovelebs. maTi sxeulis temperatura damokidebulia

garegani garemos temperaturze. wyalSi temperaturis momateba

iwvevs Tevzis gaZlierebul kvebas, Cqardeba sqesobrivi

momwifeba, izrdeba sxeulis wona da a. S. temperaturis

daweva iwvevs aRniSnul movlenaTa tempis Semcirebas,

xolo zogi Tevzis, magaliTad: kobris, oragulis, karasis

da sxvaTa Zils.

Tevzaobis dros umniSvnelovanesi pirobaa misatyueblis

mopoveba, momzadeba, SerCeva da gamoyeneba. misatyuuebeli

ewodeba imas rac gamoiyeneba nemskavze wamosagebad,

Tevzis misazidad da dasaWerad. misatyuebeli iyofa 2 jgufad:

cxovelur da mcenareul satyuarebad.

TevzaobisaTvis saWiro cxoveluri satyuara uamravia:

wyalsatevebSi, wyalmcenareebze da xmeleTze mcxovrebi

yvela mweri da misi matli saukeTeso sakvebia TevzebisaTvis.

mtacebel Tevzebze misatyueblad gamoiyeneben wvril

Tevzebsac. xmeleTze mcxovrebi satyuarebia: nakelis Wia,

neSos qveSa Wia, moTeTro

Wiayela, muxluxo, kutkalia,

lokokina da sxva.

qsnis xeobis sofel

muxranSi Cvenma respodentma

kolia oqruaSvilma

gviTxra, rom gasuli

saukunis 80-ian wlebamde

sof. rozentalis


_ `vardisubnis~ _ qaTmebis fermis sanagveze mopovebuli

qaTmis matli saukeTeso cxovelur satyuaras warmoadgenda

mravali saxeobis Tevzis dasaWerad, romelic ki

gavrcelebuli iyo mtkvris auzSi. respodentis TqmiT, rogorc

Tbilisidan ise axlo-maxlo adgilebidan modiodnen

da didi raodenobiT mihqondaT zemoT aRniSnuli cxoveluri

satyuara. muxranelTa TqmiT, mTel rig Tevzebze

sanadirod, nemskavze wamosagebi saukeTeso saSualeba iyo

aseve saxlis sxvenze strafilebsa da kramitze mimagrebuli

krazanis matlebi.

upriania Tevzaobis dasawyisSi pirvelive daWeril Tevzs

gavuWraT muceli da iq nanaxi Wia-RuaTagan erT-erTze

SevaCeroT arCevni, rogorc ukve dadasturebul, realurad

yvelaze saukeTeso satyuaraze. xmeleTze mcxovrebi

satyuarebidan yvelaze gavrcelebuli da Seucvleli Wiayelaa.

maTi SerCevis dros gasaTvaliswinebelia Tevzis

saxeoba da sidide, nemskavis zoma. Secdoma iqneba did

nemskavze patara Wiis ageba, ris Sedegadac satyuara kargavs

bunebriv saxes da Tevzi ar ekareba. arsebobs miwis

Wiis ramdenime aTeuli saxeoba, magram meTevzeebi iyeneben

mxolod ramdenimes. nakelis Wia mravldeba gadamwvar

nakelSi (gamoirCeva muqi wiTeli feriT), naxevrad dampal

TivaSi, saqonlis sadgom adgilebSi, miwaSi _ es ukanaskneli

Ria molurjo _ vardisferia, sxva Wiebisagan mZafri

suniT gansxvavdeba, xelis moWeris dros gamoyofs yviTel

siTxes, kani SedarebiT mkvrivi aqvs da kargad magrdeba

nemskavze. Wiayelis wamogeba iwyeba Tavis mxridan, romelic

mowiTalo-moiisfroa, kudis mxare baci. agroveben

foTlebisa da Tivis gadaqeqvis Sedegad, didi xnis dayril

xeebis qveS.

miwis TeTri Wia gvxvdeba mdeloze, naxnavSi, baRSi,

mdinaris pira svel adgilebSi. unda aRiniSnos, rom zemoxsenebuli

arcerTi saxeobis Wia ar moipoveba md. qsnis

alpur zolSi _ baginSi, WurTisa da Jamuris xeobebSi.

`Tevzaobis dros Wia unda SeinaxoT mWidrod naqsov

tilos parkSi, odnav nestian xavsTan an neSompalasTan

34


erTad. dauSvebelia Wiebis Senaxva mzeze, uhaerod, mSral

masaSi~ 33 .

tivtiviani ankesiT Tevzaobis dros tivtiva mowyobilobis

umniSvnelovanesi da Seucvleli nawilia. tivtiva

mianiSnebs Tevzis satyuaraze mikarebas da wiwknas, Tan

amave dros ankess saWiro simaRleze afiqsirebs.

`tivtiva kargia Tu is mcire zomisaa, aqvs maqsimaluri

tvirTmzidaoba da mgrZnobiaroba. is advilad unda

iZirebodes, unda iyos mkvrivi, advilad unda magrdebodes

Zuaze, Tavisi SeferilobiT ar unda afrTxobdes Tevzs da

ar unda iJRinTebodes wyliT, yvela am moTxovnas `penoplastisagan~

damzadebuli tivtiva akmayofilebs. is martivi

da advili dasamzadebelia. penoplastis Semcvlelia

korpi~ 34 rac ufro patarazea amoSverili tivtivas zeda

nawili wylis zedapiridan, miT ufro mgrZnobiarea is. amas

didi mniSvneloba aqvs frTxili Tevzebis mag., kalmaxis

daWeris dros. mgrZnobiaroba damokidebulia tivtivas

konfiguraciaze. arsebobs mravali konfiguraciisa da

saxis tivtiva. yvelaze mosaxerxebelia TiTistaris formis,

is advilad iZireba da nakleb winaaRmdegobas qmnis

Tevzis amoyvanis dros. Tu tivtivas araswori forma aqvs,

maSin is Znelad iZireba, rasac Tevzi grZnobs da satyuaras

nemskavTan erTad piridan agdebs.

tivtivas zomas gansazRvavs

ankesis tyvia da satyuaras sidide.

tivtivasaTvis saukeTeso mdgomareobaa,

roca is vertikalurad

dgas. aseT mdgomareobaSi tivtiva

kargad Cans, advilad iZireba da me-

Tevze maSinve aRiqvams satyuaraze

umniSvnelo mikarebas. tivtiva rom

wylis zedapirze kargad gamoCndes

33. revaz baxtaZe. `Tevzis misatyuebeli~ Jurn. `nadiroba~ 2007.

№ 7. gv.34

34. misive ankesiT Tevzaobis ZiriTadi principebi, Jur. `nadiroba~

2007. № 9. gv.31

35


saWiroa misi zeda nawili SeiRebos yviTlad, wiTlad da

sxva romelime muq ferad, xolo misi qveda nawili bac

ruxad, wyalSi uxilavi rom iyos.

nemskavi aris saTevzao ankesis ZiriTadi elementi. misi

xarisxi da sworad SerCeva gansazRvravs TevzWeris Sedegs.

nemskavi arsebobs ornairi: mokle da grZel Reroiani.

mokle Reroians iyeneben mcenareuli satyuaraTi Tevzaobisas,

xolo grZel Reroians cxoveluri (kalia, muxluxo,

Wiayela da sxva) satyuarasaTvis. nemskavis zoma unda ganisazRvros

Tevzisa da satyuaras sididis mixedviT, magram

yovelTvis unda ecadoT, rom nemskavi naklebad SesamCnevi

iyos.

nemskavebs ganasxvaveben agreTve Reros daboloebis

mixedviT. erTia niCbiani TaviT, meore rgolianiT. maTi

SerCeva xdeba `povadokis~ mixedviT: elastiuri da wminda

`povadokis~ dros mizanSewonilia niCbiani nemskavi, xolo

xistisaTvis rgoliani ufro mosaxerxebelia. aucilebelia

didi nemskavis xmarebis dros saTevzao joxis wveri

mkvrivi iyos da piriqiT, Tu patara nemskaviT da satyuara-

Ti TevzaobT maSin joxis wveri elastiuri unda iyos.

saZiravis daniSnulebaa satyuara daafiqsiros saWiro

siRrmeze da adgilze. Tevzaobis meTodis mixedviT iyeneben

sxvadasxva zomis da formis saZiravs. mdinareze fskeruli

Tevzaobis dros iyeneben brtyel, masiur saZiravs,

wylis nakadma advilad rom ar gadaadgilos, tivtiviani

ankesiT Tevzaobisas ki gamoiyeneba tyviis firfitebi an

CaWrili sxvadasxva zomis safanti.

SesaZlebelia zogjer xeli ar migviwvdes ZviradRirebul

saTevzao mowyobilobebze, magram dainteresebis Sem-

TxvevaSi kaci yovelTvis gamoZebnis gamosavals.

mTis mdinareebze da viwro xevebSi kalmaxze saTevzaod

guli Tu migiwevT, aiReT sam metriani Txilis saxre-joxi,

gaqerqeT da ramdenime dRiT mzeze CamokideT wveriT.

aiReT 0,4 milimetriani Zua, CaabiT joxis wverze sadac patara

Znelad SesamCnevi gantotva aqvs. Zua joxze 20-25 san-

36


timetriT mokle unda daayenoT. kalmaxisaTvis 7-8 nomeri

nemskavia sasurveli. nemskavidan 15 santimetrSi Zuaze

daamagreT 5-10 gramiani dinebis siCqaris Sesabamisi tyviis

burTula da ankesic mzadaa.

Semdgomi etapi sansalas (Rortavis) an Wiayelas Segrovebaa.

sansala kalmaxisa da murwas _ wveras nugbari

sakvebia, mas mdinaris mZlavr CqerebSi movipovebT. mdinaris

Cqeridan amoRebuli yoveli qvis qveS mraval mofusfuse

mwers dainaxavT, maT Soris sansala Tavisi formiT

da sididiT gamoirCeva. igi ovaluri da brtyelia, zurgi

ruxi aqvs, muceli ki TeTri an movardisfro. gaWyletils

Tevzis suni dahkravs. sansala rac ufro didia, miT ufro

ukeTesia. umjobesia 1,5-2 santimetris sigrZisa. sansala

advilad kvdeba da kargavs satyuaris Tvisebebs. amis Tavidan

asacileblad saWiroa naWris mcire qisa, romelSic

momaragebul sansalas xSir-xSirad davasvelebT xolme.

aRniSnuli satyuara nemskavze TaviT muclisken unda

wamovagoT da joxi mdinaris dinebis sawinaaRmdegod moviqnioT.

mTis swraf da patara, did lodebsa da muryniantirifian

xevebze saxeldaxelod gamarTuli ankesiT tivtivis

gareSe ufro mizanSewonilia Tevzaoba, amitomac

kontaqti sansalasa da Tqvens Soris erTi wamiTac ar unda

Sewydes. nemskavze wamogebul satyuaras wyalSi CavardnisTanave

dineba gaitacebs, swored aq gvmarTebs maqsimaluri

yuradReba. satyuara ise unda vmarToT, rom man rac

SeiZleba axlos Caiaros fskerTan da am dros erTxelac ar

unda moeSvas Zua. mTis patara xevebze Tevzaobisas maqsimalurad

unda vecadoT lodebs Sua da RorRSi damarxul

nariys ar wamoedos ankesi, rac SeiZleba Zuis mTlianad dakargviT

damTavrdes.

kalmaxi agresiuli, mtacebeli Tevzia. dartyma metad

Zlieri aqvs da sxva Tevzebisagan amiTac gamoirCeva,

sportuli TvalsazrisiT kalmaxze Tevzaoba amitomaa gansakuTrebiT

azartuli. rac Seexeba Tevzis dartymas _

pirvelad iseTi SegrZneba aqvs, TiTqos nemskavi raRacas

37


wamoedoo, amas wamSi mZlavri dartyma mohyveba, romelic

uwyvet rokvaSi gadaizrdeba. kalmaxs rqovani xaxa aqvs da

Tu droze ar movqaCeT joxi Cvensken is ukve wasula da nemskavze

mxolod sansalas an Wiayelas narCeni fragmentebi-

Ra SegvrCeba. gatyevebul viwro xevebze Tevzaobisas didi

sifrTxile gvmarTebs, rom kalmaxis amoyvanisas, ankesis

joxi emociebs ayolilebma, gauazreblad ar amovkraT da

murynis an sxva romelime xe-buCqis totebs ar SevanaskvoT.

qarTlis mTianeTSi, qsnel momTabare mecxvareebs did

da patara liaxvis saTaveebSi Tevzis simravliT bevrjel

usargebliaT da saWiro mowyobilobebis gareSe, Zafze

gamobmuli `gulapkiT~, xSirad dauWeriaT mTis ugremielesi

kalmaxi. saerTod warmatebuli TevzaobisTvis

saWiroa: Tevzis cxovrebis niris, Cvevebis, qcevis, binadrobis,

adgil-samyofelis da imis codna Tu riTi ikvebeba

is.

TevzWeris saxeobebidan zogi gankuTvnili iyo sazafxulod,

zogi saSemodgomod, zogic sazamTrod. mag.: nemskaviT,

totis dawyvetiT, facriT Tevzis daWera SeuZlebeli

iyo zamTarSi. xalxSi gavrcelebuli azriT, zafxulSi da

SemodgomiT, qviriTobaSi, Tevzis daWera codvad iTvleboda:

`Tu Tvis saxelSi bgera `r~ ar urevia, im TveSi Tevzi

ar iWmevao~. namdvili meTevzeebi eridebodnen Tevzis

Weras qviriTobisa da gamravlebis-`muniobis~ dros.

meTevzeobasTan dakavSirebuli iyo zogierTi rituali,

kerZod: saTevzaod gasuli kaci moerideboda Tarss da

wiTurs, iseTsac romlis Sexvedra dacdili ar qonda, amitom

rogorc wesi, vinc saTevzaod midioda gverdze ar iyureboda,

araviTar SemTxvevSi meTevze ukan ar mibrundeboda,

meTevzeebs ar esalmebodnen, igi arasodes upasuxebda

dadebiTad kiTxvas `saTevzaod midixar?~ an `sad

midixar?~, pirvel Tevzs, daWerisTanave kuds moakvnetda

meTevze. Tu Tevzi patara iyo wyalSi gadaagdebda dids ki

tomaraSi. Tevzaoba Zalze cudi SedegiT mTavrdeboda Tu

qals waiyvanda vinme Tan. amitom bolo dromde tradiciad

ar iyo miRebuli saTevzaod qalebis wayvana.

38


gasuli saukunis

Sua xaneb-

Si, qsanze, qar-

CoxSi cxovrobda

ankesiT moTevzave

gigia qenqaZe, romlis

ojaxis kvebis

racionSi didi

adgili ekava Tevzeuls.gadmocemiT

mas xSirad,

TiTqmis yovelTvis

warmatebuli

Tevzaoba gamosdioda

Tu wylidan

amoyvanil, yovel

daWeril Tevzze

ityoda: `RmerTo

didebulo, dido

wyalafTaro, Cemi

ojaxis qelexSi

momandome! Cemi

pirSi TevzgaCrili mebaduri

col-Svilis wirva-

Si momaxmare! Cemi

Svilebis wirvaSi!..

Cemi Svilebis wirvaSi!..

iZaxda iRbliani gigia da Sedegic ar ayovnebda, yovelTvis

xeldamSvenebuli brundeboda Sin ojaxis `mawyevari~.

badiT Tevzaoba

TevzWera da masTan dakavSirebuli iaraRebis gamoyeneba

gansazRvruli iyo maTi praqtikuli da ekonomikuri

daniSnulebis mixedviT. iaraRis srulyofa ar niSnavda

axal iaraRze uaris Tqmas. mebadureobis ganviTarebam

CrdilSi moaqcia ankesiT Tevzaoba da gasarTob-sportul

saqmianobad aqcia igi. dReisTvis meTevzeoba, mebaduroba

aRar aris, radgan yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi dainerga Tevz-

Weris axali xerxebi da badis roli minimaluri gaxda.

39


adiT Tevzaoba da misi zomebi ganpirobebuli iyo mdinaris

xasiaTze, debitze, geografiul mdebareobaze da a.

S. qsnis, aragvisa da liaxvis auzebSi TiTqmis erTi da igive

saxis badeebiT iWerdnen Tevzs adgilobrivi mcxovrebni.

droTa ganmavlobaSi icvleboda, ixveweboda badeebi. germaneli

mkvlevari, iohan anton giuldenStedti romelic

ruseTis mecnierebaTa akademis mier dafinansebuli eqspedicias

xelmZRvanelobda saqarTveloSi, Tavis 250 wlis

winandel CanawerebSi axsenebs bades, romliTac md. qsnis

zemo welze mebadureebi Tevzs iWerdnen: `...aq Tevzaoben

(qsnis zemo welze v.q.) patara, erTi saJeni sigrZis da siganis

badiT, romelsac amZimebs dakiduli liToni~. 35

patara bade, romelsac kalmaxis bade erqva, gamoiyeneboda

ZiriTadad mTis mdinareebSi. mas ase axasiaTebdnen

meTevzeebi: `patara kalmaxis bade, aris 40 Tvliani da eqvsi

namati TvliT. mas 90 tyvia (mZivi) akravs. TiTo tyvia 40-50

grami unda iyos.~ 36

qarTlSi gavrcelebuli iyo ZiriTadad sami saxis

bade: 1. sasroli bade, 2. mosasmeli bade, 3. Casagebi bade.

pirvel da meore bades TiTo kacic gaarTmevda Tavs, Casagebs

ki minimum sami kaci mainc undoda.

badeze xSirad tyviis nacvlad mZivebad rkinis rgolebs

xmarobdnen, rac xmauriania. gaSlisas da akrefis

dros raki-ruki gaudis. sasroli badis nawilebia: kalTa

ormoci rigi; beWi 28-30 Tvali _ 20 mm. da kalTis Tvali

16-18mm.

bades sWirdeba ori Toki, zeda Toki da tyviebSi gasayreli

Toki. zeda Toki unda yofiliyo 5-6 metri. es orive

Toki aucileblad bambis Zafis unda iyos, raTa srolisas

qvebs Sua Cawves da Tevzi ar gaiqces. sasroli bade mdinaris

saTaveebTan ufro mcire zomisa ixmareboda, vidre

mdinaris SesarTavTan. saqsovad Zafi abreSumis an bambis

unda yofiliyo. Zvelad iyo kanafi da seli.

35. i. a. giuldenStedti, mogzauroba saqarTveloSi. tomi I. Tb.

1962. gv. 97

36. beriZe merab, mebaduroba, TevzWera, saxelebi, Tb. 2005, gv. 26

40


eTnografiul literaturaSi, romlis erT-erTi

mniSvnelovani Senakadi swored Cveni didi mgosnis vaJafSavelas

memkvidreobaa, SesaniSnavad gvixatavs oragulis

Casagebi bade muxranidan

41


cxovrebas, sadac mraval saintereso cnobebs gvawvdis

aragvSi gavrcelebul am unikalur Tevzis jiSze da mis

mtrebze, TevzWeris xerxebze da saSualebebze. mwerali

Tavis prozaul nawarmoebSi (dawerilia 1912 wels) `oragulis

cxovreba~ alaparakebs kaspiis zRvidan, mtkvriT _

aragvSi Semosul dedal-mamal oraguls da moixseniebs imdroindel

`saoragule bades~.

`-wavze uaresi mteri Cven adamiani gvyavs. aba ifiqre

ramdeni manZili unda gamoviaroT zRvidan aqamomde

da TiTo fexis gadadgmaze asi da aTasi mteri gvicdis

zogi CangliT, zogi TokiT, sxva badiT, es sasroli bade

varo, es mosasmelio, mcxeTelebs garda imisa, rom facers

gvidgamen iq, sadac aragvi erTvis mtkvars, SemouRiaT

sxvanairi gudulis badeebi, romelsac saoragule bades

uZaxian. gaugiaT, SeuswavliaT Cveni zne; ician kargad, rom

oragulebi, roca wyali adiddeba piraRma napirze vdgebiT;

saSiSroebas veridebiT. meTevzec moayolebs am bades

zevidan _ Tavqve, rom gudulaSi Tavi Cagvayofinos da Semdeg

mSralze tyapani gagvadinos~... 37

amJamad iseT did mdinareebze rogoric mtkvari da

alazania Tevzaoben e. w. `putanka~ badeebiT, romlebic sigrZiT

15-25 metria, sigane ki 1,50 santimetri.

teqnikis ganviTarebam igive mdgomareobaSi Caayena

bade, ra mdgomareobaSic am ukanasknelma ankesi. amJamad

badiT Tevzaoba ufro sportisa da garTobis saxeobaa, Tu

ar CavTvliT zogierT brakonierTa ojaxur tradiciebs,

Semosavlis wyarod TevzWeris gaxdomas. aqve minda aRiniSnos

vandaluri midgoma Cveni bunebis margalitis _ unikaluri

kalmaxisadmi Cvenive xalxis mxridan. dRes `yoCa-

Ri, gergiliani biWebi~ denis aparatiT iWeren da restornebSi

30 larad abareben gadaSenebis pirze misul, `wiTel

nusxaSi~ Setanil endemuri jiSis Sav kalmaxs.

37. vaJa-fSavela, Txzulebani, Tb. 1987, gv. 336

42


saTevzao badeebis religiuri mniSvneloba

_ saTevzao bade gamoiyeneboda ara marto Tevzis dasaWerad,

aramed `Cveni winaprebis rwmena-warmodgenebis

mixedviT, mas miewereboda avi Tvalis da uJmurisagan adamianis

dacvis unari. amiT unda aixsnas axaldabadebul

bavSvsa da mSobiare qalze misi gadafarebis Cveuleba,

radgan xalxis warmodgeniT avi sulebi gansakuTrebiT maT

emterebodnen~. 38

eTnologisa da qarTveli eris sulieri kulturis

mkvlevaris vera bardaveliZis azriT, es Sexeduleba momdinareobs:

`im msoflmxedvelobidan, rom adamianTa yofa-cxovrebas

marTavs ori Zala, ori dasabami: keTili da

boroti, romelTa Soris mudmivi brZolaa. es ori Zala gansakuTrebiT

mZafrdeba sicocxlis sakiTxSi da ramdenadac

qali WurWelia, romelSic isaxeba axali sicocxle, amdenad

is xalxis TvalSi warmoadgens metad mimzidvel ares

keTili da boroti sulebis WidilisaTvis~. 39

mSobiarobisas qalis avi Tvalisagan badiT dacvis Sesaxeb

yvelaze adreuli werilobiTi cnoba moepoveba vaxtang

batoniSvils: `ra Jamsa ganTavisufldis qali, igi

iSvis yrma, warvidis mTxrobeli maTTa naTesavTa da megobarTa

Tan da samSoblosa qalisasa, dResa mesamesa, Jamsa

bindisasa Seawvenen qals taxtsa zeda diliT turfiTa

sagalobeliTa da gardaagdeben badebr mSvenivrad moqsovilsa

baldaxinad~. 40

samegreloSi arq. lambertis cnobiT saTevzao badiT

faravdnen avadmyofis logins da bavSvis akvans. igi

asufTavebda haers avisulebisgan. gurulTa warmodgeniT

melogine, rom morCeboda 15 dRe Tavze bade unda hqonoda

gadafarebuli.

38. mirianaSvili q., saTevzao badeebis religiuri mniSvneloba;

masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisTvis, t. XXIII. Tb. 1087. gv.232.

39. bardaveliZe v., bavSvis dabadebasTan dakavSirebuli rituali

mTian qarTlSi; saq. saxelmwifo muzeumis moambe. Tb. 1927. t.

IV. gv. 254

40. v. batoniSvili, istoriebrivi aRwera. Tb. 1914. gv.18.

43


avi Tvalisgan dasacavad saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeebSi

badis gafena icodnen akvanze, saxlis mTavar SesasvlelSi

da yvelgan, sadac ki saWirod CaTvlidnen adamianis

dacvas uxilavi avi Zalebisgan. bade aucileblad naxmari,

wyalSi namyofi unda yofilyo. rac ufro Zveli iqneboda

bade miT ufro didi Zala hqonda.

xelaoba

meTevzeobis dawinaurebas Cvens qveyanaSi xels uwyobda

zRvis uSualo siaxlove, TevziT mdidari tbebisa da

mdinareebis siuxve.

ocdameerTe saukuneSi jer kidev SemorCenilia Tevz-

Weris iseTi umartivesi saxe rogoricaa qvebis qveS xeliT

Wera, rasac CvenSi `xelaobas~ uwodeben. `xelaobdnen~

ZiriTadad mdinareebis an maTi totebis daSrobisas an axal

kalapotSi gadagdebisas. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom wylis

donis vardnisas (daSrobisas) Tevzi grZnobs moaxloebul

safrTxes, swrafad tovebs Zvel samyof adgils da

miiltvis wylis dinebis mimarTulebiT siRrmeebisken, am

dros moTevzaveebi buCqebis totebiT, beltebiT da lamiT

damSral tots boloSi `ukraven pirs~ da iwyeba `xelaoba~,

anu topva. Sekruli piris qvemoT anTeben cecxls, rac sakmao

efeqts iZleva Tevzis gadinebisTvis. Cven Semdgom gavamaxvilebT

yuradRebas ganaTebisa da musikis faqtorze.

totis dawyveta Sromatevadi saqmea. gadasagdebi wylis

mTel siganeze keTdeba beltis kedeli. Tu mozrdili wyalia

brezentiT an celofnebiT ketaven. aRniSnul samuSaos

4-6 kaci unda. sanam wyali daSreba manamde boloSi facers

an maneuliT dawnul godors ugeben. wyali saTavidan unda

daiwmindos da moTevzaveebi aucileblad bolodan Semohyvebian

xelaobiT da joxebis CxveriT, radgan amRvreuli

wyali gauCxrekel teritoriaze xels ver SeuSlis, Tanac

damfrTxali Tevzi xSirad dinebis sawinaaRmdegod midis.

44


xelaobis dros ar gamoiyeneba TevzWeris aranairi sa-

Sualeba. am dros ukeTesia wyali gamWvirvale iyos, radgan

qvebis qveS xelis Seyofisas da xelis gulebSi momwyvdevisas

Tevzi zogjer gamorbis Rrmulidan gareT da gverdiT

qvis qveS Zvreba. aRniSnuli procesi gansakuTrebiT

moswonT mozardebs, roca qvebze gawolilebi damklauli

xelebiT qvis qveS kalmaxs TiTis wverebs Seaxeben da daiyvireben:

`aris biWo aris!~, Semdeg gancdebSi Cavardnilebi

da emocias ayolilebi, saxis artistuli gamometyvelebiT

xelisgulebSi moiqceven sxart kalmaxs da layuCebiT gadaisvrian

TavmowonebiT napirze.

xelaoba eTnografiul literaturaSi miCneulia Tevz-

Weris uZveles saxeobad, rac ZiriTadad patara wylebSi da

fSa-wyaroebzea SesaZlebeli Tanac kalmaxze da murwaze.

oCxi

bunebrivia, rom adamiani sanam xelovnurad mowyobil

Tevzis dasaWeri saSualebebis, kerZod `oCxis~ mowyobas

iswavlida manamde bunebrivad arsebuli RrmulebiT sargeblobda,

sadac Tevzi didi raodenobiT Tavs iyrida da advili

iyo misi daWera. TevzWeris am saxes aRwers vaxuSti batoniSvili

da mas rogorc `Rrudos~ ise ixseniebs.

adamianebma mdinareebSi bunebriv ormo-adgilebze dakvirvebiT

da iq TevzWeriT miRebuli gamocdilebis safuZvelze

daiwyes xelovnuri Rrmulebis mowyoba. aseTi moqmedebisken

adamians ubiZgebda rogorc kvebiTi moTxovnileba,

ise ekonomiuri daqveiTeba, rac socialurad daucvel,

mdinaris piras mcxovreb glexis ojaxs uCndeboda.

adamiani, zamTarSi sakvebiT daculi da uzrunvelyofili

rom yofiliyo xSirad mimarTavda oCxiT TevzWeras,

romlis mowyoba sakmaod did codna-gamocdilebas da

energias moiTxovda. xSirad ramdenime kaci, gvari da sofelic

ki Seikribeboda, airCevdnen am saqmeSi gamocdil pirebs

da ramdenime oCxs moawyobdnen mdinareze.

45


qsnis xeobaze oCxis gakeTeba da Cadgma icodnen mtkvris

SesarTavidan sof. qurTamde da korinTamde. am soflebis

zeviT rogorc md. aleuraze ise qsnis mTavar dinebaze

batonobda kalmaxi da iklebda iseTi wvrili Tevzi,

romelic advilad Sedioda oCxSi. mogexsenebaT, rom kalmaxi

Zalze iSviaTad Tu Sevidoda xelovnurad mowyobil

zamTris sabudarSi da Tu Sevidoda ufro cudi, Wamda da

anadgurebda oCxSi Tavmoyril, siTbos moyvarul sxvadasxva

jiSis wvril Tevzs. isinic instiqturad eridebodnen

Zlier, mtacebel kalmaxs da maTi gamoisobiT xSirad oCxi

carieli rCeboda. amitomac qurTa-korinTis zeviT oCxis

gakeTebis arc survili da arc tradicia ar arsebobda.

oCxze didi moTxovnileba baris soflebs ufro hqondaT,

rogorc qsanze ise liaxv-lexuris xeobebze, xolo

rac Seexeba mtkvars, iq mTel rig soflebis mcxovrebT oCxi

kvebis garda damatebiT Semosavlis wyarod eqciaT. glexoba

qristeSobisTvis bolos amoRebul Tevzeulis nawils

sakvebad da ufro did nawils gasayidad anu saarsebod

saWiro moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad iyenebda.

savele monacemebze dayrdnobiT vlindeba, rom

muxranSi, lamisyanaSi, ikoTSi oCxis mowyobisas erTidaigive

xerxebiT sargeblobdnen. sof. ikoTSi mcxovreb

SoTa (lomzari) isakis Ze gigauris TxrobiT (daibada

1949w.) `qsanze oCxis mosawyobad 3-4 kaci mivdiodiT, mdinareze

SevarCevdiT iseT mdore adgils, sadac wyali ufro

dablobSi gadadioda (wyaldidobis SemTxvevaSi mdore

adgilze rCeboda lami da gadasasvlelSi mowyobili oCxis

ormo ki sufTa da gaubidnavi~. misive TqmiT SerCeul adgilze

amoiRebdnen 1.5X1.5 ormos siRrmiT erT metramde.

Sig saSualo zomis qvebiT wriulad amoaSenebdnen kedels

ise, rom ormos Tavi daefara wyals. Sesasvlels winidan,

dinebis mxares gaukeTebdnen. aRniSnul wriul yoreSi aTavsebdnen

xis totebs, Calas, lams, Zvlebs, xSirad saqonlis

tyavs da qviT gadafarebul ormos sxvisi TvalisTvis

Znelad SesamCnevs xdidnen. oCxs tovebdnen seqtembridan

dekembris bolomde, zogjer ianvramde da Tebervlis

46


Suaricxvamdec. oCxidan Tevzi unda amoeRoT manam, sanam

daTbeboda da wylis done moimatebda.

samcxe-javaxeTSi aseT xelovnurad mowyobil ormos

rogorc CvenTan `oCxs~ uwodebdnen. msgavsi wesiT Tevzis

Wera dadasturebuli aqvs j. sonRulaSvils mtkvirs xeobaSi.

`mdinaris pira adgilebi nawildeboda gvarSi Semaval

ojaxebze. oCxisTvis ormo mdinareSi iTxreboda agvistodan

seqtembris gasvlamdis erT metr siRrmemde. sigane iqneboda

2,5 m. ormos amoTxris Semdeg mrgvlad amoaSenebdnen orpir

kedels, xolo kedelis SuaSi garSemo Cayridnen silas

da wvril xreSs, agreTve naZvis totebs. oCxs karebi ukeTdeboda

qvevidan~. 41

Tevzis Weris xelovnurad mowyobili ormoebi icodnen

imereTSic, sadac ufro momcroebi keTdeboda vidre samcxe-javaxeTSi.

oCxSi dabudebuli Tevzi gemrielia da mas

`yinvis Tevzsac~ uwodebdnen.

TevzWeris msgavsi saSualebebi aRwerili aqvs T. saxokias

aWaraSi. sadac `moyorvas~ uwodebdnen, oRond gansxvavebiT

oCxisagan es ewyoboda april-maisSi. rogorc

cnobilia oCxebis gakeTeba sarfian da sargeblian saqmed

mtkvarze iTvldeboda, ufro mosaxerxeblad ki xaSuridan

varZiamde. oCxebis mowyobaze da sargeblobaze saintereso

cnobebs gvawvdis XIX saukunis qarTuli gazeTi `iveria~.

`SemodgomobiT roca wyali gacivdeba xolme mtkvris ayoleba

sofelbs goris mazraSi Cveulebad aqvT oCxebis keTeba

mtkvris napiras. oCxebs eZaxian wylis napirze amoTxril

ormos romelSiac Cayrilia qva da RorRi. am qvas da lodSi

roca acivdeba wvrili Tevzi binasa sdebs da iqidan sul

aRar gamodis zamTris siciveSi. am Tevzs oCxis Tevzs eZaxian.

sofeli ar aris mtkvris axlos, gvwers korespondenti,

romelsac oci da ormoci oCxi mainc ar hqondes mosaCxreki

am qristeSobis damdegao. dila adrian roca jer isev yinavs

da mzes ar mouvlia cazed, Seikribebian glexni Tvrebian

aryiTa da Seudgebian xolme oCxis Cxrekasa. xSirad moxdeba

xolme, rom oCxis Cxrekisas mraval oCxis mCxrekelT saSine-

41. j. sonRulaSvili, masalebi qarT. xalxis yofisa da kulturis

istoriisaTvis. Tb. 1964. gv.37

47


li Cxubi da ayal-mayali mosdiT da Tavpirs amtvreveno.

ara iSviaTia xolme isica, rom erTi sofeli meore sofels

mouCxreks xolme qurdulad oCxs da axla mazed Sesdgeba

xolme davidaraba da ayalmayalio.

sazogadod _ ki oCxebi mcire sargeblobas ar aZlevs

glexobas xan da xan, roca amindi xels miscems xolme, erTis

oCxidam ori da xan sami fuTi 42 wvrili Tevzi amodis da Zalian

kargs fasadac iyidebao~. 43

mdinare qsnaze oCxis keTebis Tavisebur xerxebze

gvelaparaka sof. lamisyanis mkvidri gia giorgis Ze qenqaZe

(tripaCa. daibada 1963w.)

`oCxisTvis varCevdiT mdore adgilis dasasruls da

Cqeris dasawyiss. mosawyobad saWiroa Tivis konebi, raTa im

adgils wyali avacdinoT, sadac oCxis ormo iTxreba. ormo-

Si patara oTaxis msgavsad brtyeli qvebiT vaSenebT kedels,

SuagulSic vatanT did qvebs. kedelsa da simaRleze dawyobil

qvebs Soris vaTavsebT Calas, Zvlebs, balaxis fesvebs,

garecxil beltebs. karebs vutovebT im mxares saidanac Tevzs

SesaZlebloba eqneba SigniT Sesvlisa.

oCxi unda moewyos maSin, roca xeebs foTlebi gauyviTldebaT,

amoReba dekembris bolos an ianvarSi ZveliT axal

wels xdeba. amoRebisas kvlav saWiroa Tivis konebi romliTac

advilad davaSrobT oCxis adgils da Tevzs iolad davi-

WerT. oCxs CvenTan etaneba goWala, murwa, cimori, gvelana

_ amas CvenTan mkbenarasac veZaxiT. fiCxulic bevria Cven-

Tan, oCxSic kargad Sedis, bevria qaSapi _ Cveneburad fSantala.

am bolo dros momravlda Rorjo, gaCnda wvrili Tevzi

_ xamsa, romelic aqamde qsanSi aravis gvinaxavs. lamisyanis

WalebSi amJamad kaci Tevzs Znelad daiWres, ZiriTadad

`Cxlde~ adgilebzeRaa. cudi ram aris es denis aparati, am

aparatma amoiRo qsnidan Tevzi, Torem ra gamolevda Cvens

dalocvil qsanSi am RvTisnier arsebas~. ambobs guldawyvetiT

Cveni respodenti da Tan saxeldaxelod gaSlil sufrasTan

gvepatiJeba.

oCxze da iq daWeril Tevzis mniSvnelobaze, agreTve

Tavis soflis ikoTis patara mdinareze _ bunelaze

42. fuTi udris 16 kilograms da 384 grams, anu 3 fuTi=49 kg-s.

43. gazeTi `iveria~ 1886. №260.

48


gvelaparaka SoTa gigauri `zamTarSi `cocxali~ 44 -s (oCx-

Si v.q.) daWera saSulebas aZlevda adgilobriv meTevzeTa

ojaxebs gamoeyenebinaT sakvebad, zogjer gaeyidaT kidec.

religiuri kalendris mixedviT aris aseve sauflo dReebi:

bzoba, xareba, fericvaleba da bevri samarxvo dReebi aseve

qorwilebi, qelexebi romlis drosac adamiani valdebulia

moixmaros Tevzeuli~.

Cvens respodents ar axsovs is dro roca 15-20 kiloiani

oragulebi Semodiodnen qsanSi saqviriTod, magram axsovs

bunelas kalmaxebi da kidev mravali sxva jiSis Tevzebi.

`bunela lorwomis mTidan `wveris axos~ bolodan iRebs sa-

Taves. zafxulSi baRebSi sarwyavad miSvebul ruebSi bevrjer

agvikrefia simind-lobioebSi gaCerebuli Tevzi. adre

`wyalkodeebamde~ adioda Tevzi, iqvea `mlaSe wylebi~ mis

zeviT Tevzi ver wavidoda, CanCqerebia. axlo puri iTeseboda

da namklebSi `mlaSe wyalTan~ qedani grovdeboda. Cven

bunelas marjvena mxridan sofelSive `cira xevi~ uerTdeba,

iqac CaCqerebamde adioda Tevzi ZiriTadad murwa, mezobel

axSaduris xevSi `xevTaSuamde~ aRwevda gvelana da murwa,

romelsac zogi wverasac eZaxis. exla sadRa ra aris, qsani

dacarielda, fituls daemsgavsa fituls!~.

samegreloSi `oCxi~ ewodeba im adgils sadac bevri Tevzi

budobs. oCxi md. xobis wyalze adgilis saxelwodebacaa.

`oCxi~ sabas ganmartebuli aqvs rogorc `TevzT sabunago~

adgili, asevea n. CubinaSvlis leqsikonSic, xolo igive sityva

`qiziyur leqsikonSi~ axsnilia rogor faceri.

Cveni azriT `oCxi~ da `oCxari~ mniSvnelobis mxriv Zalian

axlos dganan. `oCxi~ Tevzis Sesakrebels niSnavs

samcxe-javaxeTSi, xolo `oCxari~ mTel aRm. saqarTveloSi

cxvris Sesakrebel, erTjerad gaweul daxmarebas. maTTan

saerTos unda poulobdnes sityva `Cxa~ rac ramdenime mtevnis

nakrebs, Sekrebas, erTobliobas gamoxatavs. iqtiologiis

cnobili mkvlevari q. mirianaSvili oCx-s ukavSirebs

megrul-Wanurs, kerZod Cxom-s da wers rom `oCxi~ aRniSnavs

saTevzes~. 45

44. saqarTvelos zogierT kuTxeSi cocxals eZaxian xramuls da

kapoets.

45. q. mirianaSvili, meTevzeobis SeswavlisaTvis saqarTveloSi.

Tb. 1975. gv.48

49


oCxos gansxvavebul etimologias gvaZlevs p. cxadaia.

igi anviTarebs azrs, rom oCxe-oCxi unda ukavSirdebodes

qarTulsa da zanurSi dacul Cix, Cex fuZes, romelic zogadad

Semoragul, dasamwyvdev adgils gamoxatavs.

dResdReobiT oCxi TandaTan idevneba, rogorc Tevz-

Weris yofiTi tradicia, Tu ar CavTvliT md. mtkvris ramdenime

sofels 46 , sadac saburavebiT kvlav misdeven oCxebis

keTebas.

fSebSi Tevzaoba

_ rogor cnobilia Tevzebis didi nawili mravldeba

gazafxulsa da SemodgomiT. am dros qviriTiT momwifebuli

mdedri mdinareebidan fSebSi gadadis qviriTis dasayrelad

da gamosazamTreblad. saukuneebis iqidan es

periodi dRemde akrZalul drod aris gamocxadebuli,

radgan TviT ugemrielesi Tevzic ki tofobis periodSi

Zalze ugemuria, xolo zogierTi saxeobis Tevzi momwamvlelic

ki.

SemodgomiT fSebSi Sesvlisas Tevzi erT adgilas

etaneba da gayuCebulia. zogjer xelis mokidebasac ver

grZnobs isea gabuJebuli. im adgils sadac Tevzi iyris Tavs

46. mtkvarze `oCxis~ mowyobis Tanamedrove xerxi gagvacno

sof. qsanSi mcxovrebma robizon isakis Ze zangurma (daibada

1952w.) misive TqmiT `mtkvarze cotaRa vinme awyobs oCxebs. me

satvirTo manqanis ramdenime saburavis erTmaneTze dawyobiT,

romelsac Zirze liTonis wvril bades amovakrav vavseb qvebiT,

romelTa Soris darCenili adgilebi sakmaod didia. amas vakeTeb

seqtemberSi. saaxalwlod saZmakacodan ramdenime biWi wavalT,

amoviRebT `libiotkiT~ da ase mTeli erTi Tve qeifSi vatarebT

zamTris yvelaze susxian dros.

sof. qsanSive Sevityve, rom gaRma azerbaijanelebiT dasaxlebul

sof. xidisyurSi, vinme Tavze xelaRebuli `TaTari xalila~ ketavs

siganeze gasaWimi badiT md. qsans. iyenebs agreTve eleqtro

Soks badis magivrad. is mudmivi denis dartymiT Tevzs amwyvdevs,

mdinaris ayolebaze aRar uSvebs raTa kilometr naxevrian monakveTze

TavisTvis hqondes Tevzis maragi. sainteresoa, ratom ar

aRkveTen kaspis raionis mesveurebi mdinare qsanze gadamTielis

aseT Tavxedobas.

50


saTxari ewodeba. fSis mdore fskerze advilad SeamCnevs

dakvirvebuli kaci _ naTxaria Tu ara. am dros Tevzaoba

rogorc avRniSneT did danaSaulad iTvleba.

qsanze, aragvze da liaxvze, roca oraguli kaspiis zRvidan

Semodioda gacxovelebuli nadiroba hqodnaT ga-

CaRebuli adgilobriv mosaxelobas. isini angariSmiucemlad

xocavdnen gasamrvaleblad zRvidan Semosul oraguls.

Zveli presis furclebi ara erT cnobas inaxavs aseT

uamur ambebze: `didi ugnurobaa qviriTis dayris dros

oragulis daWera. jer imitom, rom Tu qviriTi ar dayara,

Tevzi saidamRa gamova. meoreT Tevzi samSvidobo adgils

eZebs, rogorc yoveli suldgmuli Tavis Camomavlobis

zrunvaSia, kargi mSvidobiani adgili uSovos da TviTonac

damSvidebuli iyos qviriTis an kvercxis debis an mSobiarobis

drosa.

Cveni wylebi TevzeuliT da tyeebiT, frinveliT savse

yofila da axla amitom daicala, rom xalxi ar ufrTxildeba

droTi da udrooT Jletavs, Sebraleba da angariSi ar

icis da bolos Sesabralisi TviTona xdeba Tavis uangari-

So uazrobisagan~ 47

aseT savalalo mdgomareobaSi oragulTan erTad misi

`xorci-xorcTagani da sisxli-sisxlTagani~ ulamazesi

kalmaxic iyo. magram dRevandeli gadasaxedidan im droebaSi

ra uWirda kalmaxs, gasaWirSi dResaa. oraguls ki

saqme ise gauWires, rom industriis pirmSo avWalisa da

mingeCauris wylis kaskadebma saerTod `amoakveTina fexi~

mtkvris auzSi. mxolod mosagonebladRa darCa qarTul

sityvierebaSi erTi aseTi gamonaTqvami: `RmerTma gaumarjos

im mamal oraguls, romelic amaRam aragvs auyveba,

gudamayarTan mdedrs wamoeweva da Tavis guliswadis

aisrulebs~-o. am sityvebs daaxloebiT 200 wliT uswrebda

didi geografis vaxuSti batoniSviliseuli Sefaseba mTiuleTisa

da misi aragvisa: `haviTa ars friad keTili Suenieri,

wyaro _ wyliTa da mwuaniTa. wyalTa Sina kalmaxi,

47. gazeTi `droeba~ 1880. №170. gv.1.

51


mravalni, xorcni, Tevzni da frinvelni gemoianni, puri

noyieri, agreTve qrTilica~. 48

civ da JangbadiT mdidar wylebSi oragulis ltolva

ufro metad nakarnaxevi iyo ara pirdapiri moTxovnilebidan

aramed gamravlebis da STamomavlobis gadarCenis instiqtidan.

swored am instiqtis gamo oraguli da kalmaxi

metad Txel, meCxer wylebSi Sedioda saqviriTod, rac uadvilebdaT

adamianebs maT daWeras. xSiri iyo SemTxvevebi,

rom fon-TxelaSi da wyal-meCxer adgilebSi moxvedril 15-

20 kilogramian oragulebs qalebi da bavSvebic ki iWerdnen.

sof. balanSi mcxovrebi Temur raJdenis Ze balaSvili

gadmogvcems, rom `papaCem Tedos safqvavi yria xozovlebis

wisqvilze (sof. midelaanis pirdapir, md. qsnis marcxena

napirze) ucbad wisqvili gaCerebula, gamovardnila

gareT papaCemi da ras xedavs, erTi uSvelebeli oraguli

rus gamoyolia da RarSi gaWedila. maSvinme wyali gadauketia,

oraguli joxiT mouklavs da zugrze moukidia. Tevzi

imxela yofila, rom kudis bolo quslebamde urtyamda

Turme~.

erTi gadmocemiT, qarCoxis cixis dasavleTiT md. qsnis

marjvena sanapiroze, loTiSvili ninikas wisqvilze

qalebs safqvavi hqonodaT dayrili. qsnis fon-TxelSi

daenaxaT didi oraguli, romelsac muceli da layuCebi

hqonoda marto wyalSi da veRar moZraobda. dauZaxiaT

loTianSi wisqvilis patronisTvis, miSvelebia ninikac da

ketebiT mouklavT qviriTiT gatenili Tevzi. 49 sof. ikoTSi

mcxovrebi SoTa gigauri ixsenebs Tanasoflelis daTiko

imnaZis monaTxrobs, rom `Rvinobis TveSi berikoanT Walebze

urmiT mimavals fSanis wylebze uSvelebeli oraguli

mouklavs barjiT, uremze daudvia, wamouRia da bolos

dabla moaTrevdao~.

48. qarTlis cxovreba. t. IV. yauxCiSvilis red. Tb. 19873. gv.356

49. mTxrobeli ioseb giorgis Ze pavliaSvili daib. 1925w. s. pavliani

52


qsnis zemo welze largvis-qarCoxSi sul ramdenime

kaci Tu iyo, romlebic oragulebze profesional monadireebad

CaiTvlebodnen. sof. midelaanSi ucxovria gigo

midelaSvils (gogilaanT Stodan) romelic kargi mewisqvilec

yofila da xeobaSi lxinis da Wiris sufrebisTvis

dakveTebs iRebda. erTdroulad gameCxerebula TevzeuliT

zahesis agebis Semdeg mdinareebi: qsani, aragvi, didi

da patara liaxvi da mtkvris mTeli rigi Senakadebi. noyier

da gemriel Tevzs miCveuli mosaxleoba kalmaxis, murwas

da zogierT sarevela wvril Tevzis amara darCenilan.

oraguli da kalmaxi TavianTi saukeTeso TvisebebiT,

rogorc delikatesi Tevzebi erTmaneTs tols ar udebdnen

da Tanabrad gabatonbuli mdgomareoba ekavaT rogorc mtkvris

auzis ise Savi zRvispira mosaxleTa kvebis racionSi.

saqarTveloSi wyalmomaragebis sistemiT gawyobil yvela

cixe-simagreSi, wylis auzebSi hyavda cocxali kalmaxi da

oraguli, rogorc sanovage sakvebi, simbolo qristianobisa,

simbolo siZlierisa da sicocxlisa.

gadmocemis Tanaxmad qsnis xeobis Sua welze mdebare

uZlieres wirqvils cixes lekebi utevdnen. gardamavali

upiratesobis meti veraferi ver moutania qarTvelTa

sisxlis mwov `tkipebisTvis~ brZolis sam dRes. meoTxe

dReze wirqvils cixeSi SexiznulT cocxali kalmaxi gadmougdiaT

galavnidan da lekebic gasclian cixis misadgomebs.

`miTxari lekma lamisyanaSi~,

rogor mogtaca mgosani koxta

da maT alyaSi Seni kalmaxi

wirqvlis cixidan rogor gadmoxta~.

dasZens muzamoreuli axalgoreli leqsSi `qsani meZaxis~.

53


wirqvlis cixidan danaxuli qsnis xeoba

wirqvlis cixis samalavSi mowyobili sakalmaxe auzi 230X3,7m.

54


TovliT Tevzoba

ver ityvis kaci, rom TovliT wylis daSroba da uwylo

fskerze Tezvis akrefa nakleb Sromatevadi saSualebaa vidre

TevzWeris sxva romelime xerxi.

TovliT TevzaobisaTvis arCeven momcro mdinares,

xevs. Tovli aranakleb 80-100 sm. simaRlisa unda iyos. Tvi-

Ton mdinares ki ar unda hqondes yinuliani napirebi. cudia

Tu Zlieri yinvebis mere mosul TovliT SevecdebiT

wylis daSromas, radgan mdinaris 70% gayinulia. wyali ki

daSreba, magram yinulis xorgebis qveS ver movixelTebT

Tevzs. am xerxiT TevzWeras sul cota 2 kaci sWirdeba.

gasaTvaliswinebelia is, rom Cven mier dinebaSi Cayril

Tovls wylis didixniT Sekaveba ar SeuZlia. piriqiT, wylis

Zala matulobs da Tu erTi dausxlta Tovlis barikadebs

didi siswrafiT gaeqaneba win da napirebze dadebul

Tovls gadalokavs, rac Semdgom Tevzaobis gagrZelebas

aferxebs. kargia Tu mTis Relob-ferdodan dacurebul

Tovlis sqeli fena devs wylis pirze, rac erTiorad gaaiolebs

wylis daSrobas da ganapirobebs warmatebul TevzWeras.

TevzaobisTvis saWiroa mxolod qoniT gagozili xis

didi niCabi da sicivis amtanoba.

aRniSnuli xerxiT TevzWeris saSualeba mxolod mTis

patar-patara mdinareebzea SesaZlebeli, radgan didTovloba

mTis regionisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia, xolo iq sadac

naleqebi minimaluria an saerTod ar modis Tovlis

saxiT, Tevzs yinulis moWriT iWeren. amgvari xerxiT Tevzaoba

karg Sedegs iZleoda mesxeTSi: `zamTarSi SearCevdnen

yure adgils, Semoafarebdnen mdinaris mxares garSemo

bades. Wrian rkinis ketebiT yinuls da uSveben. miacureben

bades ise, rom Ziri mihyveba fskers. bolos yinuli rom moi-

Wreba darCeba mcire monakveTi, romelsac yuryujas eZaxian.

aq aris mogrovili Tevzi, romlis amosayvanad saWiroa

xolixi~. 50 (xolixi Cveneburad grZeltariani orkap joxze

morgebuli patar bade)

50. beriZe m. mebadureoba, Tevzis saxelebi. Tb. 2005. gv.27.

55


godriT anu pirqceuliT Tevzaoba

_ mtkvris auzis mdinareebis zemo welze didi xania

aRar misdeven godriT anu pirqceuliT Tevzaobas. mas

ufro Sua da bolo welze gamoiyeneben warmatebulad:

mejudaze, tortlaze, lexuraze, narekvavze. qsnis toponimikaSi

gvaqvs TevzTan dakavSirebuli hidronimebi,

kerZod qarCoxis xeobaze fiqsirdeba `murwaTxevi~ da `konofiso~.

am ukanasknelis etimologia adgilobriv uxucesebisTvisac

gaugebaria. sabas leqsikonSi koni `quemodan

aRmavlis Tevzis sapyrobi godriT pirSeqceulTa~-s niSnavs.

gamodis, rom koniT Tevzaoba igive pirSeqceuli godriT

Tevzaoba gasul saukuneebSi qarCoxis mcxovrebTa

saqmianobas ufro warmoadgenda vidre dRes. saba Tavis

leqsikonSi pirSeqceulis ganmartebisas axsenebs `sasalikos~

rasac Semdgnair ganmartebas aZlevs: `ars badeTa

mosayreli adgili~ 51 . sinonimad asaxelebs `sapaluros~

rasac Tavismxriv ase ganmartavs: `sapaluro ewodebis yovelTa

sawylispirosa adgilTa TevzTa sapyrobelsa, xolo

sasaliko, sada badeni esrolebian da moeyrebian~. 52

toponimi `konofiso~ geografiulad mdebareobs sof.

karelTkaris (Zveli vake) samxreT-aRmosavleTiT da ewodeba

saxnavi miwis nakveTs, romelsac samxreTidan esaz-

Rvreba xevi, sadac gavrcelebulia kalmaxi da murwa. savaraudod

im saxnavi miwis monakveTSi mis mepatrones Cadgmuli

eqneboda konusuri formis pirSeqceuli. gansxvavebiT

dRevandeli mavTulis godrebisa romelic dawnuli

unda yofiliyo Txilis an urZnis saxriT.

axlo warsulamde godors ZiriTadad zRvis donidan

1000 metris qvemoT mcxovrebni xmarobdnen. igi ori saxeobisaa:

erTi _ romelic gankuTvnilia zemodan qvemoT

51. sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli. t. II. Tb. 1993. gv.

47.

52. qarCoxSi, kerZod sof. Tinikaanis CrdiloeTiT fiqsirdeba

toponimi `saxalike~. sadac soflis mcxovrebni zafxulobiT

agrovebdnen sazamTro SeSas.

56


dinebas dayolili Tevzis dasaWerad da meore qvemodan zemoT

dinebis sawinaaRmdegod aRmavali Tevzis dasaWerad. 53

savele muSaobisas sofel muxranSi vnaxeT da suraTi

gadavuReT aluminis mavTuliT moqsovil pirSeqceul

godors, romelsac garda Sida qarTlis baris soflebisa

mtkvris xeobis CaTvliT xmrobdnen faravnis, saRamos da

tabawyuris tbebSi, `Zabrisebri godrebiT, sadamdec Sevidoda

meTevze tbaSi Cadgamda. godris ZirSi misatyueblis

garda qvebs alagebdnen, rom ar gadaadgilebuliyo. Cadgma

niSnavda godris dawolil mdgomareobaSi datovebas~. 54

SedarebiT martivad Tevzaobdnen lazebi. godriT, Tevzs

RariTac iWerdnen.

dasavleT saqarTveloSi da javaxeTSi `godris Cadgma~,

_ midgma Tevzis dasaWerad scodniaT CanCqeris ZirSi.

maRla asasvlelad amxtari Tevzi pirvelive cdaze iSvia-

Tad ava, ukan Camovardninas ki godorSi cviva da veRar

gamodis.

facris Cadgma

_ faceri ficris oTxkuTxa 1,50X1 metris zomis yuTia

Zirze liTonis badiT. metwilad zemodan ficrebiT dafaruli,

xSirad saketiT. mdinares an mis tots almacerad

gaRobaven msxvili qviT, lastebiT, xis foTliani totebiT

da wylis aCqarebuli nakadi Caedineba facerSi. aRniSnuli

meTodiT Tevzis Weras (maT Soris oragulisac) misdevdnen

rogorc swraf mdinareebze ise mdore dinebebze, seqtembris

dasawyisidan noembris dasawyisamde.

53. amgvarad TevzWera imereTSi aRwerili aqvs vaxuSti batoniSvils:

`Zabrian godors gazafxulze Zabriani TaviT wylis

dinebis mimarTulebiT Cadgamdnen ise, rom wylis done Zabris

naxvretis Suamde aRwevdes. Tevzi, romelic saqviriTod mdinaris

dinebis sawinaaRmdegod micuravs moxvdeba Zabridan godorSi.

54. m. beriZe, mebaduroba, Tevzebi, saxelebi, Tb. 2005. gv.24

57


faceriT Tevzis Wera kargad aqvs dasuraTebuli vaJafSavelas

bewinas magaliTze: `...bewina oqtomberSi facersac

hmarTavda, saoragule facers, romelic mxolod

dedal oragulebs iWerda, radgan mamlebi bewinas gakeTebul

lastebze zeda xtebodnen. bewinas ukvirda, rom mamals

oragulebs ver iWerda da arc icoda es garemoeba riT aexsna

im dromde, vidre erTxel Rame layuCebiT lastze dakidebuli

oraguli ar naxa; maSinRa mihxvda, rom dedali

oragulebi dasustebis, gamxdrobis gamo Turme cvioden bewinas

naostatar facerSi radgan jani aRar mosdevaT mamal

oragulebiviT lastebze gadamxtariyvnen~. 55

totis daSrobisas faceri karg saSualebad iTvleboda

Tu ki mis miRma cecxlic daenTeboda. maSin erTianad gaikrifeboda

Tevzi da faceric damZimdeboda. sinaTlis zemoqmedebis

erT-erTi kargi magaliTia CangliT Tevzaoba,

rac savele eTnografiuli kvlevisas sofel lamisyanaSi da

muxranSi moviZieT.

CangliT, barjiT da kaviT Tevzaoba

SeiZleba darwmunebiT iTqvas, rom temperaturisa da

Jangbadis Semdeg wylis binadarTa cxovreba yvelaze metad

sinaTlezea damokidebuli. lifsitobis periodSi Suqis

Zala imdenad didia, rom, mraval mSvidobian Tevzs aviwyebs

sakvebsa da safrTxes. rac ufro mSieria miT ufro etaneba

naTebas wylis binadari. saerTod Tevzebs aqvT sadReRamiso

ganaTebis ciklis SegrZneba e. w. fotoperiodi. magaliTad

kaSkaSa Suqi zamTarSi naklebad izidavs, vidre zafxulSi.

sagulisxmoa, rom Tevzebi tofobisas (qviriTobisas) eridebian

sinaTles, e. i. gamravlebis instiqti aviwyebT kvebas.

55. vaJa-fSavela, Txzulebani, Tb. 1987. gv.340.

58


mokvlevisas mopovebuli informaciis Tanaxmad sof.

lamisyanaSi dafiqsirda CangliT da barjiT Tevzis Weris

xerxebi.

md. qsanze RamiT karg Sedegs iZleoda CangliT Tevzaoba:

aiRebdnen naxevarmetrian diametris, mucel Cazneqil,

mrgval Tunuqis naWers, romlis kideebi amobrunebuli

iyo 2-3 santimetrze. Sig CaanTebdnen cecxls. aRniSnuli

Tunuqi oTxi wvrili jaWviT ekida or metrian joxze, romelic

meTevzes xelSi horizontalurad ekava da dahqonda

mdinaris napirze. sinaTliT aRgznebuli Tevzebi napirs

etanebodnen, meTevzec ar ayovnebda da Cangals moxerxebulad

urWobda. 56

Canglis sidides ganapirobebda Tevzis saxeoba. Wanarze,

kapoetze, wveraze patara Canglebi gamoiyeneboda,

xolo oragulebze mozrdili grZeltariani Canglebi.

mimsgavsebuli Tevzis saWeri xelsawyo davafiqsireT

sofel muxranSic, sadac gasanaTeblad xmarobdnen martivad

gakeTebul samxedro `baklaSkas~. Caasxavden navTs

da bambis patruqs gaxvretil sacobidan amoatarebdnen,

amagrebdnen 1,5 metri sigrZis joxze da mowyobilobac

mzad iyo.

rac Seexeba Cangals, qsnis xeobaze mas zogi barjs eZaxis,

muxranSi`Stikavoi lafatkiTac~ ukeTebiaT or, sam da

oTx TiTianebi. dRes ukve Znelia daadginos kacma romeli

barjia, romeli Cangali da romeli kavi, an xoWi da WvilTi.

saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi sxvadasxva terminologiiT

iyo cnobili TevzWeris rkinis iaraRebi. qarTuli enis

ganmartebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeulSi sityva `barji~

ganmartebulia rogorc rkinis kaviani joxi, romelic ixmareba

Tevzis saWerad, 57 saba barjs ase ganmartavs: `kapia-

56. lamisyanaSi yofnisas erT-erTma informatorma gviTxra:

lamisyanelebs cud moTevzeebad gvTvlian. mezobel sofelSi

xSirad gaigonebT Cveni misamarTiT naTqvams: lamisyanaSi Tevzs,

rom daiWeren pirvel rigSi jiSs ki ara wonas kiTxulobeno.

57. qarT. enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni t. I. Tb. 1950. gv. 985

59


saoragule kavi. qsnis xeoba. sigrZe 1,20 sm.

ni joxi, gina saTevzao xoWi, 58 xolo xoWis

ganmartebas ase iZleva: `WvilTi rkinis

barji saTevze~. 59 zemoTxsenebuli es ori

ganmartebiTi leqsikoni erTmaneTTan winaaRmdegobaSi

modis. rvatomeulis mixedviT

rkinis kaviani joxi kapiani ver iqneba.

kavi gamosadebia, xolo kapiani dasartymeli

an Casartymeli, romelic naxevrad Wris Tevzs. vaJaseuli

ganmartebiT barji _ `orTiT xeze gakeTebulia galesili

rkina ise, rom zevidan dauSvas kacma oraguls, mxolod

naxevramdis gasWris, es ki sakmarisia, rom mokvdes.

monadiresac es unda mxolod Suaze rom gaapos, maSin Sei-

Zleba naxevari wyalma moitacos~. 60

Cveni azriT barji rkinis kavi ver iqneba, igi gamosadebi

iraRi ar unda iyos, ise, rogorc kavi CasarWobi iaraRi

ver iqneba.

oragulze saukeTeso sanadiro iaraRad iTvleboda

rkinis kavi, romelsac aragvze Cangalsac eZaxdnen. kavi

daaxloebiT 10 milimetriani diamtris mrgvali rkina iyo.

magrdeboda 5-6 metris sigrZis bambukis an Txilis joxze.

oragulze monadire, amRvreuli wylis siRrmeSi kavs

zurgiT win da wveriT ukan mdinaris dinebas daayolebda.

morevebSi piraRma gatvrenil oragulze rbilad Sexebisas

swrafad Seatrialebda wveriT win Tevzisken da didi

ZaliT gamohkravda Tavisken. wamogebul nadavls napirze

gamoaTrevda da qviT moklavda. saoragule kavis erTi egzemplari,

romelic gavrcelebuli iyo liaxvis, qsnisa da

58. s.s. orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli. t.I. Tb. 1991. gv 96.

59. s.s. orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli. t.II. Tb. 1991. gv 428.

60. vaJa-fSavela, Txzulebani, Tb. 1987. gv.339.

60


aragvis auzSi, daculia axalgorSi.

qsnis xeobis istoriis,

arqeologiisa da arqiteqturismuzeum-nakrZalis

fond-sacavSi. (sigrZe

1m.20sm. sainventaro №2298)

saoragule kaviT Tevzaobisas

aragvze damatebiT

xmarobdnen wvril joxs _

wkeplas, romlis daxmarebiT

jer Tevzs poulobdnen

mere ki kavs gadauwvdendnen

da gamosdebdnen. oragulis

dasaWerad am xerxis gamoyenebaze

kargad wers bunebis

mesaidumle vaJa-fSavela.

`...bewina aragvze xelSi

Cangals da saxres daiWerda da dauwyebda Zebnas oraguls,

saxris SexebiT ise atyobda, rogorc xeliT. mousvamda

saxres roca darwmundeboda, rom oragulia, varaudiT,

`andiT~ gadaawodebda Cangals, gamohkravda, Cangali

gverdSi moedeboda oraguls da rkaliviT moxrils gamoa-

Trevda mSralze~.

rogorc avRniSneT ganaTebis faqtori sayovelTaod

dadasturebulia warmatebuli TevzWerisaTvis. amitomacaa,

rom am meTods xSirad mimarTaven Tevzaobisas. xelovnur

Suqs umetesad etanebian sinaTleSi mcxovrebi Tevzebi,

gansakuTrebiT mdinareebSi mobinadreebi. iaponelma

iqtiologebma daadgines, rom zogierTi zvigeni Tavisi

manaTobeli TvalebiT izidavs msxverpls. loqo ulvaSebis

Wiiseburi cmacuniT ityuebs sakbilos. aseve dadgenilia,

rom wylis binadrebs izidavT musikac, oRond klasikuri.

jazis xmaze Tevzebi frTxebian. qaSayebi da nafotebi wruwuneben,

qarsalebi bzuian, loqo Rrutunebs an gminavs,

delfinebi goWebiviT Wyipineben, murwa xrotinebs da sxva.

61

TevzWeris iaraRebi

mxatv. konstantine varSaniZe


wylis mowamvliT Tevzis daWera

Tevzis dasaWerad wylis mowamvlis xSiri SemTxvevebi

fiqsirdeboda jer kidev sabWoTa xelisuflebis periodSi

romlis gaaqtiurebac gamoiwvia qimiis ganviTarebam. manamde

xSirad adgili hqonda dinamitiT afeTqebebs, Semdeg

qloriT da sxva Sxam-qimikatebiT mdinareebisa da wyalsatevebis

mowamvlas.

wylis mowamvlis Tavdapirveli SemTxvevebi ukavSirdeba

toqsikur mcenareebs, kerZod: Sqeres, iels, atams, lafans

da kakals.

samegreloSi wylis mowamvla TevzWeris uZveles xerxebs

miekuTvneba. Tevzis mosawamlad iyenebdnen lafans.

mis nedl Stoebs moxarSavdnen da Stoebianad wyalSi Caasxamdnen.

mesxeTSiac yofla wylis mowamvlis xalxuri xerxi. Semoaclidnen

kakals wengos, CeCqvavdnen da uSvebdnen patara

ReleebSi.

savele muSaobisas sof. muxranSi patara liaxvis xeobidan

Casaxlebulma emzar Cxataurma gviTxra, rom `muxranis

meurneobis atmis baRebidan mTaSi mimqonda konebad Sekruli

atmis gasxlili totebi da kalmaxiT mdidar, patara

xevSi vdebdi. naxevar saaTSi furCxvis Semdeg xevis bolos

Cagebuli kapronis bade kalmaxiT ivseboda~. SedarebiT

ukeTesi iyo saaraye qvabSi atmis xis Catenili nasxlavis

naxarSis CaRvra patra xevebSi.

Tevzis morfologia

Tevzis warmoSobisa da ganviTarebis mTliani sura-

Tis gadmocema metad rTulia, radgan paleontologiuri

namarxebi Zalze mwir sabuTebs iZleva. zogierTi mkvlevaris

azriT Tevzebi warmoSobilan mtknar wyalSi saindac

isini TandaTanobiT zRvaSi gadasulan, rac akademikos l.

62


ergis mixedviT ZiriTadad devonuri sistemis Sua periodSi

unda momxdariyo.

Tevzis klasSi gaerTianebulia daaxloebiT 20 000 saxeobis

wylis cxoveli, romlebic erTmaneTisagan imdenad

mkveTrad gansxvavdebian, rom saWiroa maTi klasebad dayofa.

Tevzebis sacxovrebel garemos warmoadgens wyali,

romlis gareSe arseboba isic metad mokle vadiT SeuZlia

mxolod zogierT saxeobas, is iTvleba civsisxlian wylis

xerxemlian cxovelad. sunTqavs layuCebiT. misTvis temperaturas,

romlis meryeoba wyalSi ufro naklebia vidre

xmeleTze didi mniSvneloba aqvs. maTi sxeulis temperatura

damokidebulia garegan garemos temperaturaze. wylis

temperaturis momateba iwvevs Tevzis gaZlierebul

kvebas. Cqardeba sasqeso produqtebis momwifeba da a. S.

temperaturis dakleba iwvevs aRniSnul movlenaTa tempis

Semcirebas, xolo zogi Tevzis, magaliTad: oragulis, kobris

Zils.

Tevzis sxeuli TiTistarisebrad aris wagrZelebuli,

gverdebidan gabrtyelebuli. mis formaze gavlenas axdens

wylis moZraoba da misiT gamowveuli meqanikuri faqtori,

agreTve wylis siCqare gansazRvravs farflebis ganviTarebas

da safarvels.

Tevzis sxeuli SeiZleba gaiyos sam nawilad: 1 _ Tavi;

2-tani; 3 _ kudi. Tavsa da tans Soris sazRvars warmoadgens

layuCis naprali, xolo tansa da kuds Soris analuri

xvreli. Tavis wina nawilSi piri da wyvili nestoa moTavsebuli.

Tevzis piris forma sxvadasxvanairia: ganivi, iribi,

naxevarmTvarisebri da sxva. layuCis saxuravs ukana kideze

Semovlebuli aqvs kanovani apki, romelic xels uwyobs

sarqvelis mWidrod daxurvas. kudis farfli zog Tevzs

mTliani aqvs, zogs _ orlapotiani.

Tevzebi gansazRvrul adgilsamyofelTan Seguebis

mixedviT iyofa Semdeg ZiriTad ekologiur jgufebad: I _

zRvis Tevzebi _ binadroben mudam zRvaSi; II. mtknari wylis

Tevzebi _ binadroben mudam mtknar wyalSi; III. gamsvle-

63


Tevzis gazomvis sqema

a-b mTeli sigrZe (absoluturi sigrZe); a-c sigrZe kudis farflis Sua

sxivebis bolomde (sarewi sigrZe); a-d sxeulis sigrZe (sigrZe kudis farflis

fuZemde), a-e Tavis sigrZe; f-g sxeulis udidesi simaRle; h-i sxeulis umciresi

simaRle, k zurgis farfli; i mkerdis farfli; m muclis farfli; n

analuri farfli; okudis farfli, p gverdis xazi; q analuri xvreli.

li Tevzebi _ gamravlebisTvis zRvidan Sedian mdinareSi,

an mdinaridan Cadian zRvaSi; IV. momlaSo wylis Tevzebi _

binadroben zRvis gamtknarebul ubnebSi, iyofian momlaSo

wylisa da naxevrad gamsvlel formebad. es ukanasknelni

gasamravleblad Sedian mdinaris qvemo dinebaSi.

Tevzebi irCevian rogorc siTbos moyvarul ise sicivis

moyvarulebad. am ukanasknelTa kategorias miekuTvnebian

qaSayisnairTa rigis oragulisebrTa ojaxi, romlis

warmomadgenelTa umravlesoba binadrobs zRvaSi,

saidanac saqviriTod Sedian mdinareebSi da xSirad maT

saTaveebamde aRweven. zogi maTgani cxovrobs mdinareebSi

da maRali mTebis tbebSi. Tavis mxriv oragulTa ojaxSi er-

Tiandebian: 1. Cveulebrivi oraguli; 2. kaspiuri oraguli;

3. Savi zRvis oraguli da 4. mdinaris kalmaxi.

pirvel rigSi CvenSi gavrcelebuli mravali saxeobis

TevzebSi yvelaze gemriels, samkurnalos da lamazs,

bunebis marTlac saocrebas mdinaris kalmaxs SevexebiT,

romliTac uSurvelad aris dajildovebuli Cveni

64


mTis mdinareebi. mdinaris kalmaxis garda saqarTveloSi

gavrcelebulia tbisa da cisartyela kalmaxi (ar igulisxmeba

oraguli _ `zRvis kalmaxi~)

mdinaris kalmaxi

iSviaTi silamazisa da Zvirfasi xorcis gamo, erT-er-

Ti mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia saqarTvelos mtknari wyalsatevebis

Tevzebs Soris. kalmaxis aseTi silamaze, sxvadasxva

feris da elferis pigmentebis (wiTeli, Savi, yavisferi,

narinjisferi, limonis feri, Sindisferi da sxva)

arsebobiT aixsneba.

`kalmaxis Seferiloba metad did cvalebadobas ganicdis

da umTavresad damokidebulia adgilsamyofelze,

asakze, sqesze, weliwadis droze. sasqeso produqtebis mdgomareobaze

da sakvebis Semadgenliobazec. axalgazrdebs

laqebi ufro Ria ferisa aqvT vidre asakovnebs. gamravlebis

periodSi ki ufro kaSkaSa Seferilobas Rebulobs,

gverdebze mkrTali momwvano elferi gadakravs, zurgis

mxare ufro muqia zogjer moSavo, muclis mxare vercxlisferi.

mdinaris kalmaxis sigrZe 20-26 sm-ia. wona 100-400

grami da metic~. 61 iSviaTad gvxvdeba 35-37 santimetris

xolo woniT 1-2 kg-mde. mis ZiriTad sakvebs Seadgens sxvadasxva

saxeobis Tevzi da wylis uxerxemlo cxovelebi.

Zvlian TevzebSi kalmaxs oragulTan erTad mniSvnelovani

adgili uWiravs. saqarTvelos mtknar wylebSi

gvxvdeba sami saxis kalmaxi: 1. mdinaris; 2. tbisa da 3. cisartyela

kalmaxi, romelic Semoyvanilia Cr. amerikidan.

kalmaxs gaaCnia rogorc layuCis ise ybebis, enis, sasis

Zlieri kbilebi. is moyvarulia JangbadiT mdidari civi

wylebis. kargad egueba mdinaris Cqar dinebas. SeuZlia 4-5

metriani CanCqeris dabrkolebis daZleva, Tu wylis done

61. r. baxtaZe, kalmaxi. Jurnali `nadiroba~ 2008. 6

65


vardnis adgilze minimum 50-70 santimetria. kalmaxs zRvis

donidan 2800 metr simaRleze SeuZlia asvla. mas mxardamxar

misdevda dasavleT saq-Si wvera, aRmosavleTSi murwa.

Tumca is bolomde partniorobas ver uwevs, misdevs maqsimum

z.d. 1400 metramde. amis zeviT kalmaxi mTis Smagi mdinareebisa

da xev-xuvebis erTpirovnuli lideri da batonpatronia.

zRvis donidan rac ufro maRla binadrobs kalmaxi

miT ufro samkurnalo da gemrielia. amis dasturad

gadmocema gveubneba, rom avadmyofi daviT qsnis erisTavi

sistematiurad miirTmevda Jamuris xeobaSi daWeril kalmaxs.

swored misive miTiTebiT mis mkurnals i. a. giulden-

Stedts largvisSi yofnisas 1772 wlis 29 ivniss `zemo qsnidan~

miarTves sasargeblo, yuaTiani kalmaxi da cimori.

kalmaxisTvis wylis optimaluri temperatura 8-16 0 ,

ufro maRali temperaturisas roca naklebia agreTve

Jangbadi, midis ufro zemo dinebaSi. ikvebeba mwerebiT,

maTi matlebiT, kibosnairebiT, WiebiT. misi sayvareli saWmelia

sansala anu Rortavi (RorTava). nawilobriv eweva

mtaceblur kvebas umetesad tbebsa da wyalsacavebSi. Wams

Tevzebs, maT Soris Tavisive jiSis patara kalmaxebs da oragulis

qviriTs: `Tu oraguli yvela juris wvril Tevzsa

hylapavs da aCanagebs, samagierod es wvrili Tevzebi qaravnad

am dros oraguls Tan dasdevs da Zalian bevrs qviriTs

uWamen. oragulis qviriTs ufro kalmaxi emtereba. oraguli

amas hxedavs, kargad hgrZnobs da albaT amitom hmalavs

wyalSi, qviSaSi da qvebSi hflavs qviriTs, rom advilad ar

SeuWamon Tevzebma~. (vaJa-fSavela, oragulis cxovreba)

kalmaxi garemo pirobebis mixedviT viTardeba. tbaSi

kalmaxi gacilebiT male da didi, daaxloebiT 3-4 kg-mde izrdeba.

gavrcelebulia evropaSi, mcire aziaSi, kavkasiaSi,

iranSi, mesopotamiaSi, CrdiloeT afrikaSi. saqarTveloSi

farTodaa gavrcelebuli, umetesad binadrobs mTis mdinareebsa

da tbebSi. mdinareebis umetesobaSi cxovrobs

mxolod zemo dinebaSi, mtkvari, alazani, iori, rioni. zog

66


mdinareSi vrceldeba mTel sigrZeze mtkvarTan SeerTebidan

alpur zonamde: liaxvi, qsani, aragvi, Tumca am bolo

dros Jinvalidan mcxeTamde iSviaTad. agreTve gvxvdeba

tbebSi: tabawyurSi, faravani, saRamo, riwa, erwo. 62 wyalsacavebSi:

xramis Tbilisis, sionis, Saoris da sxva.

sqesobriv simwifes kalmaxi aRwevs 3-4 wlis asakSi.

qviriTobs seqtembridan maisamde. tofobisTvis irCevs mTvarian

Rames iwyebs mzis Casvlisas da amTavrebs gaTenebisas,

Txelwylian, qva-qviSian adgilebSi. wylis 4-8 0 temperaturisas.

yris 500-1000 qviriTamde, inkubaciis periodi

65-200 dRea, rac damokidebulia wylis gansxvavebul temperaturaze.

misi qviriTis diametri 4-6 milimetramdea.

qviriTs yris Tavis amoTxril ormoSi da ganayofierebis

mere faravs qviSiT. 63 lifsitebi mxolod Svidi-rva aseuli

iCekeba, am ukanasknelidan ki zrdasrul asaks mxolod 20dan

50-mde lifsita Tu aRwevs. kalmaxis sicocxlis xangrZlivoba

10-12 welia.

mdinaris kalmaxi mfrTxalia. meTevzis danaxviT

gamowveuli SiSi, daaxloebiT naxevar saaTSi gauvlis

da mxolod Semdeg Tu gaagrZelebs wylis zedapiridan

62. bevrs da maT Sors qsnis xeobis baris soflebis mcxovrebT

hgoniaT, rom mTis ulamazesi kalmaxi yelis tbaSic mravldeba

da izrdeba, rac mxolod Rimilis momgvrelia. yelis tba vulkanur

zeganzea zR. d. 2921 m. simaRleze. sarkis farTobi 1.28 km 2 .

udidesi siRrme 63 m. saSualo 24.7m. 7-8 Tve gayinulia. wyali mtknaria.

tba sazrdoobs Tovlis miwisqveSa da wvimis wyliT. Tevzi

ar aris.

63. kalmaxi saqviriTed ormoebis amoTxras farflebis moZraobiTac

axerxebs. qviriTi viTardeba qviSa wayril bnel ormoebSi,

an lodebis qveS, sadac wyali JonviT gadis da uzrunvelyofs

rogorc Jangabdis, ise sxva gazebis miwodebas ganayofierebuli

qviriTisaTvis. Semodgomaze dayril qviriTidan adre

gazafxulze, iCekeba 13-15 mm.-is sigrZis embrionebi. maT didi

sayviTre parki aqvT, sadac moTavsebulia cximovani wveTebi,

romliTac organizmi 2-3 kviris ganmavlobaSi ikvebeba. am dros

isini gverdze an mucelze wvanan. sayviTre parkis SewovasTan

erTad kalmaxis lavrebi budobidan gamodian da damoukideblad

iwyeben sakvebis motacebas. am dros isini swrafad dacuraven da

sakvebsac advilad iWeren.

67


mwerebis, Wuprebis, Wiebis, siRrmeSi ki sansalebisa da lifsitebis

Wamas. (ar ikvebeba 3 gradusis qveviT da 18 gradusis

zeviT). rac ufro izrdeba miT ufro mtacebeli xdeba,

zogjer TanamoZmeebsac ar indobs. advili SesaZlebelia

did kalmaxs patara kalmaxi upovoT mucelSi. is vertikalze

150 gradusze xedavs, xolo horizontalze 160-170

gradusze, amasTanave axlomxedvelia da msxverpls erT

metr radiusSi amCnevs. amitom satyuariani ankesi axlos

unda CaugdoT. ufro kargad amCnevs moZrav siluetebs.

kalmaxs iyeneben mdinaris wylis siwmindis indikatoradac

_ Tu sisufTavea saTavisken micuravs, Tu mavne nivTierebebi

Seeria qveviT daqandeba.

Zvel wignebSi aRniSnulia, rom kavkasiaSi adgilobrivi

wiTeli, TeTrzoliani WiebiT, zogjer cxvris, Zroxis

nedli xorciT bevr kalmaxs iWerdnen. wvrili kalmaxebi

gamudmebiT dadian mdinareSi, zeviT-qveviT sakvebis ZebnaSi.

didebi ZiriTadad mdinareTa mosaxvevebSi, morevebSi

dadarajebulni arian qvebTan, kunZebTan, fesvebTan.

kalmaxi Cqar wyalSi advilad etaneba satyuaras. nelSi akvirdeba,

SeiZleba ukanac gadmoagdos, maT Zalian aSinebT

setyva, qvebis gruxuni, am dros SesaZlebelia xeliTac

daiWiros kacma napirze.

kalmaxi saqarTveloSi odiTganvea popularuli. masze

mravali moTxroba da leqsia dawerili.

trfobis cremlebad, margalitebad,

qsani qarafebs daekideba,

aaxmaurebs sajixveebs da

kalmaxebs cecxli waekidebaT. (v.q.)

qsnis kalmaxi Tavisi feriT (pigmenturi xalebiT) da

gemoTi gansxvavdeba aragvis, didi da patara liaxvis kalmaxisagan.

kerZod zemo welze mkveTri wiTeli winwklebiT,

naklebad sriala kaniTa da Savi feriT, qsnis Sua welze ki

kalmaxisaTvis tanis da winwklebis Ria feria damaxasiaTebeli.

68


qarTvelma mkvlevarma vaxuSti batoniSvilma,

romelmac aRwera me-18 saukunis saqarTvelo, misi flora

da fauna, bevri sagulisxmo da angariS gasawevi cnoba

dagvitova mdinareebsa da tbebze da maT iqtiofaunaze.

vaxuSti qarTlSi gansxvavebuli Seferilobis kalmaxs

asaxelebs: `varianis fSani da axaldabisa am fSansa Sina ipyrobs

kalmaxi yviTeli da friad kargi~. 64 rogorc Cans wi-

Tel da Sav winwklebian kalmaxis garda yviTeli kalmaxic

yofila qarTlSi gavrcelebuli.

vaxuStis TqmiT `yarabulaxis xeobaSi Savwyaros orive

mxirdan mdinare gamodis, romelic savsea kalmaxiT~.

samxreT mdinaris kalmaxi misive cnobiT _ Savia, xolo

CrdiloeTis _ TeTri. Tu gadaviyvanT CrdiloeTis kalmaxs

samxreTis mdinareSi _ gaSavdeba. xolo samxreTisas

CrdiloeTis mdinareSi gaTeTrdeba.

64. qarTlis cxovreba t. IV, gv. 368. Tb. 1973.

70


69

mdinaris kalmaxi

oraguli

murwa

mtkvris wvera

fiCxuli (kapueti, xramuli)


Tevzaobis Semdeg

aragvis xeoba, xadis CanCqeri

70


tbis kalmaxi: warmoSobili unda iyos mdinaris kalmaxisgan.

misgan gansxvavdeba SeferilobiT. Savi laqebi

aqvs da didi zomis sxeuli. sigrZiT saSualod 50-60 sm-s

aRwevs. woniT 4-6 kg-s. (iSviaTad 100-120 sm-s. woniT ki 15-

20 kg-s) tofoba (qviriToba) seqtembridan Tebervlamde

grZeldeba. qviriTs yrian iq sadac wylis temperatura

3-10 0 C Soris meryeobs. misi lifsitebi mdinaris kalmaxis

lifsitebisnairad Wamen mwerebs da maT Wuprebs, lokokinebs,

kibosnairebs, WianWvelebs, xolo mozardi kalmaxi

mtacebeli xdeba da umTavresad Tevzebsa da bayayebs

etaneba.

cisartyela kalmaxi: iseve, rogorc Cveni mdinaris

kalmaxi mtknari wylis binadaria. mis samSoblod iTvleba

Cr. amerika (aliaskidan meqsikamde). igi gavrcelebulia

wynari okeanis sanapiroebis mdinareebsa da tbebSi. 1882

wels kanadidan aklimatizebuli iqna evropis, aziis, avstraliis,

afrikis mTel rig qveynebSi. yofil sabWoTa kav-

SirSi, 1936-1940 wlebSi moaSenes leningradisa da kurskis

olqebSi, krasnodaris mxareSi, estoneTsa da ukrainaSi.

saqarTveloSi cisartyela kalmaxi 1952 wels kurskis

olqidan gadmoiyvanes da afxazeTSi md. Savwyalas napirze

mowyobil kalmaxis saSen tborebSi moaTavses, saidanac

Semdeg SavwyalaSi gavrcelda. mogvianebiT gadayvanili da

moSenebuli iqna Tbilisis, tyibulis, kumisis, Saoris wyalsacavebSi

da ruisis saklamaxe meurneobebSi.

cisartyela kalmaxs gverdebze TiTo-TiTo cisartyelas

msgavsi farTo xali gasdevs da swored aqedanaa warmo-

Sobili misi saxelwodeba. is ori wlis asakamde Zlier hgavs

mdinaris kalmaxs.

cisartyela kalmaxi civi wylis moyvarulia. cxovrobs

mdinareebSi da nakadulebSi, oRond Cveni mdinaris kalmax-

Tan is ufro amtania. advilad egueba Tbil wylebs. itans

4-30 0 -mde siTbos. saerTod ki misTvis normalur temperaturad

20 0 -iTvleba, maSin rodesac Cveni mdinaris kalmaxi

wylis 14-15 0 temperaturis dros saTaveebisaken iwevs, sa-

72


dac wylis temperatura dabalia. garda amisa cisartyela

kalmaxi swrafad izrdeba, Tumca imave sakvebiT ikvebeba

roTac Cveni mdinaris kalmaxi. sqesobrivad mwifdeba 3-4

wlis. nayofiereba saSualod aRwevs 500-2500 qviriTamde.

mravldeba sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxva dros, imis

mixedviT Tu sad rogoria wylis temperatura. qviriTs

yris mdinaris Txel da Cqar dinebis qva-qviSian adgilebSi.

dedali kalmaxi qviriTs marxavs, igi fskeruli _ arawebovania,

moyviTalo narinjisferi, diametriT 4-6,5 mm-mde.

misi inkubacia grZeldeba 1,5-2 Tvemde wylis temperaturis

mixedviT. larvis mier yviTris Sewova xdeba 7-14 dRis ganmavlobaSi.

izrdeba 50-90 santimetramde. woniT 0,8-1,6 kilogramia,

iSviaTad 6 kilogramianebic xdebian. xelovnur

tbaSi ori wlisa aRwevs 350-450 gramamde, 3 wlisa 1-1,2 kgmde,

4 wlisa 2 kg-mde kvebis pirobebis mixedviT.

Tavisi Tvisebebis gamo cisartyela kalmaxi Zvirfasi

sarewao, satbore Tevzia, xolo mdinaris kalmaxi ZiriTadad

sasporto Tevzia, Tumca am bolo dros gonebadayandebuli

adamianebi umowyalod anadgureben Cveni bunebis

siamayesa da simdidres _ wiTelvarskvlavebian kalmaxs,

uromlisodac Cveni qsani, aragvi, liaxvi da aTasi sxva mdinare

Tu wyaro-xevebi aseTi keklucebi, gulis da gonebis

momajadoeblebi aRar gveqneboda.

monadireTa da meTevzeTa wreSi mdinaris kalmaxisa

da oragulis (zRvis kalmaxis) saerTo warmoSobis sakiTxi

yovelTvis kamaTis sagania xolme. 65 aq Sevecdebi Cveni

mkiTxvelisTvis naTeli gavxado aRniSnuli sadavo sakiTxi

risTvisac citirebas gavukeTeb zoologiis institutis

mecnier-TanamSromlis m. demetraSvilis mosazrebebs.

rogorc ukve avRniSneT CvenSi kalmaxi warmodgenilia

4 ekologiuri formiT: mdinaris, tbis (tbaSi yvelgan cisartyela

kalmaxi ar aris), cisartyela kamlmaxi da zRvis

kalmaxi (oraguli) oTxive formis kalmaxis genotipi anu

65. rogorc bevrgan ise sof. lamisyanaSic mcxovreb meTevze

gia qenqaZes miaCnia, rom kalmaxi da oraguli warmoSobiT sul

sxvadasxva saxeobis Tevzebi arian.

73


memkvidreobiTi safuZveli erTnairia, Tumca fenotipurad

anu garegani niSan-TvisebebiT gansxvavebulni arian.

maTi formis Camoyalibeba garemo pirobebzea damokidebuli.

saxeldobr: Tu is mdinareSi gaizarda, maSin mdinaris

kalmaxad Camoyalibdeba, Tu tbaSi an wyalsacavSi moxvda,

tbis kalmaxad gadaiqceva da Tu zRvaSi icxovrebs _ zRvis

kalmaxis anu oragulis saxes miiRebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom

oraguls das. evropis qveynebSi (inglisi, germania da sxva)

zRvis kalmaxs uwodeben.

kalmaxi da oraguli, rom erTiani ojaxis warmomadgenelia

imiTac dasturdeba, rom isini Tavisuflad ejvarebian

erTmaneTs da maTi najvari anu hibridi iseTive nayofieria.

amitomac oragulis qviriTs xSirad anayofiereben

kalmaxis spermiT. kalmaxisa da oragulis erTianoba

dasturdeba sqesTa SefardebiTac. saxeldobr, sqesmwife

oragulebSi, romlebic gasamravleblad zRvidan mdinare-

Si Sedian sWarbobs mdedrobiTi sqesi (80-90%), xolo mdinaris

kalmaxebSi _ piriqiT, mamrobiTi sqesi metia.

kalmaxis intensiuri zrdis unari, istoriulad didi

wyalsatevebis pirobebSi gamomuSavebuli Tvisebaa da mas

es dRemde aqvs SenarCunebuli. kalmaxis romeli lifsitac

ar unda gamovzardoT patara wyalSi igi mainc mcire

zomisa darCeba msgavsad mdinareSi gamozrdili kalmaxisa,

xolo did wyalSi _ didi zomisa gaxdeba. 66 sagangebo cdebiT

dadgenilia, rom gamoCekidan 5 wlamde mdinareSi namyofi

oraguli sigrZiT saSualod 14 sm-s ar aRemateba, xolo

igi erTi wlis ganmvlobaSi zRvaSi 56 sm-mde izrdeba. aseve

intensiurad izrdeba wyalsacavebSic. 67

oraguli qviriTidan gamoCekis Semdeg, erT an ramdenime

wels rCeba mdinareSi Semde ki midis zRvaSi, iqac

rCeba erT an ramdenime wels. ZiriTadad ikvebeba TevziT,

izrdeba intensiurad da gamravlebis mizniT, ubrundeba

mSobliur mdinares. aRsaniSnavia, rom sxvadasxva mdin-

66. kaspiis oraguli woniT aRwevs 51 kg-s. tabawyuris tbis kalmaxi

10.5 kg-s. mdinaris kalmaxi _ 0,5 kg-s.

67. ix. Jurnali `nadiroba~. 2007. № 8. gv.30

74


aresTan dakavSirebuli oraguli erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba

zrdis tempiT, qviriTis raodenobiT, sasicocxlo

ciklis mdinareuli da zRviuri stadiis xangrZlivobiT,

mdinareSi Sesvlisa da qviriTobis periodiT da zogierTi

morfologiuri niSniTac ki, araerTgvarovani bunebiT

xasiaTdeba kalmaxic. yovelTvis didia interesi kalmaxisa

da oragulis naTesauri kavSiris Sesaxeb. am sakiTxiT

specialistebis garda dainteresebulia bunebis moyvarulTa

farTo masebi. Tumca isini zogjer cdebian, roca am

sakiTxebze msjeloben.

cnobili iqTiologi g. baraCi Tavis monografiaSi

`Savi zRvis kumJa (oragula kalmaxi)~ _ kalmaxs arqmevs

`binadar kumJas~, xolo oraguls _ `gamsvlel kumJas~, anu

zRvis kalmaxs. Tu kumJa mdinareSi an tbaSi izrdeba da iqve

mravldeba, is kalmaxad iwodeba. Tu zRvaSi wava maSin oragulis

saxels atarebs da mainc orive SemTxvevaSi is kum-

Jaa.

Savwyalas sakalmaxe meurneobis mdinaris tipis auzebSi

Catarebuli cdebiT dadasturebulia, rom erT wlamde

asakis kalmaxis da oragulis lifsita erTmaneTisagan ar

gansxvavdeba. rogorc kalmaxis, ise oragulis qviriTidan

gamoCekil individebs erTnairad SeuZliaT zRvaSi moxvedrisas

oragulad gazarda, xolo mdinareSi darCenisas _

kalmaxad Camoyalibeba.

kalmaxis oragulad da oragulis kalmaxad gazrdis

damajerebeli faqtebi aqvT, agreTve frang, germanel,

Sotlandiel, axalzelandiel specialistebs.

patara da Cqar mdinareSi neli zrdiT xasiaTdeba aramarto

adgilobrivi binadari kalmaxi, aramed misi gamsvleli

formac e. i. namdvili oraguli, romelic qviriTidan

gamoCekis Semdeg, ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSo mdinareSi

rCeba. 68

aRsaniSanvia, rom kalmaxisa da oragulis xorcis feri

da gemo ZiriTadad damokidebulia sakvebze. magaliTad

68. m. demetraSvili, kalmaxi da oraguli. Jurnali `nadiroba~

2007 №8. gv.13

75


kibosnairebiT mkvebavi kalmaxis xorci vardisferia. amrigad

zemoaRniSnuli dakvirvebebi saSualebas iZlevian,

kalmaxisa da oragulis erTianobaSi davinaxoT maTi ormagi

buneba _ kalmaxSi kalmaxis bunebis garda oragulis

bunebacaa da piriqiT.

kalmaxis etimologia

saqarTvelos wyalsatevebSi ori saxeobis endemuri

jiSis kalmaxia, gavrcelebuli _ wiTelwinwklebini anu

mTis kalmaxi da Savwinwklebiani anu tbis kalmaxi. kavkasiaSi

am saxeobis Tevzs kalmaxs da iSxans uwodeben. es

orive sityva sparsuli enidanaa gavrcelebuli. jer `kalmaxi~

ganvmartoT. `sparsul enas asobgera `k~-ar gaaCnia,

mis magivrad xmaroben `x~-s da `q~-s. `kal~ _ sparsulad

ikiTxeba rogorc `xal~. xali ki sparsulSic da qarTul-

Sic erTnairi mniSvnelobiT ikiTxeba. `mah~ _ Tevzia, e.i.

kalmaxi anu xaliani Tevzi. rac Seexeba `iSxans~, sparsulad

`iS~ _ igive `fiS~ _ Tevzia, xolo xani mogexsenebaT Tavads,

lords niSnavs. amgvarad iSxani iTargmneba rogorc

Tavadi Tevzi~. 69

sityva kalmaxi mWidrod damkvidrda Cvens leqsikaSi,

miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTul dialeqtebSi mas ramdenime

sinonimi aqvs. aleqsandre neimani `qarTul sinonimTa

leqsikonSi~ gvamcnobs: `kalmahi _ gelaqnuri, iSxani, baxtaki~

(gv.244). mTiulebi da fSavelebi kalmaxs moixsenieben

rogorc gelaqnuri, aseve winwkalad. svanebi kalmaxs

`Tuzs~ _ uwodeben.

kidev erTi saintereso cnoba: sityva xizilala,

romelsac mogexsenebaT qarTvelebi zuTxisa da oragulis

qviriTs vuwodebT, arabul samyaroSi kalmaxi hqvia. Tu ratom

damkvidrda am mniSvnelobiT CvenSi, daudgenelia.

69. ix. Jurnali `nadiroba~ 2008 №4. gv. 32

76


sityva kalmaxi qarTul enaSi ise lamazad da moxdenilad

Cajda, rom es saxeli mogvevlina, rogor hidronimTa

ise istoriul-geografiul toponimebad. kerZod erT-er-

Ti `kalmaxis wyali~ saTaves iRebs TurqeTis sazRvrebidan

samxreT saqarTveloSi, aseve `kalmaxis wyali~ hqvia mdinares,

romelic saTaves iRebs `eSmakis cixidan~ da agaras-

Tan erTvis mtkvars marcxena napiridan.

aseve kalmaxi udebs saTaves istoriul cixes _ kalmaxs,

romelzec samcxe-saaTabagos aRwerisas, vaxuSti

dasZens: `Woroxs moerTvis TorTomis mTidan gamomdinare

wyali, am xevzed ars cixe kalmaxisa, romeli aRaSenes

pitiaxSTa, did-Seni, magari da Seuvali. iyo saerisTao

taosi~ (qarTlis cx. T. IV. 1973. gv. 683) kalmaxis cixe Semdeg

kalmaxis saerisTaos centrad iqca: `Semdgomad erisTavman

kalmaxisaman da grigol erisTavman awvies bagrat~. kalmaxis

cnobili erisTavi da patroni aris sula kalmaxeli.

oraguli

iqTiologebi 28 saxeobis oraguls gamoyofen. CvenTan,

saqarTveloSi oragulis ori saxeoba iyo gavrcelebuli

_ kaspiis zRvidan da Sav zRvidan Semomavali. kaspiis zRvis

anu mtkvris auzis oraguli TiTqmis yvela did da patara

mdinareSi Sedioda: did da patara liaxvSi, mejudaSi,

froneSi, lexuraSi, qsanSi, aragvSi, alazanSi da sxvagan.

oraguli md. iorSi ar icoda, razec sainteresod wers va-

Ja-fSavela, jer kidev Tamar mefis droindeli ambebidan:

`mdinare iors, Tumc aragvis tolia, wvrili TevziT mdidari,

magram radganac oraguli ar icis iors aragvis extibar

ar aaqvs. _ kurTxeul Tamar mefes sdomebia Zalad

gaeCina iorSi oraguli. amitom dedal-mamali oraguli

Causmeinebia Tanac boloSi faceri Caudgams, magram oragulebi

isev ukan dabrunebulan da facerSi Cacvinulan.

ratom ar unda icodes iorma oraguli? _ kvirobda bewina.

77


ioric mTis wyalia, qvebze da kldeebze modis, sasmelad

aragvze naklebi ar aris, magram ar icis oraguli da ara,

rom daamwyvdio, or dRes ver gasZlebs. mokvdebao~ (oragulis

cxovreba).

gansakuTrebiT gemrieli oraguli aragvSi yofila,

romlis saxelidanac moisazreba TviT am Tevzis saxelis

warmoSoba, rasac TviTon vaJa-fSavelac iziarebs: `...aq

var dabadebuli, Cveni mSobeli deda aragvia: - saxelic oraguli

aragvisgan dagvrqmevia. mixarian, me da Cemma Rmer-

Tma, rom sxva saxeli ara gvqvian~. (oragulis cxovreba).

Tumc gansakuTrebuli azric ikveTeba, razec mogvianebiT

gveqneba saubari.

kaspiis zRvis oragulma mtkvris zemo welze arseboba

Sewyvita 1926 wlidan, roca zemo avWalis hidroeleqtro

sadguri `zahesi~ aSenda, 70 xolo aragvis da mtkvris xerTvisamde

anu mtkvris qvemo welze 1953 wlidan. 71

oraguli zRvis binadaria, magram misi samSoblo

swored mTis ankara xevebi da mdinareebia. zamTarSi Tevzi

zRvaSi ikvebeba, rogorc mtacebeli, igi Tavs esxmis

patar-patara Tevzebs da zoma-wonaSi swrafad matulobs.

gazafxulobiT an zafxulis dasawyisSi, winaparTa saukunovan

instiqts damorCilebuli, oraguli Tavis mSobliur

mtknar wyals ubrundeba da iq qviriTobs. tofobis Semdeg

igi imdenad sustdeba, rom farflebis qnevac ki uWirs.

zRvisken faqtiurad mdinaris dinebas miaqvs. am periodSi

oraguli xSirad iRupeba. Tu gaumarTlebs da xelaxla

zRvis sivrceSi amoyofs Tavs, igi droTa ganmavlobaSi

70. amierkavkasiaSi pirveli mZlavri hidro el. sadguri aSenda

zemo avWalaSi. daiwyo 1922 wels. pirveli rigi 1927 w. gadaeca

saeqspluataciod. sruli simZlavriT zahesi amuSavda 1938w.

wliuri gamomuSaveba 203 mln.kvt.sT; kaSxalis simaRle 34 metri.

saderivacio arxis sigrZe 3 km.

71. wyalsacavi md. mtkvarze Seiqmna mingeCauris hesis kaSxliT

(azerbaijani) aivso 1953-1959 wlebSi. farTi 605 km 2 . sigrZe 70

km. maqsimaluri sigane 18 km. siRrme minimaluri 27 m. aigo energetikis,

sof. meurneobis da wylis transportis ganviTarebis

mizniT. wyalsatevidan gayvanilia zeda yarabaRisa da zeda Sirvanis

arxebi.

78


iRdgens dakargul Zalebs da SesaZlebelia erTxel kidev

daubrundes mSobliur mdinares. 72

oragulis zurgi muqi nacrisferia, lurji _ foladis

elferiT. gverdebi da muclis mxare movercxlisfero

_ TeTri. sxeulze Savi laqebi. umetesad gverdiTi xazis

zeviT. TavTan gverdebze ufro msxvili, muqi laqebia. sigrZe

aRwevs 110 sm-mde. wona 24 kg-mde. iSviaTad mets.

oraguli gamsvleli Tevzia. gasamravleblad Semodioda

kaspiis zRvidan da faravda mtkvris auzis yvela

mdinares. qviriTobs weliwadSi erTxel _ SemodgomiT.

mdinareebSi da maT Soris liaxvSi, qsanSi, aragvSi rCeboda

maisidan noembramde (giorgobamde). mdinareebSi lifsitebi

rCebodnen 2-3 wlamde, Semdeg Cadiodnen zRvaSi, sadac

intensiurad ikvebebodnen, izrdebodnen da iqidan erTi an

ramdenime wlis Semdeg brundebodnen mSobliur adgileb-

Si.

oraguli anu zRvaSi binadari kalmaxi Tavisi ZirTadi

formis _ mdinaris kalmaxisagan gansxvavdeba swrafi zrdiT,

maRali nayofierebiT, sxeulis formiT, SeferilobiT,

rac gamowveulia zRvis Taviseburi pirobebis gavleniT.

mdinareSi yofnisas ikvebeba kibosnairebiT, mwerebiT,

matlebiT, wyalSi Cacvenili WianWvelebiT, xolo zRvaSi

ZiriTadad ikvebeba TevzebiT (qafSia, qarsala) da uxerxemlo

cxovelebiT. misi zrda mdinaresa da zRvaSi sakmaod

gansxvavebulia. mdinareSi izrdeba nela, xolo zRvaSi

swrafad. sqesobrivad mwifdeba 3-4 wlis asakSi. zRvaSi er-

Ti-ori wlis yofnis Semdeg.

mdinareSi Sedian jer msxvili individebi 80-100 sm.

sigrZisa Semdeg mcire individebi 50-60sm. sigrZisa. 73 mdinareSi

qviriToba grZeldeba seqtembridan Tebervlamde,

(mdinareTa zemo welze da mTis mdinareebSi oqtombramde).

72. nacvalaZe k., saqarTvelos xerxemlianTa cxovelTa samyaro.

Tb. 2004. gv.19

73. qsanSi, aragvSi, liaxvSi zRvidan Sesvlas iwyebda maisis

bolos. mcxeTamde pirvelad wamosuli TiTo-orola individi

aRwevda TebervalSi. zahesis aSenebamde adioda axalcixis zeviT

sof. xerTvisamde.

79


oragulis saqviriTe adgilebi ganlagebulia mdinaris Sua

da zemo dinebebSi, Txelwylian, qva-qviSian adgilebSi.

kalmaxis msgavsad qviriTs yris Tavismier, zogjer mamris

mier amoTxril ormoSi. wylis 4-8 0 temperaturisas.

nayofiereba aRwevs 2,5-15,5 aTas qviriTs. oragulis qvri-

Tis ganayofierebaSi monawileobs agreTve mdinaris kalmaxi.

qviriTis ganviTareba damokidebulia wylis temperaturaze,

9-10 0 temperaturisas inkubacia grZeldeba 40-50

dRe-Rame.

oragulisa da kalmaxis axalgazrda Taoba mdinareSi

erTian fonds Seadgens, cxovrebis meore wels calkevdeba

anu irCeva mdinareSi damrCen kalmaxad da zRvaSi Camsvlel

oragulad, am dros saoragule mozardebi Rebuloben vercxlisfer

Seferilobas da eSvebian zRvisken, rogorc wesi

ZiriTadad midis mdedrobiTi sqesis individebi, rac Seadgens

80-90%, xolo mdinareSi rCeba umTavresad mamrobiTi

sqesi romlebic rogor avRniSneT kalmaxad rCebian da momavalSi

anayofierebn oragulTa qviriTs.

rogorc kalmaxs ise oraguls saukeTeso, kaloriuli,

samkurnalo Tvisebebis gamo bevri mteri hyavs. stiqias-

Tan erTad maT daundoblad anadgurebs faunis zogierTi

warmomadgeneli (daTvi, melia, maCvi da sxva.) xolo maTi

yvelaze didi mteri yovelTvis da yvelgan adamiania. gasul

saukuneebSi siRaribesa da SimSils qarTveli glexi

kalmaxisa da oragulis mopovebiT ebrZoda. glexTa siRaribeze

da drodadro bunebis wyalobaze movusminoT 110

wlis winandeli qarTul presas, romelic aragvis xeobaze

mTiuleTis soflebs da iq mcxovreb glexTa mdgomareobas

gvixatavs: ` es sam weliwadze metia mosavalma mTiuleTSi

iklo, rom glexs saTesle xorbalic ki gamoelia da simindis

zidvam kavkavidam cxovreba gaumwara. Tqveni mteri

wreulac, rom beds emtyuna mTiuleTisTvis da mosavali

rigiani ar mohsvlodaT... rogorc puris mosavalma, ise

balaxma wreul unugeSod ar dagvtova da mSvenieri Tivebi

daadgmevina glexebs.

80


am zafxuls oraguli imdeni Semovida mtkvridgan am

Cvens aragvSi. rom aqauri meTevzeebi TiTo oraguls, romelic

20-35 girvanqa 74 gamodis saqarTvelos samxedro

gzis sadgurebSi sam-oTx maneTad hyidian~. 75

qarTul presaze da sxvadasxva monacemebze dayrdnobiT

SeiZleba iTqvas, rom XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze TandaTan

izrdeba oragulze fasebi, rac gamowveuli unda yofiliyo

mtkvris auzSi am Tevzis SemcirebiT, Tavis mxriv

mtkvarSi da mis SenakadebSi TvalSi sacemad oragulis

Semcireba provocirebuli iyo rogorc brakonierebis ise

Cveulebrivi moqalaqeebis gaaqtiurebiT. wina aTwleuleb-

Si, rom bevrad meti oraguli iyo liaxvSi, qsanze, aragvSi

vidre XX saukunis dasawyisisTvis naTlad Cans vaJa-fSavelas

bunebis suraTSi _ `oragulis cxovreba~-Si. `winad,

Zvel droSi auarebeli unda yofiliyo oraguli Turme

patar-patara wylebSic ki iWerdnen; yvelas, mdidars Tu

Raribs jgufad Senaxuli hqonda oragulis xorci wliTiwlobamde

da dRes ris tanjva-wvalebiT unda ipovno TviT

aragvSi oraguli rom daiWiro. ...gaswyda Tevzi! am ociormoci

wlis Semdeg iqneba oraguli TvaliT dasanaxavad

gvenatrebodes~... samwuxarod acxadda vaJas winaTgrZnoba

da 10 wlis mere, 1922 wels (`oragulis cxovreba~ daiwera

1912w.) marTlac sanatreli gauxda mosaxleobas oragulisTvis

Tvalis Sevlebac ki.

Tevzis deficitma fasebis zrda gamoiwvia, kerZod:

1886 wels mTiuleTSi Tu `TiTo uSvelebels oragulSi aTs

Saurze mets ar iZlevian meduqneebi da CarCebi~, maSin 1901

wlisTvis 8-14 kilogramian oraguls samxedro gzis sadgurebSi

sam-oTx maneTad hyidian.

oraguli yvelgan germiel Tevzad iTvleba da yvela

kontinentis wylebSi gxvdeba. ar aris mxolod ekvadoris

siaxloves, radgan mas Tbili wyali ar uyvars.

74. erTi girvanqa udris 96 misxals. e.i. 409.5 grams. 20 girvanqa

udris 8 kg-s da 190 grams, 35 girvanqa _ 14 kg-s da 332.5 grams.

75. gazeTi `iveria~ 1901w. №199.

81


ogorc qarTvelTa kvebis kulturidan ise istoriidan

naTlad Cans, rom kalmaxi da oraguli didad dafasebuli

yofila Cveni winaprebis mier. cnobilia, rom aRm.

saqarTveloSi kaspiis zRvis oraguli Semodioda da qar-

Tuli da ara marto qarTuli sufris mSveneba iyo. Zlierni

ama soflisani mas cocxlad inaxavdnen WebSi. istoriam

Semogvinaxa erTob saintereso ambavi imaze Tu rogor ixsna

qsnis oragulma maSindeli qarTlis mefis daviT V-is

(1505-25 ww.) Zma bagrat ufliswuli da misi samuxranbatonos

qarTveloba avgiorgisa da kaxel TanamemauleTa risxvisagan.

`1512 w. qarTlis mefis umcrosma Zmam bagratma saufliswulod

muxrani da Sida qarTlis sadroSos spaspetoba

iTxova. samagierod kaxeTis mefe avgiorgisTan SebrZoleba

ikisra. daviTi daTanxmda Zmas. bagratma qsnis

cixe saufliswulo mamulebis miRebisTanave aago. roca

avgiorgim cixis agebis ambavi gaigo wamovida jariT da cixes

alya Semoartya. alya sam Tves gagrZelda magram uSedegod.

avgiorgim bagrats dacinviT Rvino gaugzavna da Seu-

Tvala: _ Sen mefis Ze xar da ramdeni xania Rvinis gemo ar

ginaxavso. bagrats WaSi ki cocxali oraguli hyavda, gaugzavna

oraguli da Tan SeuTvala: _ sami Tvea qsanze dgaxar

da oraguli ar gigemiaT. aha, es cocxali igemeo. avgiorgi

darwmunda, rom cixe uzrunveyofili iyo sanovagiT, alya

moxsna da ukuiqca~. 76

oraguli da kalmaxi rogorc ukve avRniSneT saukeTeso

TevzTa siis TavSi arian moxvedrilebi. kaSxlebis Senebasa

da eleqtrofikacias Sewiruli oragulis xelovnuri

moSeneba daiwyes, maSindeli sabWoTa kavSiris bevr respublikaSi

da maT Soris saqarTveloSic. kerZod _ das.

saqarTveloSi aSenda Savi zRvis oragulis mosaSenebeli

sarewao qarxana Savwyalaze (afxazeTi). aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi,

Sida wyalsatevebSi Tevzis maragis gadidebis

mimarTulebiT muSaoba daiwyo jer kidev 1928 wlidan,

76. saq. istoriisa da kulturis ZeglTa aRweriloba t. 5, Tb. 1990

gv. 326

82


odesac mtkvris zemo dinebisaken gasamravleblad momaval

oraguls gza gadauRoba zahesis jebirma, maSin Seiqmna

oragulis saSeni nataxtarTan (iarseba 1941 wlamde.)

1933 w. TevzsaSenebi Camoyalibda tabawyuris da faravnis

tbebze xolo 1958 w. Tbilisis wyalsacavze, 1969 w. xramis

wyalsacavze. sarewao oragulis xelovnurad moSenebaze

ufro naTeli warmodgenisTvis citirebas movaxdenT

erTi sagazeTo statiidan, romelic Savwyalaze kalmaxisa

da oragulis mosaSenebel meurneobas exeba:

`Savi zRvis sanapiroze mdinareSi xelovnurad aSeneben

da zrdian oraguls, roca is daaxloebiT 100 grami gaxdeba,

facers kars gauReben da haida _ gasasuqeblad oragulis

qaravnebs zRvaSi uSveben. gava dro, dazrdili da

dasuqebuli, namdvil oragulebad qceuli Tevzebi kvlav

mSobliur mdinares daubrundebian qviriTis dasayrelad.

xom ar ggoniaT, rom gza aerevaT da sxva mdinareSi Sevlen?

qaravnebad darazmulni mxolod mSobliur mdinares

monaxaven da aRma ahyvebian.

marTlac, rom kargi sanaxavia, oragulebis dabruneba.

am procss meTevzeebi da iqtiologebi tofobas-qviri-

Tobas eZaxian. saocrad lamazia satofod gamzadebuli

oraguli. am periodSi buneba sagangebod rTavs mas. cisartyelas

yvela feriT brwyinavs da elavs imis ganTqmuli

xalebi~.

im oragulTa STamomavlebi, romelTac ukanasknelad,

mSenebare zahesis kaSxali gadalaxes darCnen mtkvris zemo

dinebaze aragvSi, qsanSi, liaxvSi da sxvadasxva did da patara

wylebSi. maT TavianT STamomavlebTan erTad ramdenime

wels kidev gauZles brakonierebs da wyaldidobebs.

maTi genofondi wliTiwlobiT mcirdeboda da pataravdeboda

maTi STamomavloba.

mtkvridan qsanSi da iqidan cxrazmulaSi Sesuli oragulis

erT egzemplarze gviambo axalgorelma mTis kacma

fedra (didi) CitiSvilma (daibada 1926wels) `8-9 wlis mo-

CeCili balRi viqnebodi, kargad maxsoms, Samadgoma iyo.

erTma Cveneburma cixe Citianelma, koWlma kacma _ nika

83


CitiSvilma, udrood gardacvlili Svilis qelexisTvis

`ToxTuras wisqvilTan~ cxrazmulaSi nakafi toti eyara

da im totebSi dagubebul wyalSi gaCxerili oraguli mokla~.

dRes-dReobiT saqarTveloSi oragulis Semcirebis

gamo, garda zogierT patara, kerZo tborebisa, sarewao

Wera ar xdeba. adre misi mopoveba (XXs. 50-60-ian wlebSi)

wliurad aRwevda 90 centeramde. dReisaTvis kerZo satbore

meurneobaSi xdeba rogorc oragulis ise kalmaxis

moSeneba.

oragulis etimlogia

_ oragulis saxelis warmomavlobasTan dakavSirebiT

mkvlevarTa azri orad iyofa: erTni ganmartaven, rom oraguls

saxeli md. aragvidan warmosgdebao. (aragvi-aragvuli-oraguli,

sadac xmovani `a~, `o~-m Secvala) am mosazrebas

safuZveli samecniero lietraturaSi vfiqrob vaxuSti

batoniSvilma Cauyara, xolo TviT am mdinarem saxeli

swrafi dinebidan miiRo, romelic ar gvida xeobas. `xedav

ara gvis es wyali am xevTa! aramed ese mdinare urgebi, Tevzni

Tvinier oragulisa, ararai da igica Jamad~. 77 e. i. es

mdinare _ aragvi gamousadegari, urgebi garda oraguli-

Ta, oRond isic periodulad _ `Jamad~. 78

zogierT mkvlevarTa mosazrebiT oraguls md. aragvidan

ar unda hqondes saxeli miRebuli da ai ratom: mtkvridan

oraguli aRm. saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela mdinareSi

Sedioda, iseT patara mdinareSic ki, rogoricaa frone. mas

77. batoniSvili vaxuSti `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~. qarTlis

cxovreba. t. IV. Tb. 1973. gv. 350-51.

78. vaxuSti batoniSvili, mTiuleTis aRwerisas, aragvis zemoT

moyvanil daxasiaTebis Semdgom iZleva aseT suraTs: `haviTa ars

friad keTili da Suenieri, wyaro-wyliTa da mwuaniTa. wyalTa

Sina kalmaxi, mravalni, xorcni, Tevzni da frinvelni gemoianni~...

(iqve gv.356)

84


yvelgan oragulad moixseniebdnen. dasafiqrebelia isic,

rom alaznis amave saxeobis Tevzs adre `goWalas~ uwodebdnen!

da kidev, Tu saxeli oraguli mdinare aragvidanaa

nawarmoebi, maSin am saxeobis Tevzs dasavleT saqarTvelo-

Si ratom sxva saxeli ar daerqva?! loqos magaliTad aRm.

saqarTveloSi am saxeliT, das. saqarTveloSi ki Rlavad

moixsenieben.

`Cveni azriT oraguli am saxeobis Tevzs daerqva ara

mdinaris saxelidan, aramed misi bunebis wyalobiT. orguli

xom orbunebiania. is rogorc mtknari wylis aseve mlaSe

wylis binadaria e. i. masSi ori bunebaa Carguli. anu `oradaa

rguli~, radganac ori gansxvavebuli wylis binadaria.

mogexsenebaT, qarTuli fonemi ramdenime Tanxmovans

erTad ver itans da droTa ganmavlobaSi romelime Tanxmovani

ikargeba. am SemTxvevaSi `oradrguli~, sadac sami

Tanxmovani _ `d~, `r~ da `g~ erTadaa, savaraudod `d~ da

`r~ daikargeboda da darCa `g~ da am saxeobis Tevzs qar-

Tul leqsikaSi ewoda oraguli~. 79

murwa

saqarTvelis ulamazes xeobaTa mdinareebSi gavrcelebul

kekluc kalmaxs gverds umSvenebs da swraf mdinare-

Ta zvirTebSi did simaRleebze mxardamxar mihyveba murwa,

romelsac mxolod qarTlSi _ kaspidan borjomamde

cimorsac eZaxian.

murwa amierkavkasiis endemuri formaa: saqarTveloSi

binadrobs mtkvarSi da mis SenkadebSi: did da patara liaxvSi,

froneSi, mejudaSi, lexuraSi, qsanSi (adis lomisis xevis

SesarTavamde z. d. daaxloebiT 1400 metr simaRlemde 80 ),

79. koWlaSvili n., oragulis Sesaxeb. Jurnali `nadiroba~ 2008.

№2. gv.34

80. qsnis zemo welze qarCoxSi fisqirdeba (sof. balaanSi) murwasTan

dakavSirebulia hidronimi `murwaT xevi~. gadmocemiT

85


alazanSi (Sedis pankisis xeobamde), jandaris tbaSi da sxva

wylebSi. misi sxeuli wagrZelebulia, TiTistariseburi,

Subli amozneqili, dinji, mogrZo tuCebi Zlier ganviTarebuli,

qveda tuCi samad gayofili, Tvalebi patara, ori

wyvili ulvaSi, ukana SedarebiT grZeli.

biologiurad reofiluri formaa _ amjobinebs mdinaris

Cqar, qva-qviSian adgilebs. ikvebeba ZiriTadad

mwerebiT da maTi matlebiT, kibosnairebiT, detritiT da

sxva. sqesobrivad mwifdeba 2-3 wlis asakidan. tofobs maisivnisSi

mdinaris qva-qviSian fskerze. 81 qviriTis raodenoba

aRwevs 3000-23000-mde.

saqarTvelos wylebSi raodenobis simciris gamo sarewao

mniSvneloba ar aqvs, iWeren sxva TevzebTan erTad. gemriel

Tevzadaa miCneuli qsanze da bevr sxva xeobebSi.

m. beriZis ganmartebiT `murwa~ da `wvera~ erTi da

igivea. wveras ZiriTadad dasavleTSi eZaxian (imerlebi),

aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi ki murwas. gasaTvaliswinebelia,

rom liaxvis midamoebSi murwas cimorsac uwodeben. 82

mtkvris wvera (dedali murwa)

gavrcelebulia saqarTvelos mtknar wylebSi, xSirad

mtkvarsa da mis SenakadebSi: xrami, algeTi, aragvi, araqsi,

liaxvi, borjomi, focxovi, axalqalaqis wylebi, iori,

alazni. mcirea tbebSi da wyalsacavebSi: jandaris, faravnisa

da saRamos tbebSi. xramis, Tbilisisa da sionis wyalsacavebSi.

cnobilia agreTve azerbaijanis wylebSi.

mtkvris wvera mtknari wylis Tevzia. amjobinebs Cqar

dinebas, naklebad egueba mdgar wylebs, axasiaTebs sqesobrivi

dimorfizmi _ dedali 3-4 jer didia mamalze. deda-

glexebs Zvel droSi, maRali mTis nakadulSi unaxavT aRniSnuli

jiSis Tevzi.

81. rogorc kalmaxi, oraguli da sxva bevri Tevzi _ murwac

goraobiT iSorebs qviriTs tofobisas.

82. gelaSvili l. saubrebi Tevzebze, Tb. 1982. gv. 43

86


li sqesobrivad mwifdeba 3 wlis asakidan, mamali 2 wlidan.

sqesmwife mamlis minimaluri sigrZe 10 sm. wona 12 grami.

dedalisa _ 15 sm. wona 70 gr. mravldeba aprilis bolodan

Sua agvistomde. qviriTs yris sam jerad. nayofiereba aRwevs

24 aTasamde, qviriTis diametri 1,94-2,24 mm-mdea, ikvebeba

benTosiT da nawilobriv wyalmcenareebiT. mis kvebaSi

zoobenTosidan mTavaria, ruiselebi, kibosnairebi, dRiurebi.

raodenobis simciris gamo sarewao mniSvneloba ar

aqvs, is sportuli TevzWeris erT-erTi saintereso obieqtia.

iWeren rogorc fskeruli ise tivtiviani mowyobilobiT.

umetes SemTxvevaSi satyuaras dinebaze gayolebiT.

mdinareze TevzaobisTvis yvelaze mosaxerxebeli fskeruli

mowyobiloba, mokle saTevzao joxi da uinercio koWia.

ZiriTadi Zua sasurvelia iyos 0.25-0.35mm.

murwaze Tevzaobisas ZiriTadad cxovelur satyuaras

iyeneben: nakelis Wias, buzis matls, lokokinas xorcs, qerqiWamias

da sxva. Tevzi mohkidebs Tu ara pirs satyuaras

maSvinve Zlierad swrafad qaCavs Zuas, zustad am drosaa

saWiro joxis swrafi da Zlieri amokvra. igi advilad ver

sZvreba nemskavs Tu wamoego, radgan qseli da dakunTuli

tuCebi aqvs.

fiCxuli (kapoeti, cocxali, xramuli, lurja)

_ fiCxuli farTod gavrcelebuli Tevzia. piri ganivi

aqvs, qveda tuCi dafarulia rqovani garsiT da win gafxianebulia.

riTac advilad fxeks qvebze da sxva sagnebze

modebul wyalmcenareebs. ori mokle ulvaSiT, Subli

odnav amozneqili, zurgi kefis ukan odnavaa SetyleJili.

sxeuli TiTistariseburi, wina nawili sqeli, maRali, ukana

nawili SedarebiT wvrilia da dabali. kudis farfli sakmaodaa

amoWrili. Tavze, Sublze, dingze gamravlebis dros

uCndeba rqovani borcvakebi, zurgis mxare muqia, gverdebi

muqi nacrisferi, iSviaTadaa movercxlisfero, muceli

moTeTro-moyviTalo elferiT. analuri farflebi xSir-

87


ad mowiTalo elferiT, sigrZe 50 sm-mdea, wona 0,5 kg-dan

2,5 kg-mde 83 xSirad gvxvdeba patarebi.

fiCxuli aRm. saqarTvelos wylebSi gvxvdeba TiTqmis

yvelgan _ mtkvari da misi Senakadebi: xrami, algeTi,

aragvi, qsani, liaxvi, focxovi, alazani, iori. tbebi _ jandaris,

bazaleTis. wyalsacavebi _ Tbilisis, sionis. saqarTvelos

garda gvxvdeba azerbaijanis wylebSi.

es xuTi saxelis matarebeli Tevzi binadrobs rogorc

mdinareebSi ise tbebsa da wyalsacavebSi. ikvebeba wyalmcenareebiT,

detritiT da maTTan Seyolili cxoveluri

organizmebiT. lifsitebi ikvebebian planqtonuri organizmebiT.

mcenareul kvebasTan SefardebiT axasiaTebs

sakmaod grZeli nawlavi, romelic sxeulis sigrZes aRemateba

3,5-12,5-jer. muclis apki aqvs Savi.

xramuli tbasa da wyalsacavSi izrdeba ufro swrafad,

aRwevs did zomas, vidre mdinareSi. is sxvadasxva adgilebSi,

garemo pirobebis mixedviT, sqesobrivad mwifdeba

sxvadasxva asakSi 2-5 wlamde. qviriTobs maisidan agvistomde

Txelwylian qva-qviSian adgilebSi. wylis 12-20 0

temperaturis dros. nayofiereba mdinareSi aRwevs 6-30

aTas qviriTs, tbaSi da wyalsacavSi 90 aTasamde. tofobs

ramdenime jerad. qviriTis diametri 0.6-1.0 mm-mdea. Canasaxis

ganviTareba 15 0 temperaturisas grZeldeba 8-10 dRe-

Rames.

fuCxuli gemrieli yuaTiani Tevzia, rac qarTul sufraze

odiTganve cnobilia `cocxalis~ saxelwodebiT.

mas saqarTveloSi gasuli saukunis 40-ian wlebidan 80-ian

wlebamde Sida wyalsatevebis Tevzis mopovebaSi erT-erTi

mniSvnelovani adgili ekava. misi wliuri mopoveba aRniSnul

periodSi Seadgenda 200-450 centners. amJamad fiCxulis

anu xramulis maragi sakmaod Semcirebulia.

fiCxuls iWeren mosasmeli, Casadgmeli, sasroli badeebiT,

iyeneben gorul mosmas, yuris mosmas. dazamTrebisas

mdinaris qvemo dinebisken mimavals iWeren faceriT, rac

83. zrdadausrulebeli fiCxuls qarTlSi da maT Soris qsanze

kapoets ar eZaxian, sanam ar miaRwevs garkveul zoma-wonas.

88


amJamad akrZalulia. fiCxuli izamTrebs wyalqveSa ormoebSi

Sejgufebulad, ris mixedviTac awyoben xelovnur

ormoebs. e. w. oCxebs da masSi Sebudebul Tevzs iWeren zamTarSi.

iyeneben nedls, zog adgilebSi agreTve Sebolils da

damarilebuls. misi qviriTi gamravlebis dros Sxamiania.

Wanari

Wanari qarTul saxelmwifo wylebSi da sufraze pativsacem

Tevzad iTvleboda, iTvleba da momavalSic ar

dakargavs Tavis adgils, qarTvelTa kvebis racionSi. gamsvleli

Tevzia da uyvars Cqari dinebebi. bunebis mesaidumlem

vaJa-fSavelam mxatvrulad aRwera oragulisa da Wanaris

`salam-qalami~.

` _ moxvediT mSvidobiT, moxevdiT mSvidobiT, Zmobilebo,

megobrebo: rogor Zviri sanaxavi gahxdiT?! _

miesalma oragulebs Wanari.

_ mSvidoba mogces RmerTma, keTili iyos Cveni mosvla

da Seni daxvedra. sxvafriv rogor gikiTxoT, Wanaro,

javaro, ar-avo, TevzTa mfarvelo karavo?! _ miesalmnen

Wanars Tavis mxriv oragulebi: _ rogor scxovrob, mtrianoba,

SiSianoba xom ar aris? (`oragulis cxovreba~.)

aRwerilobis mixedviT Wanars ori wyvili ulvaSi aqvs.

zeviTa ulvaSebi aRweven nestoebamde, an Tvalis Suamde.

Subli brtyelia, farTo, kudis farfli Zlier amoWrili,

89


zurgis mxare muqia, muceli moyviTalo, sigrZe 100 santimetri,

wona 5-6 kg-mde.

saqarTveloSi gavrcelebulia md. mtkvris auzSi. mtkvarSi

gvxdeba axalcixemde, md. aragvis qvemo da Sua dinebaSi,

xramSi, qsanSi, didsa da patara liaxvSi, alaznis qvemo

da Sua dinebaSi, iorSi paldomde, binadrobs agreTve jandaris

tbaSi, Tbilisis wyalsacavSi.

arsebobs adgilobrivi binadari da gamsvleli forma.

saq. wylebSi gvxvdeba mxolod adgilobrivi binadari.

azerbaijanis wylebSi cxovrobs rogorc adgilobrivi ise

gamsvleli forma. es ukanaskneli ZiriTadad imyofeba kaspiis

zRvidan gamtknarebul adgilebSi da gasamravleblad

Sedis mdinareebSi.

ikvebeba wylis fskeris binadari uxerxemlo cxovelebiT

(zoobenTosiT), lokokinebiT, mwerebis matlebiT,

wyalSi Cacvenili xmeleTis mwerebiT: WianWvelebiT, kaliebiT,

maxraTi, da sxva. sxvadasxva mcenareebiT, maTi

TesliT da detroitiT. sakvebad iyenebs agreTve bayayebs,

Tevzebs da sxva.

sqesobrivad mwifdeba mamali 4 wlidan, dedali 5 wlidan.

mravldeba maisidan agvistos bolomde. nayofiereba

aRwevs 115 aTasidan 1 milion qviriTamde, romlis diametri

1,17 milimetramdea. qviriTobs ramdenime jerad. Wera

xdeba mosasmeli, Casadgmeli, sasroli badeebiT, venteriT,

ankesiT da sxva. gemireli, cximiani Tevzia (4,5 -8,3%).

gamoiyeneba nedli, damarilebuli, Sebolili, dakonservebuli.

Wanari, sadac Wan-fuZe eTnonimia, xolo _ ar sufiqsi,

_ ur, _ ul-i ki miuTiTebs warmomavlobiT kuTvnilebas

niSnavs Wanurs, iseve rogorc xramuli niSnavs mdinare

xramis Tevzs.

90


gvelana (mkbenara)

aRwerilobiT gvelanas sxeuli wagrZelebulia,

gverdebidan SetyleJili. aqvs sami wyvili ulvaSi. erTi

wyvili piris kuTxeebSi, ori wyvili dingis bolozea. kudis

farfli momrgvalebulia. mis fuZesTan gawyvetili muqi

zolia. zurgisa da analuri farflebis ukan met-naklebad

ganviTarebuli kanovani qedia. sxeulis gverdebze 10-15

muqi laqaa, sxeulis muq-nacsifer fonze oqros elferi

gadahkravs, sigrZe 138 milimetramdea. wona 5 gramamde.

saqarTveloSi binadrobs mdinareebSi: mtkvarSi, alazanSi,

iorSi, did da patara liaxvSi, mejudaSi, froneSi,

qsanSi 84 saZeguramde, aragvSi Jinvalamde, Tbilisisa da

sionis wyalsacavebSi. erTnairad egueba mdinarisa da tbis

pirobebs. ikvebeba cxoveluri benTosiT, planqtoniT da

nawilobriv mcenareuli detritiT. mravldeba maisidan

agvistos bolomde. nayofierebas aRwevs 2500 qviriTamde,

rasac yris ramdenime jerad. ara aqvs sameurneo mniSvneloba,

_ sarevela Tevzia.

84. qsnis xeobis baris soflebSi anu dinebis qvemo welze gvelanas

kbenarsac eZaxian. rogorc ikoTSi mcxovrebma SoTa isakis Ze

gigaurma gviTxra gvelanas layuCebTan, gverdebze aqvs Zvlovani

wamonazardebi. daWerisas Tevzi iCxvliteba da kbenis imitacias

qmnis. amis gamoa, rom mas CvenTan mkbenarasac eZaxian.

91


mtkvris cimori (fetvia, RomRoma, CoCia)

cimoris kudi wvrilia, piri qvedaa. aqvs erTi wyvili

ulvaSi. kudis farfli Rrmada aqvs amoWrili. gamravlebis

periodSi Tavze uCndeba fetvis marcvlis odena borcvakebi,

swored amis gamo Serqmeuli aqvs fetvia da Rom-

Roma. sxeulis sigrZeze gverdiTi xazis zemoT 6-12 muqi

laqaa. zurgisa da kudis farflebze wvrili, muqi laqebis

mwkrivebia. zurgi muqia, muceli Ria nacrisferi. sigrZe 24

sm-mdea, wona 15 gramamde.

mtkvris cimori gavrcelebulia aRmosavleT saqarTvelos

wylebSi. mtkvarSi da mis SenakadebSi; xramSi, aragv-

Si, qsanSi, liaxvSi, iorSi da sxvagan. cnobilia: azerbaijan-

Si, somxeTSi, iranSi.

mtkvris cimori kargad egueba rogorc mdinareebs,

ise tbebs. amjobinebs mdinareSi neli dinebis mdore adgilebs,

Tumca gvxvdeba mTis mdinareTa Cqar nakadebSi (qsanze

qurTamde, aragvze civwyaromde). ikvebeba kibosnairebiT,

mwerTa matlebiTa da WuprebiT, Tevzis qviriTiT da

lifsitebiT. sqesobrivad mwifdeba 2-3 wlidan. qviriTobs

mais-ivnisSi, Txelwylian, qviSian adgilebSi da mcenareulobaze.

qviriTi webovania. ewebeba mcenareebs da sxva

sagnebs. nayofiereba aRwevs 1000 qviriTamde. sameurneo

mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT dabali, uxarisxo, sarevela

Tevzia, iyeneben naklebad. Setanilia `wiTel nusxaSi~.

92


aRmosavluri frita-nafota

nafotas sxeuli maRalia, gverdebidan sakmaod SetyleJili

layuCis kbilakebi mokle. meCxerad mjdomi. muclis

farflebs ukan uqerclo qedia. zurgi muqi momwvano.

analuri, muclis mkerdis farflebis fuZeebi umetesad

mowiTalo-narinjisferia. sigrZe 13 santimetramde, wona

60 gramamde; umetesad ufro patara.

nafota aRm. saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela wyalSi binadrobs.

irCevs mdinaris mdore adgilebs. tbebsa da wyalsacavebs,

mdinareebSi adis sakmaod maRla. md. qsnis zemo

welze Jamuris xeobis dasawyisamde _ `navixevamde~ vrceldeba.

adre gazafxuliT, roca jer kidev foTol-balaxi

gaRviZebuli ar aris badiT Tevzaobisas mosdevs intensiurad.

tbebSi amjobinebs sanapiro adgilebs. gvxvdeba

azerbaijanisa da somxeTis wylebSi.

nafota Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare erTnairad egueba

mdinarisa da tbis pirobebs. ikvebeba ZiriTadad zoobenTosiT,

plaqtoniT da wyalmcenareebiT. sqesobrivad

mwifdeba 2 wlis asakidan. nayofiereba aRwevs 500-6000-mde

qviriTs, misi diametri 1.16-2.16 milimetramdea. qviriTobs

qva-qviSian gruntze maisidan agvistos bolomde. sarevela

Tevzia. zogierT wyalsatevSi meti momravlebis gamo

sarewao mniSvnelobis iyo. iWeren wvrilTvala mosasmeli

badeebiT. iyeneben rogorc nedls ise damarilebuls.

93


mtkvris goWala (Cxira)

aRwerilobis mixedviT mtkvris goWalas sxeuli dabalia,

wagrZelebuli, dafarulia wvrili qercliT. zeda

ybaze susti, kbilisebri morCi. kudis farfli Zlieraa

amokveTili. aqvs sami wyvili ulvaSi. sxeulze aqvs usworo

muqi laqebi da zolebi. saerTo Seferiloba muqi-nacrisferia.

sigrZe 80 mm-mde. wona 4,5 gr-mde.

goWala aRmosavleT amierkavkasiis endemuri formaa.

binadrobs mtkvris auzis yvela mdinareSi. didi raodenobiT

moipoveba md. qsnis, aragvisa da liaxvis qvemo dinebebze.

saerTod mtknari wylis binadrad iTvleba. ikvebeba

wvrili benTosuri organizmebiT da Tevzis qviriTiT.

mravldeba maisidan-ivlisis bolomde, Txel wylian adgilebSi.

nayofierebas aRwevs 3000-5000 qviriTamde. ar aqvs

sameurneo mniSvneloba. miekuTvneba sarevela Tevzebs.

94


kavkasiuri mdinaris Rorjo, Rvana

sxeuli TiTistariseburia, saSualo zomis qercliT

dafaruli. Tavi momrgvalebulia, Subli viwro, tuCebi Txelia.

zeda tuCi piris kuTxeebTan odnav gafarToebulia.

Txemi, kefa, mkerdis farflebis Reroebi da yelis ukana

nawili dafarulia qercliT. mozrdilebs sacurao buSti

ar aqvT. sxeuli muqi-moyviTaloa. gverdebze zurgisa da

kudis farflebze muqi laqebia. mamali gamravlebis dros

Rebulobs Sav fers. sigrZe 15 santimetramdea, wona 35

gramamde.

Rorjo saqarTvelos mdinareebSi TiTqmis yvelgan gvxvdeba,

aseve gvxvdeba zogierT tbaSi da wyalsacavebSi. 85

umetesad binadrobs Cqar mdinareebSi, irCevs qvaqviSian

garemos. ikvebeba wvrili TevzebiT. nawilobriv

xmeleTis mwerebiT da wyalmcenareebiT. sqesobrivad

mwifdeba 2-3 wlis asakSi. qviriTobs mais-ivnisSi. nayofiereba

aRwevs 400-1000 qviriTamde. sameurneo mniSvneloba

ar aqvs.

mkvlevari m. beriZe ganmartavs, rom qarTlSi da mesxeTSi

saxeli `Rorjo~ Semoitanes gadmosaxlebulma imer-

85. md. qsanSi Rorjo sof. axmajamde vrceldeba. respodentTa

TqmiT zog weliwads didi raodenobiT Semodis zog weliwads ki

naklebad. saqarTveloSi arsebobs Rorjos ramdenime saxeoba:

brtyeldinga, Tavdida, mdinaris Rorjo anu Wyora, meSlamia,

mdevari, namceca, Savpira, cicqa, sul 12 saxeoba. ix. quji niSnianiZe,

cxovelebis saxelwodebaTa leqsikoni, Tb. 2005

95


lebma. sabolood Rorjom gandevna kidec Rvana. 86 Rvanas

fonetikuri varianti Rona aqvs ganmartebuli sabas: `Rona

(Tevz.) _ Rorjo hqvian~. Rona da Roja sinonimebia d. CubinaSvilisaTvis,

agreTve amatebs: Roja, patara loqoa. 87

mtkvris TaRliTa

sxvadasvxa Tevzebs piris Wrili sxvadasxva formis da

mimarTulebisa aqvT. mtkvris TaRliTas piri aRwerilobis

mixedviT zeviTaa mimarTuli. sqesmwife mamlebs gamravlebis

dros Tavze uCndebaT TeTri borcvakebi. sxeuli

zevidan momwvano-muqia. qvemodan movercxlisfro-TeTri.

sigrZe 170 mm-mdea, wona 44 gr-mde.

mtkvris goWalas msgavsad TaRliTa amierkavkasiis endemia.

binadrobs mtkvris auzSi. saqarTveloSi gvxvdeba

mtkvarSi mTel sigrZeze, mis SenakadebSi: xramSi, algeTSi,

aragvSi, liaxvSi, qsanSi, borjomiswyalSi, abasTumanisa

da axalqalaqis wylebSi, iorSi. maT SenakadebSi da sxva.

Tbilisis da sionis wyalsacavebSi.

TaRliTa pelaguri, qaravnuli Tevzia. eweva mcire migracias

kvebasTan, gamravlebasTan da dazamTrebasTan dakavSirebiT.

mravldeba maisidan _ agvsitomde. qviriTobs

86. beraZe m. mebaduroba, Tevzebi, saxelebi. Tb. 2005. gv. 41

87. CubinaSvili d. qarTul-rusuli leqsikoni, Tb., 1984

96


sam jerad. nayofiereba aRwevs daaxloebiT 1-10 aTasamde

qviriTs, romlis diametri 0.5-1.18 mm-mde. ikvebba ZiriTadad

planqtonuri organizmebiT, agreTve benTosiTa da

mwvane wyalmcenareebiT. sameurneo mniSvneloba ar aqvs.

msgavsad mtkvris cimorisa, gvelanasi, goWalasi, Rorjosi

sarevela Tevzia, ufro metic sarewao Tevzebis konkurentia

kvebaSi da gamravlebis adgilebisaTvis.

zemoT CamoTvlili Tevzebis garda aRm. saqarTvelos

mdinareebSi gvxdeba met-naklebi raodenobis sxvadasxva

saxeobis sarevela Tevzebi, romlebic erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian

rogorc xarisxiT ise biologiuri TvisebebiT.

md. qsnis qvemo welze sof. muxranSi gviTxres, rom

CvenTan mowonebas imsaxurebs Rona. mas ganviTarebuli

aqvs wyvili ulvaSi, waagavs loqos, mamali moSavoa, xolo

dedali moyviTalo feris. aqvs erTi nawlavi (patarebs arc

welaven) izrdeba 12-15 santimentramde.

mdinaris Rorjo, romelic yovel wels ar gvxvdeba

md. qsanSi sof. axmajamde aRwevs. aseve axmajamde gvxvdeba

qsanSi bolo dros gaCenili wvrili Tevzi _ xamsa. zogierT

wels, gazafxuliT april-maisSi mtkvris adidebisas

xdeba Semodineba qsanSi zogierTi qaravnuli Tevzisa.

1953 -59 wlebSi mingeCauris wyalsacavis srulma avsebam

gamoiwvia mtkvris auzSi da mis Senakad mdinareebSi

zogierTi Tevzis gaqroba da zogierTi ucxo jiSis Tevzis

Semodineba: magaliTad Tu gaqra sayovelTaod cnobili

Tevzi oraguli, romelic jer kidev zahesis aSenebis Semdeg

mcxeTis zeviT veRar adioda. 88 samagierod mtkvarSi

da mis SenakadebSi gaCndnen iseTi Tevzebi rogoric arian:

farflwiTela (mtkvarSi amodis Tbilisamde, gvxvdeba

alazanSi, iorSi); blika (gavrcelebulia aRm. saqarTvelos

88. aRniSnul dabrkolebebis gamo aragvze, qsanze, liaxvze da

sxva mdinareebSi oragulis kvlav gavrcelebis mizniT mowyobili

iqna nataxtarTan oragulis saSeni, aseve mcxeTis sagubar-

Tan muSaobda meTevzeTa spec. brigada, romlebsac evalebodaT

kaspiis zRvidan Semosul oragulTa gadasxma-gadayvana kaSxlis

miRma, mtkvris zemo dinebaSi gasamravleblad. Tumc samwuxarod

yovelive aman sasurveli Sedegi ver gamoiRo.

97


evr mdinareSi); TeTrula, kaparWina (gunduri Tevzia gavrclebulia

xramSi, algeTSi, alazanSi, iorSi); mtkvris nafota

saqarTvelos wylebSi Semovida 1959 wlidan. gavrcelebulia

aragvSi, qsanSi, liaxvSi, mejudaSi da sxvagan. Setanilia

`wiTel nusxaSi~.

Tevzebis migracia

Tevzebis migracia, iseve rogorc cxovelebisa, masobrivia,

ZiriTadad _ aqtiuri, magram zogjer SeimCneva pasiuri

gadaadgilebac. Tevzebi iltvian iqiTken, sadac isini

sasicocxlo pirobebs pouloben. es SeguebiTi Tvisebaa,

romelic uzrunvelyofs arsebobisTvis da saxeobis populaciis

gamravlebisTvis (aRwarmoebisaTvis) xelsayrel

pirobebs. faqtobrivad migracia sasicocxlo ciklis erTerTi

rgolia, romelic uzrunvelyofs rogorc wina, ise

momdevno Taobebis urTierTkavSirs. Tevzis migraciaTa

cikli Cveulebriv sami saxisaa: 1. saqviriTe migracia; 2. kvebiTi

migracia; 3. gamosazamTrebeli migracia. 89

Tevzebis didi umravlesobisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia migraciebi.

xolo zogierTi jgufi mudmivad cxovrobs erTsa

da imave adgilas, magaliTad Rorjoebis ojaxi.

migracia TevzebSi erTnairad ar aris gamoxatuli. zogierTi

saxeobisaTvis, magaliTad, fargasaTvis damaxasiaTebelia

mxolod saqviriTe da kvebiTi migracia. Tevzebis

umravlesobas mxolod zamTris migracia axasiaTebs. magaliTad

cimorebi zamTrobiT mdinaris SedarebiT ufro Rrma

adgilebs etanebian, kalmaxebi piriqiT _ Tbil adgils.

zogierTi saxeobis TevzisTvis, magaliTad mozrdili

oragulisTvis, damaxasiaTebelia kvebiTi migracia mdinaridan

zRvaSi, xolo roca isini sqesobrivad momwifdebian,

saqviriTe adgilebisaken moeSurebian, zRvidan mdinareSi.

89. ix. Jurnali `nadiroba~ 2006. №11. gv.32

98


Tevzebis umravlesobisaTvis sazamTro migraciebi

im drosaa damaxasiaTebeli rodesac isini maqsimalurad

suqdebian, rac normaluri gamozamTrebisaTvis ZiriTadi

pirobaa. magaliTad kaparWina (leSa), xamsa anu sardala

da sxva, Tu gamxdrebia, ar miiltvian gamosazamTreblad

Tugind wylis temperatura mkveTrad daeces.

migraciis dasawyisi rogorc Tevzis mdgomareobaze,

aseve garemo pirobebis cvlazea damokidebuli. saqviriTe,

sakvebTan dakavSirebuli da sazamTro migraciebi mtkice

urTierTkavSirSia erTmaneTTan, rac Tevzebis sasicocxlo

cikls uzrunvelyofs.

zogjer TevzebisaTvis TavdacviTi migraciebicaa damaxasiaTebeli.

am SemTxvevaSi maTi migracia aqtiuria. mraval

Tevzs pasiuri migracia axasiaTebs, romlis drosac

organizmi ar xarjavs Zalas, igi wylis dinebas miuyveba.

sainteresoa ra iwvevs amgvar migracias? udavoa, rom migracia

aris Segueba. magaliTad davuSvaT, rom yvela oraguli

romelic qviriTis dasayrelad Sevida ama Tu im mdinareSi,

darCa iq gamosakvebad da ar dabrunda zRvaSi. sakvebi

ueWvelad SemoelevaT da misi raodenobac Semcirdeba,

miTumetes rom qviriTobis gamo dasustebul Tevzebs didi

raodenobiT sakvebi esaWiroebaT, amitomac aucilebelia

maTi migracia sakvebiT mdidar adgilebSi, e. i. zRvaSi.

arian iseTi Tevzebic romelTa mamrebi mxolod mdinareSi

cxovroben xolo mdedrebi sxva wyelbSi gadian.

aseTebi arian oraguli, wvera da sxva.

saerTod Tevzebi moZraoben qaravnebad maT Soris migraciis

drosac, romelTac saerTo beladi ar yavT. qaravnebad

moZraoba aadvilebs maT Weras. Tevzebis Wera

yvelaze mosaxerxebeli da iolia zamTris migraciis dros,

Tanac am droisaTvis maRali xarisxisaa.

im kanonzomierebis codna, romelsac migraciebi eqvemdebareba,

saSualebas iZleva Seumcdarad davadginoT

Tevzebis gadaadgilebis gzebi, mimarTulebebi, vadebi,

agreTve maTi gamosazamTreblad Tavmoyris adgilebi. am

momentebis codna da gaTvaliswineba Tevzis didi raodenobiT

Weris garantiaa.

99


Tevzebis zrunva STamomavlobaze

yvela cocxali arseba mravldeba. mravldebian Tevzebic

da Tqven warmoidgineT, zogi saxeoba iseTi intensivobiT,

rom bunebis garkveuli kanonzomiereba rom ara erTi

wyvili STamomavloba albaT mTel dedamiwas dafaravda.

magram bunebaSi arsebobs mravali dabrkoleba, romelic

aferxebs organizmTa esodeni intensivobiT gamravlebas.

yoveli saxis individTa didi raodenoba nadgurdeba

sakvebis naklebobiT, mtaceblebiT, parazitebiT, araxelsayreli

klimaturi pirobebiT da sxva.

da mainc, Tevzebs Soris cotaa iseTi saxeoba, STamomavlobaze

rom zrunavdes. TevzTa umravlesoba qviriTs bedis

anabara tovebs. lifsitebi mSoblebisgan damoukideblad

iCekebian, ikvebebian da izrdebian. magaliTad tropikuli

da zomieri sartylis TiTqmis yvela zRvasa da okeane-

Si binadrobs mTvaraTevzi. misi sigrZe sam metrs aWarbebs.

wona 1410 kg-ia. da ai es Tevzi sicocxleSi erTxel mravldeba.

yris 300 milion kvercxs. yvelaze mets xerxemlian

cxovelTa Soris. davuSvaT, rom yvela kvercxidan gamosuli

lifista gaizarda, maSin am Tevzis mesame Taobis saer-

To wona asjer meti iqneba TviT dedamiwis wonaze, magram

cxadia bunebaSi ase ar xdeba da rTuli saarsebo pirobebis

gamo am mravalricxovani masidan sqesobriv simwifes sul

raRac oriode wyvili aRwevs.

TevzTa gamravlebaSi, zemo aRniSnul dabrkolebebis

gamo ra mouvidodaT dabalnayofier Tevzebs, STamomavlobaze

zrunvis instiqti rom ar hqondeT. es instiqti maT

CamouyalibdaT evoluciis procesSi, rogorc saxeobis gadarCenisTvis

aucilebeli piroba.

mainc romeli Tevzebi zrunaven STamomavlobaze da

rogor?, magaliTad, Savi zRvis oraguli romelic gamsvleli

Tevzia tofobisTvis Sedis mdinareSi. qviriTs

oqtombridan Tebervlamde yris. dedali ormos akeTebs

(zogjer mamalic exmareba) da yris qviriTs, romelsac mamali

anayofierebs. amis Semdeg oragulebi ormos qvebiT

100


da qviSiT faraven, toveben da zRvaSi brundebian. marTalia

umniSvneloa, magram mainc garkveuli mzrunvelobaa

STamomavlobaze. gamoCekili lifsitebi 2-3 walmde mdinareSi

rCebian. Semdeg Tu zRvaSi dabrundnen swrafad

izrdebian da maTgan oragulebi viTardeba, Tu mdinareSi

darCnen isini kalmaxebad izrdebian.

zogi saxeobis Tevzi ufro aqtiurad zrunavs STamomavlobaze,

Sav zRvaSi binadrobs Tevzi _ samekala. igi 40-90

milimetris, sul 4 gramiani Tevzia. mamali samekala qviri-

TobisTvis winaswar iWers Tadarigs, aSenebs budes, budis

asaSenebeli masala Tevzis Tirkmlidan gamonadeni erTgvarovani

nivTierebaa. es nivTiereba rogorc ki wyalSi

moxvdeba, cemetiviT magrdeba.

gamravlebis periodSi mamali samekala Zalian agresiuli

xdeba. mamlebs Soris rainduli orTabrZolac ki

imarTeba. gamarjvebuli mamali rigrigobiT Serekavs

budeSi or-sam dedals romlebic dayrian 20-dan 100 kvercxamde

da es aris da es. amiT amTavrebs Tavis dedur movaleobas.

STamomavlobaze zrunva mTlianad mamals ekisreba.

igi anayofierebs qviriTs da icavs mas. icavs rogorc

gaerSe mtrebisagan ise dedali samekalasagan, radganac

masSi imdnad atrofirebulia mSoblis instiqti, rom Tavs

esxmis sakuTar qviriTsa Tu lifsitebs da Wams kidec. mamali

samekala mzrunveli mSobelia. igi Tavs dastrialebs

qviriTs, darajobs mas. drodadro mkerdis farflebis

daCqarebuli moZraobiT aZlierebs wylis cirkulacias

da amiT Canasaxis JangbadiT momaragebas uzrunvelyofs.

lifsitebis gamoCekis Semdeg mamali erTxans kidev icavs

maT.

101


Tevzis mtrebi

msoflios zogierT qveyanaSi popularobiT sargeblobs

gawvrTnili frinveliT CvamiT Tevzaoba. Zveli

xelnawerebi gvamcnoben, rom es xerxi 813 wels SemouRiaT

iaponelebs. CvamiT Tevzaoben koreaSi, indoeTSi, CineTSi,

indoneziaSi. sakiTxavia da Tanac saintereso yovelive

amas dasabami rogor mieca. zogierTi aRmosavluri religia

krZalavs cocxali arsebis mokvlas, vinaidan Tevzs

frinveli iWers da ara TviTon adamiani, amiT morwmuneebi

RvTis winaSe ucodvelad Tvlian dResac Tavs.

Cvamas daxmarebiT Tevzis Wera evropelebma mxolod

XIV saukuneSi daiwyes da XVII saukunidan ukve farTod

gavrcelda ZiriTadad begliaSi, safrangeTsa da inglisSi.

es iseve, rogorc baziT nadiroba sportuli garToba, hobi

ufroa, vidre nadirobiT sakvebis mopoveba.

meTevzeebi sxvadasxva saxeobis Cvamas iyeneben (sul

am frinvelis 26 saxeobaa cnobili. CineTSi igi moSinaurebuli

hyavT da mis kvercxebs qaTmebs aCekineben. sxva qveynebSi

ki axalgazrda frinvelebs iWeren da mere wvrTnian.

Cvamas gawvrTna metad Sromatevadi saqmea. amas Svidi-rva

Tve mainc sWirdeba, patroni rom ar dakortnos niskartebs

wvers axerxaven da frTebs aWrian. Cvama tyveobaSi didxans

cocxlobs, zogierTi cnobiT 20-30 welsac ki. yvelaze nayofierad

3-8 wlamde asakSi `Sromobs~. gamorCeulad marjve

frinvels saaTSi 100 Tevzis daWera SeuZlia.

* * *

yvela arsebas Tavisi mter-moyvare yavs. mtrebis simravles

TviTon gansazRvraven, gamomdinare TavianTi

Tvisebebidan. zog Tevzs mometebulad bevri mteri yavs,

zogs naklebi da Tanac pasiuri. rac ufro Zvirfasia wylis

102


inadari (xorciT, tyaviT, qoniT da a. S.) miT meti mtrobs

da nadirobs masze.

adamianebisa da frinvelebis garda Tevzebs cxovelebic

emterebin. CvenSi cnobilia, rom melakudas erT-er-

Ti gemrieli sakvebi fSaSi daWerili kalmaxi da murwaa,

ramdens SegvimCnevia bind-bundSi, diliT qsnis Walebze,

seqtember-oqotmberSi, oSoSiTa da wylis wiwmatiT gamwvanebul

xavsmodebul fSebSi muxlamde talaxiani fexebiT

(TiTqos Ceqmebi acviao) moTevzave melia. man kargad

icis Tevzis fasi da amitomacaa rom kalmaxs danatrebuli,

ZaRlebiT savse soflis pirebsac ar erideba. movusminoT

bunebis mkvlevarT:

TiTqmis ori aTasi wlis win romaelma klavdius

elianusma Tavis wignSi `cocxali buneba~ aseTi ram Cawera:

`mdinaris napirze moseirne mela eSmakurad iWers wvril

Tevzebs. Tavis fumfula kuds igi wyalSi yofs. Tevzebi

Semoexvevian mas da xSir bewvebSi ixlarTebian. rogorc ki

mela amas igrZnobs, swrafad amoagdebs kuds wylidan, mSral

adgilze gadaxteba da kuds dabertyavs. Tevzebi Zirs

cviva da meliac gemrielad miirTmevs maT~.

mogvianebiT 1555 wels cnobili Svedi naturalisti,

arqiepiskoposi olas magnusi Tavis TxzulebebSi dasZens:

`norvegiis kldeebSi me TviTon minaxavs wyalSi kudCayofili

melia, igi drodadro amoiqnevda xolme kuds da zed

CaWidebul kiborCxalebs Seeqceoda~.

sxvadasxva xalxebis _ rusebis, germanelebis, eskimosebis

da sxvaTa zRaprebSi meliebi xSirad sCadian msgavs

gmirobebs.

doqtori gajeri cxovelTa yovelgvari ucnauri

Cvevebisa da Tavgadasavlebis dauRalavi mkvlevaria. did

samecniero JurnalSi gamoqveynebul statiaSi man CamoTvala

yvela misTvis cnobili cxoveli, romelTa Sesaxebac

amboben, TiTqos kudiT iWeren Tevzebs, kiboebs da kibor-

Cxalebs. aseTi cxoveli Svidia: mela, koioti, wavi, enoti,

virTagva, kata da iaguari (man ratomRac ar moixsenia maimuni)

rac Seexeba wavs da mis siyvaruls Tevzisadmi, gakvr-

103


iT, magram mainc aqvs naxsenebi vaJa-fSavelas Tavis `oragulis

cxovrebaSi~. `wavze uaresi mteri Cven adamiani gvyavs.

ramdennairi manqana aqvs gamogonili Cvens Sesapyrobad~...

garda am mtaceblisa bevrs daunaxavs Walebze, fSebTan

did koxis qvaze Semomjdari bora, romelic Casafrebulia

da elodeba aRma mimaval Tevzis gaCqafunebas Txel wyal-

Si. _ ras vizvT, kalmaxi yvelas moswons da uyvars.

104


Tevzeuli da misi roli kvebis racionSi

sakvebi adamianis erTaderTi cnobili energetikuli

wyaroa. adamiani kvebis gziT Sedis mWidro kontaqtSi biosferos

Semadgenlobis qimiur nivTierebebTan. garemomcveli

buneba moiTxovs, rom adamiani ikvebebodes im sakvebiT,

rasac igi mas aZlevs da im raodenobiT rasac gascems.

Tavdapirvelad adamianis gamosakvebad daSvebuli iyo

vegetarianuli sakvebi: `da Tqva RmerTma: `aha, mogeciT

Tqven yoveli balaxi, Tesli mTesveli, romelic miwis

pirzea, da yoveli xe, romelzec Teslis mTesveli nayofia

_ saWmelad~. warRvnis Semdgom adamianis sakvebad daSvebuli

iqna cxovelis xorci da yovelive rogorc mcenareuli

safaridan, aseve cxoveluridanac _ `yoveli moZravi

cocxali arseba saWmeli iyos TqvenTvis, rogorc mwvane

balaxi: Tqven gaZlevT yvelafers~ _ ambobs ufali (dab.

9.3).

Tu warRvnamde iyo erTi xalxi, romelic erTi saxis

sakvebiT ikvebeboda da am sakvebis mogrovebis erTnairi

saSualebebi hqonda. warRvnis Semdeg adamianis cxovreba

sxvagvarad warimarTa, amavdroulad daiwyo eTnikur

erTeulebad Camoyalibebis procesi. eTnikuri jgufebi

iwyeben axal teritoriebze arsebuli faunisa da floris

sakvebad gamoyenebas. Sesabamisad daiwyo eTnokulturebis

Camoyalibebac.

winaaziis istoriul-eTnografiul olqSi (TurqeTi,

israeli, arabuli qveynebi, irani) yvela xalxs Tavisi kulturul-sayofacxovrebo

Taviseburebani gaaCnia. ama Tu

im eTnosisaTvis kveba bevrad iyo damokidebuli garemosacxovrebel,

socialur da qonebriv pirobebze.

araswori kveba (rac SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva mizezebiT

iyos gamowveuli), gavlenas axdens adamianis centralur

nervuli sistemis funqciaze da umaRles nervul

moqmedebaze, rac gansakuTrebulad mgrZnobiarea organizmis

garegani da Sinagani garemos cvlilebebisadmi.

ebrael erze, kerZod polonel ebraelebze, gamokvle-

105


vis safuZvelze dayrdnobiT

werda erTi amerikeli, viskoniis

universitetis profesori

_ morgulisi, rom:

`am xalxs, romlebic TaobaTa

manZilze uWmelobis msxverplni

iyvnen, aqvT gaRaribebuli

sisxli, viwro beWebi,

Cavardnili mkerdi, dablebi

da fermkrTalni arian. maTi

susti konstitencia, fizikuri

uZlureba naTels xdis,

rom isini ar gamodgebian mZime

samuSaoebze~. 90

saqarTvelos mosaxleobis

umetesi nawili kvebis

racionSi cxovelur cilaze

moTxovnilebas ikmayofilebda

TevziT, rZis produqtebiT

da kvercxiT. dasavleT da aRmosavleT

saqarTveloSi gansxvaveba iyo, rogorc kvebis

xasiaTSi, aseve etiketSi. Zvelad saqarTveloSi yvelgan,

xolo Semdeg ki dasavleT saqarTveloSi gardacvalebulis

sulis mosaxseniebeli qelexi samarxvo iyo. Wirisuflebi

40 dRis, zogjer erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi marxulobdnen.

don juzepe judiCi milaneli, qarTuli wes-

Cveulebebis Sesaxeb werda: `gardacvalebis Semdeg naTesavebi

da ymebi mgloviarobis aRsaniSnavad miwaze gaSlil

Wilofze iZineben, mTeli wlis manZilze ar Wamen xorcs,

Tevzs, kvercxsa da rZis nawarms~. 91 analogiur cnobas

gvawvdis vaxuSti batoniSvili: `ara sWamdin xorsca da

cxovelsa wlamde, garna maSinac iZulebiTa didiTa, STa-

90. d. baxtaZe, p. koRuaSvili, qarTvelTa kvebis kultura, Tb.

2009. gv. 132

91. iqve gv.138

106


icvian ZaZa-flasni da daiburon Tavsa Txisurni CaCni~. 92

n. janaSia ase aRwers afxazTa qorwils: `sazogadod,

afxazTa qorwili ar aris naqebi nair-nairi sasmel-saWmelebiTa:

erTi naWeri mSrali xorci, simindis fqvilis

Romi, Rvino da qorwilis gaTavebis xans qaTmis an batknis

xorci, egreTwodebuli `aZ~ _ morCa da gaTavda~.

germaneli mkvlevari k. koxi Tavad ColoyaSvilis

samxaris sufras ki Semdegnairad agviwers: `samxari marTlac

dResaswauls mogagonebdaT. Cinebuli naxvretebiani

yveliT daiwyo, romelsac axali kitrebi mohyva, Semdeg

rig-rigobiT mohqondaT Caxoxbili, cxvris xorci, Tevzi

da bolos sxvadasxva Semwvari kerZi. SigadaSig madis SesanarCuneblad

surnelovan mwvanils Seeqceodnen~.

kvebasTan dakavSirebuli aRkveTebi da SezRudvebi

yofiTi tradiciebisa da religiuri msoflmxedvelobis

udidesi movlenaa, e. i. rogorc irkveva kvebiT akrZalvas

sakraluri safuZveli aqvs. mag: mesxebi, aWarlebi da

javaxebi ar Wamdnen Roris xorcs. aseve me-19 s-Si Roris

xorci ikrZaleboda xevsureTSi, xevSi, gudamayarSi,

fSavSi, mTiuleTSi, mTis raWvelebSi. kurdRlis xorcs,

kalmaxs da oraguls ar Wamdnen xevsurebi. 93 daTvis xorci

ikrZaleboda zemo svaneTSi. zogan tabu dadebuli aqvs ara

cxovelis xorcs mTlianad, aramed mxolod mis ama Tu im

nawils, mag.: qarTveli mTielebi (qsanze, liaxvze, aragvze)

daTvis xorcis mxolod marcxena mxares Wamdnen. afxazebi

XVII s-Si megrelebisagan gansxvavebiT ar Wamdnen Tevzs da

kiborCxalebs. saqarTvelos mTieli mosaxeloba marxvaSi

Wamda nivris xinkals, moxarSul lobios, Tevzs, velurad

mzard mxaleuls da mwvanils. 94

92. qarTlis cxovreba. t.IV. Tb. 1973. gv. 395

93. Волкова Н. Г. Джавахишвили Г. Н. Бытовая культура грузии XIX-XX

веков, М. 1982. _ с. 163.

94. saaRdgomo did marxvaSi ikrZaleba cxoveluri warmoSobis

sakvebi, mxolod yvelieris kviraSia daSvebuli rZis nawarmi,

kvercxi da Tevzi; petre-pavlobis marxvis dros daSvebulia mxolod

Tevzi (oTxSabaTi, paraskevis garda); mariamobis marxvisas

(14-27/VIII) saerTod ikrZaleba cxoveluri warmoSobis sakvebi da

107


XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi Tbilisis bazarze kvebis

produqtebis didi nairsaxeoba iyo: puri, Rvino da arayi,

batkani, Wedila, brinji, erbo, Saqari, zeTis xili, Zvirfasi

Tevzeuli _ gelaqnuri, oraguli, zuTxi, xramuli,

fiCxuli: xmeli Tevzi _ zurgieli, doSi, xizilala da

sxva mravali. gacxovelebuli vaWroba warmoebda agreTve

provinciebSi. amave periodisTvis mcire qalaqad wodebul

cxinvalSi, sadac vaWrobas didad uwyobda xels misi

geografiuli mdebareoba da masze gamavali savaWro gzebi,

adgilobrivi warmoebis saqonelTan erTad iyideboda

Tevzeulic: `...abreSumi, marili, zurgieli, zuTxi, doSi,

xizilala, gelaqnuri, TeTri brinji~. 95

XIX-XX saukuneebis mijnaze Tbilisis bazrebze damkvidreba

did Zalisxmevasa da Sromas moiTxovda, rogorc

TevziT movaWre amxanagobebisagan, ise calkeul meduqnenoqrebisagan.

maT sasamarTloebzec ki uxdebodaT TavianTi

profesiuli kavSirebis uflebebisa da Tavis dacva,

rogorc reaqciiT mosargeble aRebisgan, ise sxva juris

qor-vaWarTagan da adgilobriv biurokrat-CinovnikTagan.

ai ras wers amis Sesxeb saukunis winandeli presa: `Tfilisis

TevziT movaWre noqrebis, (ricxviT 25 kaci) krebas am

dReebSi TaTbiri qonda noqarTa mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.

krebam erTxmad gamoitana Semdegi rezolucia: viRebT ra

mxedvelobaSi, rom Cvenma aRebma isargebles reaqciis ga-

ZlierebiT da wagvarTves is mcire Tavisuflebis namcecic

ki, romelic sisxliTa da brZoliT gvqonda mopovebuli,

isini sargebloben SemTxveviT da ar ketaven maRaziebs

daniSnul droze, arc kvira-uqmeobiT, amitom Cven TevziT

movaWreTa noqrebi erTxel da samudamod vadgenT, rom

daiketos maRaziebi kviraobiT mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi,

xolo saqmis dReebSi neba mieceT ivaWron mxolod dilis

bolos, saSobao marxvis dros (28/XI-6/I) iseve rogorc petre-pavlobisas

daSvebulia mxolod Tevzi (oTxSabaTisa da paraskevis

garda, isic mxolod 25 dekembramde).

95. cotniaSvili mix. cxinvalis istoria. _ cxinvali, gamomc.

`irisToni~. _ 1986. _ gv.121

108


7 saaTidan saRamos 7 saaTamde. is noqari, romelic ar daemorCileba

Cvens gadawyvetilebas, dauyovnebliv micemul

iqneba saamxanago samarTalSi. amis Semdeg krebam amoirCia

komisia, romelsac pirdapiri damokidebuleba eqneba noqarTa

profesionalur kavSirTan. es dadgenileba ZalaSi

Sedis dRidan gamoqveynebisa.-~ 96

saqarTveloSi qalaqTa bazrebze didad fasobda damarilebuli

da gamSrali Tevzi (erTi xalxuri, frTiani

gamoTqmac zustad doSs ukavSideba: `mizez-mizez doSs

marili akliao~), Tevzis damarilebis gansxvavebuli xerxebi

arsebobda. zuTxs an sxva jiSis msxvil Tevzs sigrZeze

Wridnen da awyobdnen marilwyalSi did kasrebSi,

sadac erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi ayovnebdnen, wvril Tevzis

jiSebs gamouSignavad amarilebdnen da aSrobdnen.

damarilebuli Tevzisagan iRebdnen ori saxis produqts:

damarilebul-gamSral da damarilebl-Sebolil Tevzs.

Tevzisagan aTeulobiT sxvadasxva gemriel kerZs

amzadeben. evlia Celebi Savi zRvis aRwerilobisas werda:

`maTi sanaqebo Tevzebi: zRvis qorWila, kefali, skumbria

da kidev aTasnairi Tevzia, magram amaTgan lazebi yvelaze

ufro etanebian xamsas... imdenad sasargebloa, rom misi

mWameli kacis Zala Svid dReSi araCveulebrivad izrdeba.

Zalian noyieri da swrafad mosanelebelia. radgan Wamis

dros Tevzs suni ara aqvs. mWamels wyurvili ar awuxebs.

tkivilebiT Sepyrobili adamiani Tu mas SeWams, gamojanmrTeldeba...

ormocnair kerZs amzadeben misgan. keTdeba

Semwvari, wvniani, moxrakuli, xaxviT Semzadebuli

Rvezeli, baklava~. amrigad xalxur kvebiT sistemaSi Segvi-

Zlia eTnosis Taviseburebebic davinaxoT, sadac vlindeba

erovnul TviTSegnebaSi gamoxatuli sasicocxlo uzrunveyofis

kulturis Rirebulebebi.

Cvens mkiTxvels qvemoT mivawvdiT ugemrielesi TevzeuliT,

ugemrielesi kerZebis momzadebis ramdenime recepts,

rac didi xania amSvenebs qarTul sufras.

96. gaz. `win~. _ 1907, marti, №20, gv.2.

109


Semwvari kalmaxi * *

_ masala: kalmaxi _ 500 gr; erbo an karaqi (SeiZleba

zeTi) _ 150 gr; nigozi 1/2 Wiqa; broweulis wveni Wiqanaxevari,

xaxvi erTi Tavi, qinZi 2-3 Rero, niori, wiwaka da

marili gemovnebiT.

momzadeba: gasufTavebuli da garecxili kalmaxi

davWraT naWrebad. davayaroT marili (gavaCeroT 10 wuTi).

amovavloT fqvilSi, davawyoT cxel erboian tafaze da

SevwvaT orive mxridan. gamzadebuli Tevzi sasurvelia

pirdapir tafiT mivitanoT sufraze.

Wiqa naxevar broweulis wvenSi davamatoT marilSi danayili:

niori, qinZi, wiwaka da nigozi, wvrilad daWrili xaxvi

da movurioT. gamzadebuli sawebeli davasxaT gacivebul

Tevzs. (SeiZleba sawebeli calkec mivitanoT sufraze

TevzTan erTad).

kalmaxi sawebliT* *

_ masala: kalmaxi 500 gr; gamxmari (kurkebis gareSe)

Sindi _ 1/2 Wiqa; xaxvi erTi Tavi; niori erTi kbili, Zmari

1/2 Wiqa, wyali Wiqa naxevari; marili gemovnebiT.

momzadeba: moxarSuli kalmaxis naWrebi davawyoT langarze.

sufTa qvabSi CavasxaT Wiqa naxevari wyali; CavyaroT

gamxmari Sindi 1/2 Wiqa; daWrili xaxvi, danayili niori da

nigozi, 1/2 Wiqa Zmari, marili gemovnebiT da vxarSoT 15-

20 wuTi, saSualo cecxlze. gadmovdgaT cecxlidan da gavacivoT.

gacivebuli sawebela davasxaT Tevzs.

suxarSi da kvercxSi Semwvari kalmaxi* *

_ masala: kalmaxi _ 500 gr; kvercxi 2 cali, erbo an

karaqi 50-70 grami, fqvili da suxari ramdenic dasWirdeba;

daWrili xaxvi, limoni da marili gemovnebiT.

momzadeba: patara zomis (an saSualo zomis) kalmaxi gavasufTavoT,

davayaroT marili da amovavloT im wuTSive

110


fqvilSi, Semdeg amovavloT kvercxSi da Semdgom suxarSi.

davawyoT cxel erboian tafaze da SevwvaT orive mxridan.

Semwvari Tevzi gadmoviRoT langarze, davasxaT Sewvisas

warmoqmnili wveni, movrToT oxraxuSis foTelbiT,

CavawuroT limonis wveni (SegviZlia movrToT daWrili

limoniT) da davayaroT daWrili xaxvi.

moxarSuli oraguli Tavis wvenSi* *

_ masala: oraguli _ 500 gr; xaxvi 400 gr, Savi pilpili,

marili, qinZi gemovnebiT.

mozadeba: gasufTavebuli da garecxili oraguli

davWraT saSualo sisqis naWrebad. Semdeg qvabSi CavawyoT

fena-fena oraguli da daWrili xaxvi. TiToeul fenas movayaroT

marili da Savi pilpili. ase davawyoT or-sam an

oTx fenad, Semdeg davasxaT wyali ise, rom am ukanasknelma

odnav dafaros qvabSi moTavsebuli masala. davafaroT qvabs

saxuravi da vxarSoT dabal cecxlze. gamzadebuli ker-

Zi gadmoviRoT Rrma langarze Tavisive wveniT, davayaroT

wvrilad daWrili qinZi da gavacivoT.

oragulis bozaTma* *

_ masala: oraguli 500 gr; erbo an karaqi 300-400 gr;

xaxvi 1-2 Tavi, limoni, qinZi, oxraxuSi, kama (cereco), tarxuna,

marili gemovnebiT.

momzadeba: gavasufTaod, gavrecxoT da davWraT Tevzi.

xaxvi davWraT mrgvlad da avurioT masSi daWrili qin-

Zi, oxraxuSi, kama, tarxuna.

qvabSi CavyaroT xaxvis da mwvanilis narevis naxevari

cximTan erTad, zemodan davawyoT daWrili oragulis

naWrebi, davayaroT marili da darCenili narevi. davasxaT

wyali ise, rom man odnav dafaros qvabSi moTavsebuli masa.

davdgaT cecxlze da movxarSoT.

momzadebuli kerZi gadmoviRoT langarze, movasxaT

limonis wveni. sufraze SegviZlia mivitanoT rogorc civi

aseve cxeli.

111


gelaqnuri wveniT* *

_ masala: gelaqnuri _ 1 kg; Sindis CurCa _ 1C/W; xaxvi

_ 2-3 Tavi; danayili nigozi _ 4 s/k.

momzadeba: gelaqnuri movxarSoT Cveulebrivi wesiT.

calke qvabSi CavasxaT 3-4 Wiqa wyali, davumatoT Sindis

CurCa, daWrili xaxvi, danayili nigozi da vaduRoT. moxar-

Suli gelaqnuri TefSze davawyoT da zed davasxaT gamzadebuli

sawebeli.

doSi sawebliT* *

_ doSi wina RamiT unda davalboT, xolo meore dRes

sxva wyalSi movxarSoT. wyali bolomde unda daesxas da ise

moixarSos. gavukeToT nigvzis an Zmris sawebeli da moxar-

Suli Tevzi Sig CavawyoT.

loqo wveniT* *

_ masala: loqo _ 1 kg; dafnis foToli 2-3 cali, qinZi

6-7 Ziri, pilpili, tyemlis tylapi, marili gemovnebiT.

momzadeba: loqo gavasufTaoT, davWraT naWrebad,

gavrecxoT, CavawyoT qvabSi, davasxaT imdeni wyali, rom

Tevzi daifaros. duRilis dros movxadoT qafi, CavyaroT

marili, dafnis foToli, daWrili qinZi, daWrili tyemlis

tylapi, pilpili da vaduRoT. rodesac Tevzi moixarSeba

da wveni Sesqeldeba, cecxlidan gadmovdgaT.

moxarSuli loqo qinZmarSi* *

_ masala: loqo _ 500 gr; qinZi 9-10 Reri; Zmari _ naxevari

Wiqa; 1/2 an 3/4 loqos naxarSi; marili gemovnebiT.

momzadeba: gasufTavebuli, garecxili da saSuialo

zomebad daWrili loqo movxarSoT aduRebul marilnarev

wyalSi. moxarSuli Tevzi amoviRoT qvabidan, davawyoT

112


sufTa xis dafaze, zemodan movapkuroT civi wyali da gavacioT.

gacivebuli loqo davawyoT langarze da movrToT

oxraxuSiT.

wvrilad daWrili qinZi avurioT ZmarSi da loqos naxarSSi,

vuqnaT marili da davasxaT Tevzs sufrasTan mitanis

win. qinZmari SeiZleba calkec mivitanoT sufraze.

kalmaxi bostneuliT* *

_ masala: 4 c. saSualo zomis kalmaxi; 1 c. wiTeli bulgaruli

wiwaka; 1 Tavi xaxvi; 2 c. pomidori, zeiTunis an simindis

zeTi an erbo; marili, pilpili gemovnebiT.

momzadeba: Tevzi kargad garecxeT, gamoSigneT,

moayareT marili da pilpili Signidan da garedan. bulgarul

wiwakas movaSoroT yunwi da Teslebi. xaxvi da pomidori

daWeriT Txel rgolbad. kalmaxi saTiTaod gamoteneT

bostneuliT. daawyveT tafaze. sufrasTan miitaneT

limonis naWrebTan erTad.

113


teqstSi naxmari terminebis ganmarteba

benTosi _ wyalsatevis fskerze binadari organizmebi

gamsvleli Tevzi _ gasamravleblad an sakvebad zRvidan

mdinareSi, an mdinaridan zRvaSi gamavali Tevzi.

gverdis xazi _ wylis zogierTi cxovelisaTvis, maT

Soris TevzisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli organo, riTac aRiqvams

wylis moZraobas.

detriti _ mkvdari organizmebis narCenebi wyalsatevis

fskerze.

doSi _ zuTxis, oragulis, loqosa da sxva TevzTa

SaSxad, lorad gamoyvanili gverdi.

endemuri _ mxolod garkveuli adgilisaTvis, mxarisaTvis

damaxasiaTebeli cxoveli an mcenare.

epiTeluri borcvakebi _ gamravlebis dros kanze,

umetesad Tavze warmoqmnili borcvakebi rac Semdeg qreba.

zoobenTosi _ cxoveluri benTosi (ix. benTosi)

zooplaqtoni _ cxoveluri plaqtoni (ix. plaqtoni)

larva _ cxovelis Canasaxovani ganviTarebis momdevno

stadia, romelic xasiaTdeba iseTi organoebiT, romlebic

dasrulebul cxovels ar gaaCnia. cxovelSi es stadia

grZeldeba lifsitis ganviTarebamde.

pavadoki _ aris saTevzao mowyobilobis is nawili,

romelic moTavsebulia ZiriTad Zuasa da ankess Soris.

yovelTvis ZiriTad Zuaze wvrili unda iyos erTi an ori

safexuriT. misi sisqe damokidebulia Tevzis sidideze, iseve

rogorc ZiriTadi Zua.

pelaguri Tevzi _ pelagiaSi binadari Tevzi.

plaqtoni _ wylis sisqeSi binadari umetesad mcire

zomis organizmi, romelTa gadanacvleba xdeba pasiurad

wylis dinebiT. plaqtonSi cxoveluri organizmebi Seadgenen

zooplaqtins, mcenareuli organizmebi _ fotoplaqtins.

reofiluri _ Cqari wylis dinebis moyvaruli.

114


sqesobrivi demorfizmi _ gansxvaveba dedal-mamals

Soris zogierTi garegani niSniT (magaliTad, sididiT,

feriT da sxva.)

tofoba _ Tevzis mier qviriTisa da spermis (Teslis)

dayris procesi.

yviTris parki _ larvis mucelze mikruli parki nar-

Ceni yviTriT.

115


garekanis pirvel gverdze: `Jamuris xeoba~,

mebaduri morgeni garozaSvili

avtoris fotoebi

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa: Tamar qituaSvili

tiraJi 200

Tbilisi

2011


fasi 7 lari

aragvis xeoba, mTiuleTi

ISBN 978-9941-0-3332-2

9 789941 033322

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