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qarTuli wignis mxardaWeris fondi

qarTuli wignis mxardaWeris fondi

Georgian Book Support Foundation


TSAKNAGI

FACET

Annual

of Philological Studies

1

2009

Merab Ghaghanidze

Editor

Tbilisi • Memkvidreoba • 2009


filologiur kvlevaTa

weliwdeuli

1

2009

merab RaRaniZis

redaqciiT

Tbilisi • memkvidreoba • 2009


waxnagi: filologiur kvlevaTa weliwdeuli. 1. 2009

saredaqcio sabWo

Suqia afridoniZe

zurab kiknaZe

merab RaRaniZe

qarTuli wignis mxardaWeris fondi

“memkvidreoba”

fondis saqmianobas nivTierad uzrunvelyofs

giorgi leJava

ISSN 1987-7218 © “memkvidreoba”, 2009


sarCevi

winaTqma

merab RaRaniZe 9

narkvevi

nino doborjginiZe

qarTuli enis funqciuri

da Tvisobrivi legitimaciis sakiTxebi Sua saukuneebSi 13

Suqia afridoniZe

poeturi mimarTva qarTul poeziaSi 30

ramaz qurdaZe

zogi sityvis warmomavlobisaTvis qarTul JargonSi 62

salome omiaZe

diskursis definiciaTa analizi 70

irma ratiani

fsevdokarnavaluri narativi romanSi —

kulturaTaSorisi dialogis forma 81

nino fircxalava

zrunvis arakis recefcia literaturasa da filosofiaSi 93

maka elbaqiZe

sivrculi diqotomia Suasaukuneebis raindul romanSi 105

nino sayvareliZe

aris Tu ara grigol noseliseuli

“puri arsobisa¡” oden xorcieli? 116

maia rafava

ioane mTavaraisZe, Savi mTis qarTveli moRvawe 128

Tamar oTxmezuri

efrem mcire da “berZulad saswavleli” sityvebi 139

qeTevan bezaraSvili

ritorikisa da filosofiis urTierTmimarTebis

literaturul-Teoriuli aspeqti

qarTvel elinofilTa naazrevSi

(efrem mcire, ioane petriwi) 152


6

waxnagi 1.2009

nestan sulava

SoTa rusTvelis poemis saTauris gaazrebis

saRvTismetyvelo-Teoriuli safuZvlebi 165

zurab kiknaZe

guramiSvilis igavi 177

iuza evgeniZe

vaJa-fSavelas biografiis erTi sakiTxi 197

qeTevan bezaraSvili, Tamar lomiZe

amaRlebulisa da gansacvifreblis cnebebi

Zvel literaturul-Teoriul naazrevSi

da galaktion tabiZesTan 211

leqcia

guram lebaniZe

Sesavali filologiaSi: leqciebi 1-4 233

publikacia

lela xaCiZe

qarTuli himnografiis aqamde ucnobi nimuSebi _

“kapraSiulni” 267

akaki wereTeli

ocneba 275

nana fruiZe

akakis “ocneba” 279

masala

mTiulur-gudamayruli andrezebi

(Cawera da gamosacemad gaamzada zurab kiknaZem) 285

“moqceva¡ qarTlisa¡” da “ninos cxovreba” ucxour enebze

(Seadgina darejan menabdem) 296

rusudan dauSvili

qarTvel mweralTa saiubileo TariRebis

aRniSvna emigraciaSi (XX s. 20-30-iani ww.) 304

portreti

kaxa loria

ana kalandaZe: “ar Seval taZrad, uwminduri sadac Sevida” 313

rusudan niSnianiZe

oTar CxeiZis Rvawli 321


sarCevi 7

gamoxmaureba

rezo marsagiSvili

kulturaTa dialogi da orenovani leqsikoni

[A Comprehensive Georgian-English Dictionary, Vol. I-II, 2006] 329

merab RaRaniZe

guruli dialeqtis

monografiuli Seswavlis nagvianebi nayofi

[grigol imnaiSvili, guruli dialeqti, 2006] 334

zaza firaliSvili

qarTuli literaturismcodneobis axali perspeqtiva

[literaturis Teoria, 2008] 340

bela wifuria

antiutopiuri realoba da antiutopiuri romani

[irma ratiani, qronotopi antiutopiur romanSi, 2005] 344

eqvTime koWlamazaSvili

giorgi mTawmidelis “Tvenis” gamocemisaTvis

[giorgi mTawmidelis Tveni (seqtemberi), 2007] 348

gaga lomiZe

interteqstualuri anu globalisturi kritika

[zaza SaTiriSvili, galaktionis poetika

da ritorika, 2004] 356

qronika 361

avtorebi 367


winaTqma

qarTuli ena da literatura Cveni samkvidroa, Cveni

samSobloa.

ena da literatura (istoriul mexsierebasTan erTad)

tradiciis is RerZia, romelic warsulTan Cvens uwyvetobas

uzrunvelyofs, romelic awmyoSi Cvens RirebulebaTa

simyares ganapirobebs, romelic momavals Cveni Taobis ganazrebul

da gamonaTqvam uwyebas daudasturebs...

qarTuli ena da literatura mravalwaxnagovani mTlianobaa

da, amdenad, bunebrivia, faqiz yuradRebas imsaxurebs

misi yoveli waxnagi, _ imis miuxedavad, Tu TiToeuli maTgani

rogori sididisa da aRnagobisaa, visi aRalma aRubeWdavs,

romel aTinaTs ireklavs, ragvar brwyinvalebas gamoscems,

ramdenad TvalSisacemia (an TvalismomWrelia)

misi xiluli Tu Sefaruli wiboebi. eWvs ar unda iwvevdes,

rom qarTuli kulturuli cnobierebisaTvis Cveni enisa da

literaturis yoveli namdvili waxnagi _ ugamonaklisod

da upirobod _ Rirebulia...

magram qarTul enasa da literaturas arasodes uarsebia

da arc dRes arsebobs SemozRudul an daxSul sivrce-

Si, _ misi waxnagebi yovelTvis mWidrod exeboda axlobel

Tu Soreul enebs, literaturebs, kulturebs, rwmenebsa da

moZRvrebebs. maTTan naTesauri Tu SedarebiTi mimarTebebis

dadgenis gareSe, gavlenebisa Tu TviTmyofobis gaucnobiereblad,

uSinaarso, ukonteqsto da uperspeqtivo xdeba

qarTuli enisa da literaturis warmodgena da xedva.

aseve uSinaarsoa enisa da literaturis Sesaxeb msjeloba

enisa da literaturis zogadi arsis, bunebisa da xasia-

Tis ganusjelad. konkretuli Ziebani _ faqtisa da movlenis

farglebSi _ Rirebulia TavisTavadac, magram, pirvel

yovlisa, ganzogadebaTa sazomad da sayrdenad, saerTosa

da erTianisaken sando megzurad; ganzogadebani, Tavis

mxriv, gamosayenebelia da gamoyenebuli unda iqnes konkretuli

faqtebisa da movlenebis gasagebad, xolo saerTosa

da erTianis Tvalsawieridan ki erTeuli Tavis kuTvnil

adgils moipovebs da daimkvidrebs.

enisa da literaturis _ mSobliurisa Tu aramSobliuris,

konkretul ganzomilebaSi Tu ganmazogadebeli sam-

9


10 waxnagi 1.2009

zeridan _ Seswavla, gageba da ganmarteba filologiis

sagani da mizania.

swored am sagans ikvlevs da am mizans emsaxureba Cveni

weliwdeuli, _ enisa da literaturis waxnagTa mravalferovnebis

gaTvaliswinebiTa da pativiscemiT.

* * *

“waxnagi: filologiur kvlevaTa weliwdeuli” Cafiqrebulia

periodul samecniero gamocemad, romlis gamoqveyneba,

bunebrivia, yovelwliurad ivaraudeba da romelic

SeZlebisdagvarad ecdeba, warmoaCinos is saukeTeso, rac

qarTveli mkvlevrebis uaxles filologiur ZiebaTa nayofs

asaxavs (masalis simravlis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli

gaxdeba wlis ganmavlobaSi ramdenime nakveTis gamocemac).

filologiur kvlevaTa perioduli gamocemis momzadebis

azri ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis

filolog profesorTa Soris warmoiSva da Camoyalibda.

amdenad, is Tavdapirvelad sauniversiteto Jurnalad ivaraudeboda,

Tumca mis damfuZneblebs TandaTanobiT kolegebis

ufro farTo wre SemouerTda da weliwdeulic aRar

SemoisazRvra universitetis farglebiT.

weliwdeulis mizania, gamoaqveynos naSromebi, masalebi

Tu mimoxilvebi filologiur kvlevaTa sxvadasxva sferoebidan.

mtkiced gvsurs, rom avtorebi aramc da aramc

ar SeizRudon teqstobrivi wyaroebis Tu kvleviTi mimar-

Tulebis arCevisas; imedi gvaqvs, rom gamoyenebuli iqneba

Seswavlis, analizisa da interpretaciis sxvadasxva _

aprobirebuli Tu novatoruli, tradiciuli Tu eqsperimentuli

_ xerxebi da saSualebebi; mivesalmebiT yovel

safuZvlian meTodologiur Tu hermenevtikul pozicias;

savaraudoa, rom sxva, damkvidrebul da gavrcelebul meTodTa

Soris Tavis adgils daikavebs teqstis integraluri

analizi; mxars davuWerT imgvar kvlevas, romelic enobriv

da literaturul monacemebs ganixilavs ideaTa istoriis

Tu kulturuli anTropologiis monapovarTa gaTvaliswinebiT;

Tuki filologia aRiqmeba teqstis Semswavlel universalur

mecnierebad, amgvari TvalTaxedva gaafarToebs

masalis mokrebis, ganxilvisa da axsnis SesaZleblobas.

weliwdeulis survilia, Camoyalibdes is ara oden samecniero

naSromebis krebulad, aramed imgvar periodul

gamocemad, romelSic erTi wlis filologiuri cxovreba

airekleba, xolo wliur nayofs, rogorc mosalodnelia,

_ xan sasixarulod da xan gulsatkenad, _ uTuod daeCne-


winaTqma 11

va Jamismieri interesebis, aqcentebisa da prioritetebis

Wdeebi.

weliwdeulSi, SeZlebisdagvarad, warmodgenili iqneba

sxvadasxva Tematikisa da Janris filologiuri kvlevis

Sedegebi, _ rogorc qarTuli, ise araqarTuli enobrivi

da literaturuli samyarodan. JanrTa mravalferovnebis

gasamijnavad da dasajgufeblad mkvlevarTagan mowodebuli

teqstebi sxvadasxva rubrikebSi ganTavsdeba.

pirvel rigSi, gamoqveyndeba samecniero narkvevebi, _

akademiurad aRWurvili, dasabuTebuli da gamarTuli,

_ lingvistikisa da literaturismcodneobis yvela SesaZlo

dargidan. Zlieria survili, rom maTi umTavresi

maxasiaTebeli iyos masalis SerCevisa da ganxilvis sifar-

Tove, profesiuli gansja, faqtobrivi da meTodologiuri

sizuste. guldasawyvetia, rom weliwdeulis pirvel

gamoSvebaSi saWiro moculobiT veraa warmodgenili lingvisturi

kvlevani anda XIX-XX saukuneebis literatura.

weliwdeuls surs, narkvevebis gverdiT, mkiTxvels,

agreTve, miawodos leqciebi, romlebic ara mxolod mkvlevrebs

gamoadgebaT akademiur Tu pedagogiur saqmianobaSi,

aramed studentebsac daexmareba filologiuri codnis

SesaZenad da asaTviseblad, filologiur CvevaTa gamosamuSaveblad.

sixaruls gvgvris, rom am gamoSvebaSi viwyebT

filologiis Sesavlis sawyisi leqciebis gamoqveynebas,

romelTa Sinaarsi koncefciurad metad axlosaa weliwdeulis

gamomcemelTa filologiur xedvasTan.

axali kvleviTi Tu saswavlo teqstebis garda, weliwdeuli

gegmavs, Tavisi furclebi dauTmos axalaRmoCenili,

aqamde gamouqveynebeli, ucnobi Tu uTargmneli teqstebis

publikacias literaturuli an filologiuri memkvidreobidan.

amasTanave, weliwdeuli saWirod miiCnevs imgvari masalebis

gamoqveynebas, romelic filologiur kvlevaTa

erT-erTi aucilebeli, pirveladi sayrdenia: saarqivodokumenturi

da memuaruli wyaroebi, Canawerebi, bibliografiuli

saZieblebi, saleqsikono masala.

weliwdeuli Tavis gamoSvebebSi apirebs moxazos literaturuli

an filologiuri samyaros niSandebul pirovnebaTa

portretebi, aRniSnos Cveni kulturuli winaprebis

saiubileo TariRebi, gamosamSvidobebeli pativi

miagos Cvengan wasul maswavleblebsa da kolegebs... amjerad

valad gviCns, movixsenioT da gavixsenoT am soflidan

cota xnis win gasulni _ XX saukunis qarTuli literaturis

ori gansakuTrebiT gamorCeuli warmomadgeneli:


12 waxnagi 1.2009

ana kalandaZe da oTar CxeiZe. RirsSesaniSnavia, rom orive

maTgani ara marto mwerali iyo, aramed profesionali filologic...

weliwdeuli Seecdeba gamoexmauros yvela im mniSvnelovan

axal wigns, romelic qarTul (agreTve, araqarTul)

sagamomcemlo sivrceSi qveyndeba... maSin, roca akademiuri

literatura CvenTanac da ucxoeTSic umciresi raodenobiT

ibeWdeba da xSirad Znelad moipoveba, amgvar gamoxmaurebas

informaciuli faseulobac eniWeba.

dasasrul, weliwdeuli mimoixilavs akademiur-sauniversiteto

cxovrebis mniSvnelovan filologiur movlenebs.

* * *

“waxnagi: filologiur kvlevaTa weliwdeuli” TanamSromlobisaTvis

mouxmobs yvela dargisa da mimarTulebis

filologs, amasTanave, yvela imas, visTvisac Soreuli araa

filologiuri problematika an kvlevis filologiuri

meTodebi.

weliwdeulis kari gansakuTrebiT farTod iqneba Ria

damwyeb da axalgazrda filologTaTvis.

weliwdeulis uryevi survilia, rom mis furclebze gamoqveynebuli

yvela teqsti dawerili iyos akademiurad

mkacrad da meTodologiurad gamarTulad, da rom am teqstebSi

arasodes darRveuliyos arc mecnieruli sizustis

farglebi da arc mecnieruli pasuxismgeblobis zneobrivi

moTxovnebi.

merab RaRaniZe


narkvevi

nino doborjginiZe

QqarTuli enis funqciuri

da Tvisobrivi legitimaciis sakiTxebi

Sua saukuneebSi

qarTuls ZiriTadad ori mniSvnelovani TvalTaxedviT

ganixilaven Tanamedrove filologiur mecnierebaSi:

a) rogorc samxreT kavkasiur enas, romlis istoria

dokumentirebulia mravalricxovani teqstebiT

(enaTmecnierebi), b) enas, romelzec literaturis, filosofiisa

da Teologiis mniSvnelovani nawarmoebebia

Seqmnili (filologebi).

amaT garda arsebobs mesame, sakmaod mniSvnelovani

Teoriuli TvalTaxedva, romelSic lingvistikisa

da filologiis interesebi gadaikveTeba; kerZod,

qarTvelTa damokidebuleba mSobliuri enis mimarT im

saxiT, rogorc es originalur Tu naTargmn teqstebSi

aisaxeba.

am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi enaTmecniers eZleva saSualeba,

Tundac SezRudulad mainc aRweros istoriuli

sociolingvistikis sakiTxebi da scados im cvalebadi

mimarTebebis rekonstruqcia, romlebic sociolingvistur

da enobriv monacemebs Soris arsebobda; xolo

filologisTvis es aris cda, pasuxi gasces kiTxvas: rogor

aRiqvamdnen da, Sesabamisad, afasebdnen, an rogor,

ra saxiT undodaT aReqvaT da SeefasebinaT avtorebs (an

mTargmnelebs) sakuTari saqmianoba, maT mier Seqmnili

teqstebi da is viTareba, romelSic esa Tu is teqsti iwereboda.

winamdebare statiaSi swored mesame, istoriuli sociolingvistikis,

TvalTaxedviT iqneba ganxiluli qar-

Tuli enis funqcionirebis calkeuli sakiTxebi, romlebic,

cxadia, ver aRiwereba, rogorc enis “bunebrivi ganviTarebis”

procesi. maT sWirdeba interpretacia kulturul,

politikur da religiur konteqstSi.

13


14 waxnagi 1.2009

qarTulis SemTxvevaSi – da es exeba aRmosavleT qristianuli

samyaros sxva enebsac – enis legitimaciisa

da garkveulwilad misi standartizaciis or ZiriTad

safexurs gamovyof:

a. qarTuli enis damkvidreba samwerlobo tradiciebis,

anu bibliisa da liturgiis enad, funqciurad berZnulTan

gatolebis safexuri, funqciuri legitimacia;

b. intensiuri mTargmnelobiTi, da, sazogadod, filologiuri

saqmianobiT qarTulis enobriv-gamomxatvelobiT

saSualebaTa maqsimaluri daxvewa, miaxloveba

“gonierTa xedvaTa mommarjve” (iovane petriwi) elin-

Ta enasTan, anu, berZnulTan Tvisobrivad gatolebis

safexuri, Tvisobrivi legitimacia.

qarTuli enis legitimaciis es safexurebi qvemoT

ganxiluli iqneba Sua saukuneebis aRmosavleT qristianobis

enaTa istoriuli ganviTarebis konteqstSi.

1. funqciuri legitimacia

aRmosavleT qristianuli samyaros nacionalur ena-

Ta funqciuri legitimacia ganapiroba im kulturulma

da saganmanaTleblo procesebma, romlebic bunebrivad

axlda Tan am xalxTa misionirebas maT mSobliur enaze:

vgulisxmob samwerlobo tradiciebis dawyebas, liturgiis

Seqmnas, bibliuri wignebisa da Teologiuri literaturis

Targmanebs, mecnierebisa da saganmanaTleblo

saqmianobis ganviTarebas, da, saerTod, nacionaluri

enis etablirebas saxelmwifos enad 1 . es iyo procesi, romelic

am enaTa standartizaciis TiTqmis yvela mxares

moicavda; procesi, roca politikurad da kulturulad

arc Tu ise gamorCeuli enebi 2 erTbaSad iZenden did socialur

da sazogadoebriv funqcias.

araugvianes V saukunis Sua wlebidan 3 qarTuli da

1.

amis Sesaxeb ix. doborjginiZe 2007a: 161-176; Doborjginidze 2008: 293-412.

2.

Sdr. „Zur Zeit des Niedergangs des eigentlichen Hellenentums in der hellenistischen Welt der

Spätantike entstand vermutlich in in Syrien und, davon ausgehend auch in Armenien, georgien

und alnderen Ländern des Nahen Ostens eine Art der Volkssprachenidee, die den heimischen

Sprachen, die nicht zu den politisch, kulturell oder religiös privilegierten und akzeptierten Sprachen

gehörten, eine neue Würde gab, die geradezu im Rahmen eines christlichen Heilsgeschehens

verstanden wurde“ (Boeder 1998: 69).

3.

am droidan varaudobs korneli kekeliZe (kekeliZe 1980: 573) liturgikaSi

gamosayenebeli ZiriTadi teqstebis arsebobas qarTul enaze. VI

saukunis qristianuli aRmosavleTi kargad icnobs qarTuls, rogorc

liturgikis enas. Sdr. epizodi saba ganwmendilis berZnuli cxovrebi-


narkvevi 15

berZnuli – iseve rogorc bevrad ufro adreuli xanidan

siriuli da berZnuli, kopturi da berZnuli da

a.S. – funqciurad Tanaswori enebi xdeba Tvisobrivi

gaTanabrebis tendenciiT. marTalia, berZnuli, ebrauli

da laTinuri ufro maRal safexurze mdgomi enebia

(es gansakuTrebiT exeba berZnuls), qarTuli, an qristianuli

aRmosavleTis sxva enebi ki SedarebiT Raribia

gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebiT, magram funqciuri

TvalsazrisiT maT Soris gansxvaveba ar aris: qarTuli

yvela im funqcias asrulebs, yvela im sferos faravs, romelsac

berZnuli; igi mkvidrdeba liturgiis, swavlaganaTlebis,

literaturis, mecnierebisa da saxelmwifoebrivi

cxovrebis nebismieri sferos enad rogorc saqarTveloSi,

aseve sazRvargareT moqmed saganmanaTleblo

centrebSi 4 .

sxva sakiTxia, rogor uyurebdnen berZnebi aRmosavleTis

nacionalur enaTa berZnulTan funqciur Tanasworobas

da ra Rones xmarobdnen sakuTari upiratesobis

warmosaCenad. es urTierToba, cxadia, ar yofidan:






(arc iberielebs, arc sirielebs, arc frigielebs

ar aqvT ufleba, [aq mdebare] maT eklesiebSi sruli liturgia

Caataron; Seikribebian ra TavianT [aq mdebare] eklesiebSi, ufleba aqvT,

mSobliur enaze igalobon “” da “” da waikiTxon sakiTxavebi

mociqulTa wignebidan da saxarebidan. amis Semdeg isini unda wavidnen

did eklesiaSi da yvela sxva ZmasTan erTad unda eziaron RvTaebrivi sicocxlis

momniWebel saidumloebas). ix. Kurz 1894: 165-167; kekeliZe 1980:

26. berZnuli da siriuli wyaroebis es cnobebi dokumenturad dasturdeba

xanmeti teqstebis monacemebiT.

4.

amis naTeli magaliTia petriwonis tipikoni, dokumenti, romelic

ucxo qveyanaSi moqmedebs da berZnul “£eliTwerilTan“ erTad iuridiuli

Zala aqvs. Sdr.: “daiwera ukue da daemtkica wesi ese gangebisa¡

amis patiosnisa monastrisa Cuenisa¡, ...weriliTa berZuliTa da qarTuliTa,

...da quemo¡T wariwernes £eliTa CemiTa zemo£senebulisa grigolisiTa

yovelnive ese tipikonni, xolo berZulni ornive wariwernes

Semdgomad Cemisa dawerilisa wmidisa patriarqisa ierusalemelisa

Rirsisa efT¢mesiTa, dasamtkicebelad da sarwmuno yofad yovlisave,

romelica tipikonsa amas Sina weril ars. da amisT¢s daiwera berZulad

da qarTulad, rameTu monazonni monastrisa Cemisani guarad qarTvelni

arian da ara ician berZuli warkiTxva¡; da jer-ars, ra¡Ta qarTulad

werilsa aRmoikiTxviden da gulis£ma-hyofden aRwerilsa gansazRvrebulsa

amas Sina tipikonsa. xolo simtkicisa qonebad ubrZanebT ber-

Zulsa werilsa, rameTu dasasrulsa saqmisasa quemo werili mas upyries”

(SaniZe 1986: 119-120).


16 waxnagi 1.2009

la harmoniuli. nacionalurenovani eklesiebis, maT

Soris qarTulis, mxridan es garkveul ambivalentur 5

damokidebulebas ayalibebda: erTi mxriv, berZnulisgan

mkafio gamijvna, sakuTari TviTmyofadobis dacva,

da, meore mxriv, Tanamonawileoba im universalur religiur

erTobaSi, romlis simboloc iyo berZnuli,

rogorc es giorgi merCulis cnobil definiciaSia:

“k¢rileisoni”, romelic, qarTul enaze Sesrulebuli

yvela danarCeni locvisgan gansxvavebiT, “berZnulad

iTqumis” 6 .

am ambivalenturi damokidebulebis aSkara gamoxatulebaa

“iovanes da eqvTimes cxovrebis”, “giorgi mTawmidlis

cxovrebis”, aTonuri aqtebis uamravi epizodi,

romlebSic TiTqmis erTi da imave sityvebiT, toposebad

qceuli frazebiT aris aRwerili rogorc religiuri

erTobisadmi mikuTvnebulobis, aseve saeklesio

da kulturuli damoukidebulobis SenarCunebis survili.

am ukanasknelis mTavari sayrdeni iyo qarTul enaze

samwerlobo tradiciis Camoyalibeba, ris gamoc qarTulenovani

teqstebi, ufro zustad, qarTulad naTargmni

literatura 7 , xSirad xdeboda berZenTa samizne. cnobilia,

rom arc erTi berZeni ar swavlobda araelinizebuli

xalxebis enebs 8 . Sua saukuneebi naklebad icnobs poliglot

berZens, gansxvavebiT poligloti sirielis,

somxis, koptis an qarTvelisagan. magram enobrivi barieri,

anu aRmosavleTis xalxTa enebis arcodna, sulac

ar uSlida berZnebs xels, “daewunebinaT” es Targmanebi

uzustobisa da araadekvaturobis sababiT (“gamouZiebelad

dawerisaT¢s sityuaTa¡sa“ 9 ), rogorc amas xSirad

aRniSnaven aTonelebi: “T¢Toeulad arca Tu SesaZlebel

ars yovlisave warmoTquma¡, ravdenni ginebani, ravdenni

Seuracxebani da yuedrebani moiweodes maT mier Cuen

zeda […] da mwvalebelad xadiTa Seiwrebulni didsa urvasa

Sina viyveniT” 10 .

es aris toposi, romelic TiTqmis ucvlelad meordeba

aTonur ZeglebSi da mogviTxrobs berZenTa da qarTvelTa

5.

Sdr. Boeder 1993: 88.

6.

grigol xanZTelis cxovreba, ix. Мерчул 1911: 49.

7.

aRmosavleT qristianuli samyaros nacionalur enaTa istoriis pirvel

etaps samarTlianad uwodeben mTargmnelobiTi saqmianobis istorias, pirveli

werilobiTi Zeglebi am enebze swored Targmanebia. ix. Keipert 1981: 67-112.

8.

Sdr. Boeder 1983: 87.

9.

abulaZe 1950: 030.

10.

javaxiSvili 1946: 52.


narkvevi 17

winaaRmdegobebis Sesaxeb 11 . gaorebuli damokidebuleba

aSkaraa: qarTvelebi cdiloben, frTxilad gamoTqvan

sayveduri, konkretul pirovnebebs, “vinme svimeonwmidelebs”,

daukavSiron “ginebani” da “Seuracxebani”, xolo

sazogadod berZnebis mimarT ki mowafeobrivi pativiscema

da maTi “mimdgomoba” gamoxaton 12 .

amgvari winaaRmdegobebi romc ar arsebuliyo qarTvelebsa

da berZnebs Soris, qarTvelebs unda “gamoegonebinaT”

kidec msgavsi ram erTian religiur sivrceSi

“wonasworobis” SesanarCuneblad, TviTmyofadobis dasacavad;

miT umetes, rom funqciurad ki iyo qarTuli

berZnulis toli, magram Tvisobrivad – ara. Aam toposebis

mizani iyo, araTanabar pirobebSi (Tvisobrivi

araTanabroba igulisxmeba) SeenarCunebina enaTa saur-

TierTo veli 13 qarTuli – berZnuli, romelic qarTvel

aTonelTa kulturuli da eTnikuri identobis yvelaze

“saimedo” niSani iyo 14 .

saberZneTis religiur-saganmanaTleblo centreb-

Si qarTuli enis damkvidrebas berZnulis gverdiT rom

Zalian didi mniSvneloba hqonda, amas kargad xedavdnen

11.

Sdr. “rameTu kacni vinme s¢meon-wmidelni SuriTa saeSmako¡Ta aRiZrnes

Cuen zeda da eneba, ra¡Tamca naTesavi Cueni ZiriTurT aRmofxurnes s¢meonwmidiT.

da ganizraxes gularZnilebiTa, ra¡Ta wmidasa amas da marTalsa

sarwmunoebasa Cuensa biwi ra¡me daswamon da esreTmca sruliad aRmogufxurnes

didebulisa amisgan lavrisa, pirveliTgan T¢T wmidisa s¢meonis

mier damk¢drebulni” (lolaSvili 1994: 213).

12.

Sdr. “marTlmadideblobisa Tquenisa mimdgomni varT da aRmasrulebelni

da mowafeni Cuen yovelni” (SaniZe 1986: 104).

13.

identobis Teoriis avtorebi gamoyofen sam safuZvels, romlebmac XVI

saukunidan dasavleTSi erovnuli cnobierebis Camoyalibebas Seuwyo xeli:

1. laTinursa da saero enebs Soris mimocvlis erTiani veli, 2. enis dafiqsirebis

axali saSualeba da amiT eris mudmivobis ideis safuZveli, 3. Zalauflebis

enebi, romlebic gansxvavdebodnen manamde arsebuli laTinuri

enisagan (andersoni 2005: 18). calke msjelobis sagania, Tu rogor yalibdeboda

erovnuli cnobierebis es safuZvlebi sul mcire 10-12 saukuniT adre

qristianul aRmosavleTSi; winamdebare statiaSi mxolod nawilobriv Sevexebi

am sakiTxebs.

14.

iseve, rogorc Sua saukuneebis dasavleli an aRmosavleli swavlulebi,

qarTveli aTonelebic orenovani moRvaweebi iyvnen. eqvTime aToneli werda

rogorc qarTulad, aseve berZnulad. magram orenovneba misTvis diglosias

(ix. Boeder 1983: 86), qarTulisa da berZnulis Tvisobriv diferencirebas,

ar niSnavda; piriqiT, qarTulic da berZnulic funqciuri TvalsazrisiT

misTvis Tanabari iyo: filosofiuri, Teologiuri Tu saliteraturo teqstebi

orive enaze iwereboda. amas ver vityviT Sua saukuneebis dasavleli

swavlulebis Sesaxeb, romelTaTvis laTinuri funqciuri TvalsazrisiT

maRal safexurze mdgomi ena iyo, Sesabamisad, laTinuris primati, universaluri

saeklesio enis “sakramentuli kulti” (Gerl 1985: 327-336, aq: gv. 327)

sagrZnoblad aferxebda adgilobrivi nacionaluri enebis emansipaciis

process.


18 waxnagi 1.2009

qarTveli mefeebi da xSirad politikuri TvalsazrisiT

arcTu momgebian nabijs dgamdnen swored erTian religiur

sivrceSi enaTa saurTierTo velis SesanarCuneblad.

am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa daviT

kuropalatis gadawyvetileba, barda skliarosTan

gamarjvebis Semdeg aTonze sakmaod arasaxarbielo winapirobiT

aeSenebina qarTvelTa monasteri. cnobilia,

rom keisris wyaloba – man qarTvelebs madlobis niSnad

“uboZa zemoni queyanani” – sakmaod mokle periodiT iyo

SemosazRvruli: qarTve lebs mxolod daviT kuropalatis

sicocxleSi hqondaT “zemoTa queyanaTa” gankargvis

ufleba. amis miuxedavad, daviT kuropalati aSenebs

aTonze lavras da intensiurad amzadebs axlad aSenebuli

taZrisTvis biblioTekas, qarTul skriptoriumebs

ukveTavs yvelaze mniSvnelovani qarTuli wignebis aslebs,

amzadebs cnobil saeklesio moRvaweebs, “fiCosan” mamebs,

mTargmnelebs da swavlulebs iq dasamkvidreblad 15 .

am konteqstSi bunebrivad Cndeba kiTxvebi: ratom iyo

mniSvnelovani aTonis lavrisTvis aseTi kulturulsaganmanaTleblo

fonis Seqmna? sxva skriptoriumebSi

sagangebod aTonis monastrisTvis wignebis momzadeba?

erTi SexedviT ucnauri wesis dadgena, rom aTonis

qarTul monastrSi mxolod qarTveli berebi yofiliyvnen

16 ? es sakiTxebi erTmniSvnelovnad scdeba samonastro

cxovrebis farglebs da aTonze qarTvelTa moRvaweobis,

qarTuli enis kulturuli da politikuri legitimaciis

mniSvnelovan safexurebs asaxavs. am kuTxiT

aTonelTa mTargmnelobiTi saqmianoba da mis mimarT daviT

kuropalatis damokidebuleba pirvelad cnobilma

qarTvelologma vinfrid boederma gaaanaliza 17 da igi

samarTlianad daukavSira qarTveli mefis politikur

interesebs. aTonis berZnuli da qarTuli xelnawere-

15.

es sakiTxebi yvelaze srulad ganxiluli aqvs elene metrevels Tavis monografiaSi

(metreveli 1996: 3-40).

16.

es wesi sagangebod aris dafiqsirebuli “iovanesa da efTvimes cxovrebaSi”.

Sdr. “ra¡Ta qarTvelni oden iyvnen monastrisa amis mkvidrni yovelni” (javaxiSvili

1946: 20).

17.

aTonis moRvaweTa saqmianobisadmi miZRvnil werilSi vinfrid boederi

wers: “Man sollte nicht dadurch täuschen lassen, dass es sich meist um Übersetzungen handelte,

denn in dieser Zeit hatte man einen anderen Begriff von Originalität. Georgische Übersetzungen

waren georgische Bücher. … Was bedeutete es also für David und die georgische Kirche georgische

Bücher zu haben? … Was auch immer dazu zu sagen haben, jedenfalls entsprach es seiner

auch den nationalen Interessen Davids, dass die Mönche auf dem Berge Athos durch ihre Bücher

„unsere Sprache und unser Land schmückten und zur Blute brachten“ (Boeder 1983:93).


narkvevi 19

bis anderZebis safuZvelze elene metrevelma damajereblad

aCvena, rom axali qarTulenovani mTargmnelobiTi

centris Seqmnas aTonze ara marto kulturuli, aramed

didi politikuri mniSvnelobac hqonda 18 . es interesi

yovelTvis xazgasmulia aTonur TxzulebebSi (Sdr.

eqvTimem “daatkbo ena¡ Cueni da eklesia¡”; maT “Seamkves

da aRayuaves ena¡ Cueni da queyana¡ TargmanebiTa wmida-

Ta werilTa¡Ta”) 19 .

ratom aniWebs mefe ase did mniSvnelobas berZnulidan

naTargmn wignebs 20 ? aTonelTa saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba,

enaTa erTian saurTierTo velSi qarTulis legitimacia,

qarTul enaze im literaturis gadmoReba, romliTac

ase mdidaria saberZneTisa da romis eklesiebi 21 , misTvis

saqarTvelos Zlierebisa da prestiJis niSani iyo 22 .

aqedan gamomdinare, bunebrivia, rom aTonis monasterSi

damkvidrebuli qarTveli berebi, “Coxosani

diplomatebi” 23 da mwignobrebi, sulac ar yofilan “uwyinari”

politikis (ara marto enobrivis) gamtareblebi da

berZeni keisrebis erTguli mokavSireebi. es kargad Cans

aTonis qarTuli monastris winamZRvarTa politikuri

da diplomatiuri saqmianobidan 24 , romelic aranakleb

18.

metreveli 1996.

19.

javaxiSvili 1946: 14, 28.

20.

Sdr. “iovanesa da eqvTimes cxovrebaSi” avtori sagangebod usvams xazs

mefis dainteresebas TargmanebiT. Sdr. “ety¢n mama¡ iovane, viTarmed:

Svilo Cemo,KqarTlisa queyana¡ didad naklulevan ars wignTagan da mravalni

wignni aklan, ...Aaw iRuawe, ra¡Ta ganamravlo sasyideli Seni Rmr-

Tisagan. da igi, viTarca iyo yovelsave zeda morCili, moswrafed Seudga

brZanebasa missa da iwyo Targmnad da yovelnive ganak¢rvna. ... da mravalni

wignni warscnis winaSe daviT kuropalatisa, romeli-igi, ixilna ra¡, vi-

Tarca iyo morwmune, sixaruliTa aRivso da adidebda RmerTsa da ityoda,

viTarmed: madli RmerTsa, romelman CuenTa amaT JamTa axali oqropiri

gamoaCina. da zeda¡s-zeda miuwern, ra¡Ta Targmnides da warscemdes. Dda

igi sanatreli Seusuenebelad Targmnin da ra¡TurTiT ara scemda gansuenebasa

Tavsa T¢ssa, aramed dRe da Rame tkbilsa mas Taflsa wignTa saRmrToTasa

Sureboda, romlisa mier daatkbo ena¡ Cueni da eklesia¡” (javaxiSvili

1946: 28).

21.

amas sagangebod aRniSnavs iovane aToneli eqvTimes mier naTargmni erT-erTi

Txzulebis SesavalSi: “xolo enasa amas Cuensa qarTulsa aravin sada povnil

iyo aqamomde, ra¡Tamca gamoexunnes wmidani ese wignni, Targmanebani wmidisa

saxarebisani, aramed saberZneTisa eklesiani da hromisani savse iyvnes amaTgan,

xolo Cuenisa mis queynisani – naklulevan, da ara ese oden wignni akldes

enasa Cuensa, aramed sxuanica mravalni” (SaniZe da sxv. 1996: 13).

22.

boederi 1998a: 68.

23.

metreveli 1996: 40.

24.

giorgi varazvaCesa da aTonis sxva moRvaweTa mravalmxrivi saqmianoba

aTonis berZnul-qarTuli aqtebisa da xelnawerTa anderZebis mixedviT monografiulad

Seiswavla elene metrevelma (metreveli 1996).


20 waxnagi 1.2009

intensiuri iyo, vidre maTi samonastro-mTargmnelobiTi

moRvaweoba. sabolood, qarTvelebma swored politikuri

sababiT dakarges aTonze saeklesio-saganmanaTleblo

saqmianobis ufleba 25 .

aTonuri cxovrebebis avtorebi, giorgi mTawmideli,

giorgi mcire, SemdgomSi – efrem mcire, qarTuli

da ucxoenovani wyaroebis moSveliebiT asabuTeben qar-

Tuli eklesiis damoukideblobisa da berZnulTan misi

kulturuli Tanasworobis calkeul sakiTxebs 26 ; giorgi

mcire STambeWdavad aRwers giorgi mTawmidlisa da

Tevdosi patriarqis Sexvedras, mogviTxrobs, Tu rogor

aRafrTovana naTesaviT qarTvelma berma patriarqi da

rogor aTqmevina es sityvebi: “patiosano mamao, [...] da

aha esera, gxedav mowyalebiTa RmrTisa¡Ta, rameTu naTesaviT

qarTveli xar, sx¢Ta kula yovliTa swavlulebiTa

sruliad berZeni xar” 27 .

“naTesaviT qarTveli da ganswavlulebiT sruliad

berZeni” – es iyo kulturuli Tanasworobis is safexuri,

romlis miRweva qarTvelebisTvis iqneboda enobrivi

saurTierTo velis: berZnuli – qarTuli SenarCunebisa

da sakmaod arasasurveli iarliyis 28 ()

CamoSorebis garanti. am mizniT XI saukuneSi qarTvelma

berebma sagangebod Seadgines ucxoenovani wyaroebis

kompendiumi, romelSic Tavi mouyares qarTuli eklesiis,

rogorc damoukidebeli saydris, uflebaTa amsaxvel

ucxoenovan dokumentebs. amis magaliTad SeiZleba

davasaxeloT efrem mciris “uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa

moqcevisasa, Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moi£senebis” 29 . Txzulebis

SesavalSi efrem mcire vrclad saubrobs kompendiumis

mizanze: “weriT daidvas mosa£senebeli”, rom

swored pirvelma mociqulebma iqadages saqarTveloSi

qristianoba da, amdenad, legitimuria Cveni eklesiis

damoukidebloba da rom am wyaroebis avtorebi cnobi-

25.

amis Sesaxeb ix. metreveli 1996: 3-106.

26.

Sdr. epizodi giorgi mTawmidlis cxovrebidan, roca giorgi mTawmindeli

SeekamaTeba Tevdosi patriarqs da Seaxsenebs im argumentebs, romelTa

gaTvaliswinebiT sruliad legitimuria qarTuli eklesiis damoukidebloba:

“ho¡ wmidao meufeo, [...], xolo Cuen pirvelwodebulisa da Zmisa T¢sisa

mwodebelisa nawilni varT da samwysoni da mis mier moqceulni da ganaTlebulni;

da erTi wmidaTa aTormetTa mociqulTagani – simons vity¢ kananelsa

– queyanasa Cuensa damarxul ars afxazeTs, romelsa nikofsi ewodebis. amaT

wmidaTa mociqulTa ganaTlebulni varT” (lolaSvili 1994: 215).

27.

lolaSvili 1994:195.

28.

Sdr. Boeder: 1983: 87; doborjginiZe 2007b: 92-100.

29.

bregaZe 1959: 3.


narkvevi 21

li da sando istorikosebi (Teodorite, epifane, atioqiuri

xronografis avtori da a.S.) arian.

amgvari TavdacviTi tendenciebi cxadyofs, rom funqciuri

Tanasworoba ukve aRar aris sakmarisi sabuTi, ber-

ZenTa yvedreba mZimea da misi lokalizeba, konkretul

adamianebze gadatana, rogorc es aTonuri teqstebis

magaliTze vnaxeT, veRar xerxdeba. berZenTa pretenziebi

qarTuli Targmanebis misamarTiT zogadTeologiur

xasiaTs iZens: qarTvelebi RvTis sityvas amaxinjeben,

vinaidan maT Rarib enas, filosofiasa da ritorikaSi

gawafuli berZnulisgan gansxvavebiT, ar SeuZlia adekvaturad

gamoxatos urTulesi Teologiuri Sinaarsi.

sxvaTa Soris, arc qarTvelebi uaryofdnen, rom “ber-

Zuli ena ufskrul Rrma ars”, xolo qarTuli ki – uRono,

Raribi, romelsac ar SeuZlia ganarCios da asaxos

berZnulis es siRrme. ar uaryofdnen, rom maTi Targmanebi

bevr uzustobas, gaugebrobas Seicavs (rogorc

giorgi mcire ambobs: “xolo Cuen, romelni-ese barbaros-wodebul

viyveniT elenTa mier uswavlelobisaT¢s

da umecrebisa Cuenisa”) 30 . qarTvelebi aRiarebdnen, rom

maTi enis semantikuri da stiluri potenciali berZnulisas

bevrad Camouvardeboda 31 . qarTveli mTargmnelredaqtorebi

wuxan, rom bevri berZnuli filosofiur-

Teologiuri terminis qarTuli Sesatyvisi zusti

da myari ar aris, qarTveli mTargmnelebi sxvadasxva

termins “erTad da sworad ityvian” 32 . wmida werilisa

Tu sxva Teologiuri teqstebis Targmnisas ki aseTi

uzustoba da Sesatyvisis TviTneburad SerCeva yovlad

dauSvebelia.

amrigad, funqciuri Tanasworobis pirobebSi TargmanTan

dakavSirebul or seriozul problemas, enis si­

Raribes da eresis safrTxes, “guayuedrian” berZenni

30.

lolaSvili 1994: 190.

31.

Sdr. “Seiswave, rameTu orsaxe ars berZulad saxeli sulisa¡: fsiqi, romeli

umetessa adgilsa samS¢nvelisa wil dadebul ars pavlesa Sina, da kualad

– pnevma, romeli-ese T¢T Tavadis sulisa arsebasa uwodian da wmidisaT¢s

igive iTqumis. xolo qarTvelTa uRonoebisagan erTi saxeli aqus sulisa¡”

(xeln. A. 217, 322r).

32.

Sdr. iovane petriwi wuxs, rom qarTuli samecniero terminologia arazustia:

“kualad yovelTave ellinTa enamzeobaTa zeda T¢si saxeli hq¢an,

Sesabami T¢sisa arsebisa¡. xolo CuenTaman arca TargmanTa, arca sxuaman vin

dasWuritna, da aw me uzomod miSlis Targmansa Sina, rameTu yovelsave er-

Tad da sworad ity¢an da dasdeben Cuenni. xolo aw ismine, rameTu sulisasa

ewodebis dian¢a¡, xolo gonebisasa noima¡, xolo gasagonsa da zesTamdebaresa

– noitoni” (yauxCiSvili 1940: 6). amis Sesaxeb ix. doborjginiZe 2007a.


22 waxnagi 1.2009

da qarTvelebic aRiareben, rom am sayvedurs realuri

safuZveli aqvs 33 .

2. Tvisobrivi legitimacia

am sirTuleebis daZlevis, qarTul TargmanTa berZnul

originalTan maqsimaluri daaxloebisa da terminologiis

daxvewis mcdelobiT qarTuli ena istoriuli ganvi-

Tarebis axali safexurze gadadis: berZnulTan Tvisobrivi

gatoleba, Tvisobrivi legitimacia.

XI saukunis II naxevarsa da XII saukunis dasawyisSi,

drois am SedarebiT mokle monakveTSi, samgzis xelaxla

iTargmna an safuZvlianad gadamuSavda biblia da Ziri-

Tadi Teologiuri literatura, zogierTi wigni – oTx

da xuTgzisac; es maSin, roca am periodSi qarTuls sulac

ar ganucdia eqstremaluri cvlilebebi, rom Targmanis

enobrivad ganaxleba gamxdariyo saWiro 34 . xelaxla

Targmnis erT-erTi mTavari mizezi swored original-

Tan maqsimaluri daaxloeba, terminologiis daxvewa,

enis gamomxatvelobiTi saSualebebis gamdidreba iyo.

es sakiTxebi dawvrilebiT aris Seswavlili qarTul samecniero

literaturaSi 35 da me sagangebod aRar SevCerdebi.

rogorc zemoT vaxsene, adgilobrivi nacionaluri

enis funqciuri damkvidrebisa da SemdgomSi berZnulTan

Tvisobrivi Tanasworobis idea aRmosavleT qristianobis

enaTa saerTo niSania. igi siriuli tradiciidan iRebs

saTaves 36 . II-III saukuneeSi Sesrulebuli bibliis uZvelesi

siriuli Targmani (Vetus Syriaca) 507-508 wels filoqsene

mabugelma safuZvlianad gadaamuSava da dauaxlova

berZnul originals, ufro sworad, axali redaqcia Seqmna;

Targmanze darTul komentarebSi igi gulistkiviliT

aRniSnavs, rom siriuli naklebad gavarjiSebuli

enaa da ar SeuZlia adekvaturad gamoxatos berZnuli

33.

nacionalur enaze liturgiis, bibliis Targmanebis, da saerTod, Teologiuri

literaturis sawinaaRmdego es argumentebi saerToregionuli

xasiaTisaa da Tanabrad miemarTeba aRmosavleT qristianobis adgilobriv

enebs (Sdr. doborjginiZe 2007g: 145-163).

34.

Sdr. danelia 1983: 209-286.

35.

ix. danelia 1983; meliqiSvili 1975; meliqiSvili 1984: 106-120; meliqiSvili

1986: 213-245, meliqiSvili 1993a: 6-24; meliqiSvili 1993b: 5-25; meliqiSvili

1999a; bezaraSvili 2004; oTxmezuri 2005; meliqiSvili 1999b: 149-

164; TvalTvaZe 1997; doborjginiZe 2007a: 161-176; Doborjginidze 2008: 193-212.

36.

boederi 1998: 62.


narkvevi 23

terminologiis precizuloba. mas mohyavs magaliTebi

efrem asuris Txzulebebidan da berZnulTan Sedarebis

gziT aCvenebs, ramdenad arazustia siriuli terminologia

37 . 616 wels Toma harkelma biblia xelaxla Targmna

siriulad da igi kidev ufro dauaxlova berZnuls 38 .

am Targmans axlavs SesaniSnavi filologiuri aparati,

sqolioebi, romlebSic mTargmneli saTiTaod ganmartavs

yvela SemTxvevas, sadac ki teqsts cvlis, vrclad saubrobs

xelaxali Targmanis umTavresi miznis, berZnul

originalTan maqsimaluri daaxloebisa da terminologiis

dazustebis Sesaxeb 39 .

gansxvavebuli iyo am saerToaRmosavluri procesis

qronologiuri CarCo; Tu siriaSi VI saukuneSi daiwyo

Targmanebis revizia berZnulTan daaxloebisa da terminologiis

daxvewis mizniT, qarTul mTargmnelobiT

tradiciaSi es procesebi mogvianebiT, X saukunidan,

iwyeba da mTavrdeba gelaTis saliteraturo skola-

Si bibliis teqstis safuZvliani reviziiT 40 . amave periods

emTxveva sxvadasxva teqsturi fenebis Semcveli

somxuri bibliis berZnulis mixedviT redaqtireba. es

procesi dasrulda XII saukuneSi, roca somexma episkoposma

nersem somxuri bibliis axali, berZnul teqstTan

maqsimalurad daaxloebuli redaqcia SeimuSava 41 . mogvianebiT,

XIV saukuneSi, eqvTime patriarqis TaosnobiT

daiwyo e.w. “wignebis Sesworeba” (исправление книг) mTel

slavur samyaroSi. 1355 wels moskovis mitropolitma

aleqsim safuZvlianad gadaamuSava aRmosavleT slavur

eklesiebSi gavrcelebuli Targmanebi da maqsimalurad

dauaxlova berZnuls. eqvTime patriarqma bulgarul da,

saerTod, samxreT slavur sivrceSi gavrcelebuli Targmanebi

gadaamuSava da dauaxlova berZnuls.

amrigad, SedarebiT Raribi saliteraturo tradiciebis

mqone nacionaluri enebis misamarTiT gamoTqmuli

sayvedurebi (enis siRaribe, eresis safrTxe) iqca

swored am enebis gamomxatvelobiT saSualebaTa gamdidrebis,

samecniero terminologiis Seqmnis, Targmanebis

daxvewisa da sabolood berZnulTan maTi Rirseuli metoqeobis

winapirobad.

37.

amis Sesaxeb ix. Brock 1982: 20.

38.

bibliis siriuli redaqciebis Sesaxeb ix. Brock 1980: 181-189.

39.

Zuntz 1951: 174-196.

40.

amis Sesaxeb ix. damana meliqiSvilis zemoTdasaxelebuli naSromebi.

41.

Hannick 1980: 200-201.


24 waxnagi 1.2009

am TvalsazrisiT metad sainteresoa, rom aRmosavleTis

nacionalur enaTa ganviTarebis modelis dasavlurTan

Sedareba 42 moulodnel msgavsebas aCvenebs: nacionalur

enaze Sesrulebuli Targmanebis sawinaaRmdego argumentebi

(enis siRaribe, eresis safrTxe) 43 TiTqmis erTnairia

sociolingvisturi TvalsazrisiT erTmaneTisgan radikalurad

gansxvavebul am or religiur samyaroSi. erTnairia

nacionaluri enis damokidebulebac aRmosavleTSi

– berZnulisa da dasavleTSi laTinuris mimarT: qarTvelebic

aRiareben, rom berZnuli “ufskrul Rrma ars” 44 da

qarTuli ki Raribi da “uRono” enaa, magram mkveTrad gansxvavebulia

is Sedegebi, romlebic am msgavsi argumentebis

safuZvelze enebis mimarT wayenebuli moTxovnebis,

zog SemTxvevaSi akrZalvebis “gatarebas”, “Sesrulebas”

axlda Tan: dasavleTis eklesiaSi am akrZalvebma sagrZnoblad

Seaferxa nacionaluri enebis emansipaciis procesi,

maTi qceva samwerlo enebad, Sesabamisad, mtkice safuZveli

Seuqmna laTinuri enis primats. rac Seexeba aRmosavleTs,

aq enis siRaribisa da eresis safrTxis argumentebma araTu

Seaferxa, piriqiT, sxva mizezebTan erTad, yvelaze metad

daaCqara adgilobrivi nacionaluri enis emansipaciis procesi.

rogorc qarTulis magaliTze vnaxeT, swored es argumentebi

iqca mastimulirebel faqtorad, raTa Raribi qar-

Tuli ena “gonierTa xedvaTa mommarjue“ 45 (iovane petriwi)

berZnuls gatoleboda.

Sua saukuneebSi es procesi dasrulda qarTuli enis ormagi

legitimaciiT: erTi mxriv, politikuri legitimacia

nacionaluri istoriis rekonstruqciiT (leonti mroveli)

da, meore mxriv, religiuri legitimacia e. w. “wminda istoriaSi”

qarTulisTvis “Rirseuli” adgilis gamoZebniT

42.

amis Sesaxeb ix. Doborjginidze 2003a :154-174; Doborjginidze 2003b: 111-136; doborjginiZe

2007a: 161-176.

43.

Sdr. “da bolos, ra unda vTqvaT wminda wignebisa da saeklesio kanonebis

Sesaxeb [igulisxmeba maTi Targmani nacionalur enaze]? [...] ra unda vTqvaT

danarCeni mecnierebebis Sesaxeb? [...] unda vaRiaroT, rom Cveni enis siRaribe

amis saSualebas ar iZleva; amitom gardauvalia, rom isini an axal ucnob

sityvebs gamoigoneben, an, Tu Zvel, tradiciul gamoTqmebs gamoiyeneben,

WeSmarit mniSvnelobas Seryvnian. wminda werilis SemTxvevaSi ki Cven gansakuTrebiT

gveSinia amgvari ramis. vin daexmareba mrevls, gaunaTlebel

adamianebs da qalebs, romelTa xelSi es Targmanebi moxvdeba, rom masSi WeSmariti

codna (Semecneba) dainaxon” (nawyveti sacenzuro ediqtis teqstidan

motanilia Semdegi gamocemis mixedviT: Pallmann 1884: 238-241).

44.

abulaZe 1950: 029.

45.

Sdr. “moved da ellenTave enadReobasa uvabadoT, mommarjusa gonierTa

xedvaTasa” (yauxCiSvili 1940: 107).


narkvevi 25

(iovane zosime). es Sejibrebis, gatolebis tendencia, cxadia,

Sua saukuneebisTvis tipuri argumentaciiT, erovnuli

cnobierebis mniSvnelovan safuZvlad aris miCneuli da

simbolurad swored enasTan mimarTebaSi aisaxeba yvelaze

xelSesaxebad. “gonierTa xedvaTa mommarjve” berZnulTan

funqciuri da Tvisobrivi gaTanabrebis tendencia, qarTulisaTvis

prominentul enaTa badali argumentebis gamoZebna

Tu sakuTar istoriul warsulSi vera, esqatologiur

momavalSi mainc, rogorc amas iovane zosime cdilobs 46 ,

anu, politikuri da religiuri legitimacia, berZnulTan

erTiani saurTierTo sivrcis SenarCuneba kulturul, religiur,

da, saerTod, saxelmwifoebrivi cxovrebis yvela

sferoSi, nacionaluri enisTvis yvela im atributis “mopoveba”,

romlebic mis “metoqe” prominentul berZnuls aqvs,

aris swored erovnuli cnobierebis is safuZvlebi, romlebic

Sua saukuneebis qarTulma Seqmna.

es ormagi legitimacia aris is ori diskursi, romlebic

enasTan am enis matareblis, ufro sworad, teqstebis

avtoris, istoriulad dadasturebul konceptualizaciebs

Seesabameba; maTgan erTi diskursi ufro politikuri

xasiaTisaa, meore _ ufro Teologiuri. orive

SemTxvevaSi religiuri teqstebi emsaxureba identobis

gansazRvras da enis legitimacias, Tumca maT Soris

sxvaoba mainc aris: istoriografebis politikuri interesi

ukavSirdeba qarTul saxelmwifoSi qarTuli

enis specifikur da cvalebad poziciebs (ase SeiZleba

avxsnaT leonti mrovelis monaTxrobi universaluri,

regionaluri da nacionaluri istoriis konceptebis

Sesaxeb), Teologiuri diskursi ki _ iseT sakiTxebs,

romlebic konkretuli enis farglebs scildeba da ufro

zogadlingvisturi xasiaTisaa (magaliTad, religiuri

teqstebis TargmnasTan dakavSirebuli lingvisturi

sakiTxebi, bibliis, rogorc inspirirebuli teqstis

Targmnis problemebi da a.S.). am TvalsazrisiT Zveli

qarTuli wyaroebi masala naklebadaa Seswavlili, _

vgulisxmob qarTvel mTargmnelTa enobriv TviTSegnebas

da maT motivacias, romelsac garkveulwilad politikuri

safuZvelic hqonda.

marTalia, nacionaluri identobis ganmsazRvreli

kulturuli safuZvlebi Sua saukuneebis aRmosavleTSi

ar dagvirgvinebula naciebis dabadebiT, rogorc es ra-

46.

iovane zosimes himnis interpretaciis Sesaxeb aRmosavleT qristianuli

literaturis konteqstSi ix. doborjginiZe 2007b: 92-100.


26 waxnagi 1.2009

mdenime saukuniT gvian moxda dasavleTSi, magram isini

aranakleb STambeWdavia, vidre nacionalizmis Teoretikosebis

47 mier aRwerili safuZvlebi.

damowmebani

abulaZe 1950 – saqme mociqulTa, Zveli xelnawerebis mixedviT gamosca

ilia abulaZem (= Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi, 7), Tb., 1950.

andersoni 2005 – andersoni benediqt, “warmosaxviTi sazogadoebebi”,

ena da kultura, 5, Tb., 2005.

bezaraSvili 2004 – bezaraSvili qeTevan, ritorikisa da Targmanis

Teoria da praqtika grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa

qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT, Tb., 2004.

bregaZe 1959 – efrem mcire, uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa,

Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moi£senebis, teqsti gamosca, Sesavali

da leqsikon-saZieblebi daurTo Tamar bregaZem, Tb., 1959.

Boeder 1983 – Boeder Winfried, “Die georgischen Mönche auf dem Berge Athos und

die Geschichte der georgischen Schriftsprache”, Bedi Kartlisa: Revue de Kartvélologie,

41, pp. 85-95, Paris, 1983.

Boeder 1998 – Boeder Winfried, “Sprache und Identität in der Geschichte der Georgier”,

B. Schrade - Th. Ahbe (edd.), Georgien im Spiegel seiner Kultur und Geschichte,

Zweites Deutsch-Georgisches Symposium: Vortragstexte, Berlin 1998,

pp. 68-81.

boederi 1998a – boederi vinfrid, “ena da vinaoba qarTvelTa istoriaSi”,

qarTvelur enaTa struqturis sakiTxebi, VII, Tb.,

1998, gv. 60-81.

Brock 1980 – Brock Sebastian, “Bibelübersetzungen: Die Übersetzungen ins Syrische”,

Theologische Realenzyklopädie. In Gemeinschaft mit Horst Balz [...] hrsg.

von Gerhard Müller, Band 6, pp. 181-189, Berlin, 1980.

Brock 1982 – Brock Sebastian, “From Antagonism to assimilation: Syriac attitudes to

Greek learning”, Nina G. Garsoian - Thomas F. Matthews - Robert W. Thomson

(edd.): East of Byzantium: Syria and Armenia in the Formation Period, Washington,

pp. 17-34.

gelneri 2004 – gelneri ernst, erebi da nacionalizmi, Tbilisi

2004.

Gerl 1985 – Gerl Hanna-Barbara, “Zwischen faktischer und numinoser Gültigkeit: Lorenzo

Vallas Theorie vom Vorrang der lateinischen Sprache”, Richard J. Schoeck

(ed.), Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Bononiensis, New-York, 1985, pp. 327-336.

danelia 1983 – danelia korneli, qarTuli samwerlo enis istoriis

sakiTxebi, Tb., 1983.

Doborjginidze 2003a – Doborjginidze Nino, “Einige Fragestellungen der Volksspra-

47.

gelneri 2004; andersoni 2005.


narkvevi 27

chenemanzipation im östlichen Christentum des Mittelalters”, Oriens Christianus,

87, Wiesbaden, 2003, pp. 149-170.

Doborjginidze 2003b – Doborjginidze Nino, “Die Argumente gegen die Bibelübersetzung

in die Volkssprache und ihre Nachwirkung auf die Entwicklung des

Georgischen in den 10.-12. Jh.”, Winfried Boeder (ed.): Kaukasische Sprachproblem:

Beiträge zu den Kaukasistentagungen in Oldenburg 1995-2001 (= Caucasica

Oldenburgensia 1), Oldenburg, 2003, pp. 119-140.

doborjginiZe 2007a – doborjginiZe nino, “berZnul-bizantiuri

samyaro da xalxur enaTa emansipaciis sakiTxebi”, bizantinologia

saqarTveloSi: bizantinologTa saerTaSoriso simpoziumis

moxsenebebi, Tb., 2007, gv. 161-176.

doborjginiZe 2007b – doborjginiZe nino, “«qeba¡ da dideba¡

qarTulisa enisa¡» qristianuli aRmosavleTis saxotbo

poeziis konteqstSi”, semiotika, 1, Tb., 2007, gv. 92-100.

doborjginiZe 2007g – doborjginiZe nino, “TargmanTan dakavSirebuli

problemebis funqcionalizacia sxvadasxva enaSi”, semiotika,

2, Tb., 2007, gv. 145-163.

Doborjginidze 2008 – Doborjginidze Nino, “Einige Fragestellungen zur Herausbildung

von Schriftsprachen im christlichen Osten am am Beispiel des Georgischen”,

Le Muséon: Revue d’ Études Orientales, Louvain 2008: 193-212.

TvalTvaZe 1997 – TvalTvaZe darejan, efrem mcire – bizantiuri

mwerlobis komentatori (sadisertacio naSromi), Tb., 1997.

Keipert 1981 – Keipert Helmut, “Russische Sprachgeschichte als Übersetzungsgeschichte”,

Slavische Linguistik, 198: Referate des VII Konstanzer Slavistischen

Arbeitstreffens, Mainz 30.9-2.10. 1981, Hrsg. v. Wolfgang Girke (= Slavische

Beiträge, 160), München, pp. 67-112.

kekeliZe 1980 – kekeliZe korneli, Zveli qarTuli literaturis

istoria, tomi I, Tb., 1980.

Kurz 1894 – Kurz Eduard, “Das Typikon des heiligen Saba”, Byzantinische Zeitschrift,

3, Berlin, 1894, pp. 165-167.

lolaSvili 1994 – giorgi mcire, cxovreba giorgi mTawmidelisa,

teqsti gamokvleviTa da leqsikoniTurT gamosacemad moamzada

ivane lolaSvilma, Tb., 1994.

meliqiSvili 1975 – meliqiSvili damana, ioane petriwis filosofiur

SromaTa ena da stili , Tb., 1975.

meliqiSvili 1984 – meliqiSvili damana, “Zveli qarTuli logikuri

terminologiidan”, Zveli qarTuli enis Sromebi, 25,

Tb., 1984, gv. 106-120.

meliqiSvili 1988 – meliqiSvili damana, gelaTis saliteraturo

skola da qarTuli filosofiuri enis ganviTarebis gzebi

(sadisertacio naSromi), Tb., 1988.

meliqiSvili 1993 – meliqiSvili damana, “gelaTis samonastroliterasturuli

skola: ZiriTadi mimarTuleba da saazrovnoliteraturuli

interesebi”, quTaisis universitetis moambe,


28 waxnagi 1.2009

1, quTaisi, 1993, gv. 6-24; quTaisis universitetis moambe, 2, qu-

Taisi, 1993, gv. 5-25.

meliqiSvili 1999a – meliqiSvili damana, Zveli qarTuli filisofiur-Teologiuri

terminologiis istoriidan, Tbilisi,

1999.

meliqiSvili 1999b – meliqiSvili nino, grigol nazianzelis 16

homiletikuri sityvis efrem mciriseuli Targmani, macne: enisa

da literaturis seria, 1-4, Tb., 1999, gv. 149-164.

Мерчул 1911 – Мерчул Гиоргий, Житие святого Григория Хандзтийского (=

Тексты и разыскания по армяно-грузинской филологии, 7), Санкт-Петербург,

1911.

metreveli 1996 – metreveli elene, aTonis kulturul-saganmanaTleblo

keris istoriidan, Tb., 1996.

oTxmezuri 2005 – oTxmezuri Tamar, grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa

komentarebi qarTul mTargmnelobiT tradiciaSi (sadisertacio

naSromi), Tb., 2005.

Pallmann 1884 – Pallmann Heinrich, “Des Erzbischofs Berthold von Mainz ältestes

Zensuredict”, Archiv für Geschichte des Deutschen Buchhandels, 9, pp. 238-241,

Leiptzig, 1884.

SaniZe 1986 – SaniZe akaki, qarTvelTa monasteri bulgareTSi da

misi tipikoni: tipikonis qarTuli redaqcia (= akaki SaniZe, Txzulebani

Tormet tomad, t. IX), Tb., 1986.

SaniZe da sxv. 1996 – iovane oqropiri, Targmaneba¡ maTes saxarebisa¡:

eqvTime aToneliseuli Targmani, teqsti uZvelesi xelnawerebis

mixedviT gamosacemad moamzades lela aleqsiZem,

lili basilaiam, nino doborjginiZem, darejan TvalTvaZem,

manana maCxanelma, lela niJaraZem, zurab sarjvelaZem, nino SaraSeniZem,

Tamar cofuraSvilma, mzeqala SaniZis redaqciiT,

Tb., 1996.

yauxCiSvili 1940 – ioane petriwis Sromebi, tomi I: prokle diadoxosisa

platonurisa filosofiisa kavSirni, qarTuli teqsti

gamosca da gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo simon yauxCiSvilma,

Tb., 1940.

Zuntz 1951 – Zuntz, Günter, “Die Subscriptionen der Syra Harclensis”, Zeitschrift

der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 101, 174-196, Wiesbaden, 1951.

javaxiSvili 1946 – giorgi mTawmideli, cxoreba¡ iovanesi da

efT¢mesi, teqsti gamosacemad daamzada ivane javaxiSvilma

(=Zveli qarTuli enis Zeglebi, 3), Tb., 1946.

Hannick 1980 – Hannick Christian, “Bibelübersetzungen. Die Übersetzungen ins Armenische”,

Theologische Realenzyklopädie, In Gemeinschaft mit Horst Balz [...]

hrsg. von Gerhard Müller, Band 6, Berlin, 1980, pp. 200-201.


narkvevi 29

Nino Doborjginidze

The Problems of Functional and Quantitative Legitimation

of the Georgian Language in the Middle Ages

The presented article touches upon the problem of the processes of development

of local vernacular language as a standard language. The topics of

functional and qualitative legitimization of local languages of Eastern Christian

World are discussed in the work. The role of convertion of these Eastern

people into Christianity on their native language is studied for revealing the

wider functional spheres of these languages. The relation of local language

to the universal language of religion spread in Eastern Christian world is

issued in the article. The old Georgian sources, namely, the commentaries

and scholia connected with the translation activities are analyzed. According

to these data, on the one hand, we may speak about the idea of equality of

the languages spread in this religious sphere; on the other hand we may discuss

the relation of the local language, namely, of Georgian language, to the

so-called sacred languages, especially, to the Greek language. The concrete

problems connected with the process of emancipation of Georgian language

are studied in the context of typological parallels of different traditions.


Suqia afridoniZe

poeturi mimarTva qarTul poeziaSi

I. Sesavali: mimarTvis cnebisa da klasifikaciisaTvis

mimarTva di a lo guri (an dialogizebuli) metyvelebis

organuli da aq ti u ri ko mponentia. lingvistikaSi igi

ZiriTa dad si n taqsis Ses wa v lis sagnad gvevlineba. am cnebis

(da, Sesabamisad, terminis) li n g vi s tu ri ganmarteba didi

mravalferov ne biT ar ga mo i r Ce va: dro iTs, sivrcobrivsa Tu

enobriv sxvaobebs mis de fi ni cia ze xelSesa xebi gavlena ar

mouxdenia. ami tom en ciklo pe di u ri, wminda aka de mi u ri Tu

saswavlo xa siaTis ga n ma r tebebi TiTqmis em T x ve va erT ma neTs.

es aris gra ma ti ku lad damoukide beli da in to na ci u rad

gankerZoebu li sityva (ufro zustad _ saxeli. S.a.) an si t­

y vaTa jgu fi, ro m li Tac aRi ni S ne ba gamo na T q va mis ad re sati

_ pi ri an sa ga ni (leqsikoni 1990: 340-1; axmanova 1969: 276).

am zogad ga n ma r tebas qarTuli enis ko n te q sti er Ti detaliT

gana v r cobs: migviniSnebs mi ma r Tvis aRm ni Svneli saxelis

wo de biT fo rmas (qe 2008: 323), romelic saqarTvelos yvela

saxis saswavlebelTa qarTuli enis sa xe l m Z R va ne lo ebSi wode

bi Ti brun vis saxeliTaa cno bi li (Sa ni Ze 1973: 45-6; kva WaZe

1977: 81-91), Tu m ca naxevar saukuneze meti xnis winaT aka demiur

wreebSi gaCnda sxva mo sa z re bac da al te r na tiul te r mi nad

SemoTavazebul iqna mi ma r T vis fo rma (Ci qo ba va 1950; To furia

1956). am kva li fikacias im xa nad spe ci alur lite ra turaSi

mwva ve kamaTi mohy va, rac mo g vi a ne biT ai sa xa kidec sa xe lis

bru ne bis saki T xe bi sadmi mi Z R vnil sa ga n ge bo kre bu lSi (sbiqe

1956: 36-47; 67-68). am konteqstSi sa i n te re soa, rom bro k ha u-

zis en ci k lo pe di a Sic (brokhauzi 1894) da zo gi erT mog vi ano

mono g ra fiaSic (proniCevi 1971; finki 1972) ga mo T q mu lia eW vi

am bru nvis (da ara formis) ufle ba mo si le bis Se sa xeb 1 .

1.

analogiuri azrisaken ixreba am stri qonebis avtoric (af ri do ni Ze 2001:

19-23).

30


narkvevi 31

xsenebul kamaTs aRar davubrundebiT. aRvniSnavT mxolod,

rom yve la SemTxvevaSi sintaqsur mimarTvad igu lis

x me ba gankerZo ebiT mdgo mi sa xe li _ imis miuxedavad, markirebulia

igi specia luri bru nvis ni S niT (magaliTad,

Zveli be r Z nu li sa da laTinuris mam ro bi Ti sqe sis sa xe le b-

Si Se sa ba mi sad -ɛ, -e, xolo qa r Tu lSi -o, -v), Tu uni S no nominativiTaa

wa r mo d ge ni li (rogorc es gvaqvs co c xal in -

do ev ro pu l, Tu r qu l da a.S. enaTa um ravlesobaSi).

magram mi ma r T vis realurma funqcionirebam stimuli

misca am cne biTi Sinaarsis re i n te r p re tacias misi gafar-

Toebis mimarTu le biT; meore mxriv, mimar T ve bis diferencirebuli

intenciisa da Se sabamisi mo da lo bis gaT va li s-

wi ne bam moiTxova saTanado stru q tu rul-se ma n ti ku ri klasi

fi ka ciac. amis safuZvelze wodebi Ti, anu saxe la di mi mar

T va erT-erT (Tu m ca fa r Tod gavrce le bu l) sa xe obad iq na

mi Cneuli da mas vo katiuri (< vocative) mima r T va ewo da; mis

gve r diT ga moiyo zmnu ri mimarTvis fo r ma _ im pe ra ti u li

(< im pe ra ti ve), anu brZa ne biTi mimarTva da agreTve erT-er Ti

yve la ze xSi rad xma rebuli in te ro ga ti u li (< in te r ro ga tive),

anu ki T x vi Ti mi ma r T va. calke jgufi Seadgina Sesityvebis

kon de n sa ci is S e de gad miRe bu lma, TiTqmis formu le bad

qce ulma eli p ti re bu l ma (zmnaCavardnilma) mi ma r T ve bma 2 .

mimarTvis cnebiTi mniSvnelobis gafarToeba imi Tac iyo

moti vi re buli, rom saxeladi (vokatiuri) da zmnuri (imperatiuli)

mi marTvebi upiratesad er Tad ix ma re ba. sanimuSod

ramdenime qre s to maTiuli magaliTis Ca moTvliT

davkmayofildebiT. gavix se noT, pi rvel yo vlisa, unive r-

saluri bibliuri (liturgikuli) fo r mu la: ufa lo, Segviwyale!

ag reTve analogiuri struqturis popu la ruli

fra ze bi qarTuli li te ra turidan Tu folklori dan:

mzeo, amodi, amodi, | nu efarebi gorasa (xalxuri);

mo, mTvareo, Semibrale... (rusTveli)

ismine, swavlis mZeb ne lo... (guramiSvili);

gaswi, mera no! (ba raTaSvili);

dedav! ismine qarTvlis vedreba (ilia);

damsetyve, cao, damsetyve! (vaJa);

izarde, mwvane je jilo... (i. daviTaSvili);

megobrebo, win, win gaswiT! (ir. evdoSvili);

Tqvi, arjakelo xviara... (a. kalandaZe)...

2.

mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs iseTi sityvebi, rogoricaa nominatiuri formis

saxele bi: xeli (aiRe)! xma (gakminde // ar gamagono)!.. anda zmnisarTebi: win

(wadi, gas wi)! Cu mad (iya vi)! da misT.


32 waxnagi 1.2009

mimarTvis gafarToebulma gagebam ufro Tva l sa Cino ga -

xada mWidro kavSiri mimarTvebisa iseT elementebTan, rogoricaa:

a. mo wodebiTi Sorisdebulebi:

he, RmerTo er To! (rusTveli)

hoi, mTa wmi n dav! (baraTaSvili)

ehei, mebornev! (a. kalandaZe)...

b. kiTxviTi xmovnebi:

ar mogxvdaua, rjul ZaRlo? (vaJa)

iqav aoda xara, samZimar Cemo? (xalxuri)

is gegonaa, qalao, guSin rom medidebodi? (xalxuri)

igive iTqmis mimarTvis kavSirze emfa ti ku r, sxva Ta si -

tyvisa da pro so di ul xmovnebTan. vo ka ti ur mi ma r T va s Tan

am ele men tTa ko mbinacia gvxvdeba cno bi li xa lxuri zRaparis

erT pasaJSi:

_ Cito, Cito, Ciorao!

_ rao, batono melao?

am dialogis Semcveli eqvsi sityvisagan Semdgar fra ze -

bSi arc erTi sityva ara dgas mimarTvis formis warmomqmnel

ele me n tTa gareSe: Cito da ba tono formebSi -o vokati

vis ni Sa nia, rao fo rmaSi _ sxva Ta sityvis nawilaki,

xo lo Ci o rao da me lao fo r me bSi _ pro sodiuli da imavdroulad

sxva Ta si tyvis xmo va nic.

am martivi da popularuli ilustraciebis SedarebiTi

ganxi lva cxads xdis monaTesave funqciur ko mpo ne n te b Tan

erTad mima r T ve bis farTod da ko m pleqsurad gaazrebis

perspeqtiulobas. am mi ma rTulebiT Semdgomi kvleva mowodebulia

im axal-axali kav Si re bis gamosavlenad, romlebic

arsebobs erTi SexedviT sru li ad da uka v Si re bel movlenebs

Soris, da maTTvis enis si s te ma Si sa Ta nado ad gilis

misaCenad.

Tavisi formalurad gamokveTili saxis gamo, pirvel

yovlisa, gan vixi la vT tradi ci u l sin ta q ssa da poetikaSi

mimarTvebad mi Cne ul gankerZoebul sa xe lad formebs, anu

vokatiur mi ma r T vebs. am saxis mimarTvis fo r me bi fa r Tod

gamoiye ne ba yve la Ja n ris mxa t v rul li te raturaSi _ poezi

a Sic, pro za Sic da, cxadia, mTlianad di alo ge bze age -

bul dra ma tu li Janris na wa r mo e b ebSi.


narkvevi 33

da mainc: mimarTvis spe ci fi ka xan aSkarad, xan Se far

viT avlens mis gamorCeul rols po e ziaSi da amitom

maT piro bi Tad poetur mimarTvebs vuwodebT 3 . es cneba

So r de ba yovel dRi u ri pragmatikis sfe ros da ejaWveba

poetur me t y ve lebas imis miuxedavad, fo r ma lurad

wminda poeziaze, ri T ma-ritmis Tvalsazri siT re g la -

mentirebul teqstzea msjeloba, Tu gacilebiT Ta vi su -

fa l ze, vTqvaT, prozaze, Tumca orsave SemTxvevaSi sayrde

nia mxa t v ru li na wa r moebis rogorc Semoq me dis ga mona

gonis spe cifika 4 .

poeturi mimarTvebis niSan-TvisebaTa gamovlenis wyarod

da sa nimuSod masala SeirCa sxvada sx va epo qis sa e ro

poe zi is umniSvne lovanes warmoma dge ne l Ta nawarmoebebidan,

kerZod, me-12 sa u ku ni dan dRe m de _ ru s T velidan

vi dre ana kalandaZemde, Suale du r mwve r va l Ta _ guramiSvilis,

baraTaSvilis, ilias, akakis, va Jas, ga lak ti o-

nis _ ga vliT. mo x mobilia xa lxuri poeziis ni muSebic.

Janrobrivi SezRudva: ana li z Si Segnebulad ar Cag vi -

r Tavs hi m no g ra fi uli masala, romelSic, Ja n ris specifikidan

gamomdinare, mi ma r Tvis fo rmebi didi albaTobiT

iqneboda mosalod ne li, Tumca amave mizeziT, Tavisufali

arCevanis uqonlobis pirobebSi, analizis Se de gebis sandooba

eWvqveS dadgeboda.

II. teqstebi da analizi

1. “va, sofelo, raSigan xar?” (SoTa rusTveli)

mimarTvaTa qve si s te ma vefxistyaosanSi calke ga n xi l-

vis Rir sia, _ miT ufro, rom profesiul po e zi aSi (da xal

xu r Sic) mra va lgvar literaturul tradicias da maT

Soris m i ma r T vis fo r ma Ta uzualuri gamo ye ne bis tradici

a sac rusTavelTan mivyavarT, _ iqidan amosvliT, rom

misma poemam didad Se u w yo xeli am tra di ci e bis dam k vi d reba-gan

m t kicebas.

3.

aqve dgeba kanonzomieri ki T x va: ras vikvlevT _ poe tur mimarTvebs Tu

mi ma r Tvebs po e zi a Si? kvlevis procesis asaxvis Tval sa zrisiT sta ti is sa -

Taurad me ore varian tis ga ta na albaT ufro ko re q tu li iq ne boda, magram

is ni Snebi, ro mlebic kvlevis Sedegad gamoikveTa, amarTlebs am termi nologiur

arCevans.

4.

Se mTx ve vi Ti ar aris, rom sab Wo u ri te r mi nologi iT nagu li s x mebi mxa t-

v ru li li te ratura dasa v le T Si fi qciur (fictious = SeTxzul, gamonagon)

lite ra tu rad iwo deba. iqneb qarTuli Txzulebac adrindeli (swori!) poziciis

amsaxvelia?!


34 waxnagi 1.2009

1) sakuTari saxelebi. personaJTa saxelebis mi marTvebSi

mona wi le o bis sa kiTxi gamokv le u li gvaqvs 5 , amitom

dawvrilebiT maT ze aRar Sev Ce r de biT. aR v ni S navT

mxo lod zogierT faqts, romle bic ukav Si r de ba aRwe ri li

epo qi sa Tu so ci a lu r urTierTobaTa am sa x vel re a li ebs.

mi marTvebis fu n q ci o ni re bis ga r k ve u li Sez Ru dve bic swored

am ur Tier To be biT na ka r na xe bi eti ke tis gamovle nad

Se i Z le ba mi viCnioT.

yuradRebas iqcevs, kerZod, is faqti, rom aseTi didi

moculo bis poemaSi (1670-mde strofi): a. mTavar perso na J-

Ta (maRali wris qa l Ta Tu va JTa) saxelebi wodebiTSi Ti-

Tqmis ar fi gu ri re ben. ne stan-da re jani, Ti na Ti ni, mefe

rostevani da avTandi li mi ma r T vis fo r miT arc erTxel

ar dasturde ba, _ da es ma Sin, ro ca, mag., saxeli avTandili

poemis te q stSi sxva da s x va fo rmiT didad aWa r bebs yove li

sxva per sona Jisas _ saTaurebiTurT (200-mde) Tu ui maTod

(171) _ maT So ris TviT im gmi risas, romlis zed wo de biT

sa xe l sac ata rebs po e ma; b. mxolod TiTojer mimar Tavs av-

Ta n di li sa xe liT fri do n sa da ta ri els (rogorc toli

tols!), xo lo TviT ta ri elis monayolidan vi gebT, rogor

mi ma r Ta manu ge Se be li si ty ve biT mefe fa r sa da nma ma -

mamkvdar tari els: Svilo, ta ri el (2-jer); g. poemis mi -

xe d viT, sru li ad ga mo ri c xu lia aris to k ra t mi jnu rTa

araTu sa xe lobiT mi ma r Tva erTma ne Tisadmi (ise ve ro gorc

ma ma-Svilisa ur Ti e r Ti sa d mi), aramed III pirSi xsenebis

dro sac. am fonze Tavisu f lad ixma re ba Sedare biT da bali

(va Wa r Ta da msa xur Ta) wris qa l Ta sa xe lebi wo debiTi

fo r miT: as maT (4-jer, erTxel dia leqturi as ma To fo r mi -

Tac!), fa t man (3-jer); sa xe liT mimarTvis xarvezi Se v se bulia

pativiscemiTi mi ma rTviT _ xaTuniT (romelic dRes

qalis sakuTari saxelia qarTulSi).

2) apelativebi. poemaSi mimarT ve bi sa da ma Ti msazRvrelebis

dalageba kle badi sixSiris mixe d viT aseT suraTs

iZleva:

mzeo _ 30 (+ 1 mr. mzeno)

mefeo _ 27 (mis sinonimad: xelmwifeo _ 6-jer)

RmerTo _ 21

lomo _ 15 (+ 1 mr. lomno)

Zmao/Zmano _ 15 (8 mx.+7 mr. Zmano)

dao _ 13 (+ 1 dav).

kidev ufro iSviaTia (6-3-jer): yma(n)o, gulo, sayvare-

5.

afridoniZe 1998a: 81-87.


narkvevi 35

lo, sico c x leo, bozo, gam z rdelo, de dao, diaco, va zi ro,

var d o, patrono, sa wuTroo, tur fao, Smago...

mimarTvisas yvelaze xSirad xmarebuli mze Zi ri Ta dad

sila ma zisa da ke TildReobis meta fo radaa ga mo ye ne bu li

(ga rda iS vi a Ti ga mona k li si sa, ro de sac igi neitralurad,

pirda pi ri mniSv ne lobiT ga mo iyeneba), ma gram, amasTanave,

is gve v li neba socia lur ma r keradac: miuTiTebs aRmo savluri

qve yne bis kulturi sa T vis da ma xa siaTebel im tradiciaze,

rodesac mnaTobis sa xe lis (mzis, uf ro iSviaTad

mTva ris) xmareba miRebulia mxolod so ci a lu rad ma Rali

wris wa rmo ma d genelTa mi marT. sanimuSod mo g v yavs arasru

li sia personaJTa urTierTmimarTvebisa.

av Tandili TinaTins: ...mzeo, vin giSeri awamwame: 134, 1;

aha, mzeo, radgan RmerTman mzed dagbada: 135, 1;

fatmani avTandils: he, mzeo, RmerTsa vinaTgan mzed swaddi:

1080, 1;

fatmani nestans: aha, mnaTobo, soflisa mzeo zenao: 1266, 1;

tarieli nestans: ...raTgan, mzeo, CemTvis naTlad aRmoxdebi:

380, 2;

avTandili fridons: lomisa msgavso..., mzeo Suq-moiefeo: 1313, 2;

tarieli nestans [tarielis avtocitirebiT]:

pasuxad vswerdi: ”mTvareo, Senmca mze viT moge ria?” 379, 2.

vaJTa (raindTa) Sesamkobad ki, garda mzisa, lomic sakmaod

xSi rad gvxvdeba me ta fo rad da zogjer erTadac gvxvdeba

(adresa n tis, e. i. mTqmelis socialur statuss mniSvneloba

ara aqvs):

nestani tariels: nu daiCen, lomo, wylulsa: 374, 2;

avTandili tariels: lomo da gmiro tariel, vis Tavi ginazebia:

282, 2;

rostevani avTandils: lomo, ara gWirs Sen omTa gamdrekeloba:

144, 1;

vaWrebi avTandils: lomo da mzeo, esea mizezi aqa dgomisa:

1030,1;

TinaTini avTandils: merme modi, lomo, mzesa Segeyrebi, Semeyare:

131, 4.

calkeul SemTxvevebSi orive es saxeli gaorkecebulia:

tarieli TinaTins: me lomi lomTa (= avTandili) dagisva |

gverdsa Sen (= TinaTins) mzesa mzeTasa: 1542, 4.


36 waxnagi 1.2009

rogorc aRiniSna, rusTavelTan adresatebad SeiZ le ba

iyvnen uSualod mzec da sxva mnaTobebic, rac TvalsaCinod

Cans av Ta n di lis mog za urobisas, roca is mimarTavs mna-

Tobebs, kerZod, mzisa da mTva ris garda, otarids, marixs,

muSTars, as pi rozs...

aha, mzeo, geajebi... 957, 1;

mo, mTvareo, Semibrale... 963, 1;

he, muSTaro, geajebi... 959, 1;

modi, aspiroz, marge ra... 961, 1.

poemis rainduli wris warmomadgenelTa gareg no bis

aRma te bulad dasaxa si aTeblad poeti adresats mimar-

Tavs sxeulisa Tu sa xis na wi l Ta calke an erTad vokatiuri

moxseniebiT da, rac sa i n te re soa, uepiTetod:

gulo, Tmano, tano, ba ge-kbilo, Tval-war bo, ri Tac

miniSnebulia swored am na wi lTa si lamaze; mxolod ena

gvxvde ba epi Tetis TanxlebiT, isic ‘mety ve le bis’ mniSvne

lo bis ga mo (si tyva-mWe vro da wyli ano, tur fao, lamaz-enao:

1270, 3).

amasTan, Semamkobel metaforebad gamoiyeneba tradi ciu

li tro pebi, kerZod, yva vilebis saxelebi: iano, vard(n)o;

Zvir fa s qva Ta Tu mi ne ra lTa saxelebi: lalo, brolo, anda

abst ra q tu li sa xe le bi: ime do, na Te lo (=sinaTle), sinaTleo,

(mamisa) sicoc x leo.

rac Seexeba epiTetebs, poemisaTvis ufro tipobrivia

dade bi Ti emociebis aRmZvreli Sinaarsis mimRe o bebi: gazrdilo,

gamzr delo, gamocdilno, marCenelo, mdgmelo,

misandono, morWmulo, sa yvarelo, mowyaleo, mjobo

da mravali sxva (Tumca siuJeturad Se sabamis pasaJebSi

aris sapirispiro uaryofiTi semantikis sity ve bic: regvenno,

pir-bozo da misT.).

msazRvrel nacvalsaxelTagan damaxasiaTebelia I piris

ku T v nilebiTi nacvalsaxeli Cemo, romelsac zogjer axlavs

sazRv ru li, umetesad ki calke iwereba da pauziT gamoiyofa.

es poemis er Ti specifikuri da tipobrivi msazRvrelia,

ukeT rom vTqvaT, er Tdroulad msazRvrelicaa da

sazRvrulic:

he, Cemo, ese ustari ars Cemgan monaRvawebi: 1293, 1;

xedavmca, Cemo, sofeli raTa saqmeTa mqmnelia? 1294, 1;

sxvad, Cemo, Cemi ambavi Cemgan ar mogewerebis: 1298, 1;

bedma gviyo yvelakai, Cemo, raca dagvemarTa: 1299, 4


narkvevi 37

(yvela es nimuSi moxmobilia tarielisadmi nestanis

weri li dan).

rac Seexeba sityva RmerTs, romelic voka tivTa si aSi

mesame ad gilzea, mas sinonimebad zenaaro da ufa lo ena c-

vleba (2-2-jer), xolo TviT RmerTs epiTe te bad ax lavs: ma­

Ralo, mowyaleo, uc na u ro, uT q me lo, mflobelo gu lis­

T q ma Tao... zogjer mTeli katreni Rme r Tisa da misi epiTete

bis vo ka ti vis formebiTaa gamarTuli: ix. avTandilis

locva (809):

ilocavs, ityvis: “maRalo RmerTo xmelTa da caTao,

zogjer momcemo patiJTa, zogjer keTilTa mzaTao,

ucnauro da uTqmelo, ufalo uflebaTao,

momec daTmoba survilTa, mflobelo gulisTqmaTao!”

vokativTa mijriT gamoyenebis eqspresiuli magaliTi gvaqvs

mij nuris da kargvis gamo tarielis godebidanac (309):

mosTqvams:... hai, sayvarelo, Cemo, CemTvis dakargulo,

imedo da sicocxleo, gonebao, sulo, gulo,

vin mogkveTa, ara vici, xeo, edems danergulo,

cecxlman cxelman viT ver dagwva, gulo, asjer dadagulo!”

Sorisdebuls, romelsac sa le qso stri qo nis ritmi kuli

da na wevrebis erT-erTi funqcia akisria, rus Ta ve l Tan

xSirad voka ti uri mimarTvebi mosdevs:

aha, mzeo

he, mefeo...

hai, sayvarelo...

he, RmerTo...

va, sofelo...

he, muSTaro...

va, sawuTroo... he, Cemo... 6

maTgan va-s, vame da vaglax Sorisdebulebs aSkara uaryofiT-emociuri

da t virTva aqvs: igi ga mo yenebulia soflis

sam du ra vis konte q s t Si, sxvebs ki ritmikul-intonaciuri

fu n qcia aqvs.

6.

SorisdebulTa Sexameba vokatiur mimarTvasTan, romlis -o (> v) niSanic

qarTu lSi Sorisdebulovani wa rmo So bi sad miiCneva (To fu ria 1956: 36-47),

memkvidre obiT gadmohyva Sua saukune e bis po e ziasa da me-19 saukunis romantikul

frTas (am ukana sk ne l ma mis xelT ar se bul wamoZaxilTa arsenals

difTon gia ni ho¡-c mi u ma ta, riTac gza gaukafa mogvianebiT h-dakargul da

dedifTongizebul cal o xmo vans (iq neb rusulis gavliT da gavleniTac?),

romelic danerga jer ga laktion ta bi Zem, Semdeg ki ganamtkica ana ka la n -

daZem.


38 waxnagi 1.2009

rac Seexeba SorisdebulTa struqturas, maT Soris ufro

xSi ria Ti To marcvlianebi, romlebic pauzis, saerTod, ritmikuli

xa r ve zis Se mavseblad ga mo i ye ne ba. amave funqcias

warmatebiT asru lebs sxva ne bis mi e ri klitikac (adgilis

mixedviT _ enkliti ka an pro k li ti ka), anu erTmarcvliani

sityva, romelic (metadre pre po zi ci a Si) “asasxleti” fu n-

q ciiT gamoiyeneba. esenia: “moZra o ba-wris” zmnis funqciiT

gamoyenebuli zmni s wini (mo-, wa-), zmni sa r Ti (win, aw...), nacva

l sa xeli (es, ra...), kavSiri (da, Tu...), na wi la ki (ar, ver...).

kli ti kis mezobel si tyvaTa metrikis gaTvali s wi ne biT rus-

Tveli tonur maxvils vi rtuozulad anawilebs da a ba lansebs

dabali Tu maRali Sa i ris saleqso stri qo ne bSi:

maRali Sairi:

wa, Seebi xataelTa, Tavi kargad gamaCvene! 379, 2;

va, sofelo, raSigan xar, ras gvabruneb, ra zne gWirsa, 951, 1.

dabali Sairi:

va, sawuTroo, sicruviT Tavi satanas adare: 1213, 1;

he, RmerTo erTo, Sen Sehqmen saxe yovlisa tanisa: 2,1.

amrigad, rusTveli iyenebs yvela saxis ga n kerZoebas da

maT Soris mimarTvis yvela saxeobas: wodebiTs (sa xe lads),

brZa nebiTs (zmnurs), kiTxviTs (kiTxviTsityvebians da maT

gareSec) da Zaxilisas (So ri s debuli) da isini yovel nabijze

gvxvdeba. amito maa, rom rus Ta ve lis 16-marcvliani stri -

qonebi ri t mu lad ”sunT qavs”, ga m W virvalea da, sulierTan

erTad, srul musi ka lur har mo ni a Si amyofebs mki T x vels.

2. “ismine, swavlis mZebnelo” (daviT guramiSvili)

mimarTvis formaTa intensiuri da mravalferovani

xmarebis mxriv da vi Ti ani yvelaze gamorCeul Zeglad gvesaxeba.

gansxvavebiT vefxistyaosnisagan, romlis enamzeobas

magaliTad saxavs gu ra miSvili, mis poemas mTlianad

msWvalavs Rrma qristia nu li ga n w yobileba saTanado verbaluri

gamomsaxvelobiTa da termino lo gi iTurT (ieso

qriste, RvTismSobeli, jva rcma...). amasTan, zo gi e r Ti Tavi

mTli anad mimarTvebis fo r me biTaa gawyobili, rac maT

fsa lmunebisa da himno g ra fi ul elfers sZens (ix. moTqma

qri stes vne be bze, RvTismSoblis tirili, da vi Tis vedreba,

galoba...). magaliTad:


narkvevi 39

anda:

daurRvevelo zRudeo, godolo Seuryevelo,

caTagan dautevnelTa wiaRTa damatevelo;

mariam qristes dedao, asulo sionevelo,

Sen meox-meyav codvilsa, qalwulo, RvTisa mxevelo! (88)

RmerTo, daviTis mTnevelo, mamao da Zeo,

is mterni Cemi mdevnelni devne, ganaZeo,

Sen gamirkvie daviTsa, rac win gza miZeo! (90).

zogi mimarTva, kerZod, ”soflis samduravis” kompo nente

bi erTgvar refrenad (luw striqonad) Se vida garkveul

TavSi (go de ba daviTisa, sa wu Tros soflis gamo tirili):

vai sawuTro, cruo sofelo!

rad mSva dedaman, Savman bedaman,

vai sawuTro, cruo sofelo! (161).

mi ma r Tvebis mra va l fe rov ne bis ga mo di s p ro po rcia

ganmeorebad si t y vebs So ris imdenad xe l Sesa xe bi ar aris.

mainc, Se iZleba ga mo v yoT met-naklebad xSi rad gan me o reba

di saxelebi: mzeo, Rmer To, ie so qriste, ufa lo, de ­

dao/v (RvTi sav); kaco, Zeo/Zev; zedsar Ta ve bi _ tkbi lo

(ie so, si co c xle) da sa yvarelo. yve la ze Tval Si sa ce mia

mimReobebis mdi da ri de ri va ci uli fo r me bi (ga ma m b Wo ­

belo, mam ze vebelo, me o xa ro, mTnobelo, cvarcxebulo...).

CvenTvis saintereso ku T xiT (iseve rogorc mTeli

poeti kiT), daviTianis ZiriTad nawil s emijneba mxi a ru li

za f xu li 7 .

ma sSi mimarTvis fo rmebi gacilebiT iSviaTia. gamonaklisia

Rmr Ti sadmi mimarTva sxvadasxva leqsemiT an

formiT (RmerTo, Cemo gamCeno, mo m k v le lo, damrCeno...);

sxva saxelTagan gvxvde ba su lo, oRond speci fi kur enobriv

formulaSi: vame, Tu sulo:

vame Tu sulo, giswras Ramema...

vame Tu, sulo, giyaron wili...

vame Tu, sulo, ar gahqvndes madli... (222-223).

7.

nawarmoebis ZiriTadi nawilisagan gansxvavebuli poetikisaTvis ix. RaRaniZe

2002.


40 waxnagi 1.2009

met-naklebad xSirad dadasturebuli saxelebi uf ro

ne i t ra lu ri se ma n ti kisaa. kerZod, ma ma-S vi lis vrce l di a-

lo gSi, iseve ro gorc si k vdi li sa da ka cis ci lo bis (po emis

wi na na wilSi), Ti T qmis yo vel strofSi meo r deba di a logis

mo na wi le Ta aR m ni S v ne l ape la ti vTa mimarTvis formebi:

1. kaco, si k v di lo; 2. ma mav, Svi lo, msgavsad am Janris

Sua saukuneebis po e zi i sa.

3. ”gaswi, merano!” (nikoloz baraTaSvili)

qarTulma romantizmma Ta vi si masazrdoebeli motivaciebiT,

ko nkre tu li saxeebiTa da axali in to naciebiT

gaamdidra lirikuli poezia. ev ro pidan ru seTis gziT SemoRweul

am literaturul mima rTulebas saqa r Tve lo Si

lo ka lu ri ni a dagi daxvda ruseTisagan na w v ne vi po l i ti -

ku ri ime d ga cruebis Sedegad. saqarTve los da mouki de b lo -

bis da ka r g viT ga mo w veuli se vda damate biTi fa q to ri ga x-

da qa r Tuli ro manti z mi s patriotuli Te matikisa T vis.

“Zveli didebis naSTisaken” mi pyrobili mze ra aleqsandre

Wa vWavaZisa, gri gol orbe li a nis “sadRe gr Ze los” patriotuli

paTo sis mom xib la vi nazavi li ri kuli (xSi rad

mu xambazuri) leqse bis dardimandul in tonaciur na kadTan

bo los Ca moiqna nikoloz ba raTaSvilis da x vewil li rikad,

rac uSualod Tu iri bad, mi ma r T ve bSic aisaxa. Tu or beli

ani Ta vis grZnobebs uSualod adre sa te bi sken mi ma r Tavs

_ xan ko nkretulad: winandlis vardo, su li Ta mtre do (7);

ros gxe dav, mna To...(5); he, sayvarelo, iyav mSve ni er, n[i na]

(44), aseve TviT mi ma rT vi Tac: Cemo Tavo ubedo; gla x gu lo

(34), vai, gri gol, sab ra lo! (41), xanac abst ra q tu lad: he,

ive ri av!.. (33), he, mamu lo sasurvelo (99, 101), sixarulov,

Sve bav, lxi no (42), is mine Cemi, he, si y va ru lo! (33),

bedo, Cemis lxinis Za fi rad swyvi te! (41), ba ra Ta S vili

iseT maSualebel mi ma rTvebs ar Cevs, rogoricaa ad gi lni:

hoi, adgilno, ma x sovs, ma x sovs (89), Sdr. “bedi qarTlisa”:

hoi, adgilno, ara g vis pi r no (143), pir vel yo vlisa

ki _ mTawminda, rome lic avtorisaTvis mxo lod to po nimi

ar aris: po e ti amka fi o ebs mis eti mo lo giur semantikas

ko m po ne n te bad daSlis gziT: hoi, mTawmida, mTao wmi dav!

(88). ami tom mi dis fiqrT ga sa r T ve lad liri ku li gmi ri

modudune da mra val dro e bis mowame mtkvarTan: po e ti am -

k veTrebs ad re sa te bis idu ma le bas saTa na do epi Te te biT:

kldev bu ndovano; mTav Rru b li ano; xan mci naro, xan cre ­

mliano (89). poe ti ar ma lavs ad re sa ti sa dmi mi ma r T vis motivs:

Rru blian mTas gu l da xu ru l Ta me go bars uwo debs


narkvevi 41

(89). Sdr. ga da Zaxili “mera n Si”: mxo lod va rs k v la v Ta,

Tana ma va l Ta, vamcno gulisa me saidu m lo (120).

poetis TviTCaRrmavebis amsaxveli me di taci u ri li ri -

ka Sema m za debeli safexuria zRvramde misul saso wa r k ve -

Ti le ba sa (“sulo bo ro to”) Tu sulier garRvevas (“me rani”)

So ris da ganasa xi e rebs bedis sam zR v ris damlaSqrav

mea m bo xe suls.

poeti Tavisi siyvarulis sagans ridiT satrfos uwodebs

da mimarTavs amaRlebuli epi Te tebiT: cisiero, haerovano,

gulis-sworo. su li eri da erotikuli grZnobebi,

romlebic Tavs iy ris pe pe la sa viT rxeul, Tavis aCrdilTan

moTamaSe da grZne biT am rev ucxo sa yu re s Tan (102), faqizadaa

naZerwi. eq s p re sia aR mavali xaziT mi dis Wvre ti dan

in to na ci u rad zea we u li mi ma r T vi saken: sayuris qveS ba gis

datkba ru ne bi dan vidre su lis da ko ne ba m de (102).

baraTaSvilis SedarebiT mcirericxovani lirikuli

leqsebi uCveulod mdidaria intonaciurad: wodebiTi, br-

ZanebiTi da ki TxviTi mimarTvebis monacvleobiT: gaswi,

merano... (120-1); ganvedi Cemgan, hoi, macTuro sulo bo roto?

(128), vin icis, mtkvaro, ras but bu teb, visTvis ras

ityvi? (95) da SorisdebulTa (xSirad ho is Ta nx le biT. balansi

pauzebsa da ve r balur ma salas So ris si metri u ladaa

daculi: TiTqmis yvela es leqsi harmo ni u lad JRers.

romantikosebis poemebSi (“sadRegrZelo”, “bedi

qarTlisa”) gansakuTrebiT iCina Tavi samSo b lo s cnebis

gamomxatvelma leqsi kam. statistikis mixedviT, am cnebis

gamomxatvelad gvxvdeba pra qti ku lad mxolod mamuli

gacilebiT aWarbebs sinoni mur sa m So blos, ma gram

maT gamomxatvelad kidev ufro inten si u rad ga mo iyeneba

qa r Tli da saqarTvelo, xolo eTnonimebad _ qar T ve l­

ni (qarT ve l Ta), qar T ve loba (upiratesad) da zogjer _

iverni.

romantikosTa sayvarel SorisdebulTagan yve la ze

intensiu rad ixmareba he da hoi. maTgan he ufro metad ixma

re ba realuri ad re sa tebis _ adamia ne bi s mi marT: he,

mefeo; he, gmirno (141), he, da Ris t ne lno (131), xolo hoi

_ di f To n gis saxiT _ yve la sxva obi e q tis mi marT, garda

adamia ne bi sa (ho¡, mTawmindav...).

4. “mamulo, sayvarelo...” (ilia WavWavaZe)

TergdaleulTa Taobas winamorbed romantikosTagan

memkvid reobad ergo ara marto ero v nuli Tematikis literaturuli

da muSaveba, ara med am sakiTxis po li ti kuri


42 waxnagi 1.2009

mogvarebis amocanac. ilia Wav Wa va Zem farTod da mra vali

mimarTulebiT gaSlil mu Sa o ba Si CarTo lite ra tu rac.

amasTan, didaq ti ku r amo canas man pub li cis ti kas Tan er-

Tad be le t ristika da poe zi a c da uqvemdebara. imis ga-

TvaliswinebiT, rom eqspresiisa da emociurobis gamoxatva

tra di ciulad po e zias da, kerZod, lirikas eki s re ba, didi

mniSv ne lo ba aqvs am Janris nawarmoebTa sakvanZo le q si kis

Seswavlas, _ miT ufro, rom es leqsika monawileobs po e-

tur mimarTvebSi.

sayovelTao yuradRebis Rirsadaa qceuli ilias didaqtika

poetis daniSnulebasTan dakavSirebiT (misTvis ar

vmRer, rom vi m Rero, viT frinvelma gareganma... _ 103). masve

ukav Si r deba poetis “Ce mo kalamo”-s mTavari paTosic.

mogvyavs ilias poeziaSi dadasturebuli yvelaze aqtiuri

le qsika, romelic gamoyenebulia mimarTvis formebiT

(ma sa la da la gebulia klebadi sixSiris mixedviT):

Svil(n)o _ 41 dedav/o, dedi,

Cem(n)o _ 32 dedi(lo) _ 15

RmerTo _ 31 mefev/o _ 14

Zmav/o, Zamo mamulo _ 8

(Zmebo, Zmano) _ 29

6-jer da nakleb gvxvdeba: velo, mamav/o, megobar(n)o,

tur fav; bedo, mTe bo, mo na v/o; batono, vaime, satrfov, kargo,

nana, tkbi lo, ukv da vo, qve ya nav, Rrubelo.

rogorc am monacemebidan Cans, ilias poetur SemoqmedebaSi

yve la ze xSir adresatad dasturdeba ZiriTadi leqsikuri

fon dis uaq ti u re si sityvebi.

socialuri usamarTlobis Temis mxatvrulad damuSavebisas

ili am miagno laba-xaris uaRresad metyvel simbolur

saxes. misi uR lis ga nzogadebiT da erT bedqveS yofnis asociaciiT

po etma sa xieri xa ti Seqmna uTanasworobiT qedmodrekil

pirutyvs damsga vsebuli adamianisa. maT Soris

TvalsaCino paralelis gav le bi sas misi uSualo da araerTgzisi

mimarTvis adresatia laba: samSoblo mTebo!

erT bed qveSa varT, labav, me da Sen... (50);

eg, Cemo labav, nu SegSurdeba... (50);

aq mende, labav, Cemi uReli|Sens uRelzeda ufroa Zneli (51).

mamulis sinonimad samSoblo mxolod orjeraa naxmari,

maT Soris er T xel _ msazRvrelad:

samSoblo mTebo! Tqveni Svili ganebebT Tavsa (35).


narkvevi 43

sxvagan mamuls eZleva aSkara upiratesoba. aq mxo lod

mima r Tvis formebs vexebiT, es SeniSvna zogad vi Ta rebaze

dac vrce l de ba 8 , romlis ilustraciad ”gazafxulis”

qresto ma Ti uli ma ga li Tic ikmarebs:

ayvavebula mdelo, | ayvavebula mTebi,

mamulo, sayvarelo, | Sen rosRa ayvav de bi? (118).

sxva saxelTa paraleluri variantebi ZiriTadad mxolod

mo rfo lo giuri varia n te biT (alomorfebiT) Semoifargleba:

Zmav/ Zmao/Zamo; de dav /de dao /dedi /dedilo;

mamav /ma mao; mefev /me feo; monav /monao. sityvawarmoebiT,

derivaciuli simdidriT mima r T vis for me bi ar

gamoirCeva.

am fonze wina planze iwevs intenciuri Rirebuleba

mima r T vis adresatisa: amis TvalsaCino nimuSia (Cemo) kalamo

(120), ro me lic faqtobriv erTaderTxel dasturdeba,

magram Tavisi ideolo gi uri mi zan dasaxulebiT (da popularobiTac)

wina ma val mi ma r T vas ma mu li sadmi ar Ca mouvardeba.

5. “Cemo samSoblo mxareo” (akaki wereTeli)

poetis daniSnulebaze iliasa da akakis mier paraleluri

le qsebis Seqmna sa e r To “proeqtis” nawilebad unda miviCnioT.

mgo snisa Tu mwerlis samoqmedo “iaraRi” _ Cangi

Tu qnari, Conguri Tu fanduri, salamuri Tu stviri saqveyno

samsaxurSia Caye ne bu li. aki ili as “Ce mo ka la moc” (1861)

saamisod aris mowodebuli da, savaraudoa, aka kis Ti T q mis

amave saxelwodebis “Cems kalams” (1902) aseve misi ga mo x ma u-

re baa. mimarTvis formebic aq ufro ganv r cobili da emo ci -

u ria, ka la mic namdvil iaraRTan (maxvilTan, fa rTan, kver-

T x Tan) aris ga Ta na brebuli:

kalamo, sanaRvle-Taflo, | Cemo maxvilo da faro!..

orgulo, magram erTgulo, | kalamo maxvil-kverTxovo! (3, 33).

saerTod, akakis poeziaSi dadasturebul leqsemaTa mimarTvis

formebi, TviT poeturi nawarmoebebis siuxvis kvalobaze,

sa k ma od didi ra odenobiTa da mravalferovnebiT

dasturdeba.

8.

ilias mamulis Sesaxeb ix. kiknaZe 2005: 28-52.


44 waxnagi 1.2009

akakis lirikisaTvis niSneulia, xa l xuri poeziis

tradiciisa mebr, leq sis dawyeba ama Tu im musikaluri

sakravisaT vis mo wo de biT (Sdr. ilias “mefe dimitri

Tavdadebulis” Sesavali na wi li _ brma mefan du ris sityvebi):

Conguro, Cemo didebav, | da Zlierebav, kalamo... (2, 40);

modi, Cemo Canguro,| msurs, isev gemsaxuro (1, 130);

sad xar, Cemo salamuro,|xmatkbilo da saamuro? (1, 87);

Cemo Cango, obol-mwiro... (1, 259).

amave konteqstSia gansaxilveli mimarTvebi muzisa da

RvTiu ri niWisadmi: yaribo da ganwirulo, nu SekrTebi,

Cemo muzav (2, 17); Sen da mxolod Sen, ciuro ni Wo (2, 69),

ag re Tve _ Sro misa da brZolis ia ra Risadmi: gavlesoT,

Zmebo, namgali (1, 126) an: glesav da glesav, xanja lo (2, 99)

(kontaminaciuri para fra zi xal xu ri stri qo nisa: glesav

da glesav, namgalo).

damaxasiaTebelia agreTve poeturi TviTmimarTva ama

Tu im sxe ulis nawilis (ZiriTadad _ gulis) dasaxelebis

meSveobiT:

gaqvavdi, gulo! | daebi, ena! (1, 267);

Cemo Tavo, bedi ar giweria! | Cemo gulo, tkbilad ar giZ ge ria!

(1, 210).

erovnul moZraobaSi ilia WavWava Zis gve rdiT dgomam

erTgva rad gansazRvra misi poeziis ideur-Tema ti kuri

msgavseba, ramac, Tavis mxriv, met-naklebad gamokveTa

saerTo da gansxvavebuli ni S nebi da po e tis individualuri

xelwera. am TvalsazrisiT sain te resoa patriotul

TemasTan dakavSirebuli sakvanZo si tyvebis sa kiTxi.

kerZod, gansxvavebiT romantikosebisa da ilia WavWava-

Zis mi er gamoyenebuli TiTqmis erTaderTi ma mu lisagan,

aka ki s Tan Zi ri Tadad samSobloa naxmari. yvelaze popularuli

sityvebi rom aviRoT: Cemi xatia samSoblo (2,

303). asevea mimar T ve b Sic:

Sori qveynidan moSorebulsa, samSoblo Cemo! gigzavni gu l sa...

ve Rar gixilo, samSoblov, meti (1. 69);

aRs deg, sa mSoblo! bevri geZina (1, 70);

mSvidobiT, Cemo dedinacvalo,| Cemo pi rSavo, Cemo samSoblo!

(2, 39);


narkvevi 45

itire, miwav, samSoblov! jvari au Svi, zecao (2, 214);

samSoblo msazRvreladac ixmareba: rom araferi vTqvaT

“ga nTiadis” cnobil sityvebze (ca _ firuz, xmeleT _ zurmuxto,

Cemo samSoblo mxareo _ 2, 238), es Sexameba sxvaganac

gvxvdeba: mSvidoba SenTan, | samSo b lo mxare (1, 69).

aqa-iq Segvxvdeba mamulic, oRond ara mi ma r T vis formiT.

sai nteresoa, rom zogjer es sinonimebi erTsa da imave

sintagmebis farglebSi monacvleobs:

ara, sikvdili ver SemaSinebs | momzadebulsa mamulis msxver p lsa!

(3, 336);

...im winaparTa gunds, | samSoblos msxve r p lad rom Sewirulan

(6, 74);

... da xinjad gul Si mimyveba mxolod, | rom ver gavmxdarvar

samSob los msxverplad (3, 129).

sinonimiasTan dakavSirebiT unda iTqvas, rom qarTli

da sa qarTvelo sinonimebadaa warmodgenili da zogjer

isini erTsa da ima ve konteqstSi enacvlebian erTmaneTs.

Sdr., magaliTad:

gacocxldebi, saqarTvelo

da:

bero qarTlo, guls nu itex! (1, 117).

akakis ekuTvnis samSoblos xatad sat r fos Se qm nis idea,

yovel SemTxvevaSi, am xatis damkvidreba mas mie we re ba:

satrfov, nu geSinia! Tumc gaqvs grZnoba mixdili...

satrfov, guls nu gaitex!.. ara xar sasikvdilo (3, 324);

mSveniero, Sen getrfi | Seni mona, erTguli! (3, 235).

rogorc vxedavT, alegoria mxolod arsebiT saxelTa

done ze ki ar aris ganxorcielebuli, aramed misi epiTetis

meSve o bi Tac.

oriode sityva unda iTqvas akakis poeziis ritmikulintona

ciur mxareze, romelsac specifikuri mniSvneloba

aqvs mimar T vis formebisaTvis. akakis saleqso fraza zogadad

SeiZleba daxa si a Tdes ro gorc uaR re sad musikaluri

da harmoniuli. ma rc va l Tan dakav Si re bul kri ziss maxvi

li sme nis mqone poeti nakleb ga ni cdis. iqneb ami tomac


46 waxnagi 1.2009

aris, rom Sorisdebulebi, rogorc pauzis Se mavsebeli

erT-erTi saSu a le ba, Seudareblad mcire rao de no biT gvxvdeba

da poetis arCevani romelime er T ze ar SeCe re bu la:

hei, samSoblov, sxvebisTvis dedav (2, 38); hoi, sad xar, drov! (5,

332); ax, mezurnev, dahka! dahka!... (1, 98); eh, qarTveli kacis Cero (1,

148); su! nuRa sZger, gulis wylulo!... (1, 260); Cu! qarTvelo bedniero!

(1, 148).

6. “damsetyve, cao, damsetyve!” (vaJa-fSavela

da xalxuri poezia)

am ori wyaros _ xal xu risa da mi si wiaRidan gamosuli

di di poetis _ lirikis erTad ga n xi l vis sa fuZveli

gasagebi unda iyos: va Jas poezias Rrmad ga u d gams fes ve bi

xalxur Semoqmede baSi 9 . aki poetisave sityvebia: “...xalxuri,

fSa uri, xevsuruli le qsebi bev ri vicodi; es kilo miyvarda,

Cems gu lSi gan sa ku T re bu li kuTxe eWi ra” 10 . versifikaciis

yvela ko m po ne n ti _ riTmebi, ri tmika da metri,

prosodiuli da in to na ci u ri modelebi sa e r Toa; nawilobriv

saerToa plastikuri xatebic. cxa dia, sruli to lobis

ni Sa ns maT Soris ver davsvamT, miT ufro, roca saqme

exe ba samyaros vaJaseul filosofiur gaazrebas da miseul

mora lur-eTikur imperativebs, Serwymuls STambeWdav

pla stikur xa te b Tan, ramac saerTaSoriso saxeli moupova

poets (da es ga n sa ku T re biT exeba mis poemebs).

da mainc, im uba nSi, rom elsac exeba es werili, Tavs iyris

xa l xu ri poeziisa da va Jas poeturi Semoqme de bis mra vali

specifi kuri msga v se ba. SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos, rom va-

Jas mraval li ri ku l leqss sa Taurad aqvs si m Re ra, ra d gan

am Janris le q sebs tra di ciulad fandurze am Re re bdnen.

samgloviaro poezi is pro so di ac amis damadasturebelia

(gvri ni, mTib lu re bi, xmiT na ti r le bi...) 11 .

xsenebul saerTo niSnebs Soris, pirvel yovlisa, yuradRebas

iqcevs sxvadasxva saxis mimar T vebis (wodebiTis,

TxovniT-brZa nebiTis, kiTxviTis) Tavmoyra saleqso winadadebaSi.

Sdr.:

9.

xalxurisa da vaJas poeziis sxvadasxva saxis urTierTgavlenaze ix. WinWarauli

1975: 367-78.

10.

vaJa-fSavela, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. IX, Tb.: sabWoTa

saqarT ve lo, 1964, gv. 180.

11.

TviT is leqsic ki, ro me lic iw yeba si t yvebiT: “ias uT xa riT turfasa...” da

romelic co lis ga r da c va lebis gamo Seuqmnia po ets, sim Re rad iwodeba.


narkvevi 47

xalxuri

vaJa

daukar, Cemo Conguro, daukar, stviro, daukar,

amoiRe xmao... (21);

aJRerdi, gamaxareo...

damexsen, dedi, damexsen, damsetyve, cao, damsetyve,

nu moklav qalobasao... (52); aqa var Cemis TaviTa... (I, 311);

qalo, Sveneba vin mogca, ram gagaCina, qalao,

samoci varskvlavisao? (35); lerwmad aWrilo welSia? (I, 28).

Tu xalxur poeziaSi mimarTvis formaTa fuZeebis semantika

ZiriTadad damokidebulia qveJanrebze (sagmiro, satrfia lo,

samglo viaro da misT.), vaJas lirikaSi am formebiT warmodgenili

leqsika ufro mobiluria da erTman e T Si gadamdina re.

swored aq iCens Tavs amouwyavi leqsikuri simdidre, romelic

axasiaTebs vaJas enas zogadad da poeziisas _ kerZod.

vin an ra aris po e tis mimarTvis adresati? winaswar

unda ga movyoT ori logikuri jgufi: 1. komunikaciurad

SesaZlo, anu mi marTvis realurad SesaZlo adresati, romelic

SeiZleba iyos mxo lod metyveli arseba _ adamiani,

da 2. sxva danarCeni.

pirvel jgufSi, cxadia, moxvdeba sakuTari saxelebi

(poemebis personaJebi) dialeqturi formebiT (aludav,

mindiav, berdiav, sa nduav...) an apelativebi, romelTa denotatebic

aRniSnavs naTesaur urTierTobas (dedao, dedilam;

dao/dobilo, Zmao/Zmisa/Zmobilo, kac(eb)o /kacno,

vaJ(eb)o/vaJno, biW(eb)o, qalo/qalav) an wodeba-xelobas

(mefev/o, xelmwifev, vezir(n)o, spaspeto), anda eTnikur

warmomavlobas (xevsurno, xevsurTSvilebo, qistebo, qistis

Svilebo...).

erTi SexedviT neitraluri sinonimuri apelativebi

mkafio semantikur madiferencireblebad gamodian. aseTi

wyvilia: diaco da qalav/qalao. diaco ixmareba, rogorc

wesi, ‘colis’ mniSvnelo biT, xolo qalav, Cans, ‘qaliSvilis/qalwulis’

konotaci is ma ta rebelia, raki igi satrfialo

xasiaTis leqsebSi gvxvdeba. mag.:

poema “stumar-maspinZeli”: joyola mimarTavs cols

(aRazas)

rogorc dagvxvdebi, diaco, qmarma mohxvia cols xeli

exla hkidia Senzeda (III,212); da miiTria keraze.

ra ambavia, diaco?

_ ra dagemarTa, diaco? _

xmali minda da xanjari! (III, 215); CaekiTxeba mSfoTvare (III, 226).

Sdr. poema “eTeri”: ufliswuli goderZi mimarTavs glex

eTers:


48 waxnagi 1.2009

_ nu miwyen, qalo, visi xar? _ miTxari mainc, geTayva,

tye-velT ras daiarebi?... (III, 90); vina xar, visi qalio? (III, 90);

...goderZim aRtacebiTa

mefis Ze cxensa moaxta,

qals gadahxvia xelia (III, 98); qalic Seiso gavasa (III, 98).

nimuSebi lirikidan:

isev Sen, isev, qalao

dagZinebia, qalao,

momxede, gamicinia.. (I, 17). lamazo, xuWuW-Tmiano... (I, 18)

(“simRera”)

(“mwyemsi qali”)

iqve, qalisadmi miumarTavad, vaJa sinonimad iyenebs gogos:

Sen gevedrebi beCavi, | ... ma gogos kalTa afaro (I, 18)

e gogo _ Cemi sicocxle _ | arafriT damiziano! (I, 19)

asevea xalxur poeziaSi: erTi mxriv, gvxvdeba qalo // qalau:

_ qalo, gevxar alvis xesa, qalau, miTxar: Seni var,

baRCaSia danergulsa (gv. 39) guls raRad damexureba? (29)

meore mxriv, erT teqstSi (“ere k le mefe da glexis gogo”)

gvaqvs:

netavi, qalo, vicode, | mTidan moxval Tu baraTa...

da:

netavi, gogo, Seni xma avadmyofs gama go nao... (53).

a. adamianis aRmniSvnel saxelTa mimarTvis formebs

axlavs fa rTo speqtri epiTetebisa da metaforebisa _

rogorc martivi (la ma zo, dido, Zliero, grZneu lo,

Stero, Tav xe do, uWko, ujiSov, ybe do, Tavxedo, be Cavo,

qofa ko, wyeulo, sawylebo, unamusovo...), ise kompozitebi

da Sesi t y ve be bi (Wkva Txelo, tvinTxe lo, bed mwa rev,

bedkrulo, TvalSurTxo... zezere mgrZnobarev, Cemi kacobis

dam q ce v no (III,169), uc xo kaci sa mozarev (III,233),

ciT Camosulo mTvareo)) (III, 86).

b. meore jgufis _ araadamianTa saxelTa mimarTvis

formebi. aq komunikaciurad ararealur adresatebTan

gvaqvs saqme. esenia: cxovelebi (vahme, Sen Cemo nikorav;

sada xar, Svinda ka me Co (II, 11); katav, Se amosagdebo (II,


narkvevi 49

53), mTebi da kldeni (ax, mTebo amw va ne bu lo (II, 62); kldeo,

klded dadeg salada (I, 13); mSvidobiT, sa jixveebo,

ga ma xa re lno Tva lisa (III, 74), Walebi da tye-ve le bi

(sa da xar, velo mwva neo? amoRaRandi, jejilo (II, 39);

sviiT gab mu lo mu r ynebo ax, sa Wa mando Svi ndisav,... (II,

62), abstraqtuli sa xe lebi (Cemo nugeSo (III, 111); vah,

Cemo yo f nav, sicocxlev (III, 115); ime do xevsu re Tisav

(III, 173); Cemi kacobis gvirgvino, | Cemo sa m So b lo mxareo

(II,175);@smenav, damexSe Se na ca (II, 55); ga m So r di, suliT

sidable (I, 13); RmerTi, ufali: guls nu momiklav,

ufa lo (I, 13).

g. uaryofiTi epiTetis ormagi mniSvneloba. zogier-

Ti uaryo fiTi epiTeti diametralurad gansx vave bu li

mniSvnelobiTac ix ma reba: garda sakuTriv pirda pi ri,

adekvaturi se ma n ti kisa, isi ni sa pirispiro _ inti mu r,

sasiyva ru lo damokidebu lebas migvaniS ne ben. es exe ba,

ke r Zod, wyeulo fo r mas, rome lic antonimuri fun q ci iT

ixmareba: erTi mxriv, gvelismWameli mi n dia adanaSaulebs

cols imaSi, rom saojaxo saz ru navma da a ka r g vi na mas

cxo ve l Ta da mce nareTa enis gagebis una ri: “srul Sengan

gavxdi, wye u lo, | uge rgilod da yrolada” (III, 167); xolo

leqsSi “aragvs” poeti amave si t y viT “esiyvaruleba”

mSo b li ur mdinares: “dawuxebulman, ara g vo,| rom

gnaxe, gavixareo...” (I, 30), rasac iqve aRtacebis si t y ve bi

mih yveba:

ra lamazia, wyeulo, | Sens zvirTTa laRni Cqerani! (I, 30).

“siyvarulis gamxelis” funqcia akisria epiTet ti a­

losac 12 :

Sen-ki genacvle, qalao, | ...laSars rad misdev, tialo?! (I, 44);

avahme, Cemo qaraxsav,... amogaJRero, tialo (I, 32);

Tqveni Wirime, hoi, mTebo,

muxls giyriT, guli Ronobsa...

Tqven roca gxedavT, tivlebo,

qed-awvdilebo zecada... (I, 21).

aqac negatiuri epiTetis ormagi, masTan, antonimuri

semanti kiT funqcionireba igulisxmeba.

12.

analogiuri stilistikuri niuansiT xmarobs ilia Tergis mi marT myofadis

mi m Re obas _ dasaRupavi (“eg dasaRupavi Tergi!”). ix. “mgzavris werilebi”.


50 waxnagi 1.2009

7. “Sors, Cems beds iqiT!” (galaktion tabiZe)

sayovelTaod aRiarebul saversifikacio miRwevebTan

erTad, yuradRebas ipyrobs galaktion tabiZis leqsis intonaciuri

mra va lfe ro v nebac. poetis saukeTeso leqseb-

Si intonacia-me lo dikis ga nuwyveteli monacvleoba (zogjer

TviT mok le leq sis fa r g le b Sic ki) mkiTxve ls erTTavad

maRal tempera turaze am yo febs da a hi p no zebs.

mimarT ve bis yvela sa xe, romelTa klasifikaciac mocemulia

naSromis da sa wyisSi, farTod aris warmo d ge ni li galaktionis

poeziaSi. amasTan, Tavs iCens ramdenime damaxasiaTebeli

niSani:

a. poetis intonaciur modelebSi mniSvnelovani adgili

uWiravs eliptirebul (reducirebul) mimarTvebs, romlebic

miRebu lia zmnis CavardniT. es xerxi sxva poetTanac

SeiZ le ba Segvxv des, magram galaktionTan misi xmareba imde

nad regularuli ar aris, ramdenadac sistemebrivi: igi

yvelaze ukeT (Rrmad!) mie sa da ge ba galaktionis poetur

energetikas. amasTan, uzmno mi ma r Tvebi in te nciis mi xe d-

viT Sei Z le ba sru liad gansxvave buli iyos. Sdr.: droSebi

Cqara! (377); aba, Cqa ra cxenebi! (“cecxli fiqriania”) da:

Cemi sa la mi, mZla v ro kav ka si onis mTebo! (107, 288). mo u-

lo dneli finali aqvs “ad ri an gazaf xuls”:

amodis mTvare... | hei, vin modis? | xelebi ze viT! (282).

sxvaganac: leqsis finaluri sityvebi ufro Sinagani da-

Za bu lo bis ka vSiriT ikvreba, vidre gamoyofili zmnisar-

Tebis se ma nti kiT:

wyna rad, mso flio! | win, msoflio! | msoflio, Cumad!.. (227).

amave tipis mimarTviT iwyeba cnobili “guriis mTebi”:

win, me e t lev! (42) da mTavrdeba imave wels dawerili leqsi

“beds iqiT”: ors, sxva edemSi! Sors, Cems beds iqiT! (43),

romlebic Ti T qos er T ma neTis gagrZelebas warmoadgens

da “meranis” sulis kve Te bas ex mi aneba (gardamatare bedis

samZRvari _ 120) 13 .

b. poeturi mimarTvis tradiciul adresatebs _ bunebis

mov le nebs (qars, wvimas, quxils da misT.), cas da miwas, mTe­

13.

sxva paralelebi: ukan momCxavis Savi yorani; rad momikal ymawvilis brma

sa rwmunoeba? (baraTaSvili) da: Savi yo ra ni gzaze momCxavis; rad momikal

sarwmunoeba? (galaktioni).


narkvevi 51

bs da wylebs, dRes da Rames, qveynis mxareebs (CrdiloeTo,

samxreTo...) da sxva mraval realur Tu irealur, vi r tu alur

adresats, mTel kosmoss mi ma r Tavs poeti mimarTvis yvela SesaZlo

fo r miT _ wo debiTis, brZa ne biTi da kiTx vi Ti fo r miT

(qaro, ra ge ma r Te ba? | Ramev, ra mogi vi da? (346); da mSviddi,

zRvao, iya vi wyna rad! (332); Cqara da e S vi, bindo! (322)) da

Soris de bu le bi Tac; sintag me bi dan an sazRvrulia aras tan

dartuli, an msazRv re li epi Tetebi (Rvi ni sfero mdi narev!

(321); mzeo sa p yaro! (181), dRev li li a no, cav li li a no

(218); gafiTrebulo dila, ga fi T rebulo mTe bo (181)), an

ma Ti ko mbinacia: er Ti da imave sazRv ru lis daxasiaTe ba an -

to nime bi T (su lo um zeo, ma gram mziano! (117)).

g. adresatad sxvadasxva abst ra q tuli saxelia da mas-

Tan Se xa mebuli sxva saxis mimarTvebi:

o, sixarulo! iyav, idide! (340);

da ambobs yvelas gasagonad: msoflio, wynarad! (150);

wynarad, warsulo, wynarad! (344);

daiZine Senc, imedo Cemo,

Cemo rwmenav, zecav da edemo! (86).

d. galaktionis poeziis adresatad xSirad sruliad

rea lu ri da konk re tu li adresatia (magaliTad, meri ServaSiZe)

da mi si sa xe li araerT le qsSia moxseni e bu li. magram

iqac ki, sadac is ar mo i xsenieba, ad reuli epi Te te bis

ja W vis mi xedviT ga mo ic noba: me ri, Zvirfaso! (“meri”); nazo

meri (“*o, dRes Se mo d go maa...”); o, qalo Zvirfaso, nazo,

viT fe ria (283) (“wa rwerebi”).

e. poets Tavis ramdenime leqsSi (adreulSic, gviandel-

Sic) sa kuTari Tavi sa xelde biT ga mohyavs sce naze Tu arenaze

da yovel gvari yalbi Tavmdablobis ga re Se (sa ma r Tliani

ambiciiT!) Tavis sa xels farul ri T mad ufa rdebs saqarTvelos

ad gilTa da mdi na re Ta saxelebs (si o ni, kavkasioni,

ri oni, baxtrioni...): SoTa, ilia, aka ki, vaJa da... (igu li -

s xmeba: ga la k ti o ni). sxva gan ki Sinagan mo no logs dialog-

Si as xams xorcs: vi can, ga la ktion, SenSi ak teoni (111); qari

dame de v ne ba Za xi liT: ga la k ti on! (202); Sen, gala ktion,

ici, ra daudevrad Cqa ra q re ba qa le bis fici... (224).

v. SorisdebulTa xmarebisaTvis. galaktionis poezia-

Si warmo dgenilia poetis mier sakuTar ganwyo bi le bebTan

misadagebiT ar Ceuli Sorisdebulebi, romelTagan o ara

marto yvelaze xSi rad gvxvdeba (100-s aRemateba), aramed

qarTul poeziaSi ga la k ti o nis danergilad Cans; mis amosaval

da tradici ul oh fo r masac sxve bTan SedarebiT in-


52 waxnagi 1.2009

tensiurad xmarobs poeti (50-ze me ti) 14 . maT sa grZnoblad

CamorCeba sxva Sori s de bulebi: in te n ci u ri da tvirT viT

erTmaneTisagan gansxvave bu li aha, he da vaSa kidev ufro

mci rericxovania danarCe n i, zemo xse ne bu l Ta fu nqciuri Tu

bge ro b rivi analogebi (ah, ax, eh, eha, va¡(me), vah(me), hei).

8. ”Tqvi, arjakelo xviara” (ana kalandaZe)

vaJa-fSavelas Semdeg arc erT qarTvel poets ise uxvad,

ise Ti Rrma grZnobiTa da sifaqiziT ar CaurTavs buneba

Ta vis poe ziaSi, ro gorc ana kalandaZem. magram es Ca rTva

Tviseb ri vad ga mo rCeulia. poeti naklebad aRwers; ufro metad

ki, ro gorc am di di sa m ya ros uSi nauresi wevri, bunebis

Svi lebs _ xe e b sa da yvavi lebs, Citebsa da peplebs _ ndo biT

da gandobiT esa u b reba: eki T xeba, sTxovs, mouwodebs, mag.:

xels vin gaxlebs, ukadrisav? | Tvalni agitirdebian... (153);

Sen ras mpirdebi, | verxvo axalo? (316);

Tqvi, arja ke lo xviara, | qsanze vin Camoiara?.. (149);

iyav dRegrZeli, | lurjTvala iav!.. (82);

iSriale, didi verxvo, | igugune, dedamiwav! (7).

yoveli maTganis pasuxs poeti am utyvi adresatebis reaqciiT

(yvavilTa nazi rxeviTa Tu Zlieri xis foTo l Ta

SrialiT) it yobs, radgan maT Soris idumali kav Si ri gabmula.

poetis ga re samyaros, romelic man TviTon Seiqmna

Tavis garSemo, lo cvisa da aR sa rebis, grZneuli CurCulisa

da Sri a lis xmebi avsebs.

po eti TavSekavebulia grZno bebis ga mo xatvisas da bunebis

SvilTa sa tkivars maTive “amet y ve le biT” amxels. yvavilebs,

rogorc Tavis umcros dobilebs, poeti upira te sad

intimuri Cemo-Ti mi ma r Tavs (Cemo magnolia, Ce mo mJavelav,

Cemo Sa la no, Cemo lurj Tva lav [enZelas], Cemo ka r ge bo

[foTlebs]... isini xSirad zedsar Ta v Ta kni nobiTi formiT

moixsenie bi an: pata ra, pawia, pa wa wi na, pawa w ki ntela,

Toxitara da sxv.

damiyvave, qaro, nu xar mkacri:

patara var, mofereba minda!

Toxitara, pawawina rto var!... (83).

14.

es monacemebi eyrdnoba poetis leqsebis erT-erT vrcel rCeuls (Tb.,

1973).


narkvevi 53

poetis saxeTa sistemaSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs

qari, romelic Tavisi maradiuli qrolviT Soreul sivrceTa

da ga rdasul droTa magiuri gama e r Ti anebelia. anas-

Tan igi xan imave fu n qciisaa, rac bara Ta S vi l Tan mra val

droebis mowame, but bu tiT mdinari mtkvari, iliasTan ki _

giJi, damTxveuli da daudgro meli Tergi. erTi mxriv, mas

“mstovris” usaxelo roli aki s ria, meore mxriv ki, iavnanas

grZneuli momReralia, xo lo stvi ri s Tvis _ iseTive Zalis

mimcemi, rogoric miTosuri anteosi saTvis _ de damiwa.

amitom qari mimarTvis fo r me bSic aqtiurad er T ve ba _ sxvadasxva

saxiTa da saxeliT:

STambere, qaro, _ naxon Zala | Cemi grZnobisa!.. (8);

qaro, miuvals kldeze dadgi | Cemi miwuri... (115);

moquxdi, zenav! (88);

qaro, moita atmis yvavili,

qaro, foTlebic Semomayare... (20);

fafaraSlili, mRelvare | mTas gadmodixar, lemadev! (226).

qarTan erTad poetis lirikis adresatebi arian:

ca (Sen ise Rrma xar, qarTulo cao (13)); miwa (miwav,

usa sod da m ci re bu lo (432)); igugune, dedamiwav! (7)); mTebi

(samSo b los mTe bo), Sdr. iliaseuli samSoblo mTebo

(“yva r lis mTebs”); qe de bi (Tva l Se u d ga mo qedebo (362))...

yvela am mimarTvaSi avtoris po e tu r xmas Rrma me di ta ciis

kvali atyvia da am pro ce sSi igi kris ta l deba da ix ve we ba

mis ga mo m ce m grZno baTa gafa qizebis kva lo baze. anas leqsebis

adre sa t Ta nusxa Zalze mra va l fe ro vania da Se e fereba,

erTi mxriv, msoflio ci vi lizaciis wiaRSi So bili, me ore

mxriv ki _ xangrZlivi is to ri i sa da kulturis mqo ne xa l-

xis rCeuli Svilis sulier da zne o b riv idealebs. es ad resatebi

ari an rogorc sakuTari sam So b lo da mi si gmi ru li

istoriisa Tu kulturis Se moqmedni, ise sxva da sxva epoqis,

qveynisa Tu rju li s ada mianebi, iqneba is nino Tu Tamari,

da vi Ti Tu erekle, Samili, xaiami Tu napo le o ni.

da mainc, er Ti sruliad gamor Ce u li ni Sa ni poetis lirikisa,

ro me lic sul axalgazrdobidanve bunebrivad

dahyva mis po e zi as, xolo sicocxlis bolo wlebSi ki dev

uf ro ganivrco da gaRrmavda, aris poetis re li giuri, _

Tu mca ara aucileblad ek le si ur-ritu a luri _ ga nwyoba,

rom li Tac erTianadaa gamsWva lu li poetis Semoq me deba.

anas uSu a lo apelireba Rm r Ti sa d mi Tu m ca SedarebiT

erTfe ro va nia (meufev / me u feo), magram bo lo xa ne b Si

mniSvnelovnad imata “zeciuri meufis” mrava l fe ro va n ma


54 waxnagi 1.2009

epi Te te bma _ mimRe o be bma an zedsarTaulma derivatebma

(miuR we ve lo, uze na e so, maRalo, Zliero, di de bu lo,

sve ma d li ano (528), saxi e ro, mo us yid ve lo (523), usaxo...),

anda _ ab s t ra q tulma sa xe le bma (meu fe bav, mSve ni e re bav,

saswaulo sas wa ulT So ris (314), mogizgize si xa ru lo

(282), idu ma le bav...).

dasasrul, kidev erTi gamorCeuli niSani: cno b i lia, rom

Ta namedrove epoqaSi ana kalandaZis darad, amasTan, bunebrivad,

ara vis gamou ye ne bia arc Zveli qarTuli ena da arc

dialeqtizmebi (gansa ku T re biT _ fxo uri kiloebisa). er-

Tica da meorec qmnis iseT sintagmeb sa Tu Zve li qarTulis

garkveul formebsa da fo r mulebs, rom le bic ama Tu im leqsis

erTgvar “birTvad, sakvanZo sityvebad” qceula. ase Ti

si t y vebiT _ maT Soris bibliuri cita te biTac saTau r deba

an iwyeba da mTav r de ba kidec poetis li ri ku li leqsebi

(qvemoT tireTia gamijnuli leq sis dasawyisi da bolo):

osana! _ osana! osana! (536)

o, RmerTo, o, RmerTo sabaoT,

sinaTle, sinaTle, sinaTle! (es orstriqonedi TavSic aris da

boloSic) (262)

isev yvavilob, maSarisZiro _

mTa... bevri damrCa, maSarisZiro! (170)

o, dedofalo, eg wiTeli

Semodgomura _ o, dedofalo! (278)

sxivo naTelo, deg Cemsa etlsa... (TavSic da boloSic _ 233)

Sen ise Rrma xar, qarTulo cao, Sen ise Rrma xar _

Sen ise Rrma xar, ise faqizi, qarTulo cao! (13).

III. poeturi mimarTvis semantikuri bunebisaTvis

mimarTvis ZiriTadi sakomunikacio intencia-funqciidan

gamo m dinare, yo fiTi, anu pra g ma tuli mimarTva unda

gaimi j nos poe tu ri mimar T visagan, ro me lic funq ci o nirebis

Tval sa z ri siT gan ye nebulia, ab s t raqtulia, raki

rCeba ad resa ti sagan gamoxmaure bis mo lo di nis gareSe, _

bibliuri gamoT q miT rom davaxasiaToT _ xmad mRa Ra deb

li sad uda b no sa Si na. swo red aq unda vi guloT po e tu ri,

uf ro zu stad, li ri ku li mi ma rTvis eqspresiulo bis sawyi

sic da sa wi n da ric. abst ra q tu lo ba ki aq a pri ori gu li -

sxmobs ad re satamde mima r T vis mi uR we vlobas (miuwvdomlo

bis ga gebiT) da ga mo ri c xavs mi s gan adekvaturi sapasu xo

re a gi re bis mo lo dins. ami tom ufro zusti iq ne bo da, Tu

aseT ad re sats wa r mo saxviT ad re sats vuwodebdiT.


narkvevi 55

poeturi mimarTvis abstraqtul xasiaTs amkveT rebs

apelire ba ra jgufs mikuTvnebuli sagnebisadmi _ maT Soris

(da me ta d re), sa ku Ta ri saxelebiT, kerZod, topo ni me biT

saxeldebuli, re a lu rad arsebuli geografiuli obieqtebi

sa dmi, ro me lTac po e tis mgzne bare STagoneba acocxlebs

da asu li erebs (ix. ba ra Ta S vi lis “hoi, mTawmindav, mTao

wmindav”), an ilia Wa v Wa vaZis ga mo sa T xo vari mimarTva yvarlis

mTebs (“samSob lo mTebo! Tqveni S vi li ga nebebT Tavsa...”),

xolo wlebis Semdeg _ misa l me ba oT xi wlis u na xa vi

“Seupovari” da “daumonavi” Tergisadmi (ro me lic, av to ris

TqmiT, “saxea adamianis gaRviZebulis cxo v re bi sa”).

am azriT, upasuxo poe tu ri mi ma r T va, gaug za v ne li we -

ri lis da rad, ganyenebu li, ko mu ni kaci u rad ganuxorcielebeli

da amaoebis perspeqtivis amara rCe ba ma Si nac ki,

ro de sac gacxadebuli da ver ba lu rad ga mo xa tu li ad re -

sati sru li ad konkretuli da re a lu ria (zogjer _ co c xalic!):

mas, vi Ta r ca konkre tul pirs, aqvs sa ku Ta ri saxeli

da gva ri, ro goricaa, maga li Tad, meri (Serva Si Ze) ga la k-

ti on tabiZis po eziaSi _ ama ve sa xe l wo de bis popu la ru li

leqsis mTavari da er TaderTi adresati, ro m lis saxelic

ga ta nilia leqsis saTa u rad da pi rvelsave str i qo nSi (Sen

jvars iwe r di im Rames, me ri), an saTaursa da ukanasknel

striqonSi (me ris TvalebiT), da ara marto am leqsebsa da

am stri qonebSi.

gaucxo(ur)eba. me-19 saukunis qarTul (iseve rogorc

rusul da da sa v lur) poeziaSi (ufro metad, cxadia, ma-

Rali wridan gamo su l Ta Semoq me de ba Si) miZRvniTi leq si

erTgvari ”gaucxo(ur)e bis”@da ma i n trigebeli formiT iyo

mowodebuli, rac garegnulad adre sa tis vinaobis inicialuri

Se ni RbviT ga moixateboda, arcTu iSvi a Tad _ laTinuri

N asoTi mi ce miTis ni Snis Ta nxlebiT (N-s) _ da ni S-

na vda: eZ R v ne ba (mavans). zogjer urTierTobas ki dev ufro

“au c xo(ur) e b da” Tqve nobiTi mima r T va te qstSi 15 .

qa rT vel simbolistTa artis tul wreSi, garda misi wevrebis

sa xe l Ta “ga i ta liurebisa” (rac albaT “gapoeturebis”

Ta vi se bur si mbo li za cias warmoadgenda: ti te tabiZe

> ti ci ani, pa v le ia S vi li > pa o lo, ni koloz miwiSvili >

ni ko lo, nikoloz na di ra Ze > ko lau), le q se bi eZRvneboda

italiuri ma s ka radis perso na Je b sac (da maT Soris _ kolombinas,

romelic mo g vi anebiT ti ci a nis me u R le nino ma-

15.

inglisurSi gaumJRavnebel miZRvnas kidev ufro martivad agvarebs micemiTis

ek vivalenturi windebuli (to), romlis qarTuli Targmania: eZR vneba.

ix. magaliTad, ed gar alan pos “rCeuli lirika”, diogene, Tb., 2001.


56 waxnagi 1.2009

yaSvili aRmoCnda); da iqneb ga la ktionis er Ta d e r Ti “reva

n Si” uiRblo si y varulis obieq tis sa xe lis saqvey nod ga -

m xe la da SenobiTi po zi ci is Se na r Cune ba iyo?!

aq mivadeqiT SenobiT mimarTvis sakiTxsac. igi poe turi

mimarTvebis yvelaze mkafio formalur maxasiaTeblad

unda viguloT, vinaidan nebismieri adresati vin Tu ra

jgufisa _ satr fo, Rme rTi, bedi, (wuTi)sofeli, samSoblo

da sxv., rogorc poetis Ta nmdevi su li, gaSina u re bu li

hyavs/aqvs avtoris cnobierebas, rac bunebrivad ganapirobebs

ad re sa tisadmi SenobiT mimarTvas.

ufaqizesi siyvaruli Tu wamlekavi ri sxva, sruli

sasowark veTa Tu Tavdaviwyebuli rwmena _ yve la sa xis sim-

Zafre wa r mo Sobs im uSualobas, romelsac Tqve no biT ga moxatuli

Tavazis Ta vi ara aqvs; meore mxriv, mimarTvis es fo -

rma ganmtkicebulia qro nologiur pirveladobaze dafuZne

bu li tradi ciebiT: isini ise ve Zvelia, rogorc TviT es

grZno bebi. satrfosadmi Se nobiT mi marTva ti po lo giurad,

ro gorc individu a lur da profesiul, ise _ da metadre _

xa l xur poeziaSi bunebrivia yvela ena Si 16 , oRond fo l k -

lo rSi mij nu r Ta saxe le bi anonimurad moix se ni eba ori ve

mxri dan: qa lav /qa lau da va Jao. amitom miiRo TviT Janrmac

Se sa fe ri sa xe li _ qa l va Ji a ni (xa l xur kiloze gale qsil

dialog Si aki ga la k ti o nic am tradicias icavs:

vaJi: _ daica, qalav!

qali: _ da gi brma Toli! (235)).

poeturi mimarTvis abstraqtul xasiaTs kidev ufro

amkveTrebs ape li reba ra jgufs mikuTvnebuli sagnebisadmi,

maT So ris adgilTa sa ku Ta ri saxelebiT (topo ni me biT)

sa xe l de bu li, re a lu rad arsebuli geografiuli obieqtebi

sa dmi, ro me lTac poetis mgzne bare STagoneba acocxlebs

da asu li erebs (magaliTad, baraTa S vi lis “hoi, mTawmindav,

mTao wmindav”), an ilia Wa v Wa vaZis gamo sa T xo vari mimarTva

yvarlis mTebs (“samSoblo mTebo! Tqveni S vi li ganebebT

Tavsa...”) da wlebis Semdeg _ mi sa l me ba oT xi wlis

una xa vi Seupovari da daumonavi Ter gi sa d mi (av to ris

TqmiT, “saxea adamianis gaR vi Ze bu lis cxovre bi sa”).

16.

TviT inglisuric ki, e.i. is ena, romelSic dRes gaudiferencirebelia meore

piris nacvalsaxeli, romelic mxolod mravlobiTis formiT warmodgeba

Tavisi sintaqsiT (anu mravlobiTSi SeTanxme bu li zmniT), oden Rmer Tisadmi

mimarTvaSi iyenebs Thou (= Sen) nacvalsaxels, rome lic didi asoTi

iwereba.


narkvevi 57

warmosaxviT adresa tTa ar seboba yve la konkretul

SemTxveva Si poetis im roman ti kul ga n w yo bi le ba Ta

wiaRSia aRmoce ne bu li, romlebic sxva dasxva mo ti viTaa

na saz r doebi, iqneba is Rmer T Tan da mo kidebuleba, so f-

lis sa m du ra vi, moSorebuli samSob los sevda (an sevda

samSo b los unu geSo aw m yos gamo) Tu wminda pi rovnuli

gancdebi, dakav Si re bu li ui R b lo si yvarulTan, biogra

fiul Tu sulier ob lo ba s Tan. amis nimuSe bi ux vadaa

qarTul sa ero mwerlobaSi, rus Ta ve li dan mo yo le buli

dRe vandelobamde. ga nsxvavebas qmnis ama Tu im epoqi sa-

T vis damaxa siaTebeli litera tu ruli tra di ci e bi. ker

Zod, Sua saukune e bi sa da aRorZinebis epo qis qar Tul

mwe r lo ba Si so flis sa mduravi erT-erTi wamyvani Te maa.

ro ma n ti ko se b Tan ki mis adgils iWers se vda samSoblos

wa r su li di de bi sa da unu geSo aw m yo ga mo.

romantikosebis zemoaRniSnuli ganwyobilebebi memkvidreobad

gadmoeca 60-ianelTa Semoqmedebasac, _ im

az riT, rom im d ro i n de l ma axalma Taobam daiwyo stagnaciis

mdgomareobi dan ga mo sa v lis aqtiuri Zieba erovnuli

da socialuri mi ma r Tu lebiT.

poeturi mimarTvis gamomxatveli saSualebebidan

erT-erTi yve laze gavrcelebuli da efeqturia xerxia

ritorikuli kiTxva, anu ki T xva, pasuxs rom ar saWiroebs

(roca kiTxva daclilia Ta vi si Zi ri Tadi funqciisagan).

amgvari Sinaarsis gamo es kiTxvebi dro Ta ga nmavlobaSi

gadaiqca enobriv formulebad, rogoricaa ki Tx vi T sityviani

gamoTqmebi: ra Tqma unda, rasakvirvelia, ra

gaewyo ba da misT.AerT amgvar konstruqcias Seicavs qar-

Tuli zRap re bis da sawyisic: “iyo da ara iyo ra, RvTis

ukeTesi ra iqnebo da?!”@xo lo, Tu profesiul literaturas

aviRebT, aqac gvaqvs sa u kuneebgamotarebuli pre cede

n ti “SuSanikis wamebis” erTi cnobi li pasaJis sa xiT:

“odes yo fil ars aqamomde, Tumca mamaTa da de daTa er-

Tad eWa ma puri?!” _ rac pozitiurad niSnavs kiTxvis

fo rmiT mowodebuli informaciis Sinaarsis uar yo fas.

aq ri to ri kuli kiTxvis Teoriul ganxilvas aRar SevudgebiT

17 ; davkmayofi l de biT mxo lod ramdenime popularuli

ilustraciis da sa xe le biT. ke rZod, moviyvanT

im SemTxvevis nimuSebs, romlebSic pa su xis mo lo dinis

amaoebas amkveTrebs da eqspresiuls xdis mi j riT mi y rili

kiTxvebi:

17.

ix. am sakiTxze avtoris specialuri statia (afridoniZe 1998b: 194-206).


58 waxnagi 1.2009

va, sofelo, raSigan xar, ras gvabruneb, ra zne gWirsa? (ru s-

T ve li); fu, Sen cruo sawuTrovo, rad ar mZuldi, rad miy va rdi?

(gu ra miSvili); marqvi, ra uyav, sad warmiRe sulis mSvi do ba, ri ­

s T vis momikal ymawvilis brma sarwmunoeba? (baraTaSvili); vis

ra wyal-Wala gvistumrebs, sad ra-ra davi le vi Ta? (vaJa); ra i s­

Tvis ga iWriales Senma Werxois karebma? raze gamoxvel netavi,

ra gi T x res idumalebma? (ana).

xSi rad imis niSnad, rom ritorikuli kiTxva Tqmulis

uaryo fas gu lisxmobs, poetebi TviTon “ajameben” am negatiur

mona ce ms. magaliTad, galaktionis “lurja cxenebis”@erTi

orstriqonedi mxo lod ritorikul kiTxvebs

Seicavs:

romeli scnobs Sen saxes, an vin ityvis Sens saxels?

vin gaigebs Sens Zaxils? Zaxils vin daijerebs?

da poeti TviTonve iZleva uaryofiT pasuxs:

veravin ganu ge Sebs saoc re bis ubeSi,

sZinavT bnel xveulebSi ga mo ucnob qime rebs.

anda es magaliTi:

ras momcems iseTs Cemi samSoblo

da an ras mi s cems mas Cemi qnari?..

aqac analogiuri “avtopasuxia”:

vwuxvar... veZaxi sicocxlis mizans,

magram ara vin iZleva pasuxs.

me-20 saukunis axalma literaturulma mimdinareobebma,

rome l Ta Soris si m bolisturi frTis Semoq me de bi -

Ti una ri SedarebiT Zlieri aRmoCnda, iliaseuli dRisa

da moZraobis apolo gi as daupi rispira simbolizmisa da

modernizmisaTvis zogi sxva damaxasiaTebeli midrekilebebi,

romelTa xorcSesxmam mniSvnelo v nad Secvala

manamde arsebuli esTetikuri da, rac mTavaria, ideolo

gi ur-eTikuri Rirebulebe bi. Sesabami sad, Seicvala

po eturi mimarTvis adresate bic da ma T dami damokidebulebac.


narkvevi 59

literatura

afridoniZe 1998a _ afridoniZe S. “vefxistyaosnis” personaJTa

saxelebi: statistika da stilistika, qarTveluri onomas ti ka,

I, Tb.: Tsu gam-ba, 1998.

afridoniZe 1998b _ afridoniZe S. ritorikuli kiTxvebi qar-

TulSi:

stru qtura da gamoyeneba, qarTuli sityvis kulturis sakiTxebi,

XI, Tb.: mec ni e re ba, Tb., 1998.

afridoniZe 2001 _ afridoniZe S. wodebiTi brunva Tu mimarTvis

forma? arn. Ciqobavas sakiTxavbi, XII, Tb.: qarTuli ena, 2001.

axmanova 1969 _ Ахманова О. С. Словарь лингвистических терминов (2-е

изд.). М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1969.

brokhauzi 1894 _ Ф. Брокгауз и И. Ефрон, Энциклопедия, С-Пб., 1894,

T. XII .

Tofuria 1956 _ Tofuria v. wodebiTi brunvisaTvis, sbiqe, I, Tb.:

Tsu gam-ba, 1956.

kvaWaZe 1977 _ kvaWaZe l. Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sintaqsi, Tb.:

ganaTleba, 1977.

kiknaZe 2005 _ kiknaZe z. ilias mamuli, saqarTvelo aTaswleul-

Ta gasaya rze, Tb.: arete, 2005.

leqsikoni 1990 – Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь, М.:

Советская энцик л опедия, 1990.

proniCevi 1971 – Про ни чев В. П. Синтаксис обращения (на материале

русского и сербо-хорватского языков), Л.: Наука, 1971.

sbiqe _ saxelis brunebis istoriisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi, I, Tb.:

Tsu gam-ba, Tb., 1956.

finki 1972 – Fink R. O. Person in nouns: Is the vocative a case?, American Journal

of Philology, No. 43, 1972.

qe 2008 _ qarTuli ena: enciklopedia, Tb.: erovnuli mwerloba,

2008.

RaRaniZe 2002 _ RaRaniZe m. sinamdvile da warmosaxva daviT guramiSvilis

“mxiarul zafxulSi”. Tb.: lomisi, 2002.

SaniZe 1956 _ SaniZe a. wodebiTi formis adgilisaTvis gramatika

Si, sbiqe, I, Tb.: Tsu gam-ba, 1956.

SaniZe 1973 _SaniZe a. qarTuli gramatikis safuZvlebi, I, Tb.:

Tsu gam-ba, 1973.

Ciqobava 1968 _ Ciqobava a., martivi winadadebis problema qar-

Tu l Si, I,Tb. mecniereba, 1968.

Ciqobava 1950 _ Ciqobava arn. qarTuli enis zogadi daxasiaTeba,

qegl, I, Tb.: saq. mecn. akad. gam-ba, 1950.

WinWarauli 1975 _ AWinWarauli al. xalxuri, vaJa-fSavelas xuTi

poema, Tb.: Tsu gam-ba, 1975.


60 waxnagi 1.2009

sailustracio wyaroebi

akaki _ wereTeli akaki, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet tomad,

t. 1-3, 6, Tb.: saxelgami, 1950-56.

ana _ [kalandaZe] ana, leqsebi, Tb.: qarTuli ena, 2004.

baraTaSvili _ baraTaSvili nikoloz, Txzulebani, Tb.: sabWoTa

saqarTvelo, Tb., 1968.

galaktioni _ tabiZe galaktion, leqsebi: rCeuli, Tb.: sabWoTa

saqarTvelo, Tb., 1973.

guramiSvili _ guramiSvili daviT, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli

_ davi Tiani, Tb.: saxelgami, 1955.

vaJa _ vaJa-fSavela, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad. t. 1-3,

sab Wo Ta saqarTvelo, Tb., 1964.

ilia _ WavWavaZe ilia, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc tomad, t.

1, Tb.: mecniereba _ sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1987.

orbeliani _ orbeliani grigol, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli,

Tb.: sabWoTa mwerali, 1959.

rusTveli _ rusTveli SoTa, vefxistyaosani, Tb.: mecniereba,

1988.

xalxuri _ kotetiSvili vaxtang, xalxuri poezia (II gamoc.), Tb.:

sabWoTa mwerali, Tb., 1961.

Poetic Address Forms in Georgian Poetry

Shukia Apridonidze

The paper discusses problems connected with the usage of forms of

ad d ress in Ge orgian poetry beginning from the twelvth century up to our

times, ac co r d ing to the po e tic works of the most significant Georgian

authors (beginning from Ru s ta ve li (12th c.) up to the late Anna Kalandadze,

including the intermediate ‘peaks’ of the Georgian poetry: Davit

Guramishvili, Nikoloz Baratashvili, Ilia Chav cha va dze, Akaki Tse re te li,

Vazha-Psha ve la and Galaktion Tabidze.

Addressing is an organic and an active component of a di a logue. It

is a gramtically independent and intonationally iso lated word (especially

a noun), or a group of words that denote an addressee (s. o. or sth.). In

the languages with well-deve loped sy stems of declension such forms are

nouns in the vocative case (Ancient Greek, Latin, Georgian, both Old and

Mo dern…). The Geo r gian vocatives of appellati ves with stems ending in

a consonant have a special marker (me go bar-o ‘you, friend!’), cf. nominative:

me gobar-i ‘friend’) whereas in ma ny In do-European or Turkish

la n gua ges nominative and vocative forms coincide. How ever, pro per

na mes have another distribution: they show no marker in the vocative


narkvevi 61

whe re as the ir nominative case takes the same marker -i (Davit! cf. nomina

tive: Da vi t-i).

Sharing the viewpoint that vocative is not a case, but on ly a form

of address, the author of this paper suggests widening of the semantics

of the concept of addressing. She presents a new classification of address

forms: 1. The nominal (the vocative) ad dres sings; 2. The verbal

(the imperative) addressing; 3. The interrogative addressing, and 4. The

el li ptical addressing (nouns / adverbs with omission of verbs). All of

them are uni ted by opposing to the indicative mood and neutral in to nation.

This classification has been motivated also by the usage of dif fe rent

groups of address in combination (the vocatives with the imperatives, or

with the stimulating interjections).

The paper deals with the most frequently used address forms, including

the spe cific features of a certain epoch (e.g. of Rustaveli, 12-th c.),

e.g. the most frequently used form of ad dress mze (‘the sun’), is not only

a meta phor of a good-looking person, but it also differentiates social relations,

cha ra c te ri zing only high class per sons, as well as lomi (‘lion’)can

be only a knight’s epithet. However, merchants and their wi ves, servants,

persons with lower status are never defined by the se metaphors.

The results of the analysis of the Georgian poetic works support well

this po int of view by showing numerous illustrations with such combinations

of ex pressive word-forms (vocative-imperative-interrogative).

Besides the basic parts of speech (nouns and verbs), some interjections

with stimulating sema n tics successfully combine with the vocatives:

“hoj, mtacminda!” ‘oh, Mtacminda! lit. ‘Holy Mountain’; “he, ghmerto

erto!”Oh, you God the One!”, meaning three hy postases forming one

whole.

Apart from the communicative character of address-forms in everyday

pragma tic usage of the language, both oral or written, whenever the

speaker expects an ade quate reaction from the ad dressee, the character

of address-forms in the poetic disco urse is rather abstract, as they do

not require any answer. Among the means express ing such abstract and

am bi va lent feelings or thoughts, there should be mentioned rhe to ric questions.

They serve to ex press grief, regret, nostalgy etc., and the main

mo ti va tions for abo ve-mentioned feelings are as follows: nostalgy for

the native coun t ry (via the ima ges of its rivers and mou n tains) or the

hopeless present, grief for the perso nal solitude, for the dis ta n ce existing

between the lyrical hero and his be lo ved person and /or homeland, for the

departure of the most beloved persons.


zogi sityvis warmomavlobisaTvis

qarTul JargonSi

ramaz qurdaZe

qarTuli Jargonuli leqsika sxvadasxva fenisagan Sedgeba.

masSi gamoiyofa rogorc sakuTriv qarTuli sityvebi,

aseve nasesxebi leqsikuri erTeulebi. nasesxeb sityvaTa gamolena

da aRwera uaRresad mniSvnelovania qarTuli Jargonis

buneba-TaviseburebaTa Sesaswavlad. Cveni statis

mizania qarTul JargonSi zogierTi rusuli Tu rusulenovani

sociumidan momdinare sityvis gamovlena.

qarTul JargonSi mravlad gvxvdeba rusulenovani

sociumidan momdinare rogorc rusuli, aseve etimologiurad

ararusuli Jargonuli leqsikuri erTeulebi.

zogi Zalze gamWvirvalea da erTi SexedviT barbarizms

hgavs, Tumca xmarebis specifikisa da gavrcelebis arealis

mixedviT Jargons miekuTvneba, mag.: zadni – “ukan”

da aqedan _ dazadna _ “ukan wavida”; “manqana ukan waiyvana”;

kriSa _ “saxuravi” da aqedan: “mcveli”, “mfarveli”;

strelka _ “isari” da aqedan: “Sexvedra”, “paemani”

da sxv.

zogi Jargonuli erTeuli araa imdenad gamWvirvale, rom

maTi warmoSoba rusulenovan sociums davukavSiroT, maTi

warmomavlobis dasadgenad specialuri kvlevaa saWiro.

Jargonuli leqsikuri erTeulis warmomavlobis garkveva,

sityvis wminda enaTmecnieruli warmomavlobisagan gansxvavebiT,

sxvagvar midgomas moiTxovs. Jargoni socialuri

movlenaa, amitom mTavaria romeli enis matarebeli sociumidan

xdeba sityvis SeTviseba. am SemTxvevaSi, e. i. sityvis

Jargonuli mniSvnelobis ZiebisaTvis, bunebriv warmomavlobas,

SeiZleba iTqvas, naklebi mniSvneloba aqvs. amisi

naTeli magaliTia qarTulSi sityva qeifi da Jargonuli

leqsikuri erTeuli kaifi.

rogorc cnobilia, qeifi arabuli sityvaa da niSnavs:

1. lxins, dros tarebas, nadims Rvinis smiT, _ Rreobas...

62


narkvevi 63

2. guneba-ganwyobilebas, mxiarul, karg gunebaze yofnas

(qegl).

kaifi ki Jargonia. levan bregaZe samarTlianad ukavSirebs

mas arabul qeifs, kerZod, kaifis Sesaxeb Jargonis leqsikonSi

vkiTxulobT:

“kaifi _ narkotikuli nivTierebis mixedviT gamowveuli

Troba; gadataniT: netareba, siamovneba (fonetikurad

mcireoden saxecvlili igive sityvaa, rac arabulidan

Semosuli “qeifi”). “daviwye Tvalebis triali,

manWva-grexa, cmukva da sicili, viTom kaifSi var-meTqi”

(dali fanjikiZe. Targm.); “Sen ra, _ meubneba mcire pauzis

Semdeg, _ kaifSi xar? _ kaifSi ara! _ vbrazob, _ saidan

moigone” (zurab samadaSvili); “magas erTi saqsafoni an

klarneti yuris ZirSi da wavida kaifi. . .” (maka joxaZe)”

(bregaZe 2005).

rusuli Jargonis erT leqsikonSi sityva kaifi ufro

meti mniSvnelobiTaa warmodgenili:

«КАИФ, а, м., мн. каифы. 1. Удовольствие, наслаждение, любые

приятные эмоции от чего-л... 2. О чём-л. очень хорошем, отличном,

заслуживающем высокой оценки.... 3. нарк. Состояние наркотической

эйфории... 4. нарк. Наркотик, наркотическое вещество... 5. Алкогольное

опьянение...6. Алкогольные напитки...». (Никитина 2003).

rusuli Jargonis sxva leqsikonSi am sityvas arabulidan

momdinared miiCneven da mis Semdeg mniSvnelobebs

asaxeleben:

«КАИФ, а, m. 1. Enjoyment, good time (from Arabic)... 2. pl., youth.

Pleasure, fun... 3. pl., youth. Profit, advantage...”» (Shlyakhov, Adler 1999).

amrigad, qarTulSi qeifi arabulidanaa nasesxebi, xolo

imave Ziris, magram ukve socialuri, Jargonuli mniSvnelobiT

datvirTuli kaifi, rusulenovani sociumidanaa Semosuli.

ar gamovricxavT, rom qeifs TviT arabulSi an mis

romelime dialeqtSic hqondes rame sxva socialuri Rirebulebis

mqone mniSvneloba (SeiZleba Jargonulic), magram

kaifis mniSvneloba qarTul JargonSi uTuod rusulenovani

sociumidanaa Semosuli, rac qronologiurad e. w. sabWoTa

periods emTxveva. TviT fonetikuri cvlilebac q →

k SesaZlebelia araqarTul niadagze momxdariyo, qarTul-

Si q-s k-d gadasvla ar iyo aucilebeli. qarTulma Jargonma

kaifi ukve fonetikurad saxecvlili isesxa.

am SemTxvevaSi qarTulisaTvis mxolod sityva kaifis

Jargonuli mniSvneloba iyo axali, da radgan qarTulSi

qeifi ukve arsebobda da Tanac rogorc zmnuri, aseve saxeluri

sityvawarmoebiTi formebic moepoveboda (qeifobs,

eqeife; saqeifo, moqeife, qeifSi da sxv.), Jargonulma le-


64 waxnagi 1.2009

qsikurma erTeulma kaifmac advilad awarmova msgavsi formebi:

kaifobs, ekaife; sakaifo, mokaife, kaifSi da sxv.

maSasadame, Jargonis gamdidrebis erT-erTi gza

sesxebaa. am SemTxvevaSi Zalze aqtualuria gamsesxebeli

enis sociumi da misi gavlena mimRebi, msesxebeli enis

sociumze.

am TvalsazrisiT Zalze sainteresoa qarTuli Jargoni,

_ man sabWoTa periodSi uxvad miiRo rusulenovani

sociumidan leqsikuri masala, romelic qarTul yalibSi

moaqcia da qarTul JargonSi daamkvidra. yovelive amis

gamo aucilebelia rusulenovani sociumidan momdinare

sityva-gamoTqmebis aRnusxva da maTi Seswavla, rac ara

marto qarTuli Jargonis Taviseburebebs warmoaCens,

aramed gviCvenebs qarTuli enis, misi fonetikur-gramatikuli

SesaZleblobebis simdidresa da moqnilobas zogadad.

qarTuli Jargonis warmomavlobas adridanve eqceoda

yuradReba. Cveulebriv, leqsikonebSi miTiTebulia ama Tu

im qarTuli Jargonuli sityvis warmomavloba, Tumca ara

yovelTvis da zogjer araTanmimdevrulad, usistemod.

ase, magaliTad, mxolod “didi qarTul-inglisuri leqsikonidan”

vigebT, rom Jargonuli leqsikuri erTeuli

padagrevi, rac saCuqars niSnavs, rusulidan momdinareobs,

magram imave leqsikonSi araferia naTqvami grevis

warmomavlobaze, rac aseve saCuqars niSnavs, rusulidan

momdinareobs da faqtobrivad padagrevis variants warmoadgens.

rusulSi ki am sityvebs aseTi mniSvnelobebi aqvs: ker-

Zod, padagrevs finansuri, fuladi daxmarebis saxiT ganmartavs

amerikaSi gamocemuli rusuli Jargonis leqsikoni

da mas ukavSirebs rusulsave zmnur formebs «подогревать

⁄ подогреть»:

«ПОДОГРЕВ, -а, m., crim. Financial support. See подогревать.

ПОДОГРЕВАТЬ ⁄ ПОДОГРЕТЬ, crim. To support with money (lit., to

warm up). • А на эти деньги подогреешь наших. “Here’s a contribution for

the support of our boys”. ПОДОГРЕТЬ БРАТВУ, idiom. crim. To support

imprisoned fellow criminals from a general fund. • На то и есть общяк –

подогревать братву. “That’s why we keep a general fund, to support our

brothers in prison”» (Shlyakhov, Adler 1999).

TviT ruseTSi gamocemul Jargonis leqsikonSi am sityvebs

sxvagvari mniSvneloba aqvs:

«ПОДОГРЕВ, а, м., нарк. Употребление наркотиков....

ПОДОГРЕТЬ, ею, еет, сов., кого. Дать ком-л. что-л. (в основном –

наркотики) бесплатно» (Никитина 2003).


narkvevi 65

aseTive ganmartebebi aqvs amave leqsikonSi warmodgenil

sityva grevs:

«ГРЕВ, а, м., 1. Материальная помощь, оказываемая находящимся

в заключении членам группировки, «конторы»... 2. Наркотики,

алкоголь...» (Никитина 2003).

marTalia, rusul leqsikonebSi am sityvaTa ganmartebebSi

erTgvari sxvaoba SeiniSneba, magram mainc SeiZleba

maTi gaerTianeba ramis gacemis, ramis micemis, Cuqebis SinaarsiT.

swored am mniSvnelobiT damkvidrda es sityvebi

qarTulSi. es orive leqsikuri erTeuli iolad SeiTvisa

qarTulma Jargonma da amaTgan zmnuri formebic ganiviTara:

ugreva, daupadagreva _ aCuqa. amaTgan pirvelis, ugreva-s

dasaxelebisaTvis cocxal metyvelebas veyrdnobiT,

xolo daupadagrevas ganmarteba da ilustracia leqsikonebidan

mogvyavs:

“daupadagreva _ aCuqa (Sdr. “grevi” da “padagrevi”).

“_ es ra Cemodani dagiadebia, simon? _ TurqeTidan “dagvipadagreves”

(mixo mosuliSvili)” (bregaZe 2005); “daupadagrevebs

(daupadagreva, daupadagrevebia) Rus c will

give sb sth (ingratiating present)” (didi qarTul-inglisuri

leqsikoni 2006).

amgvarad, rogorc irkveva, qarTul JargonSi dadasturebuli

grevic rusuli warmoSobisa.

rasakvirvelia, erT statiaSi SeuZlebelia rusuldan an

sxva romelime enidan momdinare leqsikis sruli korpusis

gamovlena qarTul JargonSi. es mniSvnelovani da Sromatevadi

saqmea, rac momavalSic gagrZeldeba, iseve rogorc

saerTod gagrZeldeba Jargonuli sityvebis gamovlena, aRnusxva

da Seswavla.

amjerad swored rusulenovan sociumTan, rusul JargonTan

mimarTebiT ganvixilavT zogierTi qarTuli Jargonuli

sityvis warmomavlobas.

ambali

“ambali _ axmaxi. “Tu vinme iaraRiani ambali iSove da

imasTan erTad svam Cais naSuaRamevs?” (aka morCilaZe)”

(bregaZe 2005, didi qarTul-inglisuri leqsikoni 2006).

ambali rusuli Jargonidan momdinareobs, amerikaSi gamocemuli

rusuli Jargonis leqsikonis mixedviT Zliers,

Roniers, jmuxs (Casxmul, Caskvnil, adamians), CxubisTavs

aRniSnavs: «АМБАЛ, -а, m., neg. A strong, thickset fellow, thug, muscle-man.

• Муж у неё уж больно амбалистый. “Her husband is awfully

brawny”» (Shlyakhov, Adler 1999).


66 waxnagi 1.2009

mandraJi, samandraJo

“mandraJi _ mRelvareba (sportsmenisa); SiSi. “arada,

Cvenebic rom mandraJiT eTamaSebian!” (nodar dumbaZe); “me

mgoni, mandraJi meqneboda, Cems sakuTar films ar mouRonmeTqi

bolo” (dali fanjikiZe. Targm.).

samandraJo _ saSiSi (ix. “mandraJi”). “piti kide atandaze

dadga gareT, Tumca ra iyo aq samandraJo” (gia Wumburi-

Ze. Targm.)” (bregaZe 2005).

es sityvac rusuli Jargonidan modis, Sdr.: «МАН-

ДРАЖИРОВАТЬ, ую, ует, несов. Бояться чего-л. . .» (Никитина 2003).

ramsebi

mravlobiTis formiT gvxvdeba Semdeg gamoTqmaSi:

“ramsebi ar agerios _ araferi SegeSalos. “piri davibane

da meTqi, mamuk, ar agerios ramsebi, axla unda gaigo

yvelaferi” (aka morCilaZe) (bregaZe 2005).

es sityvac rusuli Jargonidan momdinareobs, sadac aseve

mravlobiTis formiT gvxvdeba sxvadasxva gamoTqmaSi:

«РАМСЫ, ов, мн. ** Раскидывать рамсы. Рассказывать что-л. .

. **Навести (развести) рамсы. Разузнать о чём-л., разведать что-л. . .

**Попутать рамсы. Ошибаться» (Никитина 2003).

stosi

es sityva qarTulSi dasturdeba Semdeg gamoTqmaSi:

“stosi mi(h)yavs _ liderobs, avangardSia. “. . . literaturiT

dainteresebul universitetelTa Soris maT mihyavT

“stosi” (SoTa iaTaSvili)” (bregaZe 2005). unda momdinareobdes

aseve rusul JargonSi dadasturebuli sityvisagan

stosi:

«СТОС, а, м. Игральние карты» (Никитина 2003).

Cmori

am sityvasTan erTad missave saxelur da zmnur variantebsac

warmovadgenT:

“Cmori _ uxeiro, jabani, bedovlaTi. “_ Zmebo, axal skolaSi

gadavedi, xom iciT, da erTi-orjer amomakiTxeT, vinmes

Cmori ar vegono. iqaurma “sastavma” naxos, rom kai tipi

var, ra. . .” (beqa molaSvili).

Cmoriki _ igivea, rac Cmori (ix.), oRond rusuli kninobiTi

sufiqsiT (-ик) gaformebuli. “tipi liandagze ijda,

miiwie, mec damsvio, _ viRaca “Cmoriki” gaeCiTa” (mixo mosuliSvili).

daaCmora _ daCagra; daabeCava, daaglaxaka. (Sdr. “Cmori”).

“ar maburTaveb? nazad momeqcevi? ar damaCmoreb?”


narkvevi 67

(oTar pertaxia);” “xolo Tu dagaCmores, albaT usityvod

itandi Seni gvaris Seuracxmyofel transformaciebs da

boRma gulSi gisivdeboda” (diana vaCnaZe).

daaCmorika _ daabeCava, sulierad daTrguna. (Sdr.

“Cmori” da “Cmoriki”). “magas Tu ramiT ar davupirispirdi,

mTlad “damaCmorikebs” (mixo mosuliSvili) (bregaZe 2005).

es sityvac rusuli Jargonidan momdinareobs, moviyvanT

mis rusul variantebsac: K

«ЧМО, ср. и м., пренебр. 1. Морально опустившийся человек. Чмо

– плохой человек ⁄ возможная этимология – аббревиатура от «человек,

морально опустившийся» ⁄ ... - - - деаббр. Чмо – «Человек из Московской

области». Первоначально употреблялось в значении «провинциал»... 2.

арм. Деградировавший, опустившийся в условиях дедовщины солдат...»

(Никитина 2003; Shlyakhov, Adler 1999).

rusulSi dasturdeba “Cmokic”: «ЧМОК, -а, m., youth, neg. A

worthless or unpleasant person. • Отойди отсюда, чмок, видеть тебя не

хочу. “Get out of here, you schmuck! I don’t want to use your face» (Shlyakhov,

Adler 1999).

gvxvdeba am sityvidan nawarmoebi sxva formebic:

«ЧМОРИТЬ, рю, рит, несов., кого. Издеваться над кем-л.,

высмеивать кого-л». (Никитина 2003).

aSS-Si gamocemuli rusuli Jargonis leqsikonis mixedviT

es sityva SeSinebas niSnavs: «ЧМОРИТЬ ⁄ ЗАЧМОРИТЬ, youth. To

frighten, terrify. • Рекетиры его совсем зачморили, требуют деньги, грозятся

избить. “Those racketeers have got him completely terrorized with their demands

for money and their threats of violence”» (Shlyakhov, Adler 1999).

aseTive mcire gansxvavebaa rusuli sityva “CmoSnik”-is

ganmartebisas zemoT miTiTebuli leqsikonebis mixedviT:

«ЧМОШНИК, а, м. То же, что ЧМО 1. Чмо, чмошник – морално

униженный человек...» (Никитина 2003). xolo amerikaSi gamocemuli

leqsikonis mixedviT usiamovno, WuWyian, binZur pirovnebas

niSnavs, _ kerZod, «ЧМОШНИК, -а, m., youth, neg. An

unpleasant, dirty person. • Этот чмошник загадил всю квартиру. “That

slob has messed up the whole apartment”» (Shlyakhov, Adler 1999).

sityva “CmoSni” TiTqmis erTnairadaa ganmartebuli

aRniSnul leqsikonebSi: «ЧМОШНЫЙ, ая, ое. Неприятный

на вид, вызывающий отвращение (о человеке)...» (Никитина 2003)

Sdr.: «ЧМОШНЫЙ, ая, ое, neg. Unpleasant, dirty. • Там у вас чмошня

компашка, туда не пойду. “Those friends of yours are such slobs, I wouldn’t

want to go to their place”» (Shlyakhov, Adler 1999).

xaniga

es sityvac rusulidan momdinareobs da zustad imave mniSvnelobiT

gvxvdeba qarTul JargonSic, rogorc rusulSi:


68 waxnagi 1.2009

“xaniga _ galoTebuli, daSvebuli (fskerze). “...ori

ojaxi gaiCiTa. erTi belgiidan, eg xo giTxari da meore

iyo, simon, Tbilisis erT kai ubnis sinamdvilidan: colii,

Svilii da qmaric. eg “c” imito, ro ni riba, ni miasa, Tan magari

xaniga, niriaxa ra da cota xanSi awies kidevac” (mixo

mosuliSvili)” (bregaZe 2005).

Sdr.: «ХАНЫГА, -и, m., neg. A drunkard (cf. хань). • Этот ханыга

уже пьян с утра. “That boozer has been drunk since this morning”» (Shlyakhov,

Adler 1999). .

Tavis mxriv rusulSi xaniga “xan” sityvidan momdinareobs,

rac smas aRniSnavs: «ХАНЬ, -и, f. A drink. • Давай сначала

сделаем, а потом будем хань глотать. “Let’s do the job first, and then

we’ll have ourselves a drink” (Shlyakhov, Adler 1999).

miuxedavad zemoT moyvanili magaliTebis simcirisa,

cxadia, Tu ra gavlena aqvs rusulenovan sociums da mis metyvelebas

qarTul Jargonze. yofili saWoTa erTianoba

(jari, cixe da axlo yofiTi urTierTobebi) erTgvarad

ganapirobebda saerTo Jargonuli formebis arsebobas. ver

vityviT, rom aseTi urTierToba amJamad mTlianad Sewyvetilia.

amis adasturebs postsabWour periodSi Semosuli

Jargonizmebi qarTulSi. amis nimuSad davasaxelebT Tanamedrove

qarTuli Jargonis magaliTebs cocxali metyvelebidan,

romelTac aseve vadasturebT rusul Jargonis

leqsikonebSi. kerZod:

muzoni (mr. muzonebi) _ musika, Sdr.: «МУЗОН, а, м.

Музыка» (Никитина 2003).

fanati _ ucnauri adamiani; adamiani, romelmac raime

sakiTxi ZirisZirobamde icis, fani (sportis an musikis),

Sdr.: «ФАНАТ, а, м. 1. Человек со странностями... 2. одобр. Умный,

сообразтельный, эрудированный...» (Никитина 2003). amerikaSi gamocemuli

rusuli Jargonis leqsikonSi fanatis sxva mniSvnelobasac

vxvdebiT, kerZod, sportis fani: «ФАНАТ, -а,

m. A sports fan (from фанатик). • Вчера фанаты устроили драку после

матча. “The fans got into a fistfight after yesterday’s match”» (Shlyakhov,

Adler 1999) da sxv.

Tavis mxriv, sayuradReboa qarTuli leqsikis analizi

rusul JargonSi, magram es calke kvlevis sagania.

daskvnis saxiT aRvniSnavT, rom qarTuli Jargoni mravalferovani

da metad sainteresoa, misi SeswavlisaTvis

aucilebelia leqsikur erTeulTa gamowvlilviTi analizi

maTi warmomavlobis, semantikuri da gramatikuli Taviseburebebis

gaTvaliswinebiT.


narkvevi 69

literatura:

1. qegl _ qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, t. I-VIII, prof.

arn. Ciqobavas saerTo redaqciiT, Tb., 1950-1964.

2. bregaZe 2005 _ bregaZe l. qarTuli Jargonis leqsikoni,

Tb., 2005.

3. Никитина 2003 – Никитина Т. Г. Словарь молодежного сленга, Санкт-

Петербург, 2003.

4. Shlyakhov, Adler 1999 – Vladimir Shlyakhov and Eve Adler, Dictionary of Russian

Slang & Colloquial Expressions, 2 nd Edition, 1999.

5. didi qarTul-inglisuri leqsikoni, 2006 _ didi qarTulinglisuri

leqsikoni, or tomad, mTavari redaqtori donald

reifildi, londoni, 2006.

Ramaz Kurdadze

Towards the origin of some words in Georgian slang

The article deals with the analysis of several words from Georgian slang

vocabulary which are compared to the data of Russian slang dictionaries

published in Russia and USA. As a result of this comparison several words

of Russian origin present in Georgian slang are revealed. Such as: ambali

“ambali” – a strong, thickset fellow, thug, muscle-man; mandraJi “mandraji”

– fear; ramsebi “ramsebi” – such as in the phrase ramsebi ar agerios

“ramsebi ar agerios”, “do not mix ramsebi”, meaning “do not make

mistakes, do not confuse, be careful”, stosi “stosi” which comes from the

name of card game and is present in the phrase “stosi mihyavs”, “he is leading

the stosi”. This phrase means “he is a leader, controls the situation”;

Cmori “chmori” – a worthless or unpleasant person; dirty person; xaniga

“xaniga” – a drunkard.


diskursis definiciaTa analizi

salome omiaZe

Tanamedrove humanitarul mecnierebebSi diskursis gageba

sxvadasxvagvaria, amas garkveulwilad ganapiro bebs kvlevis

sfero, sadac igi kvlevis sagania. magaliTad, lingvistikur

da semiotikur terminTa inglisur-rusul leqsikonSi (leqsikoni

2001) mocemuli ganmartebebidan pirveli, romelic

teqstis lingvistikasa da diskurs-analizSia gamoyenebuli,

diskurss gansazRvravs rogorc Tematurad, kulturulad

an kidev rame niSniT urTierTdakavSirebuli teqstebis

erTobliobas, romlis ganviTareba da Sevseba SesaZlebelia

damatebiTi teqstebiT. meore ganmartebiT, romelic sociologiasa

da socialur semiotikaSia miRebuli, diskursi

aris urTierToba, romelic ganixileba rogorc garkveuli

diskursuli “praqtikebis” ganxorcieleba (m. fuko). mesame

definicia aseve gamoiyeneba sociologiaSi, magram gamoiyeneba

logikasa da filosofiaSic: igi gansazRvrulia rogorc

sametyvelo komunikaciis saxeoba, romelic gulisxmobs socialuri

cxovrebis RirebulebaTa, normaTa da wesTa racionalur

kritikul ganxilvas da romlis erTaderTi motivia

urTierTgagebis miRweva (i. habermasi) (leqsikoni 2001: 111).

rogorc vxedavT, diskursis arc erTi ganmarteba ar aris

naTeli da sruli: erTgan igi warmodgenilia rogorc teqstebis

erToblioba, meoregan diskursul “praqtikebSi”

ganxorcielebuli urTierToba, mesamegan _ rogorc sametyvelo

komunikaciis saxeoba, unda gaviTvaliswinoT isic,

rom yvela miTiTebul sferoSi (teqstis lingvistika, diskurs-analizi,

sociologia, socialuri semiotika, logika

da filosofia) “diskursis” gansxvavebuli definiciebic

arsebobs, rac imas niSnavs, rom am cnebis gansazRvreba sxvadasxva

mecnieruli codnis farglebSic ki unificirebuli

ar aris.

diskursis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva SexedulebaTa aRwera bevr

gamokvlevaSi gvxvdeba. Cven SevecdebiT Cveni analizi war-

70


narkvevi 71

vmarToT im opoziciaTa ganxilvis gziT, romlebsac “diskursis”

cneba qmnis sxva cnebasTan mimarTebiT.

daviwyoT imiT, rom laT. discursus niSnavs aqeT-iqiT sirbils,

saubars, laparaks, frang. discours _ metyvelebas. TviT

sityvis gansxvavebul mniSvnelobaTagan erT-erTis aReba

saorientaciod, Cveni azriT, xdeboda safuZveli cnebis

araerTmniSvnelovani terminologizaciisaTvis.

pirveli opozicia dikursis cnebasTan mimarTebiT iyo,

albaT, “diskursuli _ intuiciuri”, romelic gonebasa

da azrovnebas ukavSirdeboda. rogorc literaturaSia

aRniSnuli (neretina, ogurcovi 2005: 252-255), Gjer kidev

platoni da aristotele diskursul azrovnebas upirispirebdnen

intuiciur azrovnebas, rodesac WeSmaritebebs yofdnen

uSualo anu intuiciur WeSmaritebebad da gaSualebul

anu mtkicebaTa safuZvelze miRebul WeSmaritebebad.

amgvarad, klasikur filosofiaSi diskursuli azrovneba,

romelic cnebaTa an msjelobaTa TanamimdevrulobiT iSleba,

upirispirdeboda intuiciur azrovnebas, romelic

yovelgvari Tanamimdevruli gaSlis gareSe, erTbaSad

moixelTebs mTels; plotine ganasxvavebda sayovelTao,

mTlian, arakerZosa da araindividualur erTian gonebasa

da diskursul gonebas, romelic swvdeba yovel calkeul

sazrissa Tu azrs; Toma akvineli erTmaneTs upirispirebs

diskursulsa da intuiciur codnas, diskursul azrovnebas

ganixilavs rogorc inteleqtis moZraobas erTi obieqtidan

meorisken. XVI-XVII saukuneebSi warmoiSva intuiciuri

da diskursuli Semecnebis sxvadasxva interpretacia.

aRsaniSnavia dekartis, spinozasa da laibnicis is Tvalsazrisebi,

romelTa mixedviT, mecnieruli SemecnebisaTvis

aucilebelia intuicia, romelic safuZvlad udevs mtkicebebs

da maT Tanamimdevrulobas uzrunvelyofs diskursul

azrovnebaSi. rogorc vxedavT, aq arc dapirispireba gvaqvs

da arc igiveoba, aramed am ori (intuiciuri da diskursuli)

Semecnebis erTianoba.

Semdegi opoziciaa “diskursi _ azri”, sadac diskursi

udris metyvelebas, romelic Sedgeba urTierTdakavSirebuli

sityvebisagan (saxelebisagan), xolo azrovneba aris

metyveleba gonebaSi. aq aRar SevCerdebiT diskursis gagebaze

sxvadasxva filosofosTan da yuradRebas mivaqcevT

aRniSnuli terminis Semosvlas enaTmecnierebaSi.

rogorc cnobilia, XX saukuneSi filosofiam lingvisturi

modelebisa da meTodebisaken ibruna piri. enaTmecnierTa

mier enisa da metyvelebis garCevam, enis funqcionirebis

semantikuri da pragmatikuli aspeqtebisadmi inte-


72 waxnagi 1.2009

resma, semiotikurma kvlevebma aSkara gaxada, rom calkeul

winadadebaSi kavSirebis tipTa Seswavla ar iyo sakmarisi

adamianTa urTierTqmedebis asaxsnelad. amitom kvleva gascda

winadadebis farglebs, kerZod, igi gadaswvda metyvelebas,

rogorc sametyvelo aqtTa bmul Tanamimdevrobas,

romelic gamoxatulia sxvadasxva teqstiT da romlis gaanalizeba

sxvadasxva aspeqtiTaa aucilebeli. es aspeqtebi

SeiZleba iyos pragmatikuli, semantikuri, referentuli,

emociur-Semfasebluri da sxv. Tavis mxriv, enaTmecnierebmac

zefrazul erTianobebs, anu diskurss mimarTes, romelic

teqstis garda, aralingvistur faqtorebsac moicavs,

iseTebs, rogoricaa adresatis ganwyoba, mizani, Sexedulebebi,

TviTSefaseba, sxvaTa Sefaseba da sxv. sosiuris mier

warmodgenili diqotomiis Tanaxmad, ena sametyvelo qmedebis

nawilia, niSanTa sistemaa, romlebic cnebebs gamoxataven,

metyveleba ki enis manifestaciaa. enisa da metyvelebis

dapirispireba sxvadasxva koncefciaSi sxvadasxvagvaradaa

interpretirebuli: xan rogorc kodisa da Setyobinebis,

xan pragmatikisa da semantikis, xan normisa da stilis da

a. S. e. koseriusaTvis ena SesaZleblobaTa Ria sistemaa, metyveleba

_ realizebul formaTa da normaTa erToblioba

(koseriu 1963: 175). aRniSnul opoziciaSi, rogorc vxedavT,

“metyvelebis” adgili “diskursma” daikava.

e. benvenistma erT-erTma pirvelma mianiWa terminologiuri

mniSvneloba “diskurss”, romelic franguli lingvistikuri

tradiciiT metyvelebas, teqsts aRniSnavda.

benvenisti, upirispirebda ra obieqtur Txrobas, diskurss

axasiaTebda rogorc metyvelebis garkveul tips _ “molaparakis

mier miTvisebul metyvelebas” (zepiri urTierTobis

sxvadasxva Janri, dRiurebi, piradi werilebi, mogonebebi

da misT., romlebic subieqturobis ufro maRali xarisxiT

xasiaTdebian). metyvelebis es formebi gansxvavdebian

sxvadasxva niSniT: droTa sistemiT, nacvalsaxelebiT

da sxv. TxrobiTi (récit) diskursis gaigivebam saerTod diskursTan

arsebiTad daaviwrova cnebis Sinaarsi, magram SesaZlebeli

gaxada kulturis diskursTa erTi TvalsazrisiT

ganxilva, upirveles yovlisa, es exeba literaturul,

scenur da kinematografiul diskursebs, sadac yuradReba

maxvildeba droTa sistemis, Txrobis xangrZlivobis normebidan

gadaxrisa da sxv. gaazrebaze. SemdgomSi diskursis

es gageba gavrcelda pragmatikulad ganpirobebul metyvelebis

yvela saxeze.

opozicia “diskursi _ obieqturi Txroba” _ benvenistis

moZRvrebis nawilia, sadac metyveli subieqti grama-


narkvevi 73

tikuli struqturis ganmsazRvrelia da amdenad, enobrivi

sistemidan yuradReba gadatanilia TviT adamianze. amiT,

rogorc aRniSnaven, benvenistma saTave daudo lokaciis

(sivrculi deiqsisis) Tanamedrove pragmatul kategorias

(lebaniZe 1997: 22).

diskurss pragmatul, sociokulturul faqtorebTan

akavSirebs m. fukoc, romelmac Tavis “codnis arqeologia-

Si” (fuko 1996) daamuSava moZRvreba diskursuli formaciis,

rogorc specifikuri diskursuli praqtikebis, pirobaTa

Sesaxeb. fukos wignSi mTeli humanitaruli codna gaazrebulia

rogorc im diskursul praqtikaTa (TavianTi wesebiT,

konceptebiTa da strategiebiT) arqeologiuri analizi,

romlebic arseboben Semecnebis an qmedebis ara subieqtSi,

aramed codnis anonimur nebaSi, romelic sistematurad ayalibebs

obieqtebs. am obieqtebze ki laparakoben diskursis

praqtikebi. Tu diskursi fukosaTvis “sityvieri performansebis

erTobliobaa”, isaa, rac iyo warmoqmnili _ “niSanTa

erToblioba”, “formulirebis aqtTa erToblioba”, “fraza-

Ta Tu propoziciaTa rigi”, diskursuli formacia warmoadgens

gamonaTqvamTa gabnevisa da ganawilebis princips. “diskursuli

formacia aris gamonaTqvamTa mTavari sistema, romelsac

eqvemdebareba sityvier performansTa jgufi” (fuko

1996: 116), amitom xdeba SesaZlebeli laparaki politikur,

ekonomikur, biologiur Tu sxva diskursebze. adamianTa

urTierTqmedebebsa da cxovrebiseul konteqstebSi Caflva

(adgilisa da drois konkretul pirobebSi) xorcieldeba

swored “diskursuli praqtikis” cnebis meSveobiT. es cneba

gansxvavdeba eqspresiuli da racionaluri qmedebis gramatikuli

kompetenciisagan, igi drosa da sivrceSi yovelTvis

gansazRvruli “im anonimuri istoriuli wesebis erTobliobaa,

romlebmac daadgines mocemul epoqaSi, mocemuli

socialuri, ekonomikuri, geografiuli an lingvisturi sivrcisaTvis

gamonaTqvamis funqciis Sesrulebis pirobebi”

(fuko 1996: 118). amiT fukom Camoayaliba axali opozicia

“diskursi _ gamonaTqvami”.

gasuli saukunis 70-iani wlebamde “diskursi” da “teqsti”

evropul lingvistikaSi paralelurad ixmareboda.

“diskursis analizi” (pirvelad z. harisma ixmara) da teqstis

“lingvistika” (e. koseriu: Linguistica del texto) germanul

terminTan (Tectlinguistik) erTad, Zalian axlos mdgom, xSirad

erTsa da imave enaTmecnierul sferoebs gamoxatavdnen.

principuli gansxvavebis danaxva da diskursisa da teqstis

cnebebis gamijvna dakavSirebulia t. a. van deikis diskursuli

analizis skolasTan. teqstisa da diskursis diferen-


74 waxnagi 1.2009

cireba am wyvilSi situaciis kategoriis SemotaniT (diskursi

= teqsts + situacia; teqsti = diskurss _ situacia)

ukve niSnavda enobrivi komunikaciis Seswavlisadmi farTo

midgomas: kvlevis obieqti xdeboda winadadebaze ufro

vrceli metyvelebis monakveTi, erTi mxriv, xolo meore

mxriv, socialur situaciaze maxvildeboda yuradReba. van

deikis ganmartebiT, “diskursis namdvili gageba damokidebulia

enis momxmarebelTa cvalebad maxasiaTeblebsa

da konteqstze” (van deiki 1989: 45). teqsti ki gagebuli iyo

rogorc abstraqtuli formaluri konstruqcia, romlis

realizacia da aqtualizacia xdeba diskursSi garkveul

sociokulturul konteqstTan da eqstralingvistur faqtorebTan

(adresatis ganwyobani, azrebi, codnebi, miznebi)

mWidro kavSirSi. diskursi gagebulia rogorc rTuli

komunikaciuri movlena da imave dros rogorc winadadeba-

Ta bmuli mimdevroba, romelTa analizi xdeba lingvisturi

kodebis, freimebis, scenarebis, konteqstis modelebis,

socialuri reprezentaciebis TvalsazrisiT, rac agebs

socialur urTierTobasa da gagebas. amgvarad, van deikma

sxvanairad Camoayaliba opozicia “teqsti _ diskursi”,

roca teqsti im SesaZleblobaTa abstraqtul velad warmoadgina,

romlebic diskursis sxvadasxva formiT aqtualizdeba.

bevr gamokvlevaSi, romelic funqcionalurad aris

orientirebuli, diskursisa da teqstis dapirispireba

xdeba iseTi opoziciuri kriteriumebis mixedviT, rogoricaa

funqciuroba _ struqturuloba, procesi _ produqti,

dinamikuroba _ statikuroba, aqtualuroba _ virtualuroba.

Sesabamisad, gansxvavdebian struqturuli teqsti,

rogorc produqti da funqciuri diskursi, rogorc

procesi. rogorc m. makarovi aRniSnavs, am Temis variaciaa

teqsti, rogorc abstraqtuli Teoriuli konstruqti, romelic

diskursSi xorcieldeba iseve, rogorc winadadebis

aqtualizacia xdeba gamonaTqvamSi (makarovi 2003: 89).

amgvarad, erT rigSi eqceva winadadeba da teqsti, xolo

meoreSi _ gamonaTqvami da diskursi. es bunebrivic aris,

radgan gamonaTqvami winadadebisagan gansxvavdeba, rogorc

moculobiT, ise struqturuli, Sina-arsobrivi da funqciuri

TvalsazrisiT. analogiuria mimarTeba diskurs-sa

da teqsts Sorisac. Tu gaviziarebT, rom winadadeba da teqsti

enis dones ganekuTvneba, xolo gamonaTqvami da diskursi

_ enis gamoyenebas, aseT gayofas SeiZleba hqondes

azri da meTodologiurad sasargebloc aRmoCndes (makarovi

2003: 89).


narkvevi 75

teqstisa da diskursis gansxvavebisTvis zog gamokvlevaSi

gamoyenebulia opozicia “werilobiTi teqsti _ zepiri

diskursi”, rac damaxasiaTebelia enisa da metyvelebis

kvlevis formalisturi midgomisaTvis. amgvari dayofa

aviwroebs orive urTierTdapirispirebuli terminis moculobas.

aRniSnuli diqotomiis safuZvelze zogi mkvlevari

gamoyofs diskurs-analizs, romlis obieqti, maTi azriT,

unda iyos mxolod zepiri metyveleba da (werilobiTi)

teqstis lingvistikas. magram, rogorc aRniSnaven, aseT

midgomas praqtikuli kvlevisas bevri dabrkoleba xvdeba.

magaliTad, moxseneba SeiZleba erTdroulad ganxiluli

iyos rogorc teqsti da, amasTanave, rogorc sajaro gamosvla,

anu komunikaciuri movlena, Tumca formiT monologuri

(tradiciuli gagebiT), magram, miuxedavad amisa, savsebiT

amsaxveli enobrivi urTierTobis im specifikisa, romelic

mas SeiZleba hqondes qmedebis mocemul tipSi.

diskursis cnebis dakavSirebas mxolod zepir metyvelebasTan

SeiZleba is safuZvelic hqondes, rom diskursi metyvelebis

Tanmxleb, para-lingvistur elementebsac Seicavs

(sxvadasxva mimikas, Jestebs, fonaciur saSualebebs),

romlebic teqstSi mxolod aRweris gziT SeiZleba “gacocxldes”

(omiaZe 1998).

rogorc vxedavT, mravalgvaria is opoziciebi, romel-

Ta farglebSi da romelTa meSveobiT cdiloben “diskursis”

definiciasa da diskursis analizis warmarTvas. bevri

mkvlevrisTvis naTelia, rom diskursisa da teqstis mkve-

Tri gamijvna ar aris adekvaturi. Cveni azriT, Tu es ramdenadme

xerxdeba Teoriul doneze, praqtikuli kvlevisas

aRniSnuli cnebebis aRreva, urTierTCanacvleba TiTqmis

gardauvalia. es Cven gvagonebs sosiuriseuli “ena-metyveleba”

diqotomiasTan dakavSirebul problemebs, romlebic

Cndeba xolme aseve empiriuli kvlevebis sferoSi.

arsebobs Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviT, diskursi gagebulia

ufro farTod _ rogorc yvelaferi, rac iTqmeba

da iwereba, anu rogorc sametyvelo qmedeba, romelic

imave dros warmoadgens enobriv masalasac bgeriTi Tu

grafikuli gamoxatviT. teqsti ki (viwro mniSvnelobiT)

gagebulia rogorc weris meSveobiT fiqsirebuli masala.

amgvarad, terminebi “metyveleba” da “teqsti” iqneba

saxeobrivi maTi gamaerTianebeli gvarovnuli terminis

“diskursis” mimarT (bogdanovi 1993: 5-6). is, rom aq xazgasmulia

diskursis cnebis ganmazogadebeli buneba, da-

Zleulia is SezRudvebi, romlebsac uqmnida am cnebas ise-

Ti niSnebi, rogoricaa monologuroba / dialoguroba;’


76 waxnagi 1.2009

zepiri / werilobiTi, mniSvnelovnad miaCnia m. makarovs,

romelic aRniSnavs, rom diskursis, rogorc gvarovnuli

kategoriis gamoyeneba metyvelebis, teqstisa da dialogis

cnebebTan mimarTebiT, dRes sul ufro xSirad gvxvdeba

enaTmecnierul literaturaSi, xolo filosofiur,

sociologiursa da fsiqologiur terminologiaSi igi

ukve normad iqca (makarovi 2003: 90).

diskursis sayuradRebo koncefcias gvTavazobs i.

proxorovi 2004 wels gamosul wignSi “sinamdvile. teqsti.

diskursi”. igi ar fiqrobs, rom teqsti da diskursi erTmaneTTan

gvarsaxeobiT mimarTebaSia _ TiToeuli maTgani

meoris nawils ar Seadgens. diskursi misTvis ar aris Sualeduri

movlena metyvelebas, urTierTobasa da enobriv

qcevas Soris anu igi ar aris sistemisa da teqstis makavSirebeli

rgoli; aseve is ar aris teqsti eqstralingvistur

parametrebTan erTad da arc teqsti warmoadgens misTvis

diskurss am parametrebis gamoklebiT. i. proxorovi ase msjelobs:

“Tu isini Tanabradaa ganlagebuli, maTi da maTi

urTierTkavSiris ganxilva SesaZlebelia mxolod ‘zemodan’,

ganzogadebis ufro maRali donidan, sadac isini Tanabari

uflebiT Sedian...” (proxorovi 2004: 32). “maRla” ki

mxolod sinamdvilea da realuri komunikacia masSi. sinamdvileca

da komunikaciac diskursis bevr arsebul definiciaSi

Sedis, magram iq es elementebi TiTqos “teqstidan

da diskursidan” modian, Tumca, rogorc mkvlevari fiqrobs,

swored teqsti da diskursi unda “Cndebodnen maTgan”.

radgan yoveli teqsti (werilobiTi Tu zepiri, mxatvruli

Tu samecniero da a.S.) iqmneba im mizniT, rom gaxdes

faqti aramarto “TavisTvis”, aramed faqti “sxvebisTvis”,

gaxdes raRac ufro farTo urTierTqmedebis monawile.

“urTierTqmedebis mdgomareobis” aseTive realuri elementi,

monawilea diskursic _ igi am urTierTqmedebidan

“daibada”. ramdenadac komunikacia azrebis, cnobebis,

ideebisa da misT. gacvla-gamocvlaa, ama Tu im Sinaarsis

gadacemaa erTi cnobierebidan (koleqtiuri Tu individualuri)

enobrivi niSnebis saSualebiT, maSasadame, arsebobs

informaciis damagrebis raRac saSualeba da raRac

saSualeba misi gadacemisTvis, amasTanave, Tu damagrebis

saSualeba mas unda inaxavdes komunikaciis procesis gare-

Sec, “translaciis saSualeba” mxolod komunikaciis mdgomareobaSi

xorcieldeba (proxorovi 2004: 33).

i. proxorovs teqstisa da diskursis aRsaniSnavad Semoaa

qvs termini figura, romelic ukve arsebobs lingvistikur

terminologiaSi (“metyvelebis figura”, “stilis-


narkvevi 77

tikuri figura” da sxv.) 1 da teqstisa da diskursis rolisa

da adgilis gaTvaliswinebiT komunikaciaSi, teqsts uwodebs

komunikaciis introvertul figuras, diskurss _ komunikaciis

eqstravertul figuras.

amgvarad, realuri komunikacia Seicavs sam Seurwymel,

magram ganuyofel Semadgenels: TviT sinamdvilis figuras,

romlis sferoSi da romlis safuZvelzec arsebobs komunikacia

da or figuras: teqsts, romelic uzrunvelyofs mis

Sinaarsobriv-enobriv safuZvels (ramdenadac teqsti enisagan

ganuyofelia) da diskurss, romelic uzrunvelyofs Sinaarsobriv-metyvelebiT

safuZvels (sakuTriv verbalurs

_ da, Cveulebriv, araverbalur komponentTan erTad).

i. proxorovi gvTavazobs aRniSnuli cnebebis ganmartebebs,

sadac yuradReba gamaxvilebulia “lingvokulturul

erTobaze”:

“komunikaciis eqstravertuli figura _ diskursi aris

garkveuli lingvokulturuli erTobis warmomadgenelTa

komunikaciis Sinaarsis organizaciisa da gaformebis praqtikis

enobriv formaTa erToblioba;

komunikaciis introvertuli figura _ teqsti aris

garkveuli lingvokulturuli erTobis warmomadgenelTa

komunikaciis Sinaarsis organizaciis lingvisturi da eqstralingvisturi

organizaciis wesebis erToblioba;

komunikaciis materialuri figura _ sinamdvile aris

mocemuli lingvokulturuli erTobis warmomadgenel-

Ta komunikaciis ganxorcielebis materialur pirobaTa

erToblioba” (proxorovi 2004: 34-35). amgvarad warmodgenil

komunikaciis struqturas avtori adarebs hologramas,

radgan misi elementebis, romlebic Seurwymeli da

ganuyofelia erTdroulad, urTierTqmedebis safuZveli

isevea interferencia, rogorc hologramis safuZveli _

talRaTa interferencia. sinamdvilis Secvlisas es cvlilebebi

“edeba” teqstsac da diskurssac, aZlierebs ra erTis

da asustebs ra meoris rols komunikaciaSi. implicituri

(teqsturi) informaciis xarisxis an moculobis Secvla

iwvevs diskursis cvlilebasac; diskursis miznis Secvlis

saWiroeba aZlierebs an asustebs komunikaciis teqstobriv

Semadgenels. informaciis kodirebisa da “obieqtTa amoc-

1.

“figura aris niSnis nawili, romelic arafers ar gamoxatavs mTeli niSnis

mniSvnelobidan, magram gamoiyeneba sxva niSanTa sxva kombinaciiT Seqmnisa-

Tvis... figurebi axasiaTebs nebismier sistemur niSnebs. isini niSnis faqturisgan

aris warmoebuli, anu im masalisgan, romlisganac niSania Seqmnili...

figuraTa arseboba sistemurobis konstruqciuli niSania” (roJdestvenski

2003: 40-41).


78 waxnagi 1.2009

nobisTvis” aseve aucilebelia komunikaciis am sami elementis

urTierTkavSiri.

Tu SevajamebT diskursis ganmartebaTa analizis Sedegebs,

unda vTqvaT, rom gamoikveTa sami ZiriTadi midgoma:

struqturuli, funqciuri da struqturul-funqciuri.

es ukanaskneli gulisxmobs, rom diskursi enis gamoyenebis

teqstualizebul (bmul) erTeulTa mTlianobaa, romelic

funqciurad aris organizebuli, da ara “winadadebaze vrceli

enobrivi struqturis” izolirebul erTeulTa martivi

nakrebi, rogorc struqturuli (formaluri) orientaciis

ganmartebebSia. rogorc Cans, aRniSnul midgomas

ufro emyarebian Tanamedrove humanitarul mecnierebeb-

Si, sadac diskursi sul ufro xSirad ganixileba rogorc

konkretuli kulturisa da sociumisaTvis specifikuri

realizacia. arsebiTad enobrivi monacemebisa da enaTmecnieruli

meTodebis gamoyenebiT xdeba makrodoneze sociologiis

sxvadasxva mimarTulebaSi sazogadoebriv fenomenTa

kategorizacia enobriv komunikaciasTan mimarTebiT.

mikrodoneze ki swored lingvistikuri midgomebiTaa

SesaZlebeli sazogadoebis socialur-kulturuli dinamikis

Seswavla. magaliTad, eTnofsiqolingvistikaSi,

romlis mizania erovnuli enis, rogorc erovnuli enobrivmentaluri

kompleqsis, funqcionirebis aRwera da axsna,

diskursi gagebulia, rogorc verbalizebuli metyvelebiT-azrovnebiTi

qmedeba, romelic procesisa da Sedegis

erTianobis saxiT warmogvidgeba da romelsac ori plani

aqvs: sakuTriv enobrivi da enobriv-kognitiuri. “diskursi,

rogorc procesi, aris gasityvebuli (verbalizebuli)

TviT sinamdvile, xolo, rogorc Sedegi _ teqstebis er-

Toblioba. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, diskursis sakuTriv

enobrivi plani dakavSirebulia enasTan, igi sakuTar Tavs

gamoxatavs enobrivi saSualebebiT da vlindeba warmoqmnili

teqstebis erTobliobiT (diskursi, rogorc Sedegi).

lingvo-kognitiuri plani ukavSirdeba enobriv cnobierebas,

ganapirobebs enobriv saSualebaTa SerCevas, gavlenas

axdens teqstebis warmoqmnasa da aRqmaze. amgvarad, diskursi

aris erTiani organizmi, romelSic erTdroulad

xorcieldeba ara marto enis, aramed enobrivi azrovnebis

yvelaze mravalgvari aspeqtebi” (krasnixi 2002: 10-11).

Cven ki enis kulturologiuri kvlevisTvis mizanSewonilad

migvaCnia diskursis ganmarteba, romlis mixedviTac

igi garkveuli (qarTuli) lingvokulturuli erTobis

warmomadgenelTa Soris komunikaciis Sinaarsis organizaciisa

da gaformebis praqtikas warmoadgens, imis mxed-


narkvevi 79

velobaSi miRebiT, rom TviT diskursis struqtura ori _

lingvisturi da eqstralingvisturi _ komponentisagan

aigeba. ukanasknels Seadgens sociokulturuli, pragmatuli,

fsiqologiuri, kognitiuri da sxva faqtorebi. gareenobrivi

faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebis aucileblobas

gansazRvravs kulturis TviT arsic, romlis gamovlenis

erT-erTi umaRlesi forma bunebrivi enaa.

literatura

bogdanovi 1993 _ Богданов В.В. Текст и текстовое общение. СПб., 1993.

van deiki 1989 _ Ван Дейк Т. А. Язык, познание, коммуникация. М., 1989.

koseriu 1963 _ Косериу Э. Синхрония, диахрония и история // Новое в

лингвистике. Вып. 3. М., 1963.

kras ni xi 2002 _ Красных В. В. Этнопсихолингвистика и лингвокультурология.

М., 2002.

lebaniZe 1998 _ lebaniZe g. anTropocentrizmi da komunikaciuri

lingvistika, Tb., 1998.

leq si ko ni 2001 _ Баранов А. М., Добровольский Д. О., Михайлов М. Н.,

Парщин П. Б., Романова О. И. Англо-русский словарь по лингвистике и

семиотике, М., 2001.

makarovi 2003 _ Макаров М. Основы теории дискурса. М., 2003.

neretina, ogurcovi 2005 _ Неретина С. С., Огурцов А. П. Концепт как

возможность постижения смысла. Дискурс // Теоретическая культурология.

М., 2005.

omiaZe 1998 _ omiaZe T. paralingvistika da metyvelebis Tanmxleb

saSualebaTa aRwera enaSi, sakand. disert., 1998.

pro xo ro vi 2004 _ Прохоров Ю. Е. Действительность. Текст. Дискурс.

М., 2004.

roJdestvenski 2003 _ Рождественский Ю. В. Философия языка.

Культуроведение и дидактика: Современные проблемы науки о языке. М.,

2003.

fuko 1996 _ Фуко М. Археология знания. Киев, 1996.

Analysis of Discourse Definitions

Salome Omiadze

The notion of discourse is different in the modern humanities, which to a

certain extent is due to the sphere of research where it is the object of study.

The description of various viewpoints concerning discourse occurs in many

studies. The analysis in the present article is based on the consideration of


80 waxnagi 1.2009

the oppositions which the concept of “discourse” forms in relation to other

concepts (e.g. “discourse – intuitional”, “discourse – idea”, “discourse – objective

narration”, “discourse – expression”, “discourse – text”…).

Latin discursus denotes “a running about, talk, conversation”, French

discourse – “speech”. Taking for orientation one of the different meanings of

the word proper, in my view, served as the basis for the polysemantic terminologization

of the concept.

Three main approaches have been identified as a result of the analysis

of discourse definitions: structural, functional and structural-functional. The

latter implies that discourse is a unity of textualized (coherent) units, which

is organized functionally, and not a mere set of isolated units of “a language

structure longer than a sentence”, as is in definitions of structural (formal)

orientation.

In modern humanities discourse is more often considered as the language

realization specific for a particular culture and social group. Social phenomena

in various directions of sociology with respect to language communication

are categorized on the macro-level essentially by means of language

data and linguistic methods. On the micro-level it is possible to study the

social-cultural dynamics of the society exactly by linguistic approaches.


irma ratiani

fsevdokarnavaluri narativi romanSi _

kulturaTaSorisi dialogis forma

yofis ritualizacia da karnavalizacia romanis Janris

erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi, magram struqturulad rTuli

aspeqtia. problemis sirTules Tavad ritulizebisa da

karnavalizebis specifikuri xasiaTi ganapirobebs.

pirveli mkvlevari, vinc Rrmad Seiswavla karnavaluri

tradiciebis gadaaqcentirebis sakiTxi improvizebuli folkloruli

samyarodan literaturuli teqstis doneze,

iyo mixail baxtini. Tavis saprogramo naSromSi “fransua

rable da Sua saukuneebisa da renesansis xalxuri kultura”

(1965) man mTeli simwvaviT dasva menipeuri satirisa da karnavaluri

kulturis makoordinirebeli funqciis sakiTxi

msoflio literaturaTmcodneobis winaSe, SeZlo karnavalizaciis,

rogorc kulturuli movlenis konceptualuri

da struqturuli rolis gamokveTa fransua rables SemoqmedebaSi

da, rac arsebiTia, problemis damajerebeli ganzogadeba.

karnavaluri motivebis reinkarnacia Sua saukuneebisa

da renesansi epoqis (da momdevno epoqebis) literaturaSi

baxtinma mWidrod daukavSira realisturi tendenciebis

damkvidrebas da oficiozis, saeklesio diqtatisa da feodaluri

kulturis winaaRmdeg Tamami manifestaciebis gamwvavebas:

groteskis, iumorisa da sicilis formiT gamovlenili

karnavali, misi azriT, ara marto ewinaaRmdegeboda arasasurvel

reJims, aramed, alternativis saxiT, upirispirebda

mas simarTles. mkvlevaris samecniero iniciativam zedmiwevniT

kargad gamoxata evropuli filosofiuri da literaturuli

azris tendencia, gaerRvia gansazRvruli, gamyarebuli

substanciis CarCoebi da daenerga alternatiuli tipis

azrovneba, romelic Tavis TavSi moicavda globaluri

transformirebis SesaZleblobebs.

Teoria warmatebuli aRmoCnda ara mxolod Sua saukuneebisa

da renesansuli romanis, aramed, zogadad, romanis-

81


82 waxnagi 1.2009

tikis doneze. xalxuri kulturis wiaRidan aRmocenebulma

karnavalma da karnavalurma tradiciam teqstualizebuli

forma miiRo da iqca im specifikur kosmogoniad,

romelic ar cnobs substanciasa da mizezobriobas da arsebobs

mxolod aqtiuri urTierTobebis saxiT. “karnavalma

ar icis dayofa mayureblebad da Semsruleblebad, _

miuTiTebs m. baxtini, _ ar cnobs rampebs, Tundac Canasaxovan

formaSi... karnavals ar Seimecneben, masSi cxovroben da

cxovroben yvelani, radgan karnavali Tavisi arsiT saer-

To-saxalxo movlenaa. sanam mimdinareobs karnavali, miseuli

cxovreba cxovrebis erTaderT formas warmoadgens.

misgan gaqceva SeuZlebelia, vinaidan ar gaaCnia sivrculi

sazRvrebi. karnavalis dros mxolod karnavalis kanonebiTaa

cxovreba SesaZlebeli, karnavaluri Tavisuflebis

kanonebiT. karnavali msoflio masStabis movlenaa, radgan

mTeli samyaros gansakuTrebul mdgomareobas asaxavs,

aRorZinebasa da ganaxlebas, rac yvelas xvedria... karnavalis

amgvari idea mkafiod vlindeboda da aRiqmeboda

romaul saturnaliebSi, romlebic saturniseuli oqros

xanis miwaze realur da srul (magram droebiT) dabrunebad

moiazrebodnen. saturnaliebis tradiciebi ar Sewyvetila

da ganagrZobda arsebobas Sua saukuneebis karnaval-

Si, romelic Sua saukuneebis sxva dResaswaulebze ukeT da

srulyofilad asaxavda samyaros ganaxlebis ideas... karnavalSi

Tavad cxovreba TamaSobs... sxva, Tavisufal (laR)

formas cxovrebisa, Tavissave aRorZinebasa da ganaxlebas

saukeTeso sawyisebze” (baxtini 1986: 297-298).

karnavaluri narativi ganisazRvra iseTi mkveTrad Camoyalibebuli

maxasiaTeblebiT, rogoricaa: parodireba;

Tavisufali, familaruli urTierTobebis demonstrireba;

msoflmxedvelobrivad, zneobrivad da eTikurad dapirispirebuli

wyvilebis _ dabadeba/sikvdili, siyrme/sibere,

maRla/dabla, saxe/zurgi, sibrZne/sicrue, qeba/lanZRva

_ ambivalenturi gamTlianeba; aracnobieri instinqtebis

_ seqsi, Wama-sma, _ aqcentireba; dabolos, ganaxlebisa da

aRorZinebis magistraluri motivebis damkvidreba. aRniSnuli

maxasiaTeblebis kompoziciuri funqcia teqstSi,

gamoxatavda ra Tanamedroveobis politikur, socialur,

eTikur da sulier problemaTa speqtrs, sxvadasxva formi-

Ta da simwvaviT vlindeboda gansxvavebuli esTetikuri da

literaturuli epoqebis wiaRSi.

am TvalsazrisiT, vfiqrobT, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas

iqcevs, erTi mxriv, klasikuri realizmis epoqis romani

(me-19 saukunis 60-70-iani wlebi), romelic kritikulad


narkvevi 83

gaiazrebda yofas da sruliad daufaravad iyenebda literaturas

mwvave sazogadoebriv problemaTa gaxmianebis

tribunad da, meore mxriv, realizmis wiaRidan amozrdili

da maRali modernizmis Wrilsa da stilSi formirebuli

me-20 saukunis 20-30-iani wlebis romani-esqatologiuri

antiutopia. esqatologiuri antiutopia warmoadgenda

erTgvar sinTezs klasikuri antiutopiisa (zamiatini, haqsli),

romelic im droisaTvis ukve daZleul etaps warmoadgenda

da subieqtivisturi romanisa (prusti, joisi),

romelic jer kidev bolomde ar iyo formirebuli: esqatologiuri

antiutopia Tanabrad iyo gaJRenTili antiutopiis

meamboxe filosofiiTa da nonkonformisti gmiris

Rrma individualurobiT.

rogorc erTi, ise meore Janris romanebis konceptualuri

da struqturuli modelebi adasturebs maT Riaobas

karnavaluri narativis mimarT, radgan karnavalis teqstualizeba,

baxtinis samarTliani mtkicebis Tanaxmad,

gardauvalad ukavSirdeba realizmis, rogorc meTodis,

aqcentirebas. Tumca arc erT da arc meore SemTxvevaSi karnavali

ar vlindeba misi klasikuri gagebiT, aramed modificirebulia

da, umeteswilad, gadafarulia fsevdokarnavaluri

narativiTa da misTvis niSandoblivi teqstualuri

formebiT, rogoricaa: fsevdoparodia, fsevdosibrZne,

fsevdosiyvaruli, fsevdoojaxi, fsevdoRirebulebebi

da sxva. vfiqrobT, sruliad cxadad ikveTeba problemaTa

rigi, romelic Semdegi TanamimdevrobiT SeiZleba dalagdes:

rogor xorcieldeba teqstSi karnavaluri narativis

transformacia fsevdokarnavalur narativSi? riT

aris gamowveuli karnavaluri narativis Canacvleba fsevdokarnavaluri

narativiT? rogoria fsevdokarnavaluri

narativis damokidebuleba konteqstTan? aris TuU ara misi

konceptualuri da struqturul-kompoziciuri funqcia

identuri zemoT aRniSnuli romanebis doneze? pasuxi am

kiTxvebze uTuod SeiZens meTodologiur mniSvnelobas.

mixail baxtinis Teoriis Tanaxmad, karnavaluri realobis

centraluri maxasiaTeblebi _ ganaxleba da aRor-

Zineba _ arasodes xorcieldeba konkretuli karnavaluri

subieqtis doneze, igi xalxis, rogorc erTi mTliani, monoliTuri

organizmis Tvisebaa da gardauvalad ukavSirdeba

sikvdils. karnavaluri individis sikvdili, baxtinis

azriT, xalxis cxovrebis mxolod patara fragmentia, wami,

romelic am xalxisave ganaxlebisa da srulyofisaTvis aris

saWiro. sikvdilisa da ganaxlebis Temebis amgvar gaazrebas

baxtinologTa nawilma “individualuri sxeulis rekviemi”


84 waxnagi 1.2009

uwoda (m. rilkini, n. glazeneri) da aRiqva, rogorc stalinuri

reJimis koleqtiuri paTosis infiltracia baxtinis

Teoriul naazrevSi. vfiqrobT, msgavsi varaudi mcdaria.

baxtinis filosofiuri Tu literaturaTmcodneobiTi xasiaTis

Sromebi individualurobisa da personalurobis

paTosiTaa gaJRenTili, karnavalis SemTxvevaSi ki baxtini

principulad icavs pozicias, romlis Tanaxmadac, karnavali

gamorCeulad arapersonalur movlenad aRiqmeba.

migvaCnia, rom karnavalis swored arapersonaluri paradigma,

koleqtiuroba, rogorc Tviseba, iqceva teqstSi

fsevdokarnavaluri motivis damkvidrebis safuZvlad, im

ZiriTad motivaciur modelad, romelic inergeba teqstSi

da romlis mimarTac sakuTar damokidebulebas ayalibebs

mTavari personaJi: is an konformistul TanxmobaSia fsevdokarnavalur

narativTan, anda aqtiurad upirispirdeba

mas nonkonformistis poziciidan.

fsevdokarnavaluri narativis dapirispireba karnavalur

narativTan xorcieldeba konceptualuri opoziciis

“uwyveti/droebiTi” WrilSi. swored “droebiToba” ganasxvavebs

karnavals “dausrulebeli” da “uwyveti” fsevdokarnavalisgan.

karnavaluri dResaswaulebi, romlebic

zedmiwevniT kargad asaxavdnen kacobriobis realur da

msoflmxedvelobriv faseulobebs, mudam jansaR damokidebulebaSi

iyvnen drois fenomenTan. “safuZvlad maT yovelTvis

edoT bunebrivi (kosmiuri), biologiuri da istoriuli

drois garkveuli da konkretuli koncefcia, _

wers mixail baxtini, _ ...dResaswauli aq meore cxovrebis

formad iqceoda xalxisaTvis, romelic droebiT abijebda

sayovelTaoobis, Tavisuflebis, Tanasworobisa da ke-

TildReobis utopiur samefoSi” (baxtini 1986: 299-300).

fsevdokarnavalurma atmosferom ukuagdo “droebiToba”,

rogorc karnavalis ganmsazRvreli maxasiaTebeli da is

“ganuwyveteli mudmivobis” ampluaSi gadawyvita. karnavalis

“droebiToba” “droebiTi idiliis” relevanturi

cnebaa, im “droebiTi uflebisa”, romlis meSveobiTac

cxovrebis normirebuli CarCoebiT SezRuduli adamiani

droebiT imecnebs sakuTar Tavs da ikmayofilebs Tavisuflebis

maradiul wyurvils. fsevdokarnavalis “mudmivoba”

ki, piriqiT, arc “meore cxovrebas” qmnis da arc arsebuli

wesrigis xundebisagan aTavisuflebs adamians. is,

rogorc gamyarebuli realobisa da gabatonebuli ideologiis

Senelebuli modeli, ganamtkicebs Tavsmoxveuli

simarTlis, anu realurad arsebuli modelis mudmivobas.

fsevdokarnavaluri “dausruleblobis” konteqstSi


narkvevi 85

aqtiurad realizdeba karnavaluri literaturisaTvis

niSandoblivi “koleqtiurobis” paTosi, romelic teqstSi

permanentuli fsevdosazeimo ganwyobilebis matareblad

gvevlineba. fsevdosazeimo ganwyobilebas qmnis

karnavalisaTvis tipuri iseTi fsevdoritualuri movlenebi,

rogoricaa familaruli urTierTobebis provocireba

gansxvavebul socialur fenaTa warmomadgenlebs

Soris, Wama-smisa da seqsualuri instinqtebis uxvi demonstrireba

da, rasakvirvelia, siuJetis datvirTva parodiuli

motivebiT.

yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT,

rom karnavaluri narativis Canacvleba fsevdokarnavaluri

narativiT teqstSi motivirebulia brutaluri

realobis aqcentirebiTa da masTan personaJis mimarTebis

mkveTri fiqsirebiT. Tavis mxriv, personaJis damokidebuleba

fsevdokarnavalur narativTan mudmivad aris mar-

Tuli konteqstis mier, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, gansazRvrulia

im literaturuli principebiT, romlis wiaRSic

inergeba fsevdokarnavaluri narativi. germaneli literaturaTmcodnis

b. toiberis samarTliani SeniSvniT, axali

drois mijnaze mdgari filologiis umTavres amocanas

warmoadgens gonis ambivalenturobis Zieba yovel kulturul

modelSi, anu miTis im tragikuli niRbis gaazreba,

romlis meore mxaresac “karnavalis dionisuri xibli”

warmoadgens. am konceptualuri ambivalenturobis konteqstSi

ganixilaven p. vaili da a. genisi literaturis, rogorc

kulturis umniSvnelovanesi formis, ganviTarebis

zogad tendenciebsac. literatura, maTi azriT, ori nakadis

mTlianobas warmoadgens, “ori literaturisa”, sadac

“pirveli momdinareobda principidan: adamians ganapirobebs

sazogadoeba _ da qmnida pirovnebis, rogorc `Homo

socialis~-is koncefcias, meore ki _ ubralod `Homo~-si” (lanini

1993: 108). Tu pirveli tipis literaturisaTvis “konfliqti

konkretul-istoriuli garemoebiTaa ganpirobebuli

da sazogadoebis analizi gardauvalad ukavSirdeba

pirovnebis analizs”, meore tipis literaturaSi “adamiani

warmodgeba arsebad, romelsac gamoarCevs genetikuri memkvidreobiT

miRebuli individualuri Tvisebebi (SeiZleba

_ RvTisagan momadlebulic. es avtoris Sexedulebazea

damokidebuli). sazogadoeba, am SemTxvevaSi, brZolis velia,

arena, sadac TiToeuli individis neba upirispirdeba

stiqiurad (an organizebulad) SemuSavebul socialur

etikets. bunebrivi arseba da xelovnuri struqtura. vin

vis dajabnis?” (lanini 1993: 108).


86 waxnagi 1.2009

analizis swored amgvari mimarTuleba iZleva fsevdokarnavaluri

narativis konceptualuri da struqturul-kompoziciuri

funqciebis Teoriuli gamijvnis

saSualebas gansxvavebuli kulturuli da literaturuli

konteqstebis doneze. Tu klasikuri realizmis epoqis

romani (me-19 saukunis 60-70-iani wlebi) SeiZleba

mivakuTvnoT literaturis pirvel tips, maRali modernizmi

wiaRSi formirebuli esqatologiuri antiutopia

meore tipis literaturis gamovlinebaa. maTi konceptualuri

mimarTeba fsevdokarnavalur narativTan, rogorc

brutaluri realobis modelTan, identurad uaryofiTia,

problemis gadaWris struqturul-kompoziciuri gzebi ki

_ Zireulad gansxvavebuli, rac, upirveles yovlisa, personaJTa

sistemiTaa gamoxatuli: Sesabamisi istoriuli,

socialuri da kulturuli konteqstidan gamomdinare,

iqmneba socialuri imagologiis gansxvavebuli modelebi,

romlebic konkretuli konteqstisaTvis niSandobliv gamyarebul

socialur stereotipebad SeiZleba moviazroT

da romelTa Tvisebrivi araerTgvarovnebac vlindeba opoziciis

“konformisti/nonkonformisti” WrilSi.

Tu klasikuri realizmis epoqis romanis mTavari personaJi,

romelic aqtiuradaa CarTuli fsevdokarnavalur

fsevdozeimSi, nebayoflobiTi konformistia, realuri

garemoebis tipiuri tyvea da cdilobs masTan harmoniuli

damokidebulebis SenarCunebas, esqatologiuri antiutopiis

personaJi amboxebuli nonkonformistia, drosTan dapirispirebuli

inteligenti, romelic sakuTari nebis winaaRmdeg

aris Cakarguli fsevdokarnavalis labirinTSi

da cdilobs Tavis daRwevas. Tu pirveli tipis romanebis

personaJebi Zalian hgvanan bevr “sxvas”, Tavis Tanamedroves,

da komfortulad arian ganTavsebulni sakuTar fsevdokarnavalur

naWuWSi, meore tipis romanebis personaJebi,

damcirebulni, uaryofilni, gansxvavdebian “sxvebisagan”

rogorc garegani, aseve Sinagani maxasiaTeblebiT da saku-

Tar TavSive eZieben fsevdokarnavalisagan xsnis gzas. TuU

pirveli tipis romanebis mTavari personaJebi warmoadgenen

realobisadmi kritikulad ganwyobili yovlisSemZle

da gavleniani realisti avtorebis gakicxvis sagans, meore

tipis romanebis mTavari personaJebi meamboxe avtorebis

rCeulni arian da maqsimalurad grZnoben mis mxardaWeras.

socialuri imagologiis sferoSi msgavsi literaturuli

da epoqaluri stereotipebis arseboba dasturdeba interkulturul

WrilSi warmoebuli SedarebiTi analizis

meSveobiT.


narkvevi 87

sailustraciod movixmobT oTx teqsts: ilia WavWava-

Zis “kacia-adamiani?!”, ivan gonCarovis “oblomovi”, mixeil

javaxiSvilis “jayos xiznebi” da vladimir nabokovis “mopatiJeba

sikvdilze”. literaturul-esTetikuri konteqstis

niSniT ikveTeba Semdegi wyvilebi: “kacia-adamiani?!” /

“oblomovi”; “jayos xiznebi” / “mopatiJeba sikvdilze”. Tu

pirveli wyvili ganekuTvneba klasikuri realizmis epoqas,

meore wyvilis wakiTxva saSualebas iZleva, mivakuTvnoT

isini esqatologiur antiutopiaTa rigs. miuxedavad imisa,

rom teqstebi ganekuTvneba gansxvavebul kulturul

modelebs, oTxive teqsti gaxsnilia fsevdokarnavaluri

narativis mimarT, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs vivaraudoT,

rom fsevdokarnavaluri teqsti gvevlineba literaturaTaSorisi

da kulturaTaSorisi dialogis formad.

identuri literaturul-esTetikuri konteqstis doneze

dialogi harmoniulia, gansxvavebuli literaturulesTetikuri

konteqstis doneze _ winaaRmdegobrivi, vinaidan

wyvilebis struqturul-kompoziciuri mimarTeba

fsevdokarnavalur teqstTan gansxvavebulia _ pirveli

wyvili eqvemdebareba klasikuri realizmis epoqis romanis

principebs, meore wyvili _ maRali modernizmisa: Tu

luarsab TaTqariZe da ilia oblomovi ganpirobebulni

arian sazogadoebis mier, anu, warmoadgenen daavadebuli

sazogadoebis organul nawils, nebayoflobiT arian

CarTulni dausrulebeli fsedokarnavalis fsevdozeim-

Si da Rrmad swamT misi uwyvetobisa, Teimuraz xevisTavi

da cincinati c. ganxvavdebian daavadebuli sazogadoebis

danarCeni wevrebisagan, sakuTari nebis winaaRmdeg arian

moqceulni fsevdokarnavalur fsevdozeimSi, grZnoben vi-

Tarebis absurdulobas da stiqiurad upirispirdebian mas.

Tu ilia WavWavaZe da ivan gonCarovi iZulebulni arian,

gaamaTraxon sakuTari konformisti personaJebi da TavianTi

moqalaqeobrivi poziciidan dausvan wertili maT

fsevdokarnavalur cxovrebas, mixeil javaxiSvili da vladimer

nabokovi Tavganwirulad ibrZvian nonkonformisti

personaJebis individualuri nebis gadasarCenad, vinaidan

swamT, rom xsnis gza swored individis gonze Zevs.

realizmis epoqis fsevdokarnavaluri narativi dominanturad

aris gamoxatuli Wama-smis aqtisa da idiliuri

gancxromis aqcentirebis, agreTve, urTierTobaTa parodirebis

formiT. Wama-smis aqti klasikuri realizmis epoqis

teqstSi (luarsab TaTqariZisa da ilia oblomovis gadametebuli

trfiali Wama-smisadmi) calsaxad icavs rableanur

princips da arajansaRi sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis


88 waxnagi 1.2009

zeobas gamoxatavs: kargavs normirebul formas da usasrulo

Rreobis saxes iZens. is iseTive uwyvetia, rogorc Tavad

fsevdokarnavali (“dRes ra vWamoT”, _ ityodnen diliT.

“xval ra vWamoT”, _ ityodnen saRamozed”). gastronomiuli

fsevdozeimis pirdapir Sedegs personaJTa garegnuli

degradacia warmoadgens _ xorcisa da qonis zeoba, rac

miuTiTebs, erTi mxriv, personaJis sulier Rirebulebeba-

Ta devalvaciaze, xolo, meore mxriv, avtoris kritikulcinikur

poziciaze personaJis mimarT. personaJebi Wamen,

svamen, nebivroben: oblomovisaTvis yvelaze didi tragedia

loginidan wamodgomaa, xolo luarsabis sayvareli nivTi

misi saZinebeli taxtia. Wama-smis aqtica da idiliuri

nebivrobac orive teqstSi parodirebulia, iseve rogorc

nebismieri sxva gamovlineba yofisa.

aRsaniSnavia, rom klasikuri realizmis epoqaSi parodireba,

inarCunebs ra rableanur muxts, axdens ZiriTadi

sulieri faseulobebis dakargvis tendenciis aqcentirebas.

parodia, misi klasikuri gagebiT, aris baZva, romlis

wiaRSic aRiniSneba baZvis sagnis damaxinjeba. “damaxinjeba”

am SemTxvevaSi gulisxmobs misabaZi sagnis satirulironiul

imitacias. parodiis Zirebi antikuri epoqis literaturaSia

saZiebeli (aristofane, lukiane, apuleiusi),

xolo literaturuli asaxvis specifikur xerxad misi

transformireba _ aRorZinebis epoqaSi (rable, svifti,

servantesi). literaturuli parodirebis ganmsazRvrel

maxasiaTebels e.w. motivTa damdableba warmoadgens, rac

motivTa struqturuli ambivalenturobiTa da groteskuli

materializaciiTaa aRniSnuli. am koncefcias centraluri

adgili uWiravs mixail baxtinis TeoriaSi karnavaluri

literaturis Sesaxeb. baxtinis azriT, degradacia,

anu damdableba groteskisaTvis tipuri da mniSvnelovani

procesia, romelic ambivalentur xasiaTs atarebs da

“absolutur da mkacr topografiul mniSvnelobas iZens”

(baxtini 1986: 313): damdableba, erTi mxriv, gulisxmobs

radikalur “daRmasvlas”, daSvebas cidan miwaze, meore

mxriv ki _ aRmasvlasa da Tavidan dabadebas. “daRmasvla”

da “aRmasvla”, baxtinis azriT, erTmaneTTan genetikurad

dakavSirebuli cnebebia. “daRmasvla” da “aRmasvla” miwis

relevantur kategoriebs warmoadgens. mxolod, pirveli

moicavs miwas rogorc STanmTqmels (samare an saSo), meore

rogorc mSobels (saSo). magram ramdenad aris SenarCunebuli

parodiis es siRrmiseuli datvirTva klasikuri realizmis

CvenTvis saintereso teqstebSi? “Sua saukuneebis parodia,

_ wers baxtini, _ sruliadac ar hgavs axali drois


narkvevi 89

formalur literaturul parodias. literaturuli parodia,

msgavsad nebismieri sxva parodiisa, amdablebs, magram

es damdableba wmindad uaryofiT xasiaTs atarebs da

moklebulia amaRorZinebel ambivalenturobas. amitomac,

parodias, iseve rogorc damdablebis Tvisebis mqone sxva

Janrebs, axali drois pirobebSi, ar ZaluZs Tavisi winandeli

udidesi mniSvnelobis SenarCuneba” (baxtini 1986: 314).

vfiqrobT, baxtinis es mosazreba imdenadve samarTliania

klasikuri realizmis teqstebis _ “kacia-adamiani?!” da

“oblomovi” _ mimarT, ramdenadac usamarTloa maRali modernizmis

epoqis teqstebis mimarT.

Tu luarsabisa da iliuSa oblomovis sulieri (fsevdorwmena),

ojaxuri (fsevdoojaxi, fsevdoqorwineba, fsevdoSvili),

sazogadoebrivi (fsevdomemamuleoba, fsevdo-

Tavadoba) da a.S. urTierTobebis parodireba personaJTa,

da Sesabamisad sazogadoebrivi, mankierebis gamovlenisa

da gamaTraxebis saukeTeso saSualebaa, Teimuraz xevisTavisa

da cincincat c.-s personaluri modelebis parodirebas

gacilebiT Rrmada aqvs fesvebi gadgmuli.

maRali modernizmis konteqstSi formirebul esqatologiur

antiutopiaSi parodiis stilisturi xerxis damkvidreba

mWidrod daukavSirda parodiis JanrisaTvis niSandobliv

motivTa damdablebas. antiutopiuri damdablebis

ZiriTad samizned sakraluris parodireba iqca, ramac

SesaZlebeli gaxada ZiriTadi antiutopiuri opoziciis _

mowesrigebuli sazogadoeba/individualuri adamiani _

Semdgomi transformireba Tvisebrivad axal opoziciaSi

_ sakraluri/desakraluri. desakralizaciis motivi, cxadia,

ucxo ar iyo mxatvruli literaturisaTvis (amas jer

kidev babilonis godolis bibliuri siuJeti adasturebs),

magram antiutopiurma Janrma, Cveni azriT, aRadgina da ganaviTara

Sua saukuneebisa da aRorZinebis epoqis literaturaSi

gamovlenili misi araerTgvarovani, ambivalenturi

gaazreba. iZulebulni varT, gavemijnoT mixail baxtinis

zemoT aRniSnul mosazrebas da miviCnioT, rom antiutopiur

TxzulebebSi aqtiurad danergilma paradorebis

stilisturma xerxma SeinarCuna Tavisi “amaRorZinebeli

ambivalenturoba” da “axali drois pirobebSi” moaxdina

ara mxolod ZiriTadi sulieri faseulobebis dakargvis

tendenciis aqcentireba, aramed maTi reinkarnaciisaTvis

saWiro niadagis mosinjva da momzadeba. me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi,

anu religiuri cnobierebis sruli regeneraciis

epoqaSi, opoziciam sakraluri/desakraluri ukiduresi

simwvave SeiZina da Tavi iCina iseT damdablebul motiveb-


90 waxnagi 1.2009

Si, rogoricaa: religiis profanacia, saeklesio Tematikis

parodireba da demiurguli funqciis ironizireba. parodiuli

sicili, am SemTxvevaSi, gvevlineba im umniSvnelovanes

safexurad, faseul karibWed, romelic gulisxmobs

“imanentur gadasvlas, perturbacias garkveuli monobis

mdgomareobidan garkveuli Tavisuflebis mdgomareobaSi”

(averincevi 2001: 470). TavisuflebaSi gadasvla aRniSnavs

ara yofnas TavisuflebaSi, aramed gaTavisuflebis process,

romlis dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi Rirebuleba damokidebulia

im movlenis dadebiT Tu uaryofiT Rirebulebaze,

romlisganac Tavisufldeba adamiani. “Tavisufleba” antiutopiis

gmirisaTvis gulisxmobs gaTavisuflebas, erTi

mxriv, oficiozis, oficialuri reJimisa da kulturis

Tavsmoxveuli niRbisgan, meore mxriv ki _ sakuTari adamianuri

sisusteebis anu “me”-s Crdilovani mxareebisgan.

CvenTvis saintereso teqstebSi _ “jayos xiznebi” da “mopatiJeba

sikvdilze” _ narativis simZimis centri aris mTavari

personaJebis ltolva fsevdokarnavaluri teqstidan

gareT, faseuli alternativis, axali realobis, axali kosmosisaken.

es procesi gulisxmobs ara oden TvalsaCino gansxvavebis

aqcentirebas realur da warmosaxul samyaroebs

Soris, aramed im logikuri da ontologiuri winaaRmdegobebis

warmoCenas, romelic aucileblobasa da SesaZleblobas

Soris arsebobs. alternatiuli samyaro mxolod ma-

Sin iqceva SesaZleblobad, rodesac igi avtoris warmosaxvaSi

yalibdeba da Tanamimdevrulad xorcieldeba rCeuli

protagonistis transformaciuli suliskveTebis meSveobiT.

transformaciis procesis arsebiT mxares warmoadgens

Sualeduri, gardamavali, liminaluri faza, rogorc

alternatiul samyaroebs Soris ganfenili tranzituli

sivrce, arsebuli da warmosaxuli sistemebis wyalgamyofi,

ambivalenturi ontologiuri landSafti, romelic

unda daZlios personaJma. am TvalsazrisiT, warmosaxuli,

anu gamonagoni samyaro aRiqmeba ara rogorc “ararsebuli

obieqti”, aramed rogorc alternatiul ontologiur

principebze dafuZnebuli “arsebiToba”, romelic tranzituli

fazis miRma yalibdeba personaJis Tavisufal gonSi.

tranzitulobis umTavres da ganmsazRvrel kategoriebs,

cxadia, droisa da sivrcis specifikuri, sakraluri kategoriebi

warmoadgens (dawvrilebiT ix. ratiani 2005).

daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ori gansxvavebuli

literaturul-esTetikuri epoqis teqstebis analizi fsevdokarnavalur

narativTan maTi mimarTebis WrilSi adasturebs

Semdegs:


narkvevi 91

1. fsevdokarnavaluri narativi, rogorc “ganuwyveteli

mudmivoba” yalibdeba karnavalur “droebiTobasTan” winaaRmdegobaSi;

2. karnavaluri narativis Canacvleba fsevdokarnavaluri

narativiT teqstSi motivirebulia brutaluri realobis

aqcentirebiTa da masTan personaJis mimarTebis mkve-

Tri fiqsirebiT;

3. realizmis meTodologiuri modelis farglebSi

formirebuli nebismieri literaturuli teqsti, miuxedavad

misi literaturul-esTetikuri Tu kulturuli

kuTvnilebisa, gaxsnilia fsevdokarnavaluri narativis

mimarT, rac saSualebas gvaZlevs vivaraudoT, rom fsevdokarnavaluri

teqsti gvevlineba literaturaTaSorisi

da kulturaTaSorisi dialogis formad;

4. identuri literaturul-esTetikuri konteqstis doneze

dialogi harmoniulia, gansxvavebuli literaturulesTetikuri

konteqstis doneze _ winaaRmdegobrivi, vinaidan

gansxvavebulia struqturul-kompoziciuri mimar-

Teba fsevdokarnavalur teqstTan;

5. Tu klasikuri realizmis epoqis umTavres amocanas

warmoadgens fsevdokanavaluri absurdis, rogorc arajansaRi

sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis zeobis gamoaSkaraveba,

parodireba da gamaTraxeba, maRali modernizmis epoqaSi

formirebuli esqatologiuri antiutopia ar kmayofildeba

problemis mxolod egzibicirebiT, aramed aaqtiurebs

parodirebis “amaRorZinebel ambivalenturobas” da

“axali drois pirobebSi” axdens ara mxolod ZiriTadi sulieri

faseulobebis dakargvis tendenciis aqcentirebas,

aramed maTi reinkarnaciisaTvis saWiro niadagis momzadebasa

da realizebas.

gansxvavebuli struqturul-kompoziciuri poziciis

arseboba fsevdokarnavaluri narativis mimarT miuTiTebs

kulturuli konteqstebis ara konceptualur disharmoniaze,

aramed _ meTodologiur gansxvavebebze. metic, iqneb

gamomdinareobazec ki visaubroT? iqneb imotom kvdeba

luarsabi, rom moxdes kulturuli ganaxleba da iSvas Teimurazi?

iqneb es kulturuli memkvidreobiTobaa?

vfiqrobT, klasikuri epoqis realizmisa da maRali modernizmis

epoqis teqstebis komparativistuli analizis

esTetikuri perspeqtiva SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc

erTmaneTTan daaxloeba. analogiebi kontaqtis gareSe

uzrunvelyofen konkretuli literaturuli teqstebis

sinTezirebas specialur kulturul-SemoqmedebiT modelSi.

Sesabamisad, komparativistikis meTodi warmoad-


92 waxnagi 1.2009

gens literaturaturul-analitikuri azris globalur

mimarTulebas, romlis saboloo mizani Semoqmedebis literaturuli

safuZvlebis gamovlena da nacionaluri literaturebis

msoflio literaturul procesebSi intensiuri

integraciis dadasturebaa.

damowmebuli literatura:

averincevi 2001: Аверинцев С. С. Бахтин, смех, христианская культура,

М. М. Бахтин: Pro et contra: Антология, т. 1, СПб., 2001.

baxtini 1986: Бахтин М. М. Литературно-критические статьи. М.: 1986.

lanini 1993: Ланин Б. Русская литературная антиутопия, М. :1993.

ratiani 2005: ratiani i. qronotopi antiutopiur romanSi,

Tb.: 2005.

Pseudo-Carnival Narrative in a Novel –

Form of an Intercultural Dialogue

Irma Ratiani

In 20th century, M. Bakhtin was the first scholar to raise the question of

the coordinating function of carnival culture in a literary text. The aim of

our research is to display that Bakhtin’s theory turned out to be a success not

only on the level of medieval and Renaissance novel, but of novel in general,

though it went through a number of structural and stylistic modifications.

The characteristic traits of textual model of carnival were revealed with various

conceptual and compositional functions in different aesthetic and literary

epochs. From this viewpoint, it is worth to notice the 19th century realistic

novel, filled with social pathos and the 20th century modernistic novel, entailing

subjective visions. The conceptual and structural models of the above

mentioned types of novel serve as a proof to their openness towards the

carnival narrative, although in neither cases is carnival revealed in its classic

sense, but is modified and is mostly overlapped by the pseudo-carnival narrative,

textual forms of which are peculiar for it.

The replacement of the carnival narrative with the pseudo-carnival one is

motivated by the fixation of personage’s relationship towards it. This process,

from the stylistic viewpoint, causes the formation of different models

of social stereotypes for one particular context.The usage of comparative

analysis, which is the research method of our paper, enables us the search for

analogies and oppositions.


zrunvis arakis recefcia

literaturasa da filosofiaSi

nino fircxalava

venaSi 1925 wels warmoTqmul sityvaSi Tomas mani Seecada

pasuxi moeZebna misTvis ase aqtualur kiTxvaze, Tu ra

iyo mizezi imisa, rom igi “Crdilogermaneli, protestanti”,

romelsac “es Tvisebebi aranairad arc literaturul

JReradobaSi, arc ufro siRrmiseul adamianur-zneobriv

doneze ar uaruyvia”, Tavs “samxreTgermanul-kaTolikur

venaSi gansakuTrebiT Sinaurulad grZnobs” 1 . germanuli

qalaqebis “glexur-didsofluri” sijansaRis fonze mas es

“mondenuri” bevrad “ufro Zveli da azizi” (ältere und mürbere)

kulturis qalaqi sikvdilis Sesaxeb codnis matareblad

warmoesaxeba 2 . swored aqaa venisadmi Tomas manis siRrmiseuli

simpaTiis gamocanis gasaRebi: sikvdilis saidumlos

matarebeli vena misTvis “zrunvis Svilia” (Sorgenkind des

Lebens) 3 iseve, rogorc “jadosnuri mTis” axalgazrda gmiri

hans kastorpi. saqme isaa, rom gamoTqma “cxovrebis zrunvis

Svili” Tomas manma pirvelad swored “jadosnuri mTis” am

axalgazrda personaJis mimarT gamoiyena. amavdroulad

“zrunvis Svili” aris is magiuri sityva, romelic Semakav-

Sirebel xidadaa gadebuli sxvadasxva epoqebs Soris.

odesRac, mravali aTaswleulis win, arcTu maincdamainc

cnobili, bejiTi da gamrje laTini mwerlisa da swavlulis,

higinusis, mier moTxrobilma zrunvis arakma saukune-

Ta manZilze friad uCveulo gza ganvlo. misi recefciis istoria

germaniaSi herderis SemoqmedebiT iwyeba. herderis

leqsi “zrunvis Svili” (“Das Kind der Sorge”) am arakis poetur

samoselSi gamowyobis mcdelobaa. aq moTxrobilia ambavi

imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor gamoZerwa RvTaeba “zrunvam” miwis-

1.

Mann Th., Aufsätze, Reden, Essays. Berlin und Weimar, 1986, Bd.3; S. 650.

2.

Ebda, S.651.

3.

ebda.

93


94 waxnagi 1.2009

gan arseba, romelsac, misive TxovniT, iupiterma suli STabera.

magram zrunvasa da iupiters kamaTi mouvidaT, radgan

TiToeuli maTgani qmnilebisaTvis sakuTari saxelis darqmevas

iTxovda. amasobaSi maT SeurTda niadagic, romelmac

aseve ganacxada Tavisi uflebebis Sesaxeb, man xom qmnilebas

sakuTari sxeulis nawili misca. mxolod saturnis Carevam

daacxro mokamaTeTa vnebani. misi gadawyvetilebiT, iupiters,

rogorc sulis STamberavs, qmnilebis sikvdilis Semdeg

am ukanasknelis suli ergo, miwas sxeuli, xolo mTeli

sicocxlis manZilze misi flobis ufleba ki mis Semqmnels,

“zrunvas”, xvda wilad. saxelad ki qmnilebas “homo” ewoda,

radganac humusis (miwisgan) iyo gamoZerwili.

aseTia daaxloebiT Sinaarsi im arakisa, romelic herderma

mSvenier poetur nawarmoebad aqcia. miseuli zrunva

“Cafiqrebuli RvTaebaa” 4 , romelic misi qmnilebis, adamianis,

mflobelia imdenad, ramdenadac misi dedaa. maTi kav-

Siri dedaSviluri urTierTsiaxlovis tolfasia, romlis

gawyvetac mxolod sikvdils SeuZlia: “Dir, seiner Mutter, o Sorge,

/ Wird es im Leben geschenkt . / Du wirst, so lang es nur athmt / Es nie

verlassen, dein Kind” 5 (am striqonebis bwkaredi ki ase JRers: Sen,

dedamiso, o, zrunvav, igi sicocxleSi geZleva saCuqrad da,

sanam mas suli udgas, Sen ar miatoveb Sens Svils). herderis

am leqsma STaagona goeTe, zrunvis araki (Cura-Fabel) Tavisi

“faustis” meore nawilisaTvis gadaemuSavebina. zrunvis

mxatvruli saxe goeTesTan sruliad gasakuTrebul ganumeorebel

mniSvnelobas iZens rogorc nawarmoebis dramatuli

ganviTarebis, ise, sazogadod, tragediis mTeli

koncefciisaTvis. piesis meore nawilis V aqtSi faustis sasaxlesTan

Cndeba “oTxi WaRara dedakaci”. esenia zrunva da

misi sami da – nakleboba, vali da siduxWire. am oTxTagan

mxolod zrunva axerxebs sasaxleSi SeRwevas da sikvdilis

karTan myof Rrmad moxucebul fausts, romelsac misi Zalauflebis

aRiareba ar surs, Tvalis sinaTles waarTmevs 6 ,

raTa es rCeuli “brma mokvdavT” gauTanabros.

marTalia, zrunvis arakis gadamuSavebis idea goeTes herderiseulma

leqsma STaagona, magram ufro yuradRebiT dakvirvebisas

naTeli gaxdeba, rom goeTeseuli varianti ara

marto Tavisebur gadamuSavebas da interpretacias, aramed

am arakis erTgvar azrobriv gagrZelebasac ki ganasaxierebs.

herderTan zrunva Tavisi pirmSos dabadebis momentSia

4.

Herder J.G., Gedichte, Herders Werke, Leipzig-Wien, o.J., S.42.

5.

ebda, S.43.

6.

Goethe J.W., Faust. Berlin und Weimar, 1983, S. 407.


narkvevi 95

warmodgenili, roca mas saturnma dedobis anu ganuyofeli

flobis ufleba mianiWa misi qmnilebis mTeli miwieri sicocxlis

vadiT. goeTesTan ki zrunva “Cafiqrebuli RvTaeba”,

mzrunveli deda ki ara, aramed sicocxlis dasasruls

miaxloebuli gaurCebuli arsebisaTvis sikvdilis win Tavisi

SeuzRudavi uflebebisa da Zlevamosilebis Sesaxseneblad

misuli gaafTrebuli dedaberia. amitomac, fausti

ubralod zrunvis Svili (das Kind der Sorge) ki ara, aramed

zrunvisTvis sazrunavis gamCeni Svilia, rac ase zustad

SeniSna Tomas manma, roca man goeTeseul gmirs “RvTaebis

zrunvis Svili” (Sorgenkind der Gottheit) 7 uwoda. patara eSmakuri

xriki, virtuozuli enobrivi ileTi da saxezea meTvramete

saukunis ori germaneli mwerlis – herderisa da goeTes

– Zireuli paTosis siRrmiseuli wvdomis saocari nimuSi.

amrigad fausti ubralod “zrunvis Svili” ki ara, aramed

RvTaeba “zrunvisTvis” sazrunavis gamCeni Svilia.

higinusis arakis herderisa da goeTeseuli literaturuli

interpretaciebi gaxda 1923 wels cnobili germanistis,

konrad burdaxis, statiis _ “fausti da zrunva”@_

kvlevis sagani, rac udaod mniSvnelovani Teoriuli sayrdeni

aRmoCnda haidegeriseuli munyofierebis, rogorc

eqsistencialur-ontologiuri interpretaciisaTvis,

romelic 1927 wels gamoqveynebul mis umTavres naSromSi

_ “yofna da dro” _ erT-erT centralur problemad gvevlineba.

burdaxis statiisa (1923) da haidegeris wignis (1927)

gamocemis wlebis sagangebod xazgasma imdenadaa aucilebeli,

raTa gamoikveTos am drois SualedSi kidev erTi

mniSvnelovani TariRi, kerZod ki, _ 1924 weli, rodesac

gamoqveynda Tomas manis “jadosnuri mTa”. swored am germanulenovani

Sedevris mTavari gmiri, erTi hamburgeli

ymawvili, hans kastorpi, ubralod “zrunvis Svili” ki ara,

aramed, pirvel yovlisa, cxovrebisaTvis sazrunavis gamCeni

Svilia (Sorgenkind des Lebens). Tomas manTan enobrivi

formebis gasaocari ostatobiT gaTamaSebis gziT viRebT

Sedegad imas, rom herderiseul nominaciaze (Das Kind der

Sorge) dayrdnobiT, am saxeldebis erTi SexedviT irelevanturi,

wvrilmani saxecvlilebis wyalobiT, raRac uxilavi

magiuri xerxiT, hans kastorpis, ubralo ymawvili kacis

mxatvruli saxe faustis kosmosur figurasTan gaTanasworebuli

aRmoCndeba, ris safuZvelzec rogorc fausti, ise

7.

Mann Th., Adel des Geistes, Gesammelte Werke; Berlin, 1956, Bd.10, S.595.


96 waxnagi 1.2009

hans kastorpi “sazrunavis gamCen Svilebad” (Sorgenkinder)

gvevlinebian. msgavsi siRrmiseul-substanciuri cvlileba

ki mxolod zrunvis fenomenis farul SreebSi wvdomisa da

arsobrivi gaazrebis wyalobiT miiRweva. zrunvis rogorc

munyofierebis yofnis warmoCena ki erTgvari ontologiuri

safuZvlis Seqmnas niSnavs im yofierisTvis, romelsac

adamiani ewodeba 8 .

zrunvis araki, romelic mogvianebiT amdeni mwerlis literaturuli

qmnilebis STagonebis wyarod iqca, rogorc

ontologiamdeli mowmoba haidegerisTvis gansakuTrebul

mniSvnelobas imitom iZens, rom masSi “zrunva”ä mxolod

im fenomenad ki ar ganixileba, romelic adamianur munyofierebas

“sicocxlis vadiT” (zeitlebens) gankargavs, aramed

“zrunvis” es upiratesoba aq wina planze wamoweulia adamianuri

arsebis cnobil gagebasTan kavSirSi, romlis Tanaxmadac,

adamiani “sxeulis (miwa) da sulis kompozitums” 9

warmoadgens. adamianis rogorc yofieris yofnis pirvelsawyisi

(Ursprung) swored zrunvaSia, xolo es zrunva

flobs da marTavs yofiers manam sanam is “sayaroSia”. saqme

isaa, rom haidegeriseuli gagebiT “samyaro-Si-yofnas”

mudam “zrunvis” beWedi azis 10 . adamianad (homo) wodebuli

qmnilebis pirveladi yofna ki, saturnis gadawyvetilebis

Tanaxmad, “droSia” saZiebeli.@ amrigad, arakSi gamokveTil

adamianis arsis ontologiamdel gansazRvrulobas imTaviTve

yofierebis imgvar formaze aqvs mzera dafiqsirebuli,

romelic samyaroSi adamianis droiT yofaqcevas (zeitlicher

Wandel) gamsWvalavs 11 , vinaidan, rogorc iTqva, yofieris

pirvelsawyisi yofna mxolod droSi avlens Tavs.

goeTes faustis “RvTaebisaTvis sazrunavis gamCen Svilad”

(Sorgenkind der Gottheit) Tomas maniseul interpretacia-

Si aSkarad konrad burdaxis statiis _ “fausti da zrunva”

_ suliskveTebis gavlenis kvali ikiTxeba, miuxedavad imisa,

rom mwerali praqtikulad arsad ar moixseniebs im Teoriuli

wyaros avtors, romelmac savaraudod masze mniSvnelovani

zegavlena iqonia da miseul koncefcias erTgvari

biZgic ki misca. Tomas manisagan gansxvavebiT, martin haidegeri

Tavis umTavres naSromSi “yofna da dro” araerTgzis

imowmebs burdaxiseul naSroms 12 . haidegerisaTvis “zrun-

8.

Heidegger M., Sein und Zeit. Tübingen, 1986; S.196.

9.

ebda, S.198.

10.

ebda.

11.

ebda, S.199.

12.

vgl. ebda, S.197, 199.


narkvevi 97

vis” yvelaze did damsaxurebas, upirveles “miRwevas” (Leistung)

warmoadgens adamianis srulyofa laTinuri perfectio-s

gagebiT anu “misi qmnadoba imad, rac is misi usakuTrivesi SesaZleblobisaTvis

(moxazvisaTvis _ Entwurf) Tavisuflad

yofnaSi SeiZleba iyos”. adamiani, yofieri ki sazrunavian

samyaroSia (besorgte Welt) Cagdebuli (Geworfenheit) 13 . swored

haidegeris amgvari mosazrebebisaTvis warmoadgens burdaxis

xsenebuli statia myar dasayrdens da es, pirvel rig-

Si, vlindeba zrunvis (cura) cnebis “orgvari mniSvnelobis”

(Doppelsinn) gansakuTrebiT gamokveTasa da masze aqcentis

gamaxvilebisas, ris safuZvelzec es cneba ara mxolod “SiSnarev

mowadinebas” (ängstliche Bemühung), aramed “rudunebas”

(Sorgfalt) da “Tavgadadebasac” (Hingabe) niSnavs 14 . haidegeri

axsenebs burdaxis mxolod or cnebas, “ruduneba” da “Tavgadadeba”,

romlebic zrunvis fenomens adamianis arsSi sike-

Tis wyarod gansazRvraven. magram aq aklia burdaxiseuli

mesame umniSvnelovanesi cneba, romelic uTod gadamwyveti

Seiqna haidegeris wignis _ “yofna da dro” _ filosofiuri

koncefciisaTvis da haidegeriseul cnebaTa samyaroSi

myari adgili daimkvidra. saubaria “mzrunvelobis” (Fürsorge)

cnebaze rogorc miwieri adamianis zeamtyorcnel, xel-

Semwyob da damawinaurebel, adamianis sikeTis srulmqmnel

Zalaze perfectio-s gagebiT.

burdaxisTvis zrunva “faustSi” ubralod “mizanswrafuli

mowadineba” ki ara, aramed ufro metia: “raRac ufro

keTilSobili, ufro amaRlebuli. is mzrunvelobaa” 15 . XX

saukunis pirveli naxevris erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi

germanistis swored am mosazrebebSia martin haidegeris

im debulebasTan damakavSirebeli Zafebi saZiebeli, rom

“zrunvis” (cura) “ormagi mniSvneloba” gulisxmobs “Cagdebuli

ganaxazis (des geworfenen Entwurfs) safuZvelmdebare

konstitucias mis arsebiTad ormag struqturaSi” 16 .

“zrunvis” ganmsazRvrel burdaxisa da haidegeriseul

cnebaTa kombinirebis mcdelobas mivyavarT im daskvnamde,

rom zrunvis azri da daniSnuleba mdgomareobs xelSewyobaSi

sulis srulyofilebis misaRwevad. zrunvis amgvari

daxasiaTebis gziT jer mxolod fenomenaluri horizontia

moxazuli misi egzistencialuri struqturis analizisT-

13.

ebda. S.199.

14.

ebda.

15.

Burdach K., Faust und die Sorge, Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und

Geistesgeschichte. Halle (Saale) 1 Jahrg., 1923 I.Bd. S. 50.

16.

Heidegger M., Sein und Zeit, a.a.O., S. 199.


98 waxnagi 1.2009

vis. oRond yofieris anu adamianis Sesatyvisi ontologiuri

safuZvlebis dasamkvidreblad munyofierebis rogorc

zrunvis mxolod egzistencialur- ontologiuri interpretacia

arasgziT araa sakmarisi. zrunvis fenomeni damatebiT

saWiroebs kidev erT savaldebulo cnebas; cxadia, aq

saqme exeba sindisis cnebas (Gewissen), radganac haidegerTan

sindisi “zrunvis Zaxiladaa” (Ruf der Sorge) daxasiaTebuli 17 .

haidegeriseuli gagebiT zrunvisa da sindisis absoluturi

urTierTdakavSirebulobis amgvar fenomenalur mocemulobas

Tavis mxriv kvlav goeTes ideebisa da mxatvruli

saxeebis samyarosaken mivyavarT. burdaxis statia am

SemTxvevaSic erTgvar Suamavlad da biZgis mimcemad gvevlineba.

burdaxi ganixilavs “faustis” bolo moqmedebaSi

warmodgenili oTxi dedabris mxatvrul saxeTa simbolur

mniSvnelobas. “naklebobisa” da “siduxWiris” _ cxovrebis

am boroti Zalebis arsis garkveva mas problematurad ar

miaCnia. isini faustis winaSe ukan ixeven, radgan masze, bunebrivia,

maTi Zalaufleba ar vrceldeba. burdaxisTvis

saeWvo rCeba “valis” (Schuld) funqcia. igi miuTiTebs “valis”

fenomenis interpretaciis gaorebul SesaZleblobaze.

es, erTi mxriv, warmoadgens zneobriv vals, meore mxriv

ki, materialur vals, ufro zustad ki “valebs” (Schulden) 18 .

cota mogvianebiT burdaxi svams sakiTxs goeTesTan sindisisa

da zrunvis naTesaobis gacnobierebulobis Sesaxeb. mas

mohyavs goeTes sityvebi imis Sesaxeb, rom sindisi “zrunvis

Zalze axlo naTesavia”. “zrunva” goeTesTvis ara mxolod

sindisTan, aramed sinanulTanacaa (Reue) danaTesavebuli.

amasTan dakavSirebiT burdaxis xsenebul statiaSi kidev

erTi uaRresad mniSvnelovani citatis povna SeiZleba: “namoqmedari

(Tat) sinanulTan, qmedeba (Handeln) ki erTTavad

zrunvasTanaa dakavSirebuli” 19 .

vali, sindisi, sinanuli, zrunva _ zneobriv Rirebuleba-

Ta sistemis, zneobis metafizikis es fenomenebi goeTes poetur

miTologiaSi demonur ZalTa samoselSi gamowyobil

Ramis moCvenebaTa, “Ramis sevdian frinvelTa” saxiT Cndebian

da aRviveben meoce saukunis erT-erTi yvelaze didi filosofosis,

martin haidegeris, SemoqmedebiT warmosaxvas.

filosofiis istoriis tradiciis TvalsazrisiT, am

ori saxelis – goeTesa da haidegeris – erTmaneTTan dakavSireba

sakmaod uCveulo da SeiZleba saeWvodac ki gamoi-

17.

ebda, S. 274.

18.

Burdach K., Faust und die Sorge, a.a.O., S. 26.

19.

vgl. ebda, S. 28.


narkvevi 99

yurebodes, vinaidan haidegeri, romelic ase siRrmiseulad

fiqrobda moazrovnisa da poetis rogorc enis, am “yofierebis

saxlis”, mcvelis arsze, holderlinSi da ara goeTe-

Si xedavda Tavis did winamorbedsa da misTvis misabaZ nimuSs.

swored holderlini da ara goeTe miaCnda mas wminda

idumalebiT mosili poetobisa da moazrovneobis umaRles

gamovlinebad. misTvis holderliniseuli “usamSobloba”

(Heimatlosigkeit) “yofierebis miviwyebulobis” (Seinsvergessenheit)

gagebiT bevrad ufro “dasabamiseuli” (anfänglicher)

da amdenad bevrad ufro “momavliseulicaa” (zukünftiger) 20 ,

vidre goeTes msoflio moqalaqeobis, veltbiurgerobis

paTosi, rac humanizmis swored miseul idealTanaa uSualod

dakavSirebuli. “humanizmi” ki, sxva “izmebTan” erTad,

haidegerisaTvis im avbediT cnebaTa sferos ganekuTvneba,

romlebic dasabamobriv-pirvelsawyisiseuli (anfänglichursprünglich)

azrovnebis aRsasruls moaswaveben 21 .

es orive saxeli _ goeTe da holderlini _ haidegerisaTvis

Seurigebel opozicias warmoadgens da am or

samyaros Soris gadaulaxavi ufskrulia gadaWimuli. Sesabamisad,

aseve usazRvroa gansxvaveba am ori urTierTsapirispiro

sulieri samyaros “aRzrdils”, Tomas mansa

da martin haidegers, Sorisac. holderlinis sulieri

Camomavalis, haidegerisaTvis, goeTes ideaTa samyaros

mimarT dapirispirebuloba sruliad gacnobierebuli da

intencionaluria; TumcaRa, amis miuxedavad, aqa-iq mainc

vawydebiT goeTeseuli poeturi metaforikis gavlenis

kvals haidegeris metafizikur metaforikaze. amgvarad

aRmoCndeba haidegeris SemoqmedebaSi goeTeseuli poetur

saxeTa samyaro da mxatvruli sityva filosofiur

cnebebad gardaqmnili. zrunvisa da sindisis goeTes mier

odesRac Secnobili da aRiarebuli naTesaoba iqca haidegerisTvis

gadamwyvet debulebad, radgan “sindisi zrunvis

Zaxilad” moiazreba.

burdaxis mier materialur da zneobriv vals Soris gamokveTili

diferencireba haidegeris naSromSi, “yofna da

dro”, “braleulobis” (Schuldigsein) dasabamobriv-egzistencialuri

azris kriteriumis Ziebisas erTi mxriv, “vulgaruli

braleulobis fenomenis”, xolo meore mxriv ki, “egzistencialuris”

saxels iZens 22 . igive SeiZleba iTqvas sindisis

“vulgaruli” da “egzistencialuri” interpretaciis

20.

Heidegger M., Wegmarken; Fr./M., 1967; S. 170.

21.

ebda, S. 147.

22.

Heidegger M., Sein und Zeit, a.a.O., S. 283.


100 waxnagi 1.2009

urTierTgamijvnis SemTxvevaSic 23 . vinaidan “munyofiereba

Tavisi yofnis safuZvelSi braleulia”, amitomac “yofiers,

romlis yofna zrunvaa, mxolod faqtobrivi braleuloba

ki ar SeuZlia itvirTos, aramed is Tavisi yofnis safuZvel-

Sive braleulia” 24 , xolo sindisi SesaZlebelia, Tuki gagonili

iqneba braleulad yofnis Zaxili. es Zaxili ki

“zrunvis Zaxilia. braleulad yofna axdens im yofnis konstituirebas,

rasac Cven zrunvas vuwodebT” 25 . zrunvasTan ki

adamianis srulqmnis, perfeqciis ideaa uSualod dakavSirebuli.

higinusiseuli zrunvis araki (Cura-Fabel) rogorc

ontologiamdeli mowmoba haidegerisTvis swored imitom

iZens gansakuTrebul datvirTvas, radgan is “zrunvas” ara

mxolod adamianuri munyofierebis “sicocxlis vadiT” mflobelobis

kuTxiT ganixilavs, aramed radgan aq “zrunvis”

upiratesoba aqcentirebulia adamianuri arsebis cnobil

gagebasTan ganuyofel kavSirSi, romlis Tanaxmadac,

adamiani sxeulis (miwa) da sulis naerTs warmoadgens. antikuri

metafizikidan da moralis filosofiidan gadmoyolil

da ZvelaRTqmiseul Teistur anTropogoniasTan

Sejvarebul ideebze dafuZnebuli haidegeriseuli msjelobis

wesi aSkara siaxloves avlens burdaxis zemoxsenebuli

statiis debulebebsa da xedvasTan. burdaxis Tanaxmad

swored “adamianis bedisweris am antikuri, naxevrad

warmarTuli, naxevrad qristianuli gaazrebis” erTgvari

“sapirwone da amavdroulad ganmamtkicebeli” dokumentis

“SemoTavazeba surda goeTes Tavis faustSi” 26 .

zrunva goeTesTanac mokvdavi adamianis srulqmnis gansaxierebad

gvevlineba, radgan Tavis absolutur srulyofilebas

fausti zrunvasTan Widilis gziT aRwevs, romelic

mas abrmavebs. saqme isaa, rom faustis srulqmnadobis

gza mxolod wyvdiadTan brZolasa da WeSmariti Sinagani

Suqis mopovebaSi mdgomareobs. marTalia, gaafTrebulma

zrunvam mas Tvalis sinaTle waarTva da ukun RameSi moaqcia,

samagierod, faustma igrZno moZalebuli Sinagani Suqis

elvareba da kaSkaSi: “Die Nacht scheint tiefer tief hereinzudringen,

/ Allein im Innern leuchtet helles Licht” 27 (Rame sul ufro Rrmad da

Rrmad SemoiWreba, mxolod SigniT anaTebs kaSkaSa Suqi).

swored “WeSmariti Suqis” TiTqmis platoniseuli ganc-

23.

vgl. ebda, S. 289 ff.

24.

Heidegger M., Sein und Zeit, a.a.O., S. 286.

25.

ebda.

26.

Burdach K., Faust und die Sorge, a.a.O., S. 44.

27.

Goethe J.W., Faust, Berlin und Weimar, 1983, S. 407.


narkvevi 101

da akavSirebs Tomas manis hans kastorps, am “Suqis mZebnel

Wabuks”, faustis kosmosuri masStabis figurasTan, radgan

maT orives sulieri dabrmavebulobis wyvdiadisagan gaTavisuflebisaken

ltolva aerTianebs. saqme isaa, rom platoniseuli

gagebiT “WeSmariti Suqis” xilva SesaZlebels

xdis “yofierTan” da “sikeTis ideasTan” miaxloebas 28 . WeSmariti

Sinagani Suqis arsis Zieba, rogorc srulqmnis gza,

iqca im kardinalur problemad, romelmac centraluri

adgili daikava mTel evropul saazrovno sivrceSi.

swored srulyofilebisaken swrafvis paTosis wyalobiT

mogvevlinebian WeSmariti Sinagani Suqis maZiebeli

fausti da hans kastorpi “zrunvis Svilebad” an am RvTaebis,

am demonuri fenomenisTvis Tavsatexis, “sazrunavis gamCen

Svilebad”. amis mizezi ki, rogorc araerTgzis aRiniSna,

TviT zrunvis arsis srulmqmnel, srulmyofel bunebaSia

saZiebeli. udavod es garemoeba aqcevs mas dasavluri kulturis

ganuyofel egzistencialur atributad. masTanaa,

kerZod, platoniseuli WeSmariti Suqis Ziebis idea dakavSirebuli,

romelsac Tavis mxriv, παιδεία-s ZvelberZnuli

aRzrdis ideali udevs safuZvlad. zustad amitom mogvevlineba

Tanamedrove germanulenovani aRzrdis romanis

(Bildungsroman) Suqis maZiebeli gmiri, hans kastorpi, “cxovrebis

zrunvis Svilad”. naSromis dasawyisSi ukve aRvniSneT,

rom es gamoTqma _ Sorgenkind des Lebens _ Tomas manma Tavis

droze venasTan mimarTebiT gamoiyena swored am qalaqSi

warmoTqmul sityvaSi. oRond niSandoblivia, rom am

moxsenebaSi kidev erTi, mesame “cxovrebis zrunvis Svili”

Cndeba da esaa “Cveni Zveli, keTilSobili, magram dRes metad

daSavebuli da dacemuli samyaros nawili _ evropa” 29 .

amrigad, Seikra wre da hans kastorpis, am samyaros erTgvari

anTropomorfuli centris aslad da xatad evropac

cxovrebisTvis sazrunavis gamCen Svilad iqceva; evropa,

pol valeris TqmiT, “saukuneTa manZilze nebismieri klasifikaciis

saTaveSia moqceuli” 30 . misi mdgomareoba XX saukunis

dasawyisSi or Zireul kiTxvas badebda: “gaxdeba Tu ara

evropa sinamdvileSi is, rasac igi warmoadgens anu aziis

kontinentis patara koncxi ? Tu evropa darCeba imad, radac

igi Cans anu Zvirfasi nawili dedamiwis zurgze, sferos margaliti,

uzarmazari sxeulis tvini” 31 . pol valeris am or

28.

Sdr. platoni, saxelmwifo, Tb., 2003, wigni meSvide, gv. 252-286.

29.

Mann Th., Aufsätze, Reden, Essays. Berlin und Weimar, 1986, Bd.3; S. 653.

30.

Valéry P., La crise de l’esprit, Œuvres ; Paris, 1957, p. 996.

31.

ibid, p.995.


102 waxnagi 1.2009

kiTxvas haidegerma mesame daumata: “unda iqces Tu ara evropa,

rogorc amgvari koncxi da tvini pirvel rigSi saRamos

qveynad, romlis wiaRSic msoflio bedisweris sxva dila

moimzadebs Tavis dasabams?” 32 . es kiTxvebi awuxebs im evropuli

tipis inteleqtuals, romelsac pol valeri “evropel

hamlets” an sxvagvarad “inteleqtual hamlets” 33 uwodebs.

ai, kidev erTi “cxovrebisaTvis zrunvis gamCeni Svili” anu

sxva enaze esoden Znelad gadasaTargmni Sorgenkind des Lebens.

saqme isaa, rom Tomas maniseuli gamoTqma Sorgenkind des

Lebens, rogorc ukve met-naklebad garkveviT iqna naCvenebi,

uzarmazar winamorbed Sinaarssa da istorias Seicavs da am

mravalsaukunovan kavSirs problemis TiTqmis uxilav ars-

Tan nawilobriv moxerxebuli miniSnebis gziT Segnebulad

kidec amJRavnebs, magram, amavdroulad, metad ostaturad

kidec Cqmalavs. mwerlis es gamoTqma virtuozuli enobrivi

TamaSisa da sityvaTwyobis marjve gadajgufebis gziT, am

erTi SexedviT umniSvnelo da naklebad TvalSi sacemi sityvieri

safarvelis qveS aqcevs uzarmazar miTo-poetur siRrmiseul

Sres. Tanac es Sre mravalfenovania da Tavis wiaRSi

laTini mwerlis higinusis zrunvis arakidan moyolebuli

am igavis gadamuSavebis herderisa da goeTeseul variantebs

moiqvevs, romlebic sityvis saburvelis meSveobiT Tomas

manTan, erTi mxriv, dafarulia, magram, meore mxriv, sityvieri

garsi mainc metad gamWvirvale rCeba da mravalfenovan

SreebSi ufro Rrmad Caxedvis SesaZleblobas iZleva. aq

kodificirebuli metaforikis gamSifrav-ukudamSifravi

meqanizmis principi moqmedebs. kavSiri miTosTan kidev

ufro uxilavi da amoucnobi xdeba “jadosnuri mTis” sxvadasxva

enebze Targmanisas. Sorgenkind des Lebens rusul teqst-

Si ikiTxeba rogorc “трудное дитя жизни”, xolo dali fanjiki-

Zis TavisTavad mSvenier qarTul TargmanSi rogorc “Zneli

aRsazrdeli bavSvi”. aq yoveli sxva enisTvis garkveuli SesaZleblobebis

zRvaria dasmuli. cocxali miTosis matarebeli

sityva meore enaSi ukve mkvdradSobili ibadeba. ase

ikargeba zrunvis araki zemoTmoxmobil qarTul-rusul variantebSi.

miTosur fonTan uwyveti jaWvebiT dakavSirebuli

es yovlismomcveli simbolikis matarebeli moxdenili

sityva-kompoziti Sorgenkind, sxva enaze Targmanisas moiTxovs

uxvsityvier ganmartebasa da perifrazirebas. amasobaSi

ki sadRac Tvalsa da xels Sua qreba, ikargeba, uCinardeba is

ZiriTadi miTosuri arsi, umTavresi tvirTi, romlis mata-

32.

Heidegger M., Erläuterungen zu Hölderlins Dichtung. Fr./M., 1980, S. 177.

33.

Valéry P., La crise de l’esprit, p. 933.


narkvevi 103

reblad es kompoziti gvevlineba da romlis pirvelsamSoblo

goeTes “faustSia” saZiebeli.

ukve araerTxel aRiniSna, rom zrunvis fenomeni rogorc

goeTes, ise Tomas manis poeturi kosmologiis ganuyofel

Semadgenel nawils warmoadgens. zrunva rogorc

mxatvruli personaJi “faustSi” sakvanZo figurad iqceva.

iTqva ukve isic, rom am mxatvruli saxis gansakuTrebuli

mniSvnelobis jerovnad bolomde gaazrebis SemTxvevaSi,

nawarmoebis mTeli problematika sruliad axali kuTxiT

gaixsneba. herderisa da goeTesagan nasesxebi zrunvis motivi

Tomas manTan genialuri yovlismomcveli esoden Znelad

gadasaTargmni sityvaTSemoqmedebis wyalobiT, enas

sruliad auxsneli, idumali gziT mistikur-sabediswero

xdomilebad aqcevs, vinaidan es sityvieri warmonaqmni Sorgenkind

des Lebens sxvadasxva epoqebisa da kulturul samyaroTa

urTierTSexvedris niadagad mogvevlineba.

amrigad, Tavis wiaRSi zrunvis arakis Canasaxis matarebeli

herder-goeTeseuli sityvieri xati XX saukuneSi

ara mxolod literaturuli nayofis anu Tomas maniseuli

axleburi mxatvrul-sityvieri warmonaqmnis pirvelmizezi

gaxda, aramed is, amavdroulad, XX saukunis erTerTi

udidesi filosofosis, martin haidegerisTvisac

impulsis mimcemi gamodga. mis umTavres naSromSi, “yofna

da dro”, Cven am sityvis cnebadqmnadobis mowmeni vxdebiT.

poetur-miTologiuri xatebis samyarodan aRebuli sityva

haidegeriseuli filosofiuri moZRvrebis erT-erT centralur

cnebad iqca. yvela literaturuli nawarmoebi,

romelic zrunvis araks Seexeba, higinusidan moyolebuli

vidre herder-goeTeseul mxatvrul versiebamde, haidegeris

safuZvelmdebare filosofiuri debulebebisTvis

sruliad Tavisebur ganumeorebel paradigmad gvevlineba.

zrunvis arakis recefciis istoria filosofiuri

poeziis an poeturi filosofiis gaTvalsaCinoebis gamorCeul

nimuSs warmoadgens im poet-filosofosTaTvis,

romelTa SemoqmedebaSic ukiduresad Znelia mkveTri gammijnavi

xazis gatareba maTi mxatvrul-SemoqmedebiTi

warmosaxvis Zalasa da gonebaWvretiT-SemoqmedebiTi wvdomis

siRrmes Soris. esaa transcendentaluri poeziis

triumfis is iSviaTi SemTxveva, roca Zalze rTulia im

idumali wamis dafiqsireba, romlis gaelvebaSic dasruldeba

poeziis filosofia da iwyeba filosofiis poezia. am

mTxzvel moazrovneTa poetur-filosofiur kosmogoniaSi

mTeli sulieri energiis Zalisxmeva mxolod yofnis WeSmaritebis

wvdomis, Secnobisken ki ar aris mimarTuli, ara-


104 waxnagi 1.2009

med maTi miznisaken swrafva gacilebiT mets gulisxmobs:

aq saqme exeba am WeSmaritebis Tqmasa da Txzvas mxatvrul-

SemoqmedebiTi TvalsazrisiT srulyofili, uCveulod

axleburi, enobriv TamaSebSi garTuli eniT.

aq Slaiermaxeris sityvebi rom moviSvelioT, “azrovnebis

xelovneba” da “saubris xelovneba” idealur harmonias

qmnian, vinaidan “saubari mxolod qmnil azrs warmoadgens”

(“die Rede nur der gewordene Gedanke ist”) 34 . aqedan gamomdinare,

azrovneba ukve mxolod wminda filosofiur saqmed ki aRar

warmoCndeba, aramed xelovnebis sferoSi gadadis.

amgvarad, daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom herderisa

da goeTesgan nasesxebi “zrunvis” simbolika Tomas manis

“jadosnur mTaSi” sintagmatur doneze romanis enobriv

qargaSi ostaturad Caqsovil, damoukideblad moqmed,

miTosuri fonis matarebel urTierTSewyobil sityvaTa

jgufad anu sintagmad, xolo haidegeris naSromSi ki paradigmatul

doneze cnebad qceul paradigmad mogvevlineba.

Nino Pirtskhalava

The history of reception of the Cura fable in literature and

philosophy

The analysis of the function of different myths, legends, symbols in the

work of Herder and Goethe, who later had an exeptionally strong influence

on the poetical and philosophical work of such Occidental artists and thinkers

of the 20th century, as Thomas Mann (“The Magic Mountain”) and Martin

Heidegger (“Being and Time”), allows us to gain a totally new prospect

of modern literature and philosophy.

As the definite example of this circumstance could serve the motive of

anxiety (Sorge), which is an eminent example for the illustration of the history

of reception of the Cura fable in European literature and philosophy.

The examination of the phenomenon of anxiety as of a deeply symbolical

mythological figure has a quite long tradition in poetry, goes back to antiquity.

Goethe became acquainted with the Cura fable of the Latin poet Hyginus

through the adaptation of this fable by Herder in his poem “The child of

Anxiety” and used it in his “Faust”, thus becoming one of the main sources

of influence for the conceptions of Heidegger and Thomas Mann.

34.

Schleiermacher Fr., Werke in 4 Bdn., 1981, Bd.4, S. 138.


maka elbaqiZe

sivrculi diqotomia Suasaukuneebis raindul

romanSi

Suasaukuneebis rainduli romanis mTavari sivrculi

diqotomia _ sasaxlis kari/tye _ gamomxatvelia im

mxatvrul-struqturuli opoziciisa, romelic arsebobs

sakaro civilizacias (cixesimagre) da egreT wodebul

velur bunebas (cixesimagris miRma arsebuli samyaro)

Soris. rasakvirvelia, rogorc erTi sivrculi arealis

(bunebis peizaJi), ise meoris (sasaxle, koSki) aRwerisas

mkiTxveli ar unda elodos realisturobas an naturalizms.

Kkonkretuli interier-eqsterieris Tu geografiuli

arealis detalebic ar aris mimeturi. isini gansazRvrulia

rogorc sakuTriv narativis Sinagani logikiT,

ise peizaJis aRweris xangrZlivi literaturuli

tradiciiT. romanSi, romlis mTavari personaJi _ moxetiale

raindi _ mieSureba Tavgadasavlis saZieblad, anu

Seucnoblis pirispir Sesayrelad, kargad nacnobi teritoriis

defamiliarizacias Sedegad mohyveba is, risTvisac,

saerTod, iwereba es romani: egreT wodebuli Tavgadasavlis

samefos aRmoCena (puteri 1995: 12), romlis

wiaRSic unda dasruldes im moralur faseulobaTa wvdomis

procesi, romelic idealuri pirovnebis formirebis

safuZvelia.

Suasaukuneebis dasavleTma Tavisi kulturuli modelebi

aiRo bibliidan, sadac veluri buneba _ udabno _

rogorc simbolo da rogorc istoriul-geografiuli

realoba _ ambivalenturi cnebebia da civilizaciis _ qalaqis

_ opoziciad moiazreba. ganmartoebis adgilis aRmniSvneli

udabnos saxe-xati SuasaukuneebSi tyed transformirda

(keltur da skandinaviur tradiciaSi udabno

Secvala zRvam), TandaTan dakarga konkretuli geografiuli

definicia da SeinarCuna mxolod adrindeli, bibliuri

simbolika _ asocirda ra velur, civilizaciis

sapirispiro garemosTan (le gofi 1992: 49-54).

105


106 waxnagi 1.2009

is ukacrieli adgilebi, romlebic aRwerilia Suasaukuneebis

romanebSi, rasakvirvelia, avtorTa fantaziis nayofia

da ara obieqturi realoba. 1250 wels inglisSi gaqra

ukanaskneli veluri tye _ the Forest of Dean, raTa adgili

daeTmo iseTi movlili, mkacrad organizebuli tyis masivebisTvis,

romlebsac kargad icnobs gviandeli Suasaukuneebis

inglisi da romlebzec vrceldeboda sakuTrebis

mkacri kontroli. frangul sinamdvileSic Gaste foret-is

(ukacrieli, udaburi tye) motivi swored im dros gaCnda,

rodesac namdvili veluri tyeebi TandaTanobiT qreboda

da daviwyebas eZleoda (zmnebi gast da gastine, rac daumuSavebel,

udabur adgils niSnavs, sinonimebia sityvisa foret

_ tye). Sampaneli grafebi, romelTa karzec “mrgvali magidis”

romanTa umravlesoba iwereboda, mniSvnelovan ekonomikur

mogebas iRebdnen licenziebis gayidviT im pirebze,

romelTac auTvisebeli adgilebis saxnav-saTes mindvrebad

gadaqceva ewadaT. am dros Zalze paradoqsulad JRers

kretien de truas mier veluri tyis motivis SemoReba. Tumca

mwerlis Semoqmedebis erT-erTma pirvelma mkvlevarma,

hartman fon auem, mianiSna, rom tyis motivis gamoyenebas

kretienis narativSi Zalze mkafio da sagangebod gansazRvruli

funqcia hqonda _ tye, civilizaciisgan moSorebiT

mdebare ukidegano da usasrulo sivrce, saocar SiSsa da

Zrwolas iwvevda mefe arturis Tavgadasavlebis maZiebel

raindebSi, romelTac, gauval tevrSi CakargulT, warmodgena

ar hqondaT, sad imyofebodnen, saiT miemarTebodnen,

an rodemde gastanda maTi mogzauroba. garda amisa, ukacrieli

tyeebi dasaxlebuli iyo gareuli cxovelebiTa da

sakmaod ucnauri adamianebiT, ZiriTadad, warmarTebiT an

urwmunoebiT (ix. kretien de trua 1974: 37-38), Sesabamisad,

Suasaukuneebis azrovnebaSi erTmaneTs mWidrod daukav-

Sirda ori cneba _ veluri garemo da sulieri sicariele,

rasac, udavod, winare epoqis azrovnebaSic Rrmad hqonda

gadgmuli fesvebi (puteri 1995: 22).

velur tyes Suasaukuneebis faseulobaTa sistemaSi upirispirdeboda

sasaxle (cixesimagre), civilizebuli, organizebuli

garemo. kurtuazul romanebSi es aris mefe arturis

kari (Sdr. vefxistyaosnis arabeTis, indoeTisa Tu

mulRazanzaris sakaro idilia) _ eleganturobis, sinatifis,

kurtuazulobis simbolo. magram antiTeza sasaxle/

tye ufro kompleqsuria, vidre es erTi SexedviT SeiZleba

mogveCvenos, radgan Suasaukuneebis raindul romanebSi

arsebobs kidev erTi binaruli opozicia _ sanadiro da

saTavgadasavlo tye, Sesabamisad, erTmaneTisgan mkveTrad


narkvevi 107

gansxvavdeba tye, romelSic raindebi Tavgadasavlebs dae-

Zeben, da tye, sadac isini nadiroben. sasaxlis maxloblad

mdebare tyeebSi raindebi droebiT iviwyeben TavianT yoveldRiur

problemebs da sakaro cxovrebis tvirTisgan ga-

Tavisuflebulni bunebis wiaRSi srul netarebas eZlevian

(Sdr. “movinadireT mindori, Ziri mTisa da gorisa; / iyo simravle

ZaRlisa, Savardnisa da qorisa, / adre davbrundiT,

viajeT ar eji gzisa Sorisa. / aRar iburTes, daSla qmnes

TamaSobisa orisa”; rusTaveli 1966: 470). ra Tqma unda,Aam

SemTxvevaSic sanadiro tye iseTive warmosaxviT-gamogonili

peizaJia, rogoric veluri tye, maTi dapirispireba ki

imave binaruli opoziciis principzea agebuli, romelic

arsebobs cixesimagresa da tyes, sasaxlis karsa da velur

bunebas Soris (le gofi 1992: 58). Sesabamisad, mefec da misi

raindebic, SesaZloa, egreT wodebul tyis adamianebad moviazroT,

romelnic periodulad stumroben sanadiro tyes

imave komfortsa Tu gancxromaSi CasaZirad, romelsac maT

sasaxlis kari sTavazobs (mag. TeTr iremze nadiroba kretien

de truas erekSi, arturis gaqceuli Sevardnis epizodi

volfram fon eSenbaxis parcifalSi, nadirobaTa cikli

ser govensa da mwvane raindSi, avTandilisa da rostevan

mefis nadiroba vefxistyaosanSi).

sanadiro tyis sapirispirod veluri tye moiazreba,

rogorc sasaxlis kari/cixesimagris negatiuri gamoxatuleba

(cixesimagreebi _ eleganturobis, sinatifis simbolo;

tye _ maTi sruli antipodi). velur tyeSi moxetiale

raindi Tavs martosulad, eulad grZnobs. sasaxlis karis

ceremoniebs moSorebuli, igi garemoculia indiferentuli,

pirquSi dekoriT, romelic antiTeturia im daxvewili

kulturisa, romlis mimdevradac igi gvevlineba. tyis peizaJis

yoveli detali (mag. broselandis uRrani tye erTmaneTSi

gadaxlarTuli kunelis, mayvlisa da kvirinCxis

buCqebiT (kretien de trua 1974:35; bnel tevrSi Casafrebuli

mglebi, gareuli taxebi, daTvebi Tu drakonebi _ ser

goveni da mwvane raindi: 1998: 27), erTi mxriv, asrulebs

anturaJis funqcias romanis siuJetis mTavari motivis _

Ziebis (avantiuris) _ gasaSlelad, meore mxriv ki, Tavgadasvlis

maZieblis emociuri mdgomareobis xazgasasmelad

(logris miwaze moxvedril ser govens gausaZlisi martooba

Seipyrobs; gauval tyeebsa da klde-RreSi moxetiales

Tanamgzavrad da keTil megobrad mxolod Tavisi cxeni

eguleba, SimSils nanadireviT iklavs da ufals SesTxovs,

gzad adamianiSvili Seaxvedros (ser goveni da mwvane raindi:

1998: 27; Sdr. “mixvda rasme qveyanasa ugemursa metad


108 waxnagi 1.2009

mqissa; / Tve erT kacsa vera naxavs, versa Svilsa adamissa”

_ rusTaveli 1966: 181; “mas mindorsa daemarTa, gza TvaliTa

gamosaxa; / Tvesa erTsa sulieri kaci arsad ar enaxa,

/ mxecni iyvnes saSinelni, magra ara Seuzaxa” _ rusTaveli

1966: 191)). am SemTxvevaSi gansakuTrebiT mZafrad igrZnoba

opozicia egreT wodebul sakuTar da sxvis miwas Soris.

samefo kari, sadac gamefebulia kurtuazuli morali da

samarTlianoba, keTilganwyobilia gmirisadmi. Tuki aqaiq

mainc gvxvdebian veragi da avismosurne adamianebi, romanis

bolos isini aucileblad isjebian an mefis uzenaesi

Zalauflebis, an garemoebaTa damTxvevis wyalobiT. Aase

rom, sakuTari sivrce ara marto topografiuli, aramed

zneobrivi cnebacaa.

sxvisi sivrce, tyis gauvali gza, romelsac gmiri Tavgadasavlebis

Ziebisas daadgeba, Tavis wiaRSi araerT safr-

Txes malavs; is neitraluria da gmiris mimarT yovelTvis

mtrulad ganwyobili. moraluri TvalsazrisiTac es

“negatiuri”, “miusafari” sivrcea. bunebrivi pirobebi aq

Tanxvdeba da Seesabameba moralurs, vinaidan Asxvis sivrce-

Si gamefebulia ukanonoba, usamarTloba, motyueba da Ralati.

aRsaniSnavia, rom sxvisi sivrcis aRwerisas yovelTvis

(Tundac impliciturad) myofobs sakuTari sivrcis

Sefaseba. sxvisi Sefasebulia Tavisis meSveobiT, rogorc

sruli antipodi sakuTarisa (kargi-cudi, madliani-madlmoklebuli,

lamazi-maxinji, keTilganwyobili-mtruli,

mSvidi-saxifaTo, saimedo-arasaimedo, usafrTxo-saxifa-

To da a.S. mixailovi 1976: 181-182). ase rom, kurtuazuli

romanebis tyis scenebis gadmosacemad avtorebi mimarTaven

imave motivebs, romlebsac sasaxlis karis scenebis aRsawerad,

oRond negatiuri modulaciiT. tyis mniSvneloba

aq ganmartebulia fufunebisa da sadResaswaulo ganwyobis

aRmniSvneli terminebis saSualebiT, oRond imTaviTve

xazgasmulia, rom, sasaxlis karisagan gansxvavebiT, tye Tavis

stumrebs am siameT ver SesTavazebs. ase rom, sasaxlis

kari am romanebSi funqcionirebs, rogorc TavisTavad nagulisxmevi

norma, romelsac tye ver Seesabameba (puteri

1995: 16-22). Sesabamisad,Kkurtuazuli samyaros komfortsa

da sasaxlis karis binadarTa sazeimo ganwyobas moklebuli

raindebis cxovreba velur garemoSi miedineba, romelic

indiferentuli da antiTeturia im daxvewili kulturisa,

romlis mimdevradac isini gvevlinebian.

AzemoTqmuls, bunebrivia, ukavSirdeba egreT wodebuli

veluri, an tyis kacis Tema, romelic Cveuli toposi iyo

Suasaukuneebis literaturaSi da romlis prototipis


narkvevi 109

Ziebasac Jofrei monmoutelis merlinis cxovrebis Zalze

cnobil epizodTan mivyavarT. merlini, romelic Tavs

damnaSaved miiCnevs Zmebis sikvdilSi, gaiWreba tyeSi da

itans ukiduresad SeWirvebul yofas, Tumca, amave dros,

mas eniWeba winaswarmetyvelebis madli. es Tema mogvianebiT

gadainacvlebs kurtuazul romanSi, kerZod, kretien

de truas ivenSi. ivenis sigiJe mas Semdeg, rac igi gadakveTs

damuSavebul mindvrebs da arturis samflobelos sazRvrebs

gascdeba, lokalizdeba tyeSi, romelic gacilebiT

ufro “kompleqsuri” arealia (TavSesafari, Tavgadasavlebis

Ziebis, sinanulis adgili da a.S), vidre es erTi SexedviT

Cans. gaxelebuli ivenis raindoba aq droebiT ukan

ixevs da asparezs “velur kacs”, monadires uTmobs. tansacmelSemoZarcvuli

gmiri kargavs mexsierebas, Rames SiSvel

miwaze aTevs, umi nanadireviT ikvebeba da cxovelTa tyaviT

imoseba. TiTqos aq ikvreba erTgvari wre adamianTa samyarosa

da cxovelTa samyaros Soris (le gofi 1992: 110-111).

tyeSi gaWril ivens “kacrielTa TemTan” mxolod gandegili

akavSirebs, romelic, miuxedavad imisa, rom garkveuli

kontaqti aqvs qalaqTan (civilizaciasTan) _ yidis cxovelis

tyavs da yidulobs purs _ ar SeiZleba adamianTa

samyaros tipur warmomadgenlad miviCnioT, vinaidan arc

misi qoxmaxia adamianis xeliT aSenebuli da arc xorci _

saTanadod Semwvari. ivenic, miuxedavad imisa, rom veluri

kacia, mainc garkveul diskomforts ganicdis imis gamo,

rom iZulebulia, SimSili umi nanadireviT moiklas da im

faqts Seeguos, rom tyeSi gaWrils ar eqneba arc safuariT

gamomcxvari puri (gandegili mas mxolod qerisa da Wvavis

fqvils sTavazobs), arc Rvino, arc marili Tu saneleblebi,

arc magidis xelsaxoci da a.S. (kretien de trua 1974:

92-93), anu “momzadebul” sakvebze, dana-Cangalze, Rvinoze,

xelsaxocebsa da sakaro, anu civilizebuli cxovrebis

sxvadasxva atributebze tyis scenebSicaa saubari, oRond

aq sagangebodaa xazgasmuli, rom maT tyeSi ver SexvdebiT

(Sdr. “vWam, glax, marto nadirisa misgan xorcsa monatansa”

– rusTaveli 1966: 258). …Sesabamisad, stumarmaspinZlobis

scenebi _ rainduli romanebis erT-erTi umTavresi konvenciuri

motivi _ maspinZlis mier gamoCenili guliTadobis

miuxedavad, sxvis sivrceSi moklebulia im komforts (rac,

Tundac, sazeimo ganwyobaSi gamoixateba), romelsac sasaxlis

karze uxvad vxvdebiT.

rainduli romanebis msgavsad, vefxistyaosanSi tyeSi

gansvlas da “velur” garemosTan Serwymas samgvari funqciuri

datvirTva aqvs: 1. is mijnurobas ukavSirdeba da


110 waxnagi 1.2009

“velad gaWrasTan” aris gaigivebuli (udavoa, rom es konvencia

rogorc rusTvelis TxzulebaSi, ise evropul raindul

romanSi aRmosavluri samyarodan aris gadasuli)

_ “Tu moyvare moyvrisaTvis tirs, tirilsa emarTlebis,

siaruli martooba Svenis, gaWrad daeTvlebis” (rusTaveli

1966: 31); “Tu mijnuri var, erTi vxam xeli mindorTa me

rebad, / ar marto unda gaWrili cremlisa sisxlsa ferebad?

/ gaWra xelia mijnurTa, rad scals Tavisa berebad!”

(rusTaveli 1966: 775); Sesabamisad, tye, veluri garemo

sasowarkveTili, gaxelebuli mijnurisTvis erTgvari

TavSesafris funqciasac asrulebs, sadac mas, “kacriel-

Ta TemTagan” ganSorebuls, SeuZlia ganmartoeba da saku-

Tar fiqrebSi CaZirva _ “xeli mindors gaviWrebi, zogjer

vtir da zogjer vbndebi” (rusTaveli 1966: 647). 2. rainduli

romanebis msgavsad, tye (sasaxlis karis antiTeturi

garemo) gvevlineba im linearul sivrced, romelzec

gadis Tavgadasavlis maZiebeli raindis “gza” da romlis

wiaRSic am ukanasknelis srulyofil pirovnebad formirebis

procesi unda dasruldes. “xetialis” cneba, romelsac

vefxistyaosanSi sityva “gaWra” Seesabameba, an samijnuro

davalebis Sesrulebas ukavSirdeba: “ra mijnuri velTa

rbodes, marto unda gasaWrelad” (rusTaveli 1966: 160), an

“faTeraks”: “gijobs gaWra Zebnad misad, gavardna da velTa

rbola” (rusTaveli 1966: 577). rogorc erT, ise meore SemTxvevaSi,

sxvis sivrces, romelic neitraluria, udaburi

da miusafari mniSvnelovani simboluri datvirTva eniWeba,

radgan swored aq unda ganviTardes rainduli saTavgadasavlo

moTxroba.

Uunda iTqvas, rom diqotomia tyesa da sasaxlis kars

Soris sagrZnobia rogorc erT, ise meore SemTxvevaSi. velad

gaWrili, gaSmagebuli tarieli, mas Semdeg, rac sabolood

“daagdebs” “kacrielTa Tems” da binas ukacriel

gamoqvabulSi daidebs, iseve erwymis bunebas, rogorc iveni

_ “saxlad sayofni mimaCndes TxaTa da maT iremTani”

(rusTaveli 1966: 645), “mas aqaT vaxlav nadirTa, Tavsa ma-

Tebrve mxsenebi” (rusTaveli 1966: 648). misi rainduli siqvelec

am axal sivrceSi mxolod monadiris funqciamdea

dayvanili _ igi SimSils nanadireviT iklavs da nadiris

(vefxis) tyaviT imoseba (Tumca vefxis tyavs romanSi Zalze

Rrma simboluri datvirTva aqvs. ix. elbaqiZe 2005: 93-100).

sayuradReboa, rom tarielis “civilizebul sivrceSi” dasabruneblad

avTandilica da asmaTic TavianT argumentacias

swored aRniSnul diqotomiaze _ adamianTa samyaro/

cxovelTa samyaro _ afuZneben: “...mxecTa Tana iarebi mar-


narkvevi 111

to tevrad,/ aras kacsa ar iaxleb saubrad da Semaqcevrad”

(rusTaveli 1966: 269); “brZeni xar da gamorCeva ara ici br-

ZenTa Tqmuleb, / mindors stir da mxecTa axlav, ras wadilsa

aisruleb?” (rusTaveli 1966: 866). 3. iseve rogorc evropul

raindul romanebSi, tye aris sivrce civilizaciis

centrebs (sasaxlis kari/cixesimagre) Soris da misi funqciaa

TvalnaTliv aCvenos is kontrasti, romelic aucilebelia

“Ziebis”, anu Tavgadasavlis, avantiuris struqturuli

erTeulis diferencirebisaTvis im struqturuli er-

Teulisagan, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, nadimi, stumarTmoyvareoba

da a.S. (“cotasa xansa varCie gaWra smasa da mRerasa” _

rusTaveli 1966: 164). ivenisTvis gandegilis qoxi mxolod

droebiTi TavSesafaria. mas Semdeg, rac jadosnuri balzamis

meSveobiT gmiri daibrunebs uwindel iers, igi miiltvis

Tavisi Cveuli samyarosken, sadac dakargul siyvarul-

Tan erTad eguleba is komforti, romelic tyeSi gaWrils

ase aklda. igive SeiZleba iTqvas devTa gamoqvabulzec,

romelic, asmaTis Zalisxmevis miuxedavad, arc aris da arc

SeiZleba gaxdes tarielisTvis sakuTari sivrce, Sesabamisad,

misi maspinZlobac moklebulia sasaxlis karisTvis

damaxasiaTebel ceremoniulobasa da sazeimo ganwyobas:

“wvadi Seiwves, Seiqmna puroba msgavsi Jamisa, mun upuroba

puroba, ar sidiade jamisa” (rusTaveli 1966: 912) 1 . tarielisa

da avTandilis Tanameinaxeobac gansxvavdeba Cveuli,

raindul molxenisgan da “Jamis mgavsad”, anu situaciis Sesaferisad

mimdinareobs. aq, rogorc, sazogadod, rainduli

nadimisas, mravali jami ar ismeba: “mas Seexvewnes: “Wameo”,

Zali ar hqonda Wamisa, / gascoxnis, lukma gastyorcis, wona

Zliv CanTqis dramisa” (rusTaveli 1966: 932) (Sdr. “Seiqna

sma da puroba, msgavsi maTisa Zalisa... / jami da Wiqa _ yvelai

ferozisa da lalisa./ arvisi brZana mefeman arca gaSveba

mTvralisa” _ rusTaveli 1966: 476).

samagierod, peizaJi (iseve rogorc personaJis ganwyoba)

radikalurad icvleba, rodesac xetialiT gatanjuli raindebi

qalaqs/cixesimagres miadgebian. aRarc garemomcveli

sivrce da aRarc bunebis Zalebi aRar arian maT mimarT

sastikni da mtrulad ganwyobilni. romanis avtorebic,

romlebic sakmao sityvaZunwobas iCenen tyis peizaJis aRwerisas,

ar iSureben naTel ferebs sakuTari sivrcis mimzid-

1.

sayuradReboa aRniSnul strofTan dakavSirebiT aleqsi WinWaraulis

mier gamoTqmuli mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac, “upuroba puroba” upurod

puris Wamas aRniSnavs (Sdr. nodar naTaZis Tvalsazrisi _ puroba, romelic

purobas ar hgavda. ix. rusTaveli 1986: 305)


112 waxnagi 1.2009

velobis warmosaCenad (ser govenma samjer gadaisaxa jvari

da uecrad tyis siRrmidan Tvali mohkra TxriliT garSemortymul

da umSvenieres baRebSi CaZirul cixesimagres,

romlis moCuqurTmebuli Spilebi cas swvdeboda; Camuqebuli

wyali ireklavda koSkebis maRal, natifad moxatul kedlebs,

qaTqaTa TeTr sakvamurebs, asawev xids da masiur karebs

_ ser goveni da mwvane raindi 1998: 29-30; Sdr. “RamiT

mevlo, movidodi, zRvisa pirsa aCndes baRni, hgvanda, qa laqs

veaxleniT, cal-kerZ iyvnes kldeTa naRni” _ rusTaveli

1966: 583; “qalaqs Sevides, mun daxvda sra mokazmuli sruli-

Ta, / saxelmwifoTa yovliTa gasagebliTa sruliTa; monani

turfad mosilni wesiTa iyvnes ruliTa! / Sehfrfvinvidian

avTandils guliTa sul-wasruliTa” _ rusTaveli 1966:

998). Suasaukuneebis narativis mniSvnelovan siaxled unda

miviCnioT is faqtic, rom es “axali” peizaJi danaxulia raindis,

anu personaJis TvalTaxedviT, Tanac siaxle gamoixateba

ara mxolod im zmnebiT, romlebic Wvretis aqts aRweren

(Sdr. “mivediT, vnaxeT”), aramed im detalebiT, romlebic

mkiTxvelis gonebisTvisac advilad misawvdomia (Sdr.

“naxes qalaqi, moculi gare baRisa tevriTa, / gvarad ucxoni

yvavilni feriTa bevris bevriTa. / mis qveyanisa siturfe ra

gagagono mev, riTa” _ rusTaveli 1966: 1049).

Suasaukuneebis romanTa umravlesobaSi personaJebi xedaven

cixesimagres jer Sori manZilidan, saidanac yvela

detalis garCeva Wirs (tyis siRrme, daburuli buCqnari),

anu xedaven garemos, sadac aRmarTulia es cixesimagre. na-

Teli, romelic am axali peizaJidan gamosWvivis, absoluturad

korelaturia im siuxvisa da baraqisa, romelsac ase

moklebulia personaJi sibneliT mocul uRran tyeSi.

cixesimagris danaxvisas gmiri rwmundeba, rom yvela

sirTule, romlis gadalaxvac mas xetialisas mouxda, ukan

darCa da axla is guliTadi maspinZlis winaSe dgas, romlis

saxlic masSi sakuTari sivrcis asociacias aRZravs (xetialiT

moRlilma kalogrenanma cixesimagris asawev xidze

warmosadegi aznauri SeniSna, romelmac igi Tavazianad Sin

miipatiJa. ezoSi rainds aznauris jalaboba gamoegeba. mas

iaraR-saWurveli CamoarTves, sufrasTan miipatiJes, sasiamovno

saubriT Seaqcies da yuaTiani vaxSmiT gaumaspinZldnen

_ kretien de trua 1974: 35-36; “dasxdes, Seiqmna puroba,

gaamravlebdes maxalsa, / umaspinZlebdes avTandils, viTa

mZaxali mZaxalsa, / moiRebdian saWurWles turfasa, axalaxalsa”

_ rusTaveli 1966: 1000).

miuxedavad imisa, rom cixesimagris xeds Suasaukuneebis

raindul romanSi aqvs sxva samyaros aura, romelic


narkvevi 113

radikalurad gansxvavdeba tyisgan da xetialiT moRlili

gmiric droebiT kvlav civilizebul samyaros ubrundeba,

xSir SemTxvevaSi guliTadi maspinZloba da nanatri

komfortis SegrZneba, romelsac is am cixesimagreSi ganicdis,

Tvals uxvevs mas, dainaxos mkacri realoba _ rom

mTavari Tavgadasavlebi swored aq, am cixesimagreSi, unda

SeemTxves (puteri 1995: 41). kretien de truas romanebSi,

iseve rogorc ser govenis anonim avtorTan Tu vefxistyaosanSi

sivrcis linearulobis darRveva gmirisTvis did

xifaTs moaswavebs. avantiuruli sivrcidan gmiri yofiT

sivrceSi gadainacvlebs, Tumca xSirad im lokalSi, sadac

igi xetialisas droebiT SeCerdeba, erTmaneTs erwymis yofiTi

da avantiuruli sivrce _ rainduli turniri, axali

faTeraki, Casafrebuli safrTxe da sxv. (enidas cixe-koSki

erekSi, gurnemancisa da graalis cixesimagreebi parcifal-

Si, bertilakis koSki ser govenSi, mulRazanzaris samefo

vefxistyaosanSi da a.S). Tumca zogierTi protagonisti

winaswarvea Semzadebuli im faTerakisTvis, rasac mas

gzidan gadaxveva da cixesimagris zRudesTan pirispir Seyra

uqadis (fenisas koSki da faTerakTa cixe ivenSi, Joe de

la Court erekSi, mwvane samlocvelo ser govenSi da qajeTis

cixe vefxistyaosanSi). Sesabamisad, romanis egreT wodebul

avantiurul struqturaSi axali sivrcis _ cixesimagris

_ Semotana narativis ganviTarebis erT-erTi xerxia,

romelic xorcieldeba an romantikuli, an heroikuli elementis

CarTviT (fridonis biZaSvilebTan brZola, fatmanisgan

avTandilis gamijnureba da WaSnagiris mokvla,

ivenis qorwineba tyis raindis qvrivze, erekisa da ideris

turniri, bertilakis meuRlis mier ser govenis cduneba,

parcifalis mier pelraperis gaTavisufleba da dedofalze

daqorwineba da a.S), rac romanis siuJetis mniSvnelovani

struqturuli rgolia da rasac Txroba, faqtobrivad,

kvanZis gaxsnisken mihyavs.

marTalia, Suasaukuneebis sasaxlis kari SesaniSnavi

lokalia kurtuazul faseulobaTa sakvlevad, magram roca

saqme tyes exeba, standartebisa Tu calkeul motivTa gadamuSavebis

sakiTxi ukve sakuTriv narativs ukavSirdeba,

radgan amjerad es ukanaskneli gvevlineba “gadabrunebul

gamosaxulebad”, romelSic, rogorc sarkeSi, airekleba

tye an sasaxle (puteri 1995: 27). Sedegad viRebT dekoracias,

romelsac SeuZlia kontrastebis imgvarad warmoCena,

rom ar “daanawevros” am romanebis fiqtiuri samyarodan

nasesxebi msoflmxedveloba. ase rom, Suasaukuneebis

raindebica da romanTa avtorebic ara marto uxifaTod


114 waxnagi 1.2009

aRweven Tavs tyes, mtrul da miusafar garemos, romelic

“cdilobs”, daacilos isini TavianT fesvebs, aramed inar-

Cuneben TavianT identobas da kidev ufro srulyofen im

Rirsebebs, romelTac rainduli keTilSobilebis kodeqsi

karnaxobT.

damowmebani:

elbaqiZe 2005: elbaqiZe m. vefxistyaosnis poetikis zogierTi

sakiTxi Suasaukuneebis frangul raindul romanTan tipologiur

mimarTebaSi, Tbilisi: universali, 2005.

kretien de trua 1974: Кретьен Де Труа. Ивейн или рыцарь со львом,

Средневековый роман и повесть (Библиотека всемирной литературы),

Москва: Художественная литература, 1974.

le gofi, 1992: Le Goff J. The Medieval Imagination, Chicago and London:The

University of Chicago Press, 1992.

mixailovi 1976: Михайлов А. Французский рыцарский роман и вопросы

типологии жанра в средневековой литературе, Москва: Наука, 1976.

puteri 1995: Putter A. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and French Arthurian

Romance, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

rusTaveli 1966: rusTaveli SoTa. vefxistyaosani, saredaqcio

kolegia: irakli abaSiZe, aleqsandre baramiZe, pavle ingoroyva,

akaki SaniZe, giorgi wereTeli, Tbilisi: sabWoTa saqarTvelo,

1966.

rusTaveli 1986: rusTaveli SoTa. vefxistyaosani, mesame saskolo

gamocema, teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, ganmartebani, komentari

da bolosityvaoba daurTo n. naTaZem, Tbilisi: ganaTleba,

1986.

ser goveni da mwvane raindi 1998: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, A

verse translation by Keith Harrison (Oxford World’s Classics), Oxford: Oxford

University Press, 1998.

Maka Elbakidze

Spatial Dichotomy in the Medieval Chivalry Romance

The principle spatial dichotomy of the medieval chivalry romance –

court/forest – reveals an artistic and structural opposition between courtly

civilization (castle) and so-called “wild nature” – forest (the world outside

the court/castle). Of course, the reader would not expect realistic or naturalistic

depiction of spatial units of romance, such as landscape or an interior of

a castle. The descriptive and geographical details are not mimetic also. They


narkvevi 115

are determined both by the internal logic of narrative itself, and long literary

tradition of representation of nature. The main character of the romance, the

errant knight, begins his quest to confront the unknown, thus the defamiliarization

of a well-charted territory produces just what romance calls for: a

realm of adventure.

The Middle Age west has borrowed its cultural models from the Bible,

where the “wild nature” – desert – as the symbol and as the historical and a

geographical reality are ambivalent and is considered as an opposition of the

civilized world – the city. The Biblical interpretation of desert as a “place

of seclusion” has been transformed in the medieval romances to the forest;

however it maintained the original, Biblical meaning of the wild area that is

contrasting to the civilized habitat.

The forest also had its own contrasting element, which in the Middle Age

system of values was taken on by the court/castle, as the civilized, organized

environment. In chivalry romances it is the court of King Arthur (compare

with Arabic, Indian and Mulghazanzar court idylls depicted in The Knight

in the Panther’s Skin) – the embodiment of elegance, delicacy and courtesy.

But the antithesis court/forest is more complex than it may at first appear,

because in this case a reader can observe another binary opposition – hunting/adventure

forest. Thus, the king and his knights could be regarded as the

people of the forest, who periodically, in order to diminish the strain of court

responsibilities, visit the hunting forest; there they delve into the same level

of comfort and elation which they are used to at the castle (compare with the

hunt of king Rostevan and Avtandil in the Knight in the Panther’s Skin). On

the other hand, in the wild forest the errant knight is feeling abandoned and

lonely. Away from the ceremonies of the court, he is surrounded with indifferent,

austere décor, the one in many ways antithetic to the exquisite culture

and manners that the knights used to. Thus, for the depiction of forest scenes

the authors use same motives as they do to depict the court life, but in the

negative module. The court is an ideal locus,where the courtly values can be

explored, but in the accounts of the forest a concern for standards or refinement

can continue to be a preoccupation of the narrative, precisely because

it is cast as the inverted mirror image of the court or castle. The result is a

setting capable of providing contrast without fragmenting the outlook which

these romances offer on their fictive world.


nino sayvareliZe

Aaris Tu ara grigol noseliseuli “puri arsobisa¡”

oden xorcieli?

grigol noseli (335-394), kapadokieli mama, aleqsandriuli

tradiciis udidesi warmomadgeneli, kapadokiuri

tradiciis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli, didi mistikosi.

grigol noselis Txzuleba De oratione dominica, 5 orationes 1 , egzegetikuri

Janrisa, dawerilia 385 w. da Sedgeba 5 homiliisgan.

meoTxe sityva (Oratio IV) exeba sauflo locvis meoTxe Txovnas 2 .

esaa qadageba mrevlis winaSe, amitomaa ase sada da martivi Tavisi

formiT. dibeliuss miaCnia, rom aq saqme gvaqvs xalxur

egzegetTan, romelic Tavisi sisadaviTa da xalxurobiT ar Camouvardeba

ioane oqropirs 3 . miCneulia, rom am sada da ubralo

formis Sesatyvisad grigoliseuli ganmarteba puris Txovnis

sakvanZo terminisa – “” _ erTmniSvnelovnad materialuria,

xorcieli da sruliad gamoricxavs sulier gagebas.

marTlac, erTi SexedviT, “arsobisa” Tu “mdRevr” purTan mimarTebaSi

Warbobs iseTi gamoTqmebi, rogoricaa “£orcieli”,

“£orcieli sa£mari” 4 , “£orcieli arseba” 5 .

1.

Gregorios Nyssenus, S. Gregorii Nysseni De Oratione Dominica, 5 Orationes: PG 44, S. P. N. Gregorii

Episcopi Nysseni opera quae reperiri potuerunt omnia, ed. Morell. 1638, Accurante J. P. Migne,

Turnholti, 1120-1193/= J. F. Callahan (Hg.), Gregorii Nysseni De Oratione Dominica. De Beatitudinibus

(Gregorii Nysseni opera VII, 2), Leiden - NY-Köln, 1992, 5-74 (Oratio IV, gv. 44-58).

2.

Τὸν ἄρτον γὰρ, φησί, τὸν επιούσιον δὸς ἡμιν σήμερον.

3.

O. Dibelius, Das Vaterunser. Umrisse zu einer Geschichte des Gebetes in der alten und mittleren

Kirche, Giessen, 1903, gv. 62: `Die Bitte um das tägliche Brot findet an ihm einen volkstümlichen

Erklärer, der einem Chrysostomos nicht nachsteht.”

4.

“pursa oden veZiebdeT... £orcielTa sa£marTagan” / τὰς σωματικὰς χρείας, Gregorios

Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1165/Callahan, Oratio IV, c.

24, gv. 50), wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao

Cueno¡sa¡, Zveli qarTuli Targmanis teqsti gamosacemad moamzada da gamokvleva

daurTo ekaterine qiriam, Tbilisi, 2006, Tavi d, gv. 40.

5.

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 41 /τὸ πρὸς τὴν συντήρησιν ἐξαρκοῦν τῆς σωματικῆς οὐσίας, Gregorios Nysse-


narkvevi 117

swored am tipis gansazRvrebebs efuZneba mkvlevarTa

umravlesobis daskvna, rom wmida grigols “arsobis puri”

martoden xorciel, materialur purad esmis 6 . SesaZloa,

es mtkiceba nawilobriv arc Tu usafuZvlo Candes (erTi

mxriv, kapadokiel mamasTan marTlac SeiniSneba sityvasityviTi

Tu materialuri axsnis tendencia), magram, vfiqrob,

mainc gvmarTebs sifrTxile, roca, zogadad, grigoliseuli

ganmartebis tipze vsaubrobT. gasaTvaliswinebelia

mTliani konteqsti Txovnis interpretaciisa, iseve

rogorc “puri arsobisa¡”-s patristikuli egzegezis er-

Tiani foni 7 da sxva. winamdebare publikaciis mizansac wm.

nus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1169 1165 /Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 12, gv. 51.

6.

`Der einzige patristische Text, der klar und bestimmt den geistig-eucharistischen Sinn der Brotbitte

in positiver Weise ausschliesst”, J. P. Bock, Die Brotbitte des Vaterunsers. Ein Beitrag

zum Verständnis dieses Universalgebetes und einschlägiger patristisch-liturgischer Fragen, Paderborn,

1911, gv. 100. raiTi ki noselis ritorikul spekulaciaSi xazs usvams

Txovnis zomierebasa da sisadaves (“frugality and modesty of the request”) da aRniSnavs,

rom es mdRevri puri mas martoden Cveni sxeulisaTvis, Cveni xorcieli

cxovrebisaTvis saWirod miaCnia, D. Wright, What Kind of “Bread”? The Fourth Petition

of the Lord’s Prayer from the Fathers to the Reformers, Das Gebet in patristischer und reformatorischer

Sicht, Bd. 76, hrsg. von Campi, Grane, Ritter, Göttingen, 1999, gv. 154. dibeliusis

azriT, “wm. grigolis locvis Sesaxeb homiliebi naTeli dasturia

imisa, Tu rogor iWreboda qristianobis “ganaTlebul” warmomadgenelTa

msoflxedvaSi xalxuri warmodgenebi~ / “Die Reden Gregors über das Gebet können

uns zeigen, wie vulgäre volkstümliche Vorstellungen in die Gedankenwelt der literarisch gebildeten

Vertreter des Christentums eindringen” O. Dibelius, dasax. naSr., gv. 49.

7.

sagulisxmoa, rom mTlian patristikul tradiciaSi, berZnulsa Tu laTinurSi,

siriulsa Tu somxur arealSi “arsobis puris” sulieri da sulierevqaristuli

ganmarteba dominirebs. amas naTlad adastureben jer kidev

afrikeli mamebi, Tertullianus, Libri Dogmatici. De Oratione: PL 1, 1143A -1196D/ = Tertullianus,

Opera catholica ad Marcionem. De Oratione: CCL 1, ed. Dekkers, pars I, Brepols, 257-

274. marTalia, tertulianec “epiousios” zogjer “saWirosa” da “aucilebel”

sazrdelad moiazrebs (“necessarium”, “necessitatibus”, Tertullianus, De Oratione, 6: PL

1, 1160A /= CCL 1, VI, 3, c. 14-15, gv. 261), magram xorcieli axsnis paralelurad

(“carnaliter” _ “xorcielad”, Tertullianus, De Oratione, 6: PL 1, 1161A /= CCL 1, VI, 3, c.

13, gv. 261) da metic, masze aRmatebulad, swored misi sulieri arsi miaCnia

(“spiritaliter” _ “sulierad”, Tertullianus, De Oratione, 6: PL 1, 1160A /= CCL 1, VI, 3, c.

14, gv. 261; VI, 2, c. 6-7, gv. 261); miuxedavad imisa, rom kvipriane puris xorciel

gagebas aramc da aramc ar gamoricxavs, misTvis ganmsazRvreli swored sulieri,

sulier-evqaristuli Sinaarsia, Cyprianus, De Dominica Oratione 18: CCL

3 A, pars II, ed. M. Simonetti et C. Moreschini, Brepols Turnholt 1976, 325. origene erTmniSvnelovnad

sulier ganmartebas aniWebs upiratesobas, kerZod, sulier-

WvretiTs, mistikurs da sruliad gamoricxavs “arsobis puris~ materialur

gagebas, Origenes, De Oratione, 27, 2: BEP 10, Athen, 1957, 280f. mis ukiduresad sulier

interpretacias epiousios-is miseuli etimologiuri analizic (ousiadan

momdinareoba) _ amyarebs: …ἡ μὲν τὸν εἰς τὴν οὐσίαν συμβαλλόμενον ἄρτον

δηλοῦσα, iqve, 282. sulier-alegoriulsa da martomyofobiTs ganmartebas

gvTavazobs sparsi brZeni afraati, Aphraate, Le Sage Persian, Exposés I-X, Exposé IV

(dalat -h) de la Prière: SC 349, ed., traduction du syriaque, introduction et notes par Marie-Jo-


118 waxnagi 1.2009

grigolis komentaris swored konteqstiT ganpirobebuli

wakiTxva warmoadgens.

sainteresoa, rom wm. grigol noselis De oratione dominica-s

me-4 sityva-homilia sauflo locvis mesamesa da meoTxe Txovnis

ganmartebas aerTianebs.Ees imis mimaniSnebelia, rom wmida

grigoli am or Txovnas Soris uSualo Sinagan kavSirs

xedavs 8 . mTlian sauflo locvas wmida mama “Rrmasa rasme da

RmrTivSuenier(sa) swavlasa” 9 da “samkurnalo¡(sa) sityua¡”-

seph Pierre, Paris, 1988, 292-312. sulier-evqaristuli xasiaTisaa Zveli eklesiis

mistagogiur katexizisebSi daculi ganmartebebi, mag. wm. kirile ierusalimelisaTvis

“Cveni litoni puri araa epiousios, es wmida puri ki epiousios,

vinaidan Cveni sulis arsebas gansazRvravs”, Kyrillos Hierosolymitanus, Myst. Kat.

V, 5: FC 7, gv. 154; wm. Aambrosi mediolanelic “mdRevr purs” “saukuno cxorebis

purs” uwodebs, “romeli ganamtkicebs Cveni sulis arsebas” (“Panem quidem

dixit, sed epiousios dixit, hoc est substantialem. Non iste panis est, qui vadit in corpus, sed ille

panis vitae aeternae, qui animae nostrae substantiam fulcit”), Ambrosius Mediolanus, De Sacr.

V, 24, ed. Dom Botte: SC 25, Paris, 1949-1961-1980, gv. 95. aseve sulier sazrdelad

(τροφή πνευματική) ganmartavs mas Teodore mofsuesteli, Theodoros Mopsuestenus,

Katechetische Homilien Hom. 15,7: FC 17/ 2, gv. 392. wm. maqsime aRmsareblis-

Tvisac “puri arsobisa¡” upirvelesad, sulieri, saRmrTo sazrdelia (...τῆς

θείας τροφῆς), Maximos Confessor, Exp. Orationis Dominicae: PG 90, 872-910, 897 B /=

Maximi Confessoris Expositio Orationis Dominicae: CChr SG 23, c. 570-571, Maximi Confessoris

Opuscula Exegetica Duo, Maximi Confessoris opera Expositio in Psalmum LIX, Expositio

Orationis Dominicae, ed. P. van Deun, Brepols Turnhout, 1991, 27-73, 60.

arsobis puris sulier-evqaristul arsze saubrobs ravenis mTavarepiskoposi

petre qrisoloRic: “Ipse ist panis, qui satus in Virgine, fermentatus in carne,

in passione confectus, in furnace coctus sepulchri, in Ecclesiis conditus, illatus altaribus coelestam

cibum quotidie fidelibus subministrat”, Petrus Chrysologus, Comm. in Mt., Sermones

in Orationem Dominica: Sancti Petri Chrysologi Archiepiscopi Ravenanatis, opera omnia : PL

52, ed. J. P. Migne, P., 1859, Reprint by Brepols, Turnhout 1978, Sermo 67, 68, 70, 71, 72: PL

52, col. 390-406; 666-678, Sermo 67, c. 392 B /=Sancti Petri Chrysologi Collectio Sermonum:

CCL 24 A, pars II, ed. A. Olivar, Turnholti Brepols 1981, Sermo 67, 7: CCL 24 A, c. 56ff.,

gv. 404 – c. 60-61, gv. 405. aq aSkaraa zeciuri puris evqaristulTan igiveoba.

patristikul mowmobaTa es sia SeiZleba usasrulod gagrZeldes. CvenTvis

saintereso isaa, rom mTlian patristikul tradiciaSi ganmartebaTa mravalferovnebis

miuxedavad arsobis puris swored suliersa da sulier-evqaristul

gagebas eniWeba upiratesoba.

8.

Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1161 ff / = Callahan, Oratio IV,

gv. 44ff. cxadia, sauflo locvis yvela Txovna erT mTlianobas qmnis da Sinagani

kavSiri yvela Txovnas Soris arsebobs. magram aq wmida grigoli kidev

ufro usvams xazs swored am ori Txovnis urTierTmimarTebasa da kavSirs.

mesame da meoTxe Txovna erT mTels warmoadgens aseve wmida ioane oqropirisTvis,

Johannes Chrysostomos, Homiliae In Matthaeum, Homilia XIX: PG 57, 13-472; PG

58, 471-794, Fascimile of the 1860 Paris First Edition, Athen 1996, 280 / maTes Tavis Zveli

qarTuli Targmani: wmidisa da netarisa mamisa Cuenisa iovane oqropirisa¡

konstantinepolel mTavarepiskoposisa¡ Targmaneba¡ wmidisa saxarebisa¡

maTes Tavisa¡, wigni II, Tbilisi, 1996, gv. 20.

9.

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 38 /...τῶν βαθυτέρων τι δογμάτων ὑποσημαίνειν ὁ λόγος καί τινα ποεῖεσθαι

διδασκαλίαν θεοπρεποῦς διανοίας, Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 15-16, gv. 48.


narkvevi 119

sa 10 uwodebs, locvis maswavlels Cvensas ki _ “WeSmarits

mkurnals sulTasa” 11 . locvis sityvani, rogorc “wamali

sulieri” 12 “simrTelisa momyvanebelad” 13 mogvaniWa ufalma.

“xolo simrTele sulisa¡ ars nebisa RmrTisa aRsruleba¡” 14 .

angelozebi ar iTxoven purs, vinaidan maT ar esaWiroebaT

xorcieli sazrdeli 15 . im sxvaobis gamo, rac erTi

mxriv, zeciur, noetur, uxilav, uxorcosa da meore mxriv,

miwier, grZnobad, xilulsa da xorciel samyaroTa Soris

arsebobs, zeciuri samyaros uxorco mkvidrni ar saWiroeben

xorciel sazrdels. Sesabamisad, zecis mkvidrni Tavisufalni

arian yovelive borotisagan, yovelive vnebisagan 16 .

amdenad, zeciuri cxoreba RmrTis nebis aRsrulebaa 17 .

Cveni, vnebuli da codvili adamianebis mizanic angelozTa

mimbaZvelobaa, angelozTa sworpativoba 18 , zecis moqalaqobis

damkvidreba, anu yovelive vnebisagan, yovelive borotisagan

gaTavisufleba da RmrTis nebis aRsruleba miwazec, iseve

10.

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 37/ τοῦ κατὰ τὴν ἰατρικὴν θεωρήματος, Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 15-16, gv. 45.

11.

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 37 /ὁ ἀληθινὸς ἰατρὸς, Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 8, gv. 46. qriste rogorc

mkurnali sakmaod gavrcelebuli xatia jer kidev Zvel samociqulo xanis

eklesiaSi, mag, wm. egnate antioqeli, Ignatios Antiochenus, Eph 7, 2, Die Apostolischen

Väter, eingeleitet, hrsg., übertragen und erläutert von J. A. Fischer, 8. Aufl., München,

1981, gv. 146-149.

12.

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 37.

13.

iqve / θεραπεία ἐστὶ, Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 13, gv. 46.

14.

θέλημα δὲ θεοῦ ἡ σωτηρία τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐστίν, Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 13, gv. 46. berZnulSia

ἡ σωτηρία _ “xsna”. amdenad, RmrTis nebis aRsruleba sulis simrTelisa,

da maSasadame, sulieri xsnis sawindaria.

15.

Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1168D-1169A /= Callahan,

Oratio IV, c. 19-20, gv. 48. Sdr. zeciur ZalTa sulieri sazrdeli origenesTan,

Origenes, De Oratione, 27, 2: BEP 10, 284.

16.

…Διὰ τοῦτο τὴν ἐν οὐρανοῖς τῶν ἁγίων δυνάμεων πολιτείαν ἀμιγῆ τε κακίας,Gregorios

Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, A /= Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 20-

21/24-25, gv. 49: / “xolo zecisa igi mk¢drni wmida arian yovlisave vnebisagan...

zecisa moqalaqoba¡ Seurevnel ars borotisagan...”, wmida grigol noseli,

swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv. 39.

17.

δῆλον ἄν εἴη ὅτι ἄνω πολιτεία ἅτε παντὸς κακοῦ καθαρεύσα ἐν τῷ αγαθῷ θελήματι τοῦ

Θεοῦ καθαρθοῦται, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1168 B /=

Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 4-8, gv. 50. / “da vina¡Tgan zecisa igi cxoreba¡ wmida ars

yovlisave biwisagan, sacnaur ars friad, viTarmed neba¡ RmrTisa¡ ganisuenebs

mas zeda”, wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao

Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv. 39.

18.

Sdr. maqsime aRmsarebeli, locvisaT¢s mamao Cueno¡sa, K 14, 162 v / Maximos

Confessor, Exp. Orationis Dominicae: PG 90, 876 C/ =CChr SG 23, c. 81-82, 31: ἰσοτιμίαν τὴν

πρὸς ἀγγέλους / Maximos Confessor, Exp. Orationis Dominicae: PG 90, 875 C: “cum angelis

honoris sortem”.


120 waxnagi 1.2009

rogorc zecaSi 19 . mesame Txovnis aseTi ganmartebis Semdeg wmida

mama uSualod meoTxe Txovnis egzegezaze gadadis.

Tavidanve TiTqos aSkaraa, rom wmida grigoli puris

xorciel ganmartebas gvTavazobs. marTlac, arsobis purs

igi “£orciel sa£mars” 20 uwodebs, magram vfiqrob, sainteresoa,

rogor “£orciel sa£mrad” miiCnevs mas wmida mama da

rogor gamijnavs mas sxva £orciel sa£marTagan:

“...arca didebasa, da arca Suebasa, arca simdidresa, arca

sxuaTa maT amaoTa saqmeTa angahrebisaTa” 21 .

περιουσία-s (“angahrebasa” da siWarbes) wmida mama τὸ

μέτριον-s (“zoma”, “zomiereba” 22 , “kmayofa”)D da μεῖνον ἐπὶ τῆς

χρείας 23 (“oden sa£mari”) upirispirebs 24 .

Cven unda viTxovoT is, rac aucilebelia Cveni yoveldRiuri

yofisaTvis; Cven unda viTxovoT ara simdidre da misTanani,

rac Cvens suls RmrTisa da misi sasufevlisgan aSorebs, aramed

puri arsobisa, vinaidan Cven mxolod mas vsaWiroebT 25 .

19.

τοῦ κακοῦ τὴν ζωὴν ἐκκαθαρθῆναι ὡς καθ᾽ ὁμοιότητα τῆς οὐρανίου διαγωγῆς καὶ ἐν

ἡμῖν ἀνεμποδίστως τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ πολιτεύσασθαι, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione

Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1168 B /= Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 12-14, gv. 50/ “ganwmedad

cxorebisa Cuenisa borotTagan, vidreRa msgavsad caTa Sina myofTa¡sa ganisuenebdes

Cuen zedaca neba¡ RmrTisa¡ da aResrulebodes dauyeneblad”,

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 39-40.

20.

ix. zemoT, gv. 1, sqoilo 4. Sdr. ἡ τροφή τῆς ἀναγκαῖας, Johannes Chrysostomos,

Homiliae In Matthaeum, Homilia XIX, 6/10: PG 57, 280 / “saWiro¡ sazrdeli”, ioane

oqropiri, Targmaneba¡ maTes Tavisa¡, gv. 19: esaa CvenTvis aucilebeli, saWiro

sakvebi. Τὸν ἄρτον τὸν επιούσιον, τουτ ἐστι, τὸν ἐφήμερον, Johannes Chrysostomos,

Homiliae In Matthaeum, Homilia XIX, 6/10: PG 57, 280 /“puri arsobisa¡... mdRevri

puri”, iqve. aq sruliad aSkaraa arsobis puris mdRevr purTan gaigiveba.

21.

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 40 / οὐ τροφὴν οὐδὲ πλοῦτον, οὐκ εὐανθεῖς ἁλοργίδας, οὐ τὸν ἐκ χρυσοῦ

κόσμιον, οὐ τὰς τῶν λίθων αὐγὰς... οὐ γῆς περιουσίαν, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione

Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1169 A/= Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 13-16, gv. 51.

22.

sainteresoa, rom zomierebasa da “aRwoniT wesis-yofas” araerTxel Segvaxsenebs

netari agvustinec: “vinc ambobs: “simdidresa da upovarebasa nu momcem

me, aramed aRwoniT yav wesi~ (ig. 30:8), sxvas araras ambobs, Tu ara: “puri

Cueni arsobisa¡ momec Cuen dRes”, Augustinus, Epistula ad Probam: PL 33, 502.

23.

Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1172 C / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c.

5, gv. 54 / an kidev: ...αἀρκεῖ σοι τὸ μέχρι τῆς χρείας ταύτης ἀσχολεῖν τὴν διάνοιαν μᾶλλον

δὲ μηδὲ τούτου τὴν ψυχὴν ταῖς περὶ ἄρτου μερίμναις ἐνδήσῃς, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione

Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1173 / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 14-16, gv. 55 / “daadger sa£marsa

mas zeda bunebiTsa da nu metsa eZieb, aramed pursa oden gonebiTa keTiliTa”,

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 42.

24.

Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1168 D / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c.

29, gv. 50.

25.

τὸν ἐφήμερον ἄρτον, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1168D / =

Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 28, gv. 50. sainteresoa, rom wmida grigoli yvelgan ἐφήμερον


narkvevi 121

adamianTaTvis zomieri da “oden sa£mari” ar aRmoCnda

sakmarisi, amitomac mudamdRe sanovageTa zrunviT arian

Seqceulni 26 . swored aq mimarTavs wmida mama evasa da gvelis

Sesaxeb ZvelaRTqmiseul igavs (dabad. 3:15) 27 .

Ggrigol noseli am igaviT Segvaxsenebs borotebisagan

sulis dacvis, ukeTurebisagan Cveni nebsiTi ukumiqcevis

aucileblobas, sulis sifxizlisaken mogviwo debs.

gveli anu “Tavi borotisa gulisTqumisa”, “ukeTurebisa”,

saTave yovelive borotisa, arawmidisa, ukeTurisa “ara Semovides

sulsa Cuensa”, “ara daibudos sulsa Sina guelman

man gulisTqumaTaman” 28 , – amas niSnavs sulis fxizloba.

amdenad, Txovnis Zireul termins “epiousios” igi ganmartavs

rogorc “aucilebels”, “saWiros”, “araWarbs”.

adamiani unda gaisarjos imdenad, rom TavisTvis auci-

ἄρτον-s xmarobs, mxolod sityvis dasasruls iCens Tavs ἐπιούσιον-ic, Gregorios

Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1176 / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 23-24, gv.

56. aqve unda aRvniSno, rom wm. efvTime, noseliseuli komentaris qarTulad

mTargmneli, τὸν ἐφήμερον-s aq Targmnis rogorc “arsobisa¡” da ara rogorc

“mdRevri”, rac qarTulSi berZnuli terminis myar Sesatyviss warmoadgens,

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 40.

26.

...ἀλλ᾿ ἀφέντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι διὰ τῶν ἀναγκαίων λειτουργίαν τῇ φύσει ὀντως συμπίγονται,

καθώς φησί που ὁ Λόγος, ταῖς περὶ τὰ μάταια σπουδαῖς, καὶ ατελεσφόρηται μένουσι, πρὸς

ταυτατῆς φυχῆς ἑαυτὴν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς ἀσχολούσης, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica,

Oratio IV: PG 44, 1169 D / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 24-26, gv. 52 - c. 1-2, gv. 53. “rameTu dauteves

kacTa sa£mari bunebiTi da moiSTvebian sanovageTa zrunviTa da maradis mun Seqceul

ars suli maTi”, wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡

mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv. 41.

27.

arsobis puris Txovnis grigoliseuli ganmartebis Taviseburebas swored

evasa da gvelis Sesaxeb igavi warmoadgens.

28.

...τοῦ λόγου ὅτι τὴν ἡδονὴν εἰσιοῦσαν καὶ παραδυομένην τῇ τῆς ψυχῆς ῥαχίᾳ

φυλάσσεσθαι χρὴ καὶ ἀποφράσσειν ὡς ἕνι μάλιστα τὰς ἁρμονίας βίου. Οὕτω γὰρ ἄν

καθαρὰ φυλαχθείητης τῶν θερίων ἐπιμιξίας ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη βίου, Gregorios Nyssenus, De

Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1172 AB / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 13-16, gv. 53 /

“xolo gamoaCinebs sityua¡ ese, viTarmed jer ars krZalva¡, ra¡Ta Tavi

borotisa gulisTqumisa¡ ara Semovides sulsa Cuensa da esreT wmida viqmnneT

m£ecTa geslisagan“, wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da

Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv. 41. an kidev: ...εἰ οὐν φεύγεις τὴν τοῦ

θηρίου συνοίκεσιν, φύλαξαι τὴν κεφαλὴν, τούτεστι, τὴν πρώτην τοῦ κακοῦ προσβολὴν

εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ φέρει τῆς ἐντολῆς τοῦ Κυρίου τὸ αἴνιγμα‧ Αὐτός σου τηρήσει πτέρναν,

καὶ σὺ τηρήσεις αὐτοῦ κεφαλὴν, καὶ σὺ τηρήσεις αὐτοῦ πτέρναν, Gregorios Nyssenus, De

Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1172 B / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 26-27, gv. 53-c. 1-2,

gv. 54 /”aw ukueTu ivltodi guelisa mis Tana yofisagan, ekrZale Tavsa missa!

ese igi ars: pirveli Semoslva¡ ukeTurebisa¡ ganiotÀ, viTarca ety¢s ufali

guelsa, viTarmed: “igi umzirdes Tavsa Sensa da Sen umzirde brWalsa missa”,

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 41. Sdr. afraatis meeqvse homilia: “moviRoT uflisagan £elmwifeba¡,

ra¡Ta kadnier viqmnneT datkebnad guelTa da iqedneTa”, G. Garitte, La

Version Georgienne de l’Entretien VI d’Aphraate, I, 8: Le Museon LXXVII, 3-4, gv. 312.


122 waxnagi 1.2009

lebeli, sicocxlisaTvis aucilebeli sakvebi (ἡ τροφή

τῆς ἀναγκαῖας) 29 , “saWiro¡ sazrdeli” moipovos, amasTan

moipovos marTali SromiT 30 (aq eTikuri elementi iCens

Tavs 31 ). vinc simarTles eZiebs, mas eZleva puri RmrTisagan

32 . puri RmrTisa ki aris nayofi simarTlisa da mSvidobisa

33 . cxadia, mdRevri puris TxovniT Cven viTxovT

purs RmrTisas. kapadokieli mama asxvavebs purs simarTlisas

da nayofs usamarTlobisas 34 . mxolod RmrTis purisagan,

marTali SromiT mopovebuli purisagan Segi-

Zlia Seswiro RmerTs Sesawiravi 35 .

zndizeda “dRes”/“dRiTi-dRed” ganmartebisas wmida

grigoli kidev erTxel Segvaxsenebs saRmrTo sibrZnis si-

Rrmesa da usasrulobas. igi ganasxvavebs awmyosa da mermiss,

warmavalsa da saukunos. adamianis sicocxle erTi

dRiT Semoifargleba 36 da “kma ars dRisa¡ mis siborote

29.

Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1172 C /= Callahan, Oratio

IV, c.13-14, gv. 54.

30.

ἐκ δικαίων πόνων, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44,

1173 B /= Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 20-21, gv. 55 / “puri simarTlisa¡”, wmida grigol

noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d,

gv. 42.

31.

Sdr. rwmeniTa da marTali cxorebiT (...πιστεύοντες καὶ βιοῦντες δεξιώτερον...)

SevsTxovT ufals cxovel purs, Origenes, De Oratione, 27, 6: BEP 10, 281. mar-

Tali cxoreba ganuyofelia rwmenisagan. eTikuri elementis wina planze

wamoweva niSandoblivia, zogadad, antioqiuri skolisaTvis, ase magali-

Tad, am skolis erT-erTi udidesi warmomadgeneli, Teodore mofsuesteli,

mTlian sauflo locva eTikis kompendiumad miiCnevs, Theodorus Mopsuestenus,

Homiliae catecheticae, Homilia 11, 1: FC 17, 1, gv. 300.

32.

Θεοῦ ἄρτος, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1173 B / =

Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 20, gv. 55. Sdr. Ignatios Antiochenus, An die Epheser, Eph 5,2,146: τοῦ

ἄρτου τοῦ Θεοῦ/ “puri RmrTisa”.

33.

Δικαιουσύνης καρπὸς εἰρήνης ὁ στάχυς, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica,

Oratio IV: PG 44, 1173 BC / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 1-2, gv. 56 / “xolo puri simarTlisa¡,

rameTu, ukueTu ukeTurebiT da tacebiT mogebuli iyos puri igi, ara

RmrTisa mocemuli ars, rameTu RmrTisa mocemuli yoveli simarTle ars da

simarTliT mogebuli”, wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡

mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv. 42 (Sdr. maTe 6:33: “xolo Tquen eZiebdiT

pirvelad sasufevelsa RmrTisasa da simarTlesa missa, da ese SegeZinos

Tquen”). ix. aseve = Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 23, gv. 56.

34.

ἐζ ἀδικίας καρπὸν, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1173C /

= Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 6-7, gv. 56.

35.

ὁ σπουδάζων τὴν διακαιουσύνην, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV:

PG 44, 1173C / = Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 7-8, gv. 56.

36.

ὅτι ἐφήμερός ἐστι ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη ζωή, Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV:

PG 44, 1176 A /= Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 25, gv. 56-c. 1, gv. 55/ “viTarmed mdRevri ars cxoreba¡

kacobrivi”, wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡

mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv. 42.


narkvevi 123

T¢si” 37 . amitom gvekrZaleba xvalindel dReze zrunva 38 .

vinc erT dRes gvaZlevs, imasac gvaZlevs, rac am dRisaTvis

saWiroa. saRmrTo nebiT yvelas saWiroebisamebr eZleva.

sxeulis sicocxle awmyos ekuTvnis, sulisa _ ki mermiss.

momavali sulis sicocxlea. Tuki mdRevri puri dRevandel

dRes, awmyos ekuTvnis, sasufeveli RmrTisa _ esaa saukuno

netarebis sameufo 39 . mdRevri purisa da RmrTis sasufevlis

es dapirispireba ise ar unda iqnas gagebuli, TiTqos

wmida grigoli amiTac mdRevr, arsobis purs mxolod xorciel-materialurad

ganmartavs. dRevandeli dRe, awmyo,

Cveni amqveyniuri cxovreba ara mxolod xorciels, aramed

suliersac moicavs. mxolod waruvali, sulieri sikeTenia

WeSmaritad Txovnis Rirsi. Cvenc Cveni mzera swored waruvalsa

da suliers unda mivapyroT, raTa masTan erTad sxva

danarCenic, rac gvesaWiroeba, mogveces 40 . locva ki, grigo-

37.

maTe 6, 34: “nu hzrunavT xvalisaT¢s, rameTu xvalem izrunos Tavisa T¢sisa.

kma ars dRisa¡ mis siborote T¢si”.

38.

Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1176 A /= Callahan, Oratio

IV, c. 5-6, gv. 57/ “amisT¢s ity¢s, viTarmed: “momec Cuen dRes”, ra¡Ta gaswavos

Sen ara zrunva¡ xvalisa¡. viTarmca getyoda Sen sity¢sa amis mier, viTarmed

xvale, romelman dRÀ mogces, manve dRisaca mis sazrdeli moganiWos”, wmida

grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d,

gv. 42. maTeseul citatze dayrdnobiT xvalindel dReze zrunvis akrZalvas

puris Txovnis mraval komentarSi vxvdebiT, sakmarisia, Tu gavixsenebT mag.:

“Nolite de crastino cogitare”, Tertullianus, De Oratione, 6: PL 1, 1161A / = CCL 1, VI, 4, c. 22f,

gv. 261 an kidev Johannes Chrysostomos, Homiliae In Matthaeum, Homilia XIX: PG 57, 280

da sxva.

39.

ὁ ἄρτος τῆς σημερινῆς χρείας ἐστίν, ἡ βασιλεία τῆς ἐλπιζομένης μακαριότητος, Gregorios

Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1176 D/= Callahan, Oratio IV, c.

12-13, gv. 58.

40.

Gregorios Nyssenus, De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1176 A -1177 A / = Callahan,

Oratio IV, gv. 57-58 / “vin aRmoabrwyinvebs mzesa, vin ganaqarvebs bnelsa, vin aRmoabrwyinvebs

naTelsa? romeli amas yovelsa iqms, mas sa£marisa SenisaT¢s

Sew(e)vna¡ u£msa? ver xedava, viTar zrdis igi mfrinvelTa da yovelTa

iZrvisTa, da rad ara gulis£misyofad movalT mravalTa maT saxeTagan?

viswavoT ukuÀ mravalTa maT saxeTagan, viTarmed sulierisa¡ jer ars Zieba¡

da saukuno¡sa mis netarebisa¡” (τῶν τῆς ψυχῆς αγαθῶν, Gregorios Nyssenus,

De Oratione Dominica, Oratio IV: PG 44, 1176 D /= Callahan, Oratio IV, c. 16, gv. 58); “vi-

Tarca ity¢s, viTarmed: `iTxovdiT sasufevelsa caTasa da simarTlesa da ese

yoveli SegeZinos Tquen qristes iesu¡s (i¢s¡s) mier uflisa Cuenisa, romlisa¡

ars dideba¡ da simtkicÀ Tana mamiT da suliT wmidiTurT aw da maradis

da ukuniTi ukunisamdÀ, amin!”, wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da

Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv. 42-43. Sdr. msgavsi pasaJi wm. ioane

oqropirTan: “rameTu romelman moguawines xvalisa dResa, gina momavalTa

dReTa, man sazrdelica g¢zrunos. romelman aRmoabrwyinvis mze dRiTi-dRe,

romelman ganaqarvis sibnele Ramisa¡, romeli mohfens haersa samS¢nvelad

Cuenda, romelsa upyrian yovelni arsni wamisyofiTa Zlierebisa misisa¡Ta,

romeli zrdis yovelTa mcenareTa queyanisaTa, mfrinvelTa cisaTa da TevzTa

zR¢saTa, romelsa yovelive Zal-uc da yovelTa ganagebs, misa sa£mar


124 waxnagi 1.2009

lis Rrma rwmeniT, yvela saxis sikeTeTa mopovebis saukeTeso

saSualebaa 41 .

amdenad, marTalia, wmida grigol noseli ganmartebis

swored sityvasityviTsa da zneobriv-“CueulebiTs” (moralur-eTikur)

tips irCevs, magram isic aSkaraa, rom mis-

Tvis oden sa£mari, xorcieli puri martoden materialuri

sulac araa 42 . jer erTi, wmida grigoli xazs usvams, rom

puri, romelsac viTxovT RmrTisagan, RmerTsave ekuTvnis,

esaa puri RmrTisa 43 da ara RmrTis metoqisa, esaa is puri,

romelic aucilebelia Cveni arsebobisaTvis. Cveni arseboba

ki mxolod xorcieliT ar Semoifargleba. arsobis purs,

mdRevr purs igi Tumc upirvelesad rogorc sa£mars bunebiTs,

oden £orcTasa, rogorc aucilebel xorciels sazrdels

gaiazrebs. magram ar unda daviviwyoT, rom yovelive

arsa Cueni zrunva¡, sazrdelisa CuenisaT¢s? nu iyofin. amisT¢s g¢brZana,

viTarmed: “nu hzrunavT xvalisa”, nuca iTxovT RmrTisagan saSuebelTa da

simdidreTa, aramed purisaTvis oden mdRevrisa SewireT Txoa¡ uZlurebisa

TquenisaT¢s, da nuraras umetes amisasa hzrunavT, nuca iTxovT, rameTu icis

mamaman Tquenman zecaTaman, ra¡ gi£ms da man gizrunos, viTarca hnebavs”, ioane

oqropiri, Targmaneba¡ maTes Tavisa¡, gv. 20 / Johannes Chrysostomos, Homiliae

In Matthaeum, Homilia XIX: PG 57, 280. aq ara mxolod Sinaarsobrivad, aramed

leqsikur-frazeologiuradac didi msgavsebaa. orive ganmartebis qarTul

TargmanTa Sedareba ki cxadyofs, rom Targmani erTsa da imave avtors, ker-

Zod, wm. efvTime aTonels ekuTvnis.

41.

iqve.

42.

amasve mowmobs wm. ioane oqropiris Targmanebac. miuxedavad puris TiTqos

calsaxad sityvasityviTi, xorcieli gagebisa, noselis msgavsad antioqel

mamasTanac SeiniSneba yovelive xorcielis miRma upirvelesad sulieri Sinaarsis

danaxvis mcdeloba. imave qadagebaSi wmida ioane gveubneba, rom xorcielSic

ki ufro meti sulieri unda SevicnoT da davinaxoT: Πῶς καὶ ἐν τοῖς

σωματικοῖς πολὺ τὸ πνευματικόν, Johannes Chrysostomos, Homiliae In Matthaeum, Homilia

XIX: PG 57, 280. am frazidan gamomdinare SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom igi xorciel

purSic gacilebiT mets xedavs, vidre martoden xorcielia. miTumetes,

rom qadagebis mTliani konteqsti sulier saunjeTa metobisa da upiratesobis

sakmaod TvalsaCino Cvenebaa. imas, rom wmida ioanesTvis uflis locvisa

da misi meoTxe Txovnis arc liturgiul-evqaristuli aspeqti iyo ucxo,

mowmobs misi naTlobis katexizisebi, Johannes Chrysostomus, Catecheses Baptismales.

Taufkatechesen. Griechisch-Deutsch, übersetzt und eingeleitet von R. Kaczynski : FC 6/1,

Freiburg – Basel – Wien – Barcelona – Rom – NY, Teilbd. 1, 1991. maSasadame, miuxedavad

imisa, rom oqropiri puris Sesaxeb Tavis ganmartebaSi “arsobis puris~

suliersa Tu kerZod, evqaristul axsnas konkretulad arsad gvTavazobs,

misi interpretaciidan sulieri Sinaarsis sruli gamoricxva mainc ar unda

iyos marTebuli. amas adasturebs rogorc uSualod me-19 homiliis saerTo

konteqsti, aseve, zogadad, maTes qadagebebis erTiani foni. amasve mowmoben

misi sxva Txzulebebic. zogadad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom konstantinopolis

mTavarepiskoposis arsobis puris Targmaneba Zalze axloa grigol noseliseul

ganmartebasTan, maTi komentarebi JanriTac erTia – orive qadagebaa,

mrevlisadmi mimarTuli, Tumc erTi locvis Txzulebaa, meore ki – saxarebis

komentari. xSirad erTsa da imave saxarebiseul citatebs mimarTaven.

43.

Aamitomac Znelad warmosadgenia, rom igi martoden xorcieli iyos.


narkvevi 125

xorcieli misTvis ganuyofelia sulierisagan _ mTliani

adamianic, iseve rogorc adamianuri yofa xom orives _

xorcielisa da sulieris, miwisa da zecis Sezavebulebaa 44 .

44.

“ra¡Ta arca queyanisani sruliad ucxo iyvnen zecisaTagan da arca zecisani

sruliad ucnaur iyvnen queyanisaTa. da ra¡Ta iqmnes kacisa mier orTave maT bunebaTa

Sezavebuleba¡ – uxilavisa mis sulisa¡, romeli T¢s eyvis zecisa Zal-

Ta £orcTa Sina mk¢drobiTa da xilulTa amaT £orcTa aRdgomasa mas yovelTasa

zecad micvalebiTa sulisa Tana, romelnica wmida iyvnen codvisagan,” wmida

grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv.

39 / Callahan, c. 12ff, gv. 49: διπλῇ. am azrs ufro metad aviTarebs wmida ioane damaskeli,

romelic aseve sazrdelis “mrCobloboTibazec” (xorciel-sulieri)

saubrobs, ix. Johannes Damaskenos, S.P.N. Johannis Damasceni, Monachi et presbyteri Hierosolymitani

opera omnia quae exstant, et ejus nomine circumferuntur, opera et studio P. Michaelis

Lequien, Acc. J. P. Migne, Expositio accurata fdei orthodoxae: PG 94, 789-1228, 1152/=B. Kotter,

Die Schriften des Johannes von Damaskos, II: PTS 12, Berlin 1973. sainteresoa, rom wm.

ioane damaskeli wm. grigol noselis msgavsad meoTxe Txovnis purs zogadad

Cvens arsebobaze (τῆς οὐσίας ἡμῶν) avrcobs, anu ara marto xorciel (τῆς σωματικῆς

οὐσίας), aramed sulier, erTian xorciel-sulier arsebobas (τῆς σωματικῆς οὐσίας

καὶ πνευματικῆς) gulisxmobs: Ψυχικῆ καὶ σωματικῆ διπλοῦν γὰρ ἐστι), Johannes Damaskenos,

Expositio fdei, IV, 13: PG 94, 1149A /= B. Kotter: PTS 12, c. 123-124, gv. 196. amas igi,

kvlav wmida grigolis kvaldakval, adamianis bunebis “mrCoblobiT” (xorcieli

da sulieri, Sdr. wmida grigol noselic Tavis katexetikur sityvaSi saubrobs

adamianis bunebis “mrCoblobaze” (διττά): adamiani sxeulisa da sulisgan

Sedgeba, amitom orive – sxeulica da sulic unda ganikurnos, Gregorius Nyssenus,

Orat. Catech., 37: PG 45, 93ff), Sesabamisad, Sobisa da sazrdelis “mrCoblobiT~ xsnis

(es gavrcoba ki ukve wmida ioanes ekuTvnis). “xolo vina¡Tgan sulieri ars

adam, jer ars, ra¡Ta Soba¡ca sulieri iyos, egreTve da sazrdelica. da kualad,

vina¡Tgan mrCoblni ra¡me varT da Sezavebulni, jer-ars SobaTaca mr-

CoblTa yofa¡, egreTve da sazrdelTa SezavebulTa¡. vina¡ca Soba¡ vidreme

wylisa mier da sulisa mogueca Cuen, vity¢ ukue wmidisa naTlisRebisasa. xolo

sazrdeli – T¢T igi zeciT gardamosruli puri cxorebisa¡, ufali Cueni iesu

qriste”, wm. ioane damaskeli, marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis zedmiwevniTi

gadmocema, e. WeliZis gamocema, iqve (ioanes sax. 6, 48), 86 IV, 13, (arseni), dasax.

naSr., gv. 246-247; “jer-iyo Cuenda sulierica oden Soba¡ da sulieri oden

saWmeli. aramed vina¡Tgan mrCobl Sezavebul varT adameanni: £orcTagan da

sulisa”, (efremi), gv. 249. “mrCoblobiTad” ganmartavs “mdRevr purs” netari

avgustinec: “Panis quotidianus duplex est, corporalis et spiritualis”, Augustinus, Sermo 57, VII:

PL 38, 389. (Sdr. “Sane duobus modis intelligenda est ista petition de pane quotidiano: sive pro

necessitate carnalis victus, sive etiam pro necessitate spiritualis alimoniae”, iqve). amdenad, wm.

avgustine saubrobs xorcielsa da sulier sazrdelze. “arsobis” puri moicavs

yvelafers, rasac Cveni suli da sxeuli am cxovrebaSi saWiroebs” / “Et quidquid

animae nostrae et carni necessarium est, quotidiano pane concluditur”, Augustinus, Sermo 58 ad

Competentes: PL 38, 395. netari avgustine aq xmarobs “necessarium” (Sdr. Augustinus,

Sermo 57, VII: PL 38, 389: “Panis erit et ipse quotidianus, huic vitae necessarius”). mTeli samyofi,

rogorc Cans, sulsa da sxeuls gulisxmobs. Tavis cnobil TxzulebaSi

“Enchiridion ad Laurentium sive de fide, spe et caritate” netari avgustine kidev erTxel

Segvaxsenebs “mdRevri puri”-s ormag Sinaarssa da ormag saWiroebas: “Panis vero

cotidianus ideo dictus est quia hic est necessarius quantus animae carnique tribunedus est, sive spiritualiter

(“an sulierad”), sive carnaliter (“an xorcielad”), sive utroque intelligatur modo

(“an orivenairad” _ anu sulier-xorcielad)~, Augustinus, Enchiridion ad Laurentium

sive de fde, spe et caritate, XXX, 115: CCL 46, pars XIII, 2, ed. Evans, Turnholti 1979, c. 29-31,

gv. 111. “aucilebelia misi “mrCoblobiTad” gaazreba, vinaidan igi erTnairad


126 waxnagi 1.2009

marTalia, puri arsobisa, puri mdRevri aris aucilebeli

Cveni xorcieli yofisaTvis, magram Cveni xorcieli yofa

ganuyofelia Cveni sulieri arsebobisagan. Aamdenad, “puri

arsobisa¡” aris safuZveli Cveni mTliani, xorciel-sulieri

arsebobisa. amitomacaa swored mdRevri puris Txovna

Cveni upirvelesi saTxovari, da ara simdidreni ama soflisa

Tu sxva xorcieli sacTurni. puri, Tund xorcielic,

aris Rirsi Txovnisa. Zalze sagulisxmoa wmida grigolis

Segoneba, “sa£marTaT¢s £orcielTa mravalTa zrunvaTagan”

davicvaT suli 45 , anu viTxovoT is, risi Txovnac egebis Rmr-

Tisagan, anu puri arsobisa, metic, “xolo nuca purisa zrunvasa

Seeqcevi sruliad, aramed arqu mas, romeli zrdis yovelsa

£orcielsa, viTarmed: Sen mier ars cxoreba¡ Cemi da

Sen momec puri” 46 .

marTalia, wmida grigol noseli “arsobis purs” upirvelesad

saWiro xorciel sazrdelad ganmartavs, vfiqrobT,

rom kapadokieli mama arc sulier gagebas unda gamoricxavdes.

grigoliseuli ganmartebis uSualo da ubralo forma

misi Txzulebis JanriTa da konteqstiT SeiZleba aixsnas:

esaa mrevlis mimarT qadageba, cocxali sityva ubralo

mrevlisadmi, romelic sulierad da inteleqtualurad

sxvadasxvanairad momzadebul msmenels aerTianebs. mqadageblis

cocxalma sityvam uSualod unda imoqmedos msmenelze.

amdenad, grigol noselis mizanic aq qadagebis meSveobiT

mrevlis eTikur-moraluri aRzrdaa, mrevlis damosaWiroa

sulisa da xorcisaTvis. ase rom, erTia xiluli da xelSesaxebi puri,

Cveni arsebobisTvis aucilebeli (puri, romelic sxeuls ganaZRebs da xorcs

ganaZlierebs). magram ufro mniSvnelovania meore, uxilavi, gansakuTrebuli,

ara-Cveulebrivi, “ara-litoni” puri, romelsac Zeni RmrTisa SesTxoven ufals

(“mamao Cveno” xom RmrTis ZeTa locvaa). esaa sityva RmrTisa, romelic yoveldRe

gveZleva Cveni locvis sapasuxod. esaa Cveni arsobis puri, Cveni mdRevri

puri. misiT cxovndeba ara sxeuli, aramed suli. es sazrdeli aucilebelia

CvenTvis axlac, vidre venaxis muSakni varT... Cveni mdRevri sazrdeli ki aris

sityva RmrTisa... mdRevri puri morwmuneT xelmeored Sobis, sulieri Sobis

anu naTlobis Semdgom eZleva – eZlevaT gansamtkiceblad sxeulisa da sulisa”,

Augustinus, Sermo 58: PL 38, 395, Sermo 59: PL 38, 401.

45.

“egreTve Cuen Soris srul iqmenin saTnoeba¡, ra¡Ta raJams yoveli boroti

uCino iqmnes yovliTurT, iyos neba¡ Seni sulTa Sina CuenTa warmarTebul,

aramed, ra¡Ta vervin Tquas-Tu da viTar egebis u£orcoTa ZalTa siwmidisa

£orciTa amiT warmarTeba¡, vina¡Tgan sa£marTaT¢s £orcielTa mravalTa

zrunvaTa Sina STavardebis suli, amisT¢s ufalman SesZina Semdgomi igi sityua¡,

ra¡Ta dah£snes eseviTari igi zraxva¡,” wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡

locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡, Tavi d, gv. 40 / Callahan, gv. 50.

46.

wmida grigol noseli, swavla¡ locvisa¡ da Targmaneba¡ mamao Cueno¡sa¡,

Tavi d, gv. 42 / Callahan, c. 19, gv. 55.


narkvevi 127

ZRvraa. amitomac Warbobs ase TvalnaTliv eTikuri elementebic.

CvenTvis sagulisxmo ki isaa, rom martivi formisa

da sityvasityviTi Sinaarsis miRma SesaZlebelia Sinagani

da sulieri arsis amokiTxva.

Nino Sakvarelidze

Is the “Daily Bread” in the Interpretation of Gregory of Nissa

Just Corporal?

The Cappadocian Gregory of Nyssa seems to present just a corporal and

ethic interpretation of the “daily bread”, almost excluding its spiritual and

mystical sense. But if we try to understand the exposition of the fourth petition

by St. Gregory in the light of his twofold concept of body and soul, as

well as in connection with the third petition, it becomes obvious that this

“necessary nutrition”is necessary not for the body only, but also for the

soul.


maia rafava

ioane mTavaraisZe,

Savi mTis qarTveli moRvawe

Savi mTis qarTul monastrebSi arsebulma samwignobro

keram (XI-XII ss.) ganuzomeli roli Seasrula qarTuli literaturuli

da, zogadad, kulturis ganviTarebis saqme-

Si. aTonis literaturuli skolis Semdeg igi gaxda axali

literaturuli procesebis da kulturuli orientaciis

safuZveldamdebi, qarTul mwerlobaSi elinofiluri

mimdinareobis gamtarebeli. Aamis gamo cxoveli interesi

sdevs Savi mTis qarTul monastrebSi moRvawe pirovnebebis

gamovlenisa da maTi SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobis Sefasebis

mizniT warmoebul kvleva-Ziebas.

Savi mTis qarTuli samwignobro centris erT-erTi

TvalsaCino mkvlevari elene metreveli erT Tavis weril-

Si, romelic man efrem mciris avtograf xelnawer krebuls

miuZRvna, werda: “korneli kekeliZem Tavs idva didi Sroma

da Seadgina ucxo avtorebisa da maTi mTargmnelebis

katalogi Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi... es samuSao dResac

damTavrebuli ar aris, rogorc mowmobs “ucxo avtorebis”

yoveli axali gamocema, romelic wina gamocemasTan

SedarebiT Sevsebulia rogorc axali avtorebiT, aseve

mTargmnelebiTac” 1 .

igive SeiZleba iTqvas elene metrevelis mier Savi mTisa

da samxreT saqarTvelos qarTuli samwerlobo kerebisadmi

miZRvnili uaRresad sayuradRebo gamokvlevebis Sesaxeb.

rogorc cnobilia, man Savi mTis mwignobruli keris literaturuli

saqmianobis kvlevas uZRvna sagangebo gamokvlevebi,

sadac mravalricxovan wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, gaaSuqa

Savi mTis keris istoria XI saukunis pirvel naxevarSi.

1.

metreveli e. efrem mciris avtografi, xelnawerTa institutes moambe, I,

Tb., 1959, 1. xelmeored gamoica wignSi: metreveli e. filologiur-istoriuli

Ziebani, Tb., I, 2007, 117.

128


narkvevi 129

miuxedavad imisa, rom elene metrevelma am kerasTan dakav-

Sirebuli mravali sayuradRebo faqti gamoikvlia, gamoavlina

mTeli rigi axali personaliebisa, daazusta maTi

genelogia da, rac mTavaria, naTeli mohfina maTi literaturuli

saqmianobis raobasa da xasiaTs, es samuSao dResac

damTavrebuli ar aris.

winamdebare werilis mizanic es aris: garkveuli

cnobebiT Seavsos Savi mTis mwignobruli keris istoria

ukve XI saukunis meore naxevarSi, Tavi mouyaros

bio-bibliografiul cnobebs Savi mTis erTi qarTveli

moRvawis Sesaxeb da maTi urTierTSevsebis safuZvelze

gamoavlinos am pirovnebis moRvaweobis xasiaTi da

masStabebi.

es pirovneba ar aris qarTuli mwerlobisaTvis sruliad

ucnobi persona. qarTuli xelnawerebis anderZ-minawerebidan

cnobilia misi saxeli: sxvadasxva anderZ-minawerebSi

mimofantulad aris cnobebi mis Sesaxeb. isini calke aRebuli,

maT Soris garkveuli kavSirebis gaazrebis gareSe, ar

iZlevian srul suraTs, Tu sinamdvileSi vin dgas maT ukan,

ar Cans, Tu ra rols asrulebda igi Savi mTis literaturuli

skolis saqmianobaSi.

es pirovneba aris werilobiTi wyaroebiT, aseve samecniero

literaturaSi Savi mTis qarTuli samwerlobo keris

moRvawed cnobili ioane mTavaraisZe 2 .

ra viciT ioane mTavaraisZis Sesaxeb?

ioane mTavaraisZe moxsenebulia efrem mciris naTargmn Tu

originalur Sromebze darTul mraval anderZ-minawerSi 3 . E

1) 1090 wels gadaweril “fsalmunTa Targmanebis” xelnawerSi

weria:

“efrem Targmanisa mier zemo£senebulman da pirvelisa

wignisa misT¢s damwerelman iovane xucesman mTavara¡sZeman

2.

ioane mTavaraisZis pirovnebas me Sevexe efrem mciris originaluri saistorio

Txzulebis ~uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisa¡”-sTan dakavSirebiT

da gamovTqvi garkveuli mosazrebebi misi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. amJamad

Cemi mizania, axali monacemebis gaTvaliswinebiT calke gamovyo ioane

mTavaraisZis, rogorc farTo xasiaTis moRvawis, pirovneba da vaCveno misi

roli rogorc Savi mTis samwignobro skolis saqmianobaSi, ise, zogadad,

qarTuli mwerlobisa da kulturis istoriaSi.

3.

es anderZ-minawerebi kargad aris cnobili mkvlevarTaTvis: k. kekeliZe, Zveli

qarTuli literaturis istoria, Tb., I, 1980; e. metreveli, Savi mTis mwignobruli

keris istoriisaTvis XI s.-is pirvel naxevarSi, akad. s. janaSias

sax. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis moambe, t. XX_B, 1959, 87; l. menabde,

Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis kerebi, II, Tb., 1980, 152-167; efrem mciris anderZminawerebi

sagangebod Seiswavla darejan TvalTvaZem Tavis sadisertacio

naSromSi da Zalze safuZvliani da sayuradRebo gamokvleva uZRvna maT.


130 waxnagi 1.2009

ese aw CemT¢s gardamoviwere... daiwera kastanas efremis

mamobasa” 4 .

2) imave anTroponimiT (iovane mTavaraisZe) es pirovneba

Cans grigol nazianzelis 16 liturgikuli homiliis

efrem mciriseuli Targmanebis Semcvel xelnawerSi (Jer.

13) arsebul efremiseul anderZSi: “locva yavT iovanesT¢s

xucisa mTavara¡sZisa, romelman ara dag¢Surva T¢si qaRaldi

sawerelad da puri sazrdelad TanadgomiTurT T¢siT,

ra¡Ta esreT srul iqmnes... brZaneba¡ sulierisa mamisa Cuenisa

berisa k¢rike aleqsandrielisa¡” 5 .

am anderZ-minaweris cnoba ioane mTavaraisZesTan mimar-

TebaSi imiT aris sayuradRebo, rom, rogorc vigebT, am anderZis

daweris droisTvis CvenTvis saintereso iovane xucesia

da mTavaraisZed iwodeba. igi materialurad exmareba

efrem mcires grigol nazianzelis 16-sityvedis TargmnaSi.

anderZ-minaweri ki uTuod im droisaa, roca efrem

mcirem Targmna grigol nazianzelis 16-sityvedi, rasac,

mkvlevarTa aRiarebiT, adgili unda hqonoda efremis moRvaweobis

gviandel etapze, daaxloebiT 1090 wlebSi 6 .

am anderZ-minawerebis mixedviT, CvenTvis saintereso iovane

1080-1090 wlebSi mTavaraisZed aris moxsenebuli. mas

gadauweria “fsalmunTa Targmaneba” 1080 wels, xolo igive

teqsti TavisTvis gadauweria 1090 w. an cota mogvianebiT,

imave xanebSive uTargmnia grigolis 16-sityvedi.

ioane, rogorc mTavara¡sZe, kidev erT anderZ-minawerSi

aris moxsenebuli. es anderZi erTgvar gasaRebs warmoadgens

misi pirovnebisa da moRvaweobis dasaxasiaTeblad,

radgan is garkveul safuZvels qmnis ioane mTavaraisZis

identifikaciisaTvis Sav mTaze moRvawe da sxvadasxva anderZebSi

moxseniebul sxva ioaneebTan mimarTebaSi.

anderZ-minaweri daculia A 24 (XII s.) xelnawerSi 7 . xelnaweris

me-3 Txzulebis, “uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa,

Tu romelTa wignTa Sina moi£senebis”, saTauris

4.

Q 37, 317r.

5.

Jer. 13, 250r.

6.

q. bezaraSvili, grigol nazianzelis poeziis komentarebis qarTuli versiebidan:

efrem mciris Targmani, gulani, Tb., 1989, 121; e. WeliZe, Zveli qar-

Tuli saRvTismetyvelo terminologia, I, Tb., 1996, 545-558; n. meliqiSvili,

efrem mciris mTargmnelobiTi meTodi wm. grigol nazianzelis araliturgikuli

sityvebis mixedviT, mravalTavi, XIX, 2001, 225.

7.

xelnaweri Seicavs efrem mciris mier Targmnil ioane damaskelis ~dialeqtikasa~

da ~gardamocemas~, ~ioane damaskelis cxovrebas~, aseve efremis

originalur Txzulebas ~uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisas~. ix. qar-

Tul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, yofili saeklesio muzeumis (A) koleqciisa,

I, Tb.,, 1974, 81-86.


narkvevi 131

gaswvriv, aSiaze (145v) aris anderZ-minaweri aseTi Sinaarsisa:

“uwyode, rameTu amis [sa]kiTxavisa [mizezia] ioane.

da ioane ra¡ gesmes, mTavara¡sZe, rameTu netarisa efremisa

Targmnobisa JamTa Savsa mTasa daxuda da esre Seudga

TargmnobisaT¢s, romel T¢nier mciredTa wignTa¡sa, yovelnive

man aTargmnina misiTa sa£mriTa da warsagebeliTa, vi-

Tarca yovelTa sakiTxavTa bolosa T¢T aRiarebs sanatreli

efrem, xolo me ese sadResaswaulo¡sagan gardavwere” 8 .

rogorc vxedavT, anderZi iuwyeba, rom 1) ioane mTavaraisZe

efremis Sav mTaze misvlisas ukve iq imyofeboda, 2)

igi aqtiurad exmareboda efrem mcires mTargmnelobiT saqmianobaSi

“sa£mriTa da warsagebeliT”, 3) yvela Txzuleba,

mcire gamonaklisis garda, man aTargmnina efrem mcires.

anderZ-minaweris cnobis utyuaroba, misi sandooba sruliad

sarwmunoa, radgan igi ekuTvnis pirovnebas, romelsac

“uwyeba¡” uSualod efremis dednisagan gadauweria.

amis Sesaxeb gadamweri iuwyeba “uwyeba¡s” bolos darTul

anderZ-minawerSi: “srul iqmna eseca qarTvelTa moqcevisa

mosa£senebeli T¢T Rirsisa efremis nusxisagan” 9 .

anderZ-minaweris avtori efrem mcirisa da ioane mTavaraisZis

Tanamedrove Tu araa, mcire droiT aris daSorebuli

maTi moRvaweobis xanas, igi maT mwignobrul-samoRvaweo garemoSi

trialebs, rac zrdis am anderZ-minaweris mniSvnelobas.

anderZ-minaweris sityvebma “T¢nier mciredTa wignTa¡sa,

yovelnive man aTargmnina” efrem mcires, safuZveli momca

ioane mTavaraisZe meZebna efrem mciris Targmanebze dar-

Tul sxva anderZ-minawerebSi.

upirveles yovlisa, SesaZleblad CavTvale ioane mTavaraisZis

gaigiveba imave “uwyeba¡s” SesavalSi moxseniebul

ioane kvirikesTan. SesavalSi weria: “suliersa mamasa Cuensa

da patiosansa eklesiarxsa Cuen qarTvelTasa, mRdelsa

uflisasa ioanes k¢rikessa yovlad mcire da uRirsi saxisa

da saxelisa¡ efrem monazoni TayuaniscemiT mogikiTxav” 10 .

anTroponimSi “ioane k¢rikesi” ioane saxelia, xolo

k¢rikesi miuTiTebs or rameze: igi an kvirikes mowafea, an

kvirikes monastris xucesia. Tu davuSvebT, rom kvirikesi

mowafes aRniSnavs, maSin SeiZleba gaCndes azri, xom ar iyo

es pirovneba cnobili moRvawis, kvirike aleqsandrielis,

mowafe. xolo Tu kvirikesi monastris xucobas gulisxmobs,

maSin gamoricxuli araa, rom Sav mTaze cnobili qarTuli

8.

A 24, 145v.

9.

uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, T. bregaZis gamocema, Tb., 1959, 12.

10.

uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa, 3.


132 waxnagi 1.2009

monastrebis rigs erTi axali, kvirikes monasteric Seematos.

SesaZloa momavalma kvlevam esec daadasturos.

amrigad, ioane kvirikesi aris meore zedwodeba, romli-

Tac xelnawerebSi ixsenieba ioane mTavaraisZe.

ioane k¢rikesi, “uwyeba¡s” garda, ixsenieba erTi ierusalimuri

xelnaweris (Jer. 38 metafrasuli krebuli) anderZ-minawerSi

(es xelnaweri Tavisi SedgenilobiT, yvelaze

axloa S 1276 xelnawerTan). anderZ-minaweri aseTi

Sinaarsisaa: “locva yavT, qristes moyuareno, ioanesT¢s,

k¢rikes xucisa, romlisa brZanebiTa da warsagebeliTa

iTargmna sakiTxavi ese efremisagan mcirisa” 11 . am xelnaweris

ioane kvirikes xucesi (sakiTxavis mbrZanebeli da

warsagebelis gamcemi), yovelgvar eWvs gareSe, is pirovnebaa,

vinc aris “uwyeba¡s” SesavalSi moxseniebuli mRdeli

ioane kvirikesi (“uwyeba¡s” mbrZanebeli da momgebeli).

amave dros, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT “uwyeba¡s” Semcveli xelnaweris

(A 24) minaweris cnobasac, es pirovneba aris ioane

mTavaraisZe (sakiTxavis mizezi da “sa£mriTa da warsagebeliT”

damxmare).

“ioane kvirikes xucesi” zustad amgvari formulirebiT

kidev erT xelnawerSi gvxvdeba. es aris efrem mciris homiletikuri

krebuli S 1276. rogorc elene metrevelma gaarkvia,

am xelnaweris pirveli nawilis (homiletikuri sakiTxavebis)

mTargmnel-redaqtori aris efrem mcire, es avtografuli

xelnaweri mas gamiznuli hqonda rogorc sakuTar TargmanTa

krebuli 12 . krebulis Sedgenilobisa da ramdenime

istoriul-bibliografiuli monacemis gaTavaliswinebis

Sedegad SesaZleblad CavTvale, rom swored es avtografuli

nusxa (S 1276) warmoadgens “uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa

moqcevisa¡Si” moxsenebul “sadResaswaulo wigns” 13 .

sanam ioane mTavara¡sZis Sesaxeb Cvens mosazrebebs gavagrZelebde,

oriode sityviT minda gamovexmauro darejan

TvalTavaZis mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom gamoricxuli

araa, “sadResaswaulos” saxeliT grigol nazianzelis

16 liturgikuli sakiTxavis krebuli ixseniebodes 14 .

Cemi azriT, “sadResaswaulo wignis” grigol nazianzelis

16 liturgikuli sakiTxavis krebulTan gaigiveba

11.

Jer. 38, 12r.

12.

metreveli e. efrem mciris avtografi, 115 -125.

13.

rafava m. efrem mciris `uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa~ da `sadResaswaulo

wigni~, macne, # 4, 1990.

14.

TvalTvaZe d. Sav mTaze moRvawe ioaneTa vinaobisaTvis, Tsu Zveli qarTuli

enis kaTedris Sromebi, 31, 2004, 128.


narkvevi 133

savsebiT dasaSvebi iqneboda, rom ara ramdenime garemoeba,

romelic xels uSlis aseT gaigivebas.

1. saqme isaa, rom “sadResaswaulo wignis” mbrZanebeli

da xelis gammarTavi aris ioane k¢rikesi, xolo nazianzelis

16-sityvedis Targmnis iniciatori da mbrZanebeli,

krebulis Sesavlisa da yvela anderZ-minaweris mixedviT,

aris kvirike aleqsandrieli. ioane mTavara¡sZe materialurad

exmareba efrem mcires. 16-sityvedis Semcveli erTi

xelnaweris anderZ-minawerSi weria: ioane mTavara¡sZe

efrems daexmara, “ra¡Ta esreT srul iqmnes mravalJameuli

iZulebiT brZaneba¡ sulierisa mamisa Cuenisa k¢rike

aleqsandrielisa¡” 15 . kvirike aleqsandrieli efrems grigol

nazianzelis 16-sityvedis sxva anderZ-minawerebSic

iseTi zeaweuli epiTetebiT hyavs moxseniebuli, rom vfiqrobT,

“uwyeba¡Sic” aseve moixseniebda mas, iq rom namdvilad

nazianzelis 16-sityveds gulisxmobdes.

2. grigol nazianzelis 16-sityvedis Semcvel xelnawerebSi

krebuli arsad ar ixsenieba, rogorc “sadResaswaulo

wigni”. calkeul sakiTxavebs ki ewodebaT sadResaswaulo

sakiTxavebi 16 , magram mTlianad wigni moixsenieba, rogorc

“RmrTismetyveli”, an “wigni RmrTismetyveli” 17 .

3. “uwyeba¡s” Sesavlidan irkveva, rom “sadResaswaulo

wignis” momgebeli da “uwyeba¡s” Seqmnis mbrZanebeli erTi

da igive pirovneba, svimeon sakvirvelTmoqmedis monastris

moRvawe beria. efremis mimarTvis toni mxolod qristianuli

TviTdakninebis gamoxatuleba ar Cans, misi sityvebi

adresatis ufro maRal ierarqiul mdgomareobaze miuTiTebs.

safiqrebelia, rom efremis aseTi Tavmdabluri mimarTva

misi moRvaweobis adreul xanaSia savaraudebeli, roca is

Sav mTaze axali misuli iyo. “uwyeba¡s” da “sadResaswaulo

wignis” Seqmnac am periodSia savaraudo. grigol nazianzelis

16-sityvedi ki, rogorc aRvniSneT, efrems Sesrulebuli

aqvs Tavisi moRvaweobis gviandel periodSi.

yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT, mimaCnia, rom “sadResaswaulo

wignSi” unda igulisxmebodes efremis homiletikuri

krebuli (S 1276) da ara grigol nazianzelis 16-sityvedi.

mivubrundeT isev ioane mTavaraisZis pirovnebas.

aRniSnul xelnawerSi (S 1276) sami anderZ-minaweria. or

maTganSi efremi madlobas uxdis ioane mRvdels: “ufalo,

15.

Jer. 13, 250r.

16.

grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis Semcvel xelnawerTa

aRweriloba, Tb., 1988.

17.

iqve.


134 waxnagi 1.2009

Seiwyale mRdeli iovane, mbrZanebeli Cuenda amaT sakiTxavTa

Targmanisa¡” 18 ; “ufalo, miec madli mamasa iovanes mRdelsa,

mbrZanebelsa amisisa Targmanebisasa” 19 ; me-3 anderZminawerSi

ki iovane mRvdeli “k¢rikes xucad Seswavebulad”

aris moxseniebuli: “locva yavT... ioanesT¢s mRdelisa da

monazonisa, romlisa brZanebiTa me uRirsman efrem mcireman

vTargmne... ese cxovreba¡... romeli-ese aw qarTuladca

iTargmna... brZanebiTa da sa£mriTa ioane zemo£senebulisa

da k¢rikes xucad Seswavebulisa¡Ta, ufalman miecin madli

Sromisa da warsagebelisa¡” 20 .

rogorc vxedavT, am anderZebis mixedviT, S1276 krebulis

Targmnis mbrZanebeli aris iovane mama, mRdeli da, rac

mTavaria, “k¢rikes xucad Seswavebuli”, romlisa sa£mriTa

da warsagebeliTa iTargmna sakiTxavebi.

msgavseba “k¢rikes xucad Seswavebulsa” (S 1276 krebuli)

da “ioane k¢rikes xucess” Soris (“uwyeba¡”) sruliad TvalsaCinoa.

rogorc “uwyeba¡s” SesavalSi iuwyeba efrem mcire,

ioane kvirikesi aris “sadResaswaulo wignis” efremisTvis

damkveTi. Aamave dros, is aris ~uwyeba¡s” Seqmnis iniciatoric:

“jer iyo amasca zeda Cemgan srul-yofad brZaneba¡

Seni, ra¡Ta weriT daidvas mas Sina mosa£senebeli odes

moqcevisa Cuenisa¡ da Tu romelTa wignTa Sina berZenTasa

£senebul ars igi, u£mdes Tu visme gamomeZiebelTagansa

cnobad” 21 . orive krebulis Seqmnis mbrZanebeli da xelisSemwyobi

aris erTi da igive pirovneba da es pirovneba aris

ioane mTavaraisZe.

mivyveT teqstebs. `uwyeba¡s~ mixedviT, ioane k¢rikesi

Sav mTaze qarTvelTa eklesiarxia. eklesiarxi saeklesio

samonastro ierarqiaSi maRali Tanamdebobaa, romelic

eklesiis, monastris qoneba-kuTvnilebas ganagebs 22 . swored

es faqti _ eklesiarxoba _ vfiqrobT, iZleva safuZvels

ioane kvirikesis//iovane k¢rikes xucesis ioane mTavarais-

18.

Jer. 38, 80v.

19.

Jer. 38, 115v.

20.

Jer. 38, 56r.

21.

uwyeba¡ mizezsa..., 3.

22.

A Patristic Greck Lexicon, ed. G.V.H. lampe, Oxford, 1961. Greck Lexicon of the roman

and Bezantine periodes, by E.A. Sophocles, New Jork, 1900. berZnul-qarTuli dokumentirebuli

leqsikonis mixedviT, Zvel qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi

dafiqsirebulia eklesiarxis qarTuli Sesatyvisi: “dekanozi”. ix. berZnulqarTuli

dokumentirebuli leqsikoni, t. II, l. kvirikaSvilis redaqciiT,

Tb., 2003. ~uwyeba¡s” gamomcemlis, T. bregaZis, ganmartebiT, eklesiarxi is

piria, romelic xelmZRvanelobda ucxoeTSi qarTvelebis literaturul

moRvaweobas, aZlevda davalebebs da exmareboda safasuriT. ix. uwyeba¡ mizezsa...,…3.


narkvevi 135

ZesTan identifikaciisaTvis. am faqtTan dakavSirebiT

sruliad gasagebi xdeba anderZ-minawerebSi araerTgzis

moxsenieba imisa, rom igi “sa£mriTa da warsagebeliT” exmareba

efrem mcires. monastris salarosa da meurneobis gamgebels,

albaT, xelewifeboda gaeRo “qaRaldi sawerelad

da puri sazrdelad”.

magram, rogorc irkveva, ioane kvirikesis, imave ioane

mTavaraisZis roli Savi mTis samwignobro keraze mxolod

materialuri daxmarebis gaweviT ar amoiwureboda. ioane

mTavaraisZe ganswavluli da ganaTlebuli pirovneba Cans,

radgan igi aris efrem mciris mTargmnelobiTi saqmianobis

warmmarTveli (“T¢nier mciredTa wignTa¡sa, man aTargmnina”),

misi brZanebiT Seudgenia efrems Tavisi avtografuli

nusxa, homiletikuri krebuli (S1276), misive brZanebiT

Seuqmnia efrems Tavisi originaluri nawarmoebi “uwyeba¡”.

amave dros, sayuradReboa isic, rom, garda iniciativis gamoCenisa

da materialuri daxmarebisa, ioane mTavaraisZe,

rogorc Cans, efremis mTargmnelobiT saqmianobaSic iyo

CarTuli, rasac unda mowmobdes efremis sityvebi ioanes

Sesaxeb: “ufalman miecin madli Sromisa da warsagebelisa”.

warsagebeli materialur safasurs niSnavs, mis gverdiT

“Sromaze” xazgasma ioanes mier uSualod efremis SemoqmedebiT

procesSi monawileobas unda niSnavdes. SesaZlebelia,

“Sroma” gadaweris process gulisxmobdes. rogorc

adre aRvniSneT, ioane xucesi mTavara¡sZe marTlac aris xelnawerTa

gadamweri.

garda im cnobisa, rom ioane mTavaraisZe aris Savi mTis

qarTvelTa eklesiarxi, am pirovnebis Sesaxeb sxva mniSvnelovani

cnobebis mopovebac gaxda SesaZlebeli. rogorc

Cans, mas sxva ufro maRali Tanamdebobac sWeria. amas

mowmobs berTis saxarebaSi (Q 906, XII s.) 23 daculi Semwirvelis,

ioane opizaris, sami anderZ-minaweri. am saxarebis

gadamweri ioane opizari ioane mTavaraisZis diswuli da

gazrdili yofila. amdenad, misi anderZ-minawerebis sandooba

sruliad ueWvelia.

pirveli minaweri aseTia: “me, ioane opizisa moZRuarman,

davwere, gazrdilman da diswulman, berisa ioane

mTavara¡sZisaman”. meore minaweria: “sulkurTxeulsa bersa

mTavara¡sZesa saxareba¡ eboZa Zmisa Cemisa”. mesame: “mas bersa

eboZa juari oqro¡sa¡ WeSmaritiTa nawiliTa” 24 .

23.

qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba axali (Q) koleqciisa, Tb., 1958, 317-

322.

24.

Q 906, 319.


136 waxnagi 1.2009

am minawerebidan Cans, rom ioane mTavaraisZes Tavisi

diswulebisTvis uboZebia xelnaweri saxareba da oqros

jvari wminda nawilebiT. aseTi saboZari aSkarad metyvelebs

ioanes maRal mdgomareobasa da SesaZleblobaze.

rogori unda yofiliyo es mdgomareoba, amas isev berTis

saxarebis xelnaweris mixedviT vigebT. am xelnaweris ydaze,

romelic beSqen opizaris mier aris moWedili, aris

amotvifruli warwera: “...obasa ioane mTavara¡sZisasa, m ∼

giorgissa, dekanozobasa miqel k¢rkaiZisasa, vinca ra¡ Segvawia

wm¢disa amis saxarebisa moWedas, yo[v]elTa Seg¢gvn

RmerTman”. warweraSi sami titulia dasaxelebuli: ...oba

(bolo ori marcvalia), m ∼ ( dasawyisi asoa mxolod) da

dekanozoba (sruladaa). nakluli saxiT warmodgenil

titulebSi, rogorc imave berTis saxarebis anderZebsa

da sxva werilobiT wyaroebze dayrdnobiT adre vaCvene,

mocemulia saeklesio-samonastro ierarqiis sami tituli:

winamZRuari, moZRuari da dekanozi 25 . berTis saxarebis

ydis dazianebuli warwera Semdegnairad unda aRdges:

“...[winamZRur]obasa ioane mTavaraisZissa, m[oZRurobasa]

giorgissa da dekanozobasa miqel k¢rkaiZisasa”. rogorc

vxedavT, am warweris mixedviT, ioane mTavaraisZe monastris

winamZRvaric yofila.

amave dros, gamoricxuli araa sxvagvari varaudic:

efrem mciris “uwyeba¡s” saTaurSi miTiTebuli “eklesiarxoba”

da berTis saxarebis “winamZRuroba” _ xom ar

niSnavs orive es ioane mTavaraisZis erTsa da imave Tanamdebobas?

marTalia, berZnuli termini “eklesiarxi” Tavisi

pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT eklesiis salaros gamgebels

niSnavs, magram SesaZlebelia, rom igi efrem mcires

naxmari hqondes ufro farTo mniSvnelobiT, rogorc monastris

gamgebeli. kompozitis _ ekles + arxe _ pirdapiri

Targmani _ eklesiis moTave anu winamZRvari _ amis

daSvebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. gamarTldeba Tu ara es

varaudi, momavali kvleva gamoaCens. rogoradac ar unda

gadawydes es sakiTxi, erTi ram, yovelgvari eWvis gareSe,

cxadia: ioane mTavaraisZes maRali sasuliero-samonastro

Tanamdeboba ekava Savi mTis qarTvelTa savaneSi. SesaZlebelia,

igi saqarTveloSi mobrunda me-12 saukunis

dasawyis wlebSi da aqac igive maRali pativi epyra (amis

eWvs badebs berTis saxarebis moWedil ydaze misi saxelis

amotvifrva).

25.

m. rafava, efrem mciris “uwyeba¡”..., 110.


narkvevi 137

yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, vfiqrob,

srulad ikveTeba ioane mTavaraisZis XI saukunis bolo meo-

TxedSi Sav mTaze da mogvianebiT, SesaZloa, saqarTveloSi

moRvaweobis xasiaTi da masStabebi.

daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba davajamo:

1. ioane mTavaraisZe Sav mTaze imyofeboda efrem mciris

iq Casvlamde, anu XI saukunis bolo meoTxedSi.

2. ioane mTavaraisZem, rogorc gamocdilma kaligrafma,

2-jer gadawera efrem mciris mier Targmnili “daviTnis

Targmaneba”.

3. ioane mTavaraisZe materialurad exmareba efrem

mcires grigol nazianzelis 16 liturgikuli sityvis

TargmnaSi.

4. ioane mTavaraisZe, igive ioane k¢rikes xucad Seswavebuli,

igive ioane k¢rikesi, aris efremis avtografuli nusxis

(S 1276) da “uwyeba¡ mizezsa qarTvelTa moqcevisasa¡”-s Seqmnis

iniciatori da xelis gammarTavi.

5. ioane mTavaraisZe, igive ioane kvirikesi, Sav mTaze

svimeonwmidis monastris eklesiarxia.

6. ioane mTavaraisZe monastris winamZRvaria.

mwignobruli moRvaweobisa Tu samonastro saqmianobis

aseTi masStabebi safuZvels iZleva ioane mTavaraisZe va-

RiaroT Savi mTis samonastro-samwignobro keris erT-erT

aqtiur moRvawed, romelic Tavisi inteleqtualuri da

materialuri TanadgomiT daxmarebas uwevda efrem mcires

mTargmnelobiT-SemoqmedebiT moRvaweobaSi da, savaraudod,

qarTvelTa samonastro saqmeebTan erTad aseve

warmarTavda sxva qarTveli moRvaweebis mwignobrul saqmianobasac.

Tavisi Rvawlisa da damsaxurebebis gamo ioane

mTavaraisZes, vfiqrobT, ufro TvalsaCino adgili unda

daeTmos Zveli qarTuli mwerlobis istoriaSi, vidre mas

aqamde ekava.

Maia Rapava

Ioane Mtavaraisdze, a Georgian intellectual on the Black Mountain

The present papar aims at enriching, with certain sources, the history of

the Georgian literary centre on the Black Mountain at the second half of the

eleventh century, gathering biographical and bibliographical data about a

certain Georgian intellectual from the Black Mountain, Ioane Mtavaraisdze,

and revealing character and scope of his activities.


138 waxnagi 1.2009

The information about Iaone Mtavaraisdze is preserved in the written

sources. He is mentioned in various colophons attached to the original or

translated works of Ephrem Mtsire (XI c.). Comparison and juxtaposition

of these colophons made possible to identify Ioane Mtavaraisdze

with persons named Ioane in the same colophons, that is to say, Ioane

of Kvirike (for the moment it is impossible to ascertain whether it is a

person’s name or monastery’s); Ioane, known as a priest of Khirike; and

Ioane, a priest of Kvirike.

It was possible to clarify that Ioane of Kvirike was not only a donor

for the Georgian intellectuals from the Black Mountain, but also commanded

their translation activities. The colophons also helped to reveal

the position occupied by Ioane Mtavaraisdze. First he had been the ecclesiarch

of the Georgian monastery of St. Symeon, and later became its

head. Therefore, Ioane Mtavaraisdze, for his deeds and activities, deserves

a more important place in the history of Georgian litearture than

hitherto had been ascribed to him.


Tamar oTxmezuri

efrem mcire da “berZulad saswavleli” sityvebi

elinofiluri Targmanebis erT-erTi maxasiaTebeli berZnulidan

naTargmn teqstSi uTargmnelad, transliteraciiT

gadmosuli sityvebis arsebobaa. leqsikuri erTeulis etimologiur

TargmanTan 1 erTad, transliteraciiT gadmotanili

sityva leqsikuri kalkis, leqsikuri berZnizmis

erT-erTi saxeobaa. am tipis kalkebi, marTalia, ukve adreul

qarTul TargmanebSi dasturdeba, magram gansakuTrebulad

didi raodenobiT maT qarTvel elinofilTa TargmanebSi

vxdebiT. qarTul elinofilur teqstebSi maT specifikuri

funqcia SeiZines, rac yvelaze kargad pirveli qarTveli

elinofilis, XI saukunis II naxevris Savi mTis qarTveli

moRvawis, efrem mciris Targmanebsa da mis anderZ-minawereb-

Si gamoTqmul Teoriul mosazrebebSi iCens Tavs.

efrem mcires Tavis cnobil kolofonebSi _ sakuTar

Targmanebze darTul istoriul-literturuli xasia-

Tis winaTqmebsa Tu marginalur SeniSvnebSi _ gamoTqmuli

aqvs araerTi Teoriuli mosazreba berZnul-qarTuli

leqsikisa da leqsikuri mimarTebebis Sesaxeb. berZnul

leqsikur kalkebs (rogorc uTargmnelad gadmotanil

sityvebs, ise leqsikur erTeulTa etimologiur Targmanebs)

efremi “berZulad saswavlels” 2 uwodebs, riTac mia-

1.

termins “etimologia” vxmarobT Suasaukuneobrivi gagebiT: sityvis daSla/Targmna

Semadgeneli nawilebis mixedviT misi WeSmariti mniSvnelobis

Sesacnobad (dionise Trakielis “gramatikis xelovnebis” komentatoris

ganmarteba, Scholia in Dionysii Thracis Artem grammaticum, I, pars III, recensuit et apparatum

criticum indicesque adiecit Al. Hilgard, Lipsiae, 1901, p. 14. terminTa etimologiuri

Targmanis Sesaxeb ix. S. Brock, Aspects of Translation Technique in Antiquity, Greek,

Roman and Byzantine Studies 20 (1979), p. 84-86.

2.

`Seiswave, viTarmed ars berZulad saswavleli, romelsa et¢mologia uwodian,

ese igi ars mzasityuaoba¡~ (Cod. Jer. 8, XII s., grigol RvTismetyvelis 16

liturgikuli sakiTxavis efrem mciriseuli Targmanis Semcveli krebuli).

139


140 waxnagi 1.2009

niSnebs, rom maTi gaazreba da gageba berZnulis gziTaa SesaZlebeli.

Tavis Targmanebze darTul marginalur SeniSvnebSi

efremi naTlad ganmartavs, Tu ra SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba

gadmoitanos mTargmnelma dednidan leqsikuri erTeuli

uTargmnelad. magaliTad, efrems ver upovia berZnuli leqsikuri

erTeulis hJnivoco~ (meetle) Sesatyvisi qarTulSi,

“amisT¢s berZulive davwere _ inioxi” 3 ; efremma qarTulSi

aseve ver moiZia sxvadasxva xelobis aRmniSvneli berZnuli

leqsemebis Sesatyvisi qarTuli sityvebi, “amisT¢s dagdebasa,

anu tyuviliT dawerasa, berZuladve dawera¡ virCie”, 4

_ SeniSnavs mTargmneli. am mxriv misabaZi efremisTvis, rogorc

yovelTvis, berZnebi arian, romlebsac aseT SemTxvevaSi

ucxo saganTa aRmniSvneli leqsikuri erTeulebi pirdapir,

transliteraciiT gadmoaqvT ucxouri enidan, magaliTad,

arabulidan Saqari _ saxarad, yulyasi _ kulkasad,

zafrana _ zafarad. efremma verc berZnuli sfai`ra-sa

da hJmisfai`ra-s Sesatyvisi moiZia qarTulSi _ `xolo me,

vina¡Tgan ZueliTgani saxeli qarTulad vera¡ vpoe visgan,

igive berZuli sferi davdev,” 5 _ aRniSnavs mTargmneli.

marTlac, efremis TargmanebSi didi raodenobiT vxvdebiT

leqsikur berZnizmebs, romlebic am sityvaTa qarTuli

ekvivalentebis ararsebobis gamo berZnulidan uTargmnelad

aris gadmotanili. es gansakuTrebiT iTqmis iseT teqstebze,

romlebic specifikuri TematikiT, da, Sesabamisad,

specifikuri terminologiiT gamoirCeva. magaliTad, fsevdonones

miTologiur komentarTa efremiseul Targman-

Si, saSualo moculobis teqstSi antikur samyarosa da misi

gmirebis, warmarTuli ritualebisa da wes-CveulebaTa

Sesaxeb, ormocdaaTze meti uTargmneli berZnuli sityva

dasturdeba. marTalia, am sityvaTa erTi nawili efremamdea

Semosuli da damkvidrebuli qarTul enaSi zepiri Tu

mwignobruli gziT (magaliTad: andriante, bomoni, barbarozi,

Teatroni, orRano, porfiri, sira, qarta 6 ), magram

3.

Cod. A-689, XII s., 238v; z. sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis

Sesavali, Tbilisi, 1984, gv. 203 (= sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo

enis istoriis Sesavali).

4.

Cod. A-1115, XII s., 223r; sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis

Sesavali, gv. 203-204.

5.

Cods. A-109, 61r, Jer. Iber. 15, 66v, Jer. Iber. 43, 65v, Jer. Iber. 13, 319r _ grigol RvTismetyvelis

16 liturgikuli sakiTxavis krebulebi.

6.

es leqsikuri erTeulebi Zveli, XI saukunemdeli Targmanebidan moyvanili

aqvs i. abulaZes Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonSi, ix. i. abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli

enis leqsikoni, Tbilisi, 1973 (= abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni).


narkvevi 141

ucxour sityvaTa umetesoba swored am Txzulebis efremiseuli

Targmanis saSualebiT aris pirvelad Semotanili

qarTulSi. niSandoblivia, rom es leqsikuri erTeulebi,

ZiriTadad, specifikuri terminebia. aSkaraa, rom saTargmni

masalis Tematikam moiTxova qarTul enaSi warmarTul

ritualTa Tu CveulebaTa aRmniSvneli terminebis, aseve

antikur personaJTa zedwodebebis Semotana. bunebrivia,

am sityvebs ar hqonda ekvivalenti qarTulSi, ramac ganapiroba

swored maTi transliteraciiT gadmotana: dilakrion

(deilakrivwn _ xorcis moyvaruli, hermesis epiTeti),

vuT¢nos (bouqoivna _ xaris mWameli, herakles epiTeti),

idolian (eijdwlianov~ _ kerpTmsaxuri, ivliane gandgomilis

epiTeti), pirahi (purjrJivch _ ritualuri cekva), propino

(propivnwn _ saxalxod Sesmuli sasmeli, xalxuri rituali),

triesperos (trievspero~ _ samRamiani, herakles epiTeti) da

sxv. 7 uTargmnelad aris gadmotanili iseTi sityvac, rogoricaa

h{rw~ _ iroel, romlis leqsikur adekvats gmiri

xSirad vxvdebiT Zvel qarTul teqstebSi. magram rogorc

konteqstidan irkveva, pasaJSi, romelSic es sityvaa gamoyenebuli,

saubaria antikuri miTologiis e. w. naxevargmirebze

(“iroel uwoddes, ese igi ars kerZoRmerT, viTarmed

naxevari maTi RmerTTagan ars da naxevari _ kacTagan” 8 ).

swored antikurma konteqstma ganapiroba am sityvis elinuri

formis gamoyeneba mocemul pasaJSi.

aqve SevniSnavT, rom fsevdonones komentarTa efremiseul

TargmanSi dasturdeba iseTi sityvebis berZnulidan

uTargmnelad gadmotanis SemTxvevebi, romlebsac Zvel

qarTul enaSi mkvidri Sesatyvisebi aqvs. mag.: rJovdon_rodo

_ vardi, kuvmindi~ _ k¢mindi _ qori, krokovdeilo~_ krokodilo

_ niangi, romlis Sesatyvisi Zvel qarTulSi aris

x¢Tqi. giorgi aToneli am sityvasTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnavs:

“meg¢pturad mefuT ewodebis, xolo berZulad

krokodilo da qarTulad x¢Tqi”. 9 am leqsikur erTeuls

efremic icnobs, is mas salamandras ganmartebisas iyenebs

fsevdonones miTologiur komentarebSi (“salamandra

cxoveli ars swori isavra¡sa¡ sididiTa, ginaTu mciri-

7.

Th. Otkhmezuri, Pseudo-Nonniani in IV orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni commentarii (Corpus

Christianorum. Series Graeca, 50, Corpus Nazianzenum, 16), Turnhout-Leuven, 2002, p.

292-293, berZnul sityvaTa indeqsi (= Otkhmezuri, Pseudo-Nonniani in IV orationes

Gregorii Nazianzeni commentarii).

8.

grigol nazianzelis 43-e sakiTxavis basili minimusis komentaridan, ganm.

16.

9.

sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali, gv. 213.


142 waxnagi 1.2009

sa krokodilo¡sa¡, romel ars x¢Tqi £melisa¡” 10 ), Tumca

amave teqstSi is upiratesobas elinizebul formas _

krokodilo-s aniWebs. rogorc Cans, sazogadod, florasa

da faunasTan dakavSirebuli terminologiis transliteraciiT

gadmotanis tendencia adreuli periodidan iCens

Tavs (magaliTad, ivi – i[bi~ _ ibisi, koxlio _ kogcuvlion _

moluski, kroko _ krovko~ _ zafrana, k¢kno _ kuvkno~ _ gedi

11 ) da gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri efrem mciresTan, elinofilur

TargmanebSi xdeba.

am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa leqsikuri erTeuli

pivtu~ da misi ganmarteba efremis TargmanebSi. rogorc

cnobilia, am berZnuli leqsikuri erTeulis qarTuli

Sesatyvisi fiW¢ berZnulidan sakmaod adreul epoqaSi,

egeosuri migraciebis dros, zepiri gziT uTargmnelad

Semosuli sityvaa 12 . adreul mTargmnelobiT tradiciaSi,

kerZod, bibliis wignTa Zvel qarTul TargmanebSi

leqsikuri erTeuliT fiW¢ gadmotanilia rogorc

pivtu~, ise sxva wiwvovani mcenaris saxelwodebebi: kupavrisso~,

peuvkh, ajrkeuvqina 13 . aseTive viTarebaa SedarebiT

gviandel, winaelinofilur _ aTonur TargmanebSic 14 .

rac Seexeba efrems, mas xelaxla, amjerad ukve werilobiTi

gziT Semoaqvs leqsikuri erTeuli pivtu~ formiT

pit¢. grigol nazianzelis 42-e homiliis efremiseul

TargmanSi vkiTxulobT 15 : “godebdin pit¢, rameTu daeca

naZ¢” (zaqaria, 11, 2), rasac erTvis efremis marginaluri

SeniSvna: “Seiswave, rameTu berZuli ars ese sityua¡.

pit¢ ars ara didi xe, aramed mcire kic¢ fiW¢sa¡

10.

Otkhmezuri, Pseudo-Nonniani in IV orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni commentarii, p. 260.

11.

abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, gv. 118, 201, 202, 206.

12.

r. gordeziani, winaberZnuli da qarTveluri, Tbilisi, 1985, gv. 150; E. J.

Furnee, Vorgriechisch-Kartvelisches. Studien zum ostmediterranen Substrat nebst einem Versuch

zu einer neuen pelasgischen Theorie, Leuven-Louvain, 1979, p. 28.

13.

kai; kupavrissoi toiauvtai ejn tw/` paradeivsw/ tou` Qeou,` kai; aiJ pivtue~ oujc o{moiai

tai`~ parafuvasin aujtou` kai; ejlavtai oujk ejgevnonto _ “saroni ara egeviTar

iyvnes samoTxesa RmrTisasa da fiWuni ara msgavs iyvnes morCTa misTa“,

ezekieli, 31, 8 (oSkis biblia); kai; e[koya to; mevgeqo~ th`~ kevdrou aujtou`, ta;

ejklekta; kuparivsswn `movkafe simaRle saroTa¡, rCeul-rCeuli fiWuTa¡“,

mefeTa IV, 19, 23 (oSkis biblia); xuvla kevdrina kai; ajrkeuvqina kai; peuvkana

ejk tou Libavnou _ “Zeli naZ¢sa¡, fiW¢sa¡ da saro¡sa libaniT~ (II neStTa,

2, 8).ejk kuparivssw/ kai; peuvkh/ kai; kevdrw/ _ “saro¡Ta da fiW¢Ta da naZ¢Ta“,

esaia, 60, 13.

14.

basili didi, equsTa dReTa¡, m. kaxaZis gamoc., masalebi saqarTvelosa da

kavkasiis istoriisaTvis, nakv. II (25), Tbilisi, 1946, gv. 170.

15.

jOlolazevtw pivtu~, o{ti pevptwke kevdro~, (PG 36, col. 465, B9-10).


narkvevi 143

uzardi” 16 . msgavsi viTarebaa gvianelinofilur tradiciaSic

17 .

efremis TargmanebSi berZnulidan transliteraciiT

sityvebis gadmotanis mizezi mxolod qarTulSi maTi Sesabamisi

leqsikuri erTeulebis ararseboba ar unda iyos.

efremis erT-erT marginalur SeniSvnaSi, romelSic transliteraciiT

gadmotanili sityvis, “epitafiis” mniSvnelobaa

ganmartebuli, vkiTxulobT: “Seiswave, rameTu epitafia

berZulisagan qarTulad saflavsa-zedad gamoiTargmanebis,

xolo me, vina¡Tgan sxua¡, T¢sagan gankuTnvili Zali

aqunda, amisTvis berZulica sityua davhwere da Zalica

misi” 18 . sqolios mixedviT, efrems leqsikuri erTeuli ejpitavfio~

(sakiTxavis saxeoba _ gardacvlilis sapativcemulod

saflavTan warmoTqmuli sityva) berZnulad imitom

dauweria (anu transliteraciiT _ epitafia _ gadmoutania),

rom am sityvisTvis “sxua~ _ ucxo, misTvis damaxasia-

Tebeli, Taviseburi “Zali~ SeenarCunebina. Tvalsazrisi

sityvaTa “Zalis~ Sesaxeb sakmaod aqtualuri Cans jer kidev

gvianantikur epoqaSi, xolo Semdgom _ bizantiis mwignobarTa

wreebSi. is uSualod ukavSirdeba “wmida teqstebis~

Targmnis teqnikas, Tavisufali da literaluri mTargmnelobiTi

meTodebis sakiTxs, sensus de sensu da verbum e verbo

Targmnis problematikas. “yvela enas aqvs iseTi Taviseburebebi,

romelTa gadatana sxva enaze SeuZlebelia. sityvebi

SeiZleba iTargmnos, magram isini Targmnisas TavianT

Zalas kargaven” (iamblixosi, Teurg., 7,5). amgvari midgoma

mTargmnelobiTi saqmianobis da, zogadad, Targmanis fenomenis

mimarT yovelTvis iCenda Tavs bizantiur azrovnebaSi.

sityvis _ “leqsis” Sesaxeb msjelobisas efremi

kidev ufro Sors midis. is saubrobs “Rrma wignuri sityvebis”

Sesaxeb, romlebic, rogorc misi kolofonebis kvlevis

16.

Cods. Jer. 15, 151 v., Jer. 43, 152 v., A-109, 143 v.; v. l. `Seiswave, berZul _ pit¢,

xolo qarTul _ kicu fiW¢sa¡~ Jer. 13, 119 r., Jer. 8, 163 v., A-292, 120 r., K-9. pit¢-is

am specifikur ganmartebasTan dakavSirebiT detalurad ix. T. oTxmezuri,

fiWvi / pit¢ Zvel qarTul mTargmnelobiT tradiciaSi, logosi. weliwdeuli

elinologiasa da laTinistikaSi, 3, 2005, gv. 303-310.

17.

magaliTad, gelaTur bibliaSi zemoT motanili (sq. 13) bibliuri pasaJi

ezekielis wignidan Semdegnairadaa naTargmni: _ `k¢parozni eseviTareb

samoTxesa Sina RmrTisa¡sa, da pituni ara msgavs iyvnes babiloTa misTa~

(ezekieli, 31, 8).

18.

Cod. A-292, 180, 1800 w., grigol RvTismetyvelis sakiTxavTa efremiseuli

Targmanebis krebuli. sqolioSi aseve ganmartebulia epitafiis Janris sakiTxavTa

saxeobani. am kuTxiT sqolios literaturuli wyaros Sesaxeb ix.

d. TvalTvaZe, efrem mciris literaturul-Teoriuli naazrevidan, z. WumburiZe

_ 70, Tb., 1997, gv. 78-83.


144 waxnagi 1.2009

Sedegad irkveva, ori saxisaa: filosofiur-Teologiuri

terminebi da teqstis mxatvruli ornamentebi, ritorikuli

figurebi 19 . “epitafiis” uTargmnelad gadmotanasa da am

sityvis “Zalaze” saubrisas efremi swored am ukanasknels

unda gulisxmobdes. klasikuri ritorikis Teoriis mixedviT,

“Zali” _ duvnami~ _ ritorikuli terminia, romelic

klasikuri ritorikuli formis mSvenierebas aRniSnavs 20 .

efremi sityvas “epitafia” Tavisi Targmanis, am SemTxveva-

Si homiliis saTauris dasamSveneblad unda iyenebdes, anu

berZnul sityvas teqstSi ritorikuli ornamentis daniSnuleba,

mxatvruli funqcia unda hqondes. dRes Zvel qar-

Tul teqstebSi berZnulad uTargmnelad gadmotanili

leqsikuri erTeulebi Znelad Tu aRiqmeba mxatvrul saxeebad,

magram, rogorc Cans, es sityvebi _ elinuri ganaTlebulobis

simboloebi _ teqsts gansakuTrebul elfers,

ucxour JReradobas, amaRlebulobis, mwignobrulobis

efeqts aniWebda.

magaliTisTvis: efrems berZnulTan gansakuTrebuli

siaxloviT aqvs naTargmni grigol nazianzelis TxzulebaTa

basili minimusis komentrebis winaTqma _ basilis

werili konstantine porfirogenetisadmi. basili minimusi,

grigol nazianzelis stilis, sintaqsis, mxatvruli

samyaros Sesaxeb filologiur-ritorikuli komentarebis

avtori, literaturisa da oratoruli xelovnebis TeoriaSi

sakmaod ganswavluli da ritorikul xelovnebaSi

Tavad gawafuli avtoria. Sesabamisad, misi epistole Sesrulebulia

am Janris ganviTarebis e. w. saSualo bizantiur

periodisaTvis (X_XIV ss.) damaxasiaTebeli wesebis

dacviT, rac epistoleebSi ritorikis elementebis farTo

SeRwevas gulisxmobs. amaRlebuli, maRalfardovani efeqtis

misaRwevad basilis teqstSi amoqmedebulia berZnuli

enis rogorc morfologiuri, ise sintaqsuri SesaZleblobebi.

efremis TargmanSi basilis am mxatvruli teqstis

yvela detali da niuansia asaxuli. am ritorikuli ornamentebiT

datvirTul qarTul teqstSi vxvdebiT dednidan

uTargmnelad gadmotanil erTaderT sityvas uepafrodito

(ajnepafrovdito~_ mSvenierebamoklebuli, uSno. ase

Tavmdablurad ixseniebs basili Tavis naSroms, rac aseve

epistolografiuli ritorikis erT-erTi xerxia. zedsar-

19.

q. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika: grigol

RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT, Tb., 2004, gv.

379 (= bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika).

20.

bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika, gv. 379.


narkvevi 145

Tavis ajnepafrovdito~ adekvaturi qarTuli Sesatyvisis mo-

Zieba qarTulSi, ra Tqma unda, ar unda yofiliyo rTuli,

magram teqstis ritorikuli efeqtis gasaZliereblad,

misi elinizebuli saxis gamosakveTad, efremma sityvis

uTargmnelad gadmotanis xerxs mimarTa. “filoTeon istoriis”

kolofonSi mxatvruli saxis, ritorikuli ornamentis

nimuSad efrems mohyavs antikuri mwerlobidan nasesxebi

mxatvruli saxe “stadioni” _ aTletTa wvrTnis adgili

_ gamarjvebaTa mopovebis asparezi. qristian avtorTa

teqstebSi, efremis mixedviT, mas axali Sinaari aqvs SeZenili

(monasteri _ sulieri wvrTnis adgili) 21 . efremi am

mxatvrul saxeze saubrisas sityvis elinur formas iyenebs,

riTac, vfiqrobT, xazgasmulia misi antikuri warmomavloba

22 . msgavsi viTarebaa berZnuli idiomaturi gamoTqmebis

qarTulad gadmotanisas. magaliTad, kerdooba _ cbiereba,

mzakvroba (momdinerobs arsebiTi saxelidan kerdw/`o~ _

mela), aseve evripooba _ meryeoba, cvalebadoba (arsebiTi

saxelidan _ eu[ripo~ _ zRvis miqceva) uTargmnelad aris

gadmotanili qarTulSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom am gamoTqmaTa

mniSvneloba da warmomavloba Tavad berZnul komentareb-

Sia ganmartebuli 23 .

efremis TargmanebSi berZnulidan transliteraciiT

gadmotanili sityvis gamoyenebis kidev erTi specifikuri

funqcia dasturdeba. es aris berZnuli polisemiuri sityvis

(“Rrma wignuri sityvis”) Targmnisas da Sesabamisi

leqsikuri erTeulebis SerCevisas, misi sxvadasxva mniSvnelobis

gamokveTis mizniT, transliteraciis meTodis

21.

fsalmunTa Targmanebis Sesavali da `filoTeon istoriis~ kolofoni, ix.

m. SaniZe, Sesavali efrem mciris fsalmunTa Targmanebisa, Zveli qarTuli

enis kaTedris Sromebi, 11, miZRvnili Tbilisis universitetis 50 wlisTavs,

1968, gv. 117; sarjvelaZe, qarTuli saliteraturo enis istoriis Sesavali,

gv. 204-205; bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika,

gv. 548-549.

22.

elinofiluri Targmanebis Semcvel qarTul xelnawerebSi berZnulidan

gadmotanil sityvebs zogjer berZnulis analogiiT dasmuli aqvs maxvili,

romelsac qarTul enaSi aranairi datvirTva ara aqvs da romlis funqcia

qarTul teqstebSi gaurkvevelia. vfiqrobT, berZnul sityvaTa gamoTqmisaTvis

maxasiaTebeli maxvili am sityvaTa berZnul warmomavlobaze formaluri

mimaniSnebeli unda iyos da sxva araferi.

23.

“kerdo ewodebis melsa, romlisa msgavsebiTa melebr mcbiersa kacsa

saxel-edva kerdoos... kerdooba... melisa mzakuareba” _ Otkhmezuri, Pseudo-

Nonniani in IV orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni commentarii, p. 50; “ese sakuTrebiT zR¢sa

mimomqceobisaT¢s iTqumis evripooba¡, romeli gadmoiargmanebis advilmoqceobad,

rameTu ars adgilebi zR¢sa¡, romeli dResa Sina mravalgzis

icvlis odesme gan£mobasa da odesme mwyurnebobasa…da amaTgan moRebiTa Seetyuebian

rqumad ese advil mimomqcevTa kacTa” _ ix. grigol nazianzelis

42-e sityvis basili minimusis komentari (#118).


146 waxnagi 1.2009

moSvelieba. rogorc cnobilia, filosofiva-s partistikul

literaturaSi sxvadasxva mniSvneloba aqvs, romelTagan

CvenTvis sayuradReboa ori: filosofivarogorc “saRvTo sibrZne”

da filosofivarogorc “warmarTuli sibrZne”. grigol

nazianzelis TxzulebaTa da maTi komentarebis efremiseul

Targmanebze dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom efremi cdilobs

leqsikur doneze ganasxvaos es ori mniSvneloba _

iq, sadac grigoli saubrobs saRvTismetyvelo sibrZneze,

efremi iZleva am sityvis etimologiur Targmans _ sibrZnismoyuareba,

xolo iq, sadac saubari warmarTul sibrZnezea,

efrems transliteraciiT gadmoaqvs es sityva _ filosofia

24 . niSandoblivia, rom am leqsikur “xrikze” 25 efremi

mianiSnebs kidec grigol nazianzelis 22-e sityvis TargmanSi,

romelic misi mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweobis adreul

etapzea Sesrulebuli SedarebiT Tavisufali mTargmnelobiTi

meTodiT 26 . teqstSi saubaria antikuri samyaros

sam saswavlo disciplinaze: gramatikaze, sofistikasa da

filosofiaze (cxadia, warmarTulze). qarTulSi filosofiva

gadmotanilia transliteraciiT filosofosoba, rasac

erTvis efremiseuli CanarTi: “rameTu axalman aman da Cuenman

sibrZnismoyuarebaman miuRo mas saxeli ese” _ anu Cuen,

axali (qristiani) sibrZnismoyvareni am saxeliT/terminiT

(igulisxmeba filosofosoba) vixseniebT warmarTul

sibrZnismetyvelebas 27 .

sazogadod, TargmanSi ucxouri leqsikuri erTeulebis

arseboba mTargmnelis bilingvurobis maCvenebelia 28 .

orenovania efremi da Savi mTis mwignobarTa is wrec, sadac

efremi moRvaweobs (Tavisi erT-erTi maswavleblisa

da moZRvris, Savi mTis moRvawis, kvirike aleqsandrielis

Sesaxeb efremi aRniSnavs, rom man “kargad uwyis rabamoba¡

qarTvelTa da berZulTa enebisa¡” 29 ). marTalia, efremi

24.

bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika, gv. 179.

25.

termini `xriki~ ritorikuli xerxis aRsaniSnavad gamoyenebuli aqvs Tavad

efrem mcires grigol nazianzelis 39-e sityvis basili minimusis komentaris

TargmanSi, sadac ritorikuli paeqroba morkinalTa SeWidebasTan

aris Sedarebuli (# 13).

26.

e. WeliZe, Zveli qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo terminologia I, Tbilisi, 1996,

gv. 544-554; K. Bezarashvili, The Problem of the so-called “Aporeta” in the Georgian Corpus of the

Works of Gregory the Theologian, Le Muséon, Revue d’Etudes Orientales, t. 108 (1995), p. 131-142.

27.

T. oTxmezuri, grigol nazianzelis dasamSvidebel sityvaTa efrem mciriseuli

Targmani, mravalTavi 20 (2003), gv. 132-145.

28.

S. Brock, Greek into Syriac and Syriac into Greek, S. Brock, Syriac Perspectives on Late

Antiquity (Collected Studies Series 199), 1977, p. II, 1-17.

29.

Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, Versio iberica I, Orationes, I, XLV, XLIV, XLI, ed. a H.

Metreveli et K. Bezarachvili, Ts. Kourtsikidze, N. Melikichvili, Th. Othkhmezouri, M. Raphava,


narkvevi 147

Tavis Targmanebs ganswavluli, ganaTlebuli mkiTxvelisaTvis

qmnis (grigol nazianzelis liturgikuli saki-

Txavebis efremiseuli Targmani, misive sityvebiT, “iS¢T

vieTT¢sme gulis£mismyofelTaT¢s” aris gamiznuli, xolo

“fsalmunTa komentaris efremiseuli Targmanis mkiTxveli

swavlismoyuarea” 30 ), magram efremi imasac ar iviwyebs, rom

misi mkiTxvelebi qarTvelebi arian. amitom ucxour, “gare-

SeTa” sityvebs umetes SemTxvevaSi urTavs ganmartebebs _

eqspoziciuri xasiaTis komentarebs.

efremis, rogorc elinofili mwignobris mTargmnelobiTi

principia: “sityua¡ Sedarebuli berZulisa da marTebiTi

ara akls”; magram man, rogorc praqtikosma mTargmnelma,

isic kargad icis, rom “yovelsa Targmansa u£ms Semateba¡

sity¢sa¡ reca ganmacxadebelad Zalisa”. amitomac efremi

iqceva ise, rogorc berZeni mwignobrebi _ svimeonwmidis

samonastro biblioTekebis berZnuli xelnawerebis analogiiT,

is ganmartebiTi xasiaTis SeniSvnebs _ faqtobrivad,

teqstis samecniero aparats _ xelnaweris aSiebze aTavsebs,

Tanac momavali gadamwerebis sayuradRebod aRniSnavs:

“yovlad ujero ars visganme kidesa warwerilisa mis Targmanisa¡

Sigan gareviT dawera¡” _ ar SeiZleba aSiaze moTavsebuli

ganmartebiTi SeniSvnis teqstSi CarTva 31 .

magram efremisTvis ar aris ucxo mis mierve sakmaod mkacrad

Camoyalibebuli wesebidan gadaxveva. aris SemTxvevebi,

rodesac is sakuTar SeniSvnebs _ ucxour sityvaTa ganmartebebs

_ TviTonve urTavs xolme TargmanSi. amasac Tavisi

axsna aqvs _ gamonakliss efremi mxolod komentarul

teqstebSi uSvebs, romlebic TavisTavad eqspoziciuri xasiaTisaa

da, TavianTi funqciidan gamomdinare, kanonikuri

teqstebisagan gansxvavebiT, advilad itanen da organulad

iTviseben CanarTebs.

efremis SeniSvnebi ZiriTadad erTi agebulebisaa. transliteraciiT

gadmotanil berZnul sityvas mosdevs ganmarteba,

umetes SemTxvevaSi _ sityvis etimologiuri Targmani 32 :

è ewodebis artemis RmerTi elafivolo¡, ese igi ars Rmer-

M. Chanidze (Corpus Christianorum. Series Graeca, 36. Corpus Nazianzenum, 5), Turnhout-

Leuven, 1998, p. xxxii (= Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, Versio iberica I).

30.

Sancti Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera, Versio iberica I, p. xxxiv; SaniZe, Sesavali efrem

mciris fsalmunTa Targmanebisa, gv. 77.

31.

ioane damaskeli, dialeqtika, m. rafavas gamoc., Tb., 1976, gv. 67.

32.

msgavsi tipis ganmartebebi dasturdeba e. w. `fsalmunTa gamokrebili Targmanebis~

anonimur elinofilur TargmanSi, ix. n. doborjginiZe, etimologiur-leqsikologiuri

xasiaTis komentarebi `fsalmunTa gamokrebili Targmanebidan~,

Tsu Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, 30, 2001, gv. 188-194.


148 waxnagi 1.2009

Ti irmis moisari (ejlafhbovlo~: e[lafo~ _ iremi, bolhv _

tyorcna);

è amisT¢s triesperos ewoda, romeli-ese sam Ramed gamoi-

Targmanebis 33 (trievspero~: trei`~ _ sami, e{spero~ _ Rame);

è geneTlia Sobisa dRe, epitafia saflavs-zeda 34 (gevnnhsi~,

ejpitavfio~).

è zog SemTxvevaSi efremi ganmartebis saxiT iZleva sityvis

perifrazirebul Targmans an mis kulturuli ekvivalents:

è ari, romel ars gazafxuli 35 (e[ar).

è `moqalaqe~ uwodian sameufoelTa, romel arian politni

36 (polivth~).

è Seiswave, viTarmed gareSeTani arian gamometyuelebani

ese, rameTu tragikoelni godebaTa metyuel, xolo komikoelni

mokicxaobaTa mweral arian 37 (tragw/diogravfoi,

kwmw/diogravfoi).

diaqronulad rom gavadevnoT Tvali am ori terminis _

tragw/diogravfoi, kwmw/diogravfoi _ gadmotanis process efremis

sxvadasxva dros naTargmn teqstebSi, davinaxavT, rom erTerT

adreul TarmanSi, grigolis 22-e araliturgikul sakiTxavSi

(§ 8), isini Sinaarsobrivad, aRweriTad aris na-

Targmi: kwmw/divaTargmnilia rogorc sasacilo, xolo tragw/

diva rogorc salmoba¡ ese gulisa Cemisa¡. gviandel TargmanSi

ki, basili minimusis komentarebSi, es sityvebi ukve

transliteraciiT aris gadmotanili, magram ganmartebis

gareSe ar aris datovebuli. niSandoblia, rom am erTi magaliTiTac

kargad Cans efrem mciris Tanmimdevruli, mizandasaxuli

gadasvla Tavisufali, mkiTxvelze orientirebuli

mTargmnelobiTi meTodidan zust, dedanze orientirebul

mTargmnelobiT teqnikaze.

ucxouri enidan gadmotanili sityvebis efremiseul

ganmartebebs zog SemTxvevaSi saswavlo-saganmanaTleblo

daniSnulebac aqvs. efremi yovelTvis miuTiTebs, Tu romeli

enidan aris gadmotanili leqsikuri erTeuli (berZnulTan

erTad mis TargmanebSi vxvdebiT ebraulidan gad-

33.

magaliTebisTvis ix. Otkhmezuri, Pseudo-Nonniani in IV orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni

commentarii, p. 244, 48; SeniSvnebi CarTulia teqstSi.

34.

Cod. A-292, 89v; SeniSvna moTavsebulia aSiaze.

35.

grigol nazianzelis 44-e sakiTxavis basili minimusis komentaridan, ganm.

65.

36.

grigol nazianzelis me-19 sakiTxavis basili minimusis komentaridan,

ganm. 64

37.

grigol nazianzelis Or. 21-is marginaluri SeniSvna (cod. Jer. 43, 140v; Jer.

13, 344v).


narkvevi 149

motanil sityvebsac); mis SeniSvnebSi zogjer mocemulia

iseTi informacia, romelic mocemuli sityvisa Tu konteqstis

gasagebad arc unda yofiliyo aucilebeli, Tumca Sua

saukuneebis qarTveli mkiTxvelis Tvalsawieris gafar-

ToebSi is garkveul rols Seasrulebda; sainteresoa, rom

zogjer berZnulidan uTargmnelad gadmotanili sityva

efremis leqsikologiur SeniSvnaSi Cndeba ZiriTad teqst-

Si am sityvis Sesabamisi qarTuli Targmanis ekvivalentis

saxiT. magaliTad, grigol xucesis “grigol RvTismetyvelis

cxovrebaSi”, frazas _ “zog-arianoz uwoda... sity¢Ta

mziT” (ou}~ hJmiareivou~ ejkeivno~ ejtuvmw~ (v. l. eJtoivmw~) wjnovmaze (PG

35, col. 276 A 4; 275, n. 89) _ “romlebsac man naxevararianelebi

uwoda” _ erTvis efremis ganmarteba: “Seiswave, viTarmed

ars berZulad saswavleli, romelsa et¢mologia uwodian,

ese igi ars mzasityuaoba¡” (Jer. 8). efremi am SeniSvniT cdilobs

ganumartos qarTvel mkiTxvels Sua saukuneebis bizantur

gramatikul traqtatebSi sakmaod gavrcelebuli

termini ejtumologiva da qarTvel inteleqtualTa wreebSi

mimoqcevaSi Semoitanos es cneba 38 .

berZnulidan transliteraciiT gadmotanil sityvebSi

asaxulia X-XI saukuneebis bizantiuri berZnulis warmo-

Tqmis Taviseburebebi 39 . zog SemTxvevaSi berZnuli kompozitis

gadmotanisas misi erT-erTi Semadgeneli nawili (ZiriTadad,

pirveli) qarTulad aris naTargmni, bolo meore

nawili transliteraciiT aris gadmotanili, magaliTad:

hJmisfairivon _ kerZosferi; uJpodiakovnwn _ kerZodiakoni 40 .

uTargmnelad gadmotanili sityvebi, ZiriTadad, arsebiTi

saxelebia, iSviaT SemTxvevaSi _ xelobis aRmniSvneli

terminebi an abstraqtuli saxelebi, agreTve, sawyisebi.

es sityvebi ZiriTadad denominativebia, romlebic

Zveli qarTuli enis gramatikuli normebis mixedviT arian

38.

qarTul azrovnebaSi am cnebis Semotanis mcdelobad unda CaiTvalos

efremis kidev erTi ganmartebiTi SeniSvna, romelSic “et¢mologioba”

ganmartebulia, rogorc `mzapasuxoba~; dabolos, “et¢mologiis” ioane

petriwiseuli Targmani _ “mzametyueleba”, romelic dasturdeba mis e. w.

“bolosityvaobaSi”. s. yauxCiSvili, masalebi ioane petriwis `ganmartebis~

wyaroTa SeswavlisaTvis, saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademiis

moambe, t. II, 8, 1941, gv. 758; Н. Махарадзе, Термин ejtumologiva (этимология) и его

древнегрузинские эквиваленты, Византиноведческие этюды, 1991, c. 90-95 (= Махарадзе,

Термин ejtumologiva; T. oTxmezuri, grigol nazianzelis qarTuli Targmanebis

Semcveli krebulebis marginaliebi, korneli kekeliZe _ 125, 2004, gv.

194-206.

39.

n. maxaraZe, bizantiuri berZnulis warmoTqmis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 1978.

40.

grigol nazianzelis sakiTxavebis basili minimusis komentarebidan: me-

19 (ganm. 42) da 24-e (ganm. 33).


150 waxnagi 1.2009

nawarmoebi. magaliTad, avl, meavle, meavleoba (aujlov~ — salamuri),

evripooba (eu[ripo~ — zRvis miqceva), enkenioba

( jEgkaivnia _ ganaxlebis dResaswauli), elen-yofa (eJllhnivzein

_ gaelinureba) 41 da sxv. 42

berZnulidan transliteraciiT gadmotanili sityviT

sakmaod Tamami operirebis erT SemTxvevas vxvdebiT fsevdonones

komentarTa TargmanSi, oRond ara efremiseul-

Si, rogorc es iyo mosalodneli, aramed am Txzulebis

adreul, eqvTime aTonelis TargmanSi. transliteraciiT

gadmotanilia warmarTul ritualTan dakavSirebuli

sityva ejnqousiavzw _ gansakuTrebuli sulieri ganwyoba,

romelic eufleba RvTismsaxurs warmarTuli ritualis

Sesrulebis dros. dedanSi es sityva mimReobis formiT

aris warmodgenili _ ejnqousiw`nte~ (Part. act., pl.). eqvTimes is

transliteraciiT, qarTuli zmnisa da sawyisis formiT

(enT¢si-ob-des, enT¢si-oba-¡ 43 ) gadmoaqvs _ Sesabamisi qar-

Tuli daboloebebis darTviT aqcevs am sityvas qarTul

gramatikul da sityvawarmoebiT yalibSi 44 .

erTi ram cxadia _ qarTvel mwignobarTaTvis TavianTi

teqstebis “elen-yofa” mxolod enobriv-stilisturi movlena

ar yofila. es iyo amave dros garkveuli poziciis _

gansakuTrebuli mowiwebis gamoxatva, pativis migeba mTels

mwignobrul samyaroSi udidesi prestiJis mqone berZnuli

enisa da daxvewili, maRali elinuri kulturisadmi.

Ephrem Mtsire and the Greek Words

Thamar Otkhmezuri

The presence of Greek transliterated words and lexical etymological calques

is one of the main features of Georgian literal translations. According

the Georgian hellenophile scholar Ephrem Mtsire (XI th century, Black Mountain,

the Antioch region), the Greek word can be used in the translated text

when finding the exact equivalent in Georgian is impossible (Cod. A-1115,

41.

detalurad am terminis Sesaxeb da misi mniSvnelobisaTvis elinofilur

mwignobrul tradiciaSi ix. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria

da praqtika, gv. 389.

42.

grigol nazianzelis sakiTxavebis basili minimusis komentarebidan: me-

14 (ganm. 37), 42-e (ganm. 118), 21-e (ganm. 82), 43-e (ganm. 70).

43.

niSandoblivia, rom eqvTimeseuli “enT¢sioba¡” gvian saukuneebSi evropuli

enebidan Semosuli enTuziazmis pirvelsaxea.

44.

Otkhmezuri, Pseudo-Nonniani in IV orationes Gregorii Nazianzeni commentarii, p.158.


narkvevi 151

XII c., 223r). The abundance of Greek words in Ephrem Mtsire’s translation

of the Pseudo-Nonnos Mythological Commentaries is determined by

the topic of the writing where specific names and nicknames of pagan gods

and heroes are mentioned, also terms denoting pagan rituals and cusoms

are used. E. g., deilakrivwn _ [dilakrion] _ a lover of meat

(Hermes’ nickname), eijdwlianov~ _ idolian [idolian] _ worshipper

(Julian the Apostate’s nickname), purjrJivch _ pirahi [pirahi] _ Pyrrhic

(the pagan ritual dance).

In some cases the Greek words, though they have lexical equivalents in

Old Georgian, are rendered into Georgian hellenophile texts without translation.

It particularly concerns the botanical and zoological terms in Old

Georgian translations: _ rodo [rodo] _ a rose, _

krokodilo [k’rok’odilo] _ crocodile, i[bi~ _ ivi [ivi] _ ibis, kogcuvlion

_ koxlio [k’oxlio] _ mollusc, kuvkno~ _ k¢kno [k’wk’no] _

a swan.

In special contexts the transliterated Greek words play the role of rhetorical

figures. In one of his colophons Ephrem mentions that he had rendered

the Greek word ejpitavfio~ into his translation without translation, as it has

special force (duvnami~ _ Zali – rhetorical term denoting the beauty of the

rhetorical form). While rendering into Georgian artistic images and ideomatic

expressions of Greek Antiquity, also motives borrowed from a pure pagan

context, Ephrem often employed the transliterate forms of Greek words:

kerdooba [k’erdooba] _ wickedness (kerdw/`o~ _ a fox), evripooba

[evripooba] _ hesitation (eu[ripo~ _ the flow and the ebb of the sea).

Ephrem also makes particular use of the Greek words in rendering polysemantic

lexical unites. filosofiva as pagan philosophy, is direcly removed

by Ephrem from Greek text into Georgian translation _ filosofia [pilosopia],

while the same lexical unite, when it has meaning of a Christian

wisdom, is rendered by etymological translation – sibrZnismoyuareba

(love of the wisdom).

The vast majority of Greek words in Georgian are taken over as nouns,

only in rare cases the verb is rendered into Georgian by transliteration. The

Greek words often are followed by the expositional notes composed by

Ephrem. Most of them have educational function and are aimed at the common

Georgian reader.

The fact that the Greek words were taken over for use in the eleventh

century Georgian translations in different contexts and various functions, reflects

the increasing prestige of Greek as a cultural language in the Christian

East of this period.


qeTevan bezaraSvili

ritorikisa da filosofiis urTierTmimarTebis

literaturul-Teoriuli aspeqti

qarTvel elinofilTa naazrevSi

(efrem mcire, ioane petriwi)

sakiTxis istoria bizantiur literaturaSi

XI saukunis bizantiaSi kvlav aqtualuri gaxda ritorikisa

da filosofiis kavSiris problema RvTismetyvelebisaTvis.

grigol RvTismetyvelis formulireba Sua

saukuneebSi gavrcelebul sazogado gamonaTqvamad iqca,

sadac erTmaneTs upirispirdeba “meTevzurebri” da “aristoteluri”

(Or. 23, c. 12), anu samonastro, asketuri, dogmaturi,

aradiskursiuli, gamocdilebiTi Teologia da filosofiuri,

diskursiuli, logikuri azrovneba, sqolastikuri

Teologiis inteleqtualuri meTodi 1 .

sityva “aristoteluri”/“aristotelurad” terminis

mniSvnelobiT erT-erTma pirvelma grigol RvTismetyvelma

gamoiyena. XXIII homiliaSi (“erTobisaT¢s, romeli vyavT

Semdgomad ganwvalebisa Cuen marTlmadidebelTa”) igi

saubrobs mis mier warmoTqmuli sityvis araritorikuli

da arafilosofiuri xasiaTis Sesaxeb da upirispirebs klasikuri

ritorika-filosofiis garegnul miRwevebs “meTevzurTa”,

anu mociqulTa da pirvelqristian mamaTa, sityvis

(qadagebis) RvTivSTagonebul ubraloebas, eklesiurobas

da sulisaTvis sargeblianobas. grigoli meore sofistikidan

SeTvisebuli ritorikuli xerxebiT _ asonansiani homoiotelevtonebiT

STambeWdavad warmoadgens aRniSnul

dapirispirebas antiTetur kolonebSi, risi saSualebiTac

1.

H. Hunger, Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner, Bd. I, Münich, 1978, S. 42-

43. D.T. Runia, Festugière revisited: Aristotle in the Greek Patres, in: Vigiliae Christianae, 43,

1989, p. 1-34, spec. 9, 11, 25-26.

152


narkvevi 153

igi ufro dasamaxsovrebeli xdeba. efrem mciriseul TargmanSi

ucvlelad aris SenarCunebuli berZnuli periodebis

ritmuli struqtura:







(Gr.Naz. Or.23, c.12. PG 35, 1164C12-D1).

`(ese ukue mciredi warmovTq¢)

sjulisdebiT, ara winaaRmdgomebiT,

meTevzurebr, ara aristotelebr,

sulierebiT, ara borotad gamoZiebiT,

saeklesiod, ara saubnod,

sargebelad da ara saCuenebelad...~

(cod.Tbilis. A292, a. 1800, f. 254r).

rogorc dapirispirebidan vxedavT, erTmaneTTanaa

dakavSirebuli, erTi mxriv, dogmatika (sjulisdeba), me-

Tevzuroba (anu mociqulTa mier qadagebuli rwmena), suliereba

(pnevmatikuroba, igulisxmeba sulieri gamoZieba

qristianuli WeSmaritebisa), saeklesio da sargebeli

(igulisxmeba sulis margebeli ram). meore mxriv, gaerTianebulia

winaaRmdgomeba (antilogikuroba, anu disputi,

kamaTi), aristoteluroba (anu filosofiuri gansja), borotad

gamoZieba (asea Sefasebuli antikuri filosofia da

rotorika, rogorc sicrue, qristianulTan SedarebiT; es

ukanaskneli, igulisxmeba, rom WeSmaritebas emsaxureba), 2

ubnoba (agoris 3 , anu saero TavSeyris adgilebSi saxalxo

2.

antikuri filosofiisa da ritorikis qristianTa mier uaryofiTi Sefasebis

istoriisa da magaliTebisaTvis ix. T. oTxmezuri, q. bezaraSvili, ioane

petriwis e.w. bolosityvaobis erTi fragmentis berZnuli dedani, MNHMH.

eZRvneba al. aleqsiZis xsovnas, Tb., 2000, gv. 213-217.

3.

/ Cveulebriv, antikuri ritorikis da poetikis TeoriebSi

niSnavs ubralo/mdabio metyvelebas da stils _ (Arist.

Rhet.10,11 etc.), magram zogjer igi niSnavs samosamarTlo/samarTlebriv

sityvas _ da aris Sesatyvisi -isa (Philostr. V.Sophist.II,

p.570). L. Hook, The Metaphorical Terminology of Greek Rhetoric and Literary Criticism,


154 waxnagi 1.2009

krebebze qadageba/mWevrmetyveleba, ritorikul-filosofiuri

gansja eklesiaSi qadagebis nacvlad, gamocxadebis

sibrZnis, WeSmariti sulieri xedvis nacvlad) da saCvenebeli

sityva (igive epideiqtikuri, rogorc ritorikis erTerTi

saxeoba 4 ).

aqedan, qristianuli dogmebis rwmeniT miReba dapirispirebulia

kamaTis sofistur xelovnebasTan, anu codnasTan,

romelic klasikur ritorika-filosofias axasiaTebda; me-

Tevzuroba dapirispirebulia aristotelurobasTan, anu

isev rwmena dapirispirebulia codnasTan/mecnierebasTan;

religiuri WeSmaritebis sulieri gamoZieba dapirispirebulia

antikuri filosofiis borotad gamoZiebasTan, anu

sicruesTan; saeklesio qadageba dapirispirebulia agoris,

anu saero qadagebasTan; sulisaTvis sargebeli qristianuli

sityva, anu qristianuli qadageba/ritorika, dapirispirebulia

antikuri ritorikis sadResaswaulo saxeobasTan

_ epideiqtikur, anu saCvenebel, sadResaswaulo sityvasTan,

romelic, igulisxmeba, rom sulisaTvis margebel Sinaarss

ar Seicavs da mxolod garegnuli saCvenebeli ritorikuli

samkaulebiT imoseba. aq termini “apodeiktikuri” rom yofiliyo

maSin logikis dargi unda gvegulisxma

5 . termini ki ritorikas ganekuTvneba (Sdr.

Chicago, 1905, p. 27. I.C.T. Ernesti, Lexicon Technologiae Graecorum Rhetoricae, Darmstadt,

1962, s.v. Sdr. qvemoT aristoteles mier oratoruli sityvis saxeobebad

dayofa.

4.

epideiqtikuri sityva ritorikis sam saxeobaTagan erT-erTia, romelic

aristoteleseuli dayofidan moyolebuli (Arist. Ars Rhetorica, I,3,1358b)

gavrcelebuli iyo ritorikis elinistur da bizantiur TeoriebSi:

(genus demonstrativum) _ sadResaswaulo, saCvenebeli, sazeimo

sityva (igive panegirikuli, Sdr. Basilii Minimi

in Gregorii Nazianzeni orationem XXXVIII commentarii, editi a Th. Schmidt, in: Corpus

Christianorum, Series Graeca, 46; Corpus Nazianzenum, 13, Turnhout, Leuven, 2001, p. 8 7,

9, n. 9); (genus deliberativum) _ saTaTbiro, bWobiTi sityva;

(genus iudiciale) _ samarTlebrivi, sapaeqro sityva. ix. H. Hommel,

Rhetorik, in: Der kleine Pauly Lexicon der Antike, Bd.4, 1911, col. 1397. H. Hunger, Die hochsprachliche

profane Literatur der Byzantiner, I, S. 99.

5.

filosofiis sam saxeobad dayofis (_ “xedviTi”, _ “saqmiTi”,

_ “sity¢erebiTi”) klasikuri da bizantiuri tradiciebisa

da apodiqtikis, rogorc logikuri meTodis saxeobis Sesaxeb (_

“ganCinebiTi", _“gamoTqumiTi”, _ “mesibrZneobiTi".

Or. 43, com. 73. R. Cantarella, Basilio Minimo, II, in: Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 26, 1926, p.

28 6-9

. Cod. Iber. Tbilis. A109, s. XII-XIII, 29r. Sdr. Arist. Anal. Post. 71 b 18) ix. C. Cavarnos,

The Hellenic-Christian Philosophical Tradition, Belmont, Massachusetts, 1989, 92, 103. Т.И.

Долидзе, Вопрос о функции в комментаиях школы Аммония, Tsu

Sromebi, 249 (arqeologia, klasikuri filologia, bizantinistika), 1984,

gv. 325. Sdr. Sdr. –"gamosaCinebelni" (T. oTxmezuri, q. bezaraS-


narkvevi 155

_ “maCuenebloba¡” sanaxaobis: _ “meTeatroneobis”

sinonimad. Gr. Naz. Or. 43, c. 25. PG 35, 529C4) 6 .

aRniSnul pasaJSi dapirispirebani warimarTeba swored

meTevzurobisa da aristotelurobis antiTezis principiT.

dapirispirebaTa danarCeni wyvilebi ki mTlianad dasaxelebul

pirvel antiTezas emorCileba.

es formulireba orgvar gaazrebas gvTavazobs. erTia

msoflmxedvelobrivi dapirispireba codnasa da rwmenas,

meTevzurTa, anu mociqulTa, gamocxadebiT sibrZnesa da

codniT miRebul mecnierul sibrZnes, anu klasikur filosofias,

Soris. meorea sakiTxis literaturul-Teoriuli

aspeqti, romelic gulisxmobs saRvTo werilis enis keTil-

Sobiluri ubraloebis 7 , mociqulTa da pirvelqristianul

TxzulebaTaA enisa da stilis, e.w. evangeluri gamocxadebi-

Ti sisadavis (dapirispirebas maRalfardovan

atikurTan, ritorikul-filosofiur stilTan, agreTve

Semdgom Seqmnil im saRvTismetyvelo TxzulebaTa stil-

Tan, romlebic elinuri filosofiis cnebiT-terminologiur

aparats efuZneboda (Sdr. I kor. 13, 12) 8 . am droisaTvis

erTmaneTis sinonimebia. 9

amgvarad, terminebiT “meTevzurebri”, galilevelTa Tu

meTevzurTa Txzuleba, e.w. sermo piscatorius an da,

vili, ioane petriwis e. w. bolosityvaobis erTi fragmentis berZnuli dedani,

gv. 220, 232-233).

6.

ix. S. Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera. Versio Iberica, IV. Oratio XLIII, edita a B. Coulie, H. Metreveli

et K. Bezarachvili, T. Kourtsikidze, N. Melikichvili, T. Otkhmezuri, M. Rapava (Corpus

Christianorum, Series Graeca, 52; Corpus Nazianzeum, 17), Turnhout, Leuven, 2004, p. 119.

7.

H.A. Wolfson, The Philosophy of the Church Fathers, I, Cambridge (Mas.), 1956, p. 19. E. Norden,

Die antike Kunstprosa vom VI Jahrhundert V.Chr. bis die Zeir der Renaissance, Bd. II, Leipzig,

Berlin, 1918, S. 523.

8.

wm. werilis araeqsplikaciuri enisa da saRvTismetyvelo TxzulebaTa filosofiuri

enis gansxvavebaTa Sesaxeb ix. T. Dolidze, The Logic of Language in Gregory

of Nyssa’s Treatise “Against Eunomius”, in: Phasis. Greek and Roman Studies, 4, Tbilisi,

2001, p. 15-25.

9.

rogorc aRniSnaven, grigol RvTismetyvelis formulireba

igivea, rac da forma-Sinaarsis ur-

TierTmimarTebis problemas exeba bizantiur Teologiur literaturaSi

(H. Beck, Antike Beredsamkeit und Byzantinische Kallilogia, in: Antike und Abendland, 14, Berlin,

1969, S. 93).

10.

meTevzurebi metaforulad ewodeba mociqulebs, adamianTa sulebis mebadurebs

(Sdr.G.W. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexicon, Oxford, 1968,

s.v. ). igulisxmeba, rom mociqulebi arian “mesaTxevle kacTa” (mT.

4, 18-19. mrk. 1, 17. Sdr. ier. 16, 16), romelTac TavianTi sityvis, anu RvTis sityvis,

saxarebis badeSi unda moaqcion mTeli samyaro (Gr. Naz. Or. 41, c. 14. PG 36,

448C5). termini “meTevzuroba” aRniSnavs agreTve mociqulTa stilis sisadaves

G.W. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexicon, s.v. ix. E. Norden, Die


156 waxnagi 1.2009

meore mxriv, filosofos-ritorTa (an sofistTa) ena, igive

rasac aristotelursac (

uwodebdnen, 11 gamoixateboda maT Soris arsebuli ganmasxvavebeli

ZiriTadi meTodologiuri da stilisturi niSnebi.

maSasadame, sakiTxs hqonda ara mxolod filosofiuri,

aramed ritorikuli mxarec.

grigol RvTismetyvelis es formulireba (meTevzurTa

yaidaze Tu aristoteles yaidaze), romelic, rogorc vTqviT,

sazogado gamonaTqvamadac iqca da gavrcelebuli iyo

Sua saukuneebSi, aisaxa ioane petriwTanac (ix. qvemoT).

maRali, Rrma qristianuli Sinaarsis gamoxatva aseve

maRali klasikuri formiT (axali SinaarsiT datvirTuli

antikuri literaturuli xerxebiT Tu filosofiuri

mza teqnikuri logikuri aparatiT) gansakuTrebiT misaba-

Zi gaxda bizantiuri mwerlobisaTvis kapadokielTa moRvaweobis

Semdeg, romlebmac saukeTesod ganaxorcieles TavianT

TxzulebebSi qristianuli Sinaarsisa da elinuri

formis es kavSiri 12 .

rogorc vTqviT, XI saukuneSi ganaxlda ritorika-filosofiis

kavSiris mniSvneloba. miqael fselosi svimeon

metafrastisadmi miZRvnil enkomiaSi da traqtatSi grigol

RvTismetyvelis stilze saubrobs filosofiis, anu

saRvTo azris, ritorikis mSvenieri samkaulebiT gadmocemaze,

anu forma-Sinaarsis urTierTmimarTebaze axali,

qristianuli Sinaarsis gadmosacemad (PG 114, 188A11; Psellos,

Ad Pothum, c. 13 243-245

; 17 317-318

) 13 . miqael fselosi aRniSnavs, rom

am avtorebma filosofiiT aamaRles ritorikuli xelovneba

da piriqiT.

antike Kunsprosa, II, S. 512-516. Sdr. rom. 9, 28; I kor. 3, 19; 1, 22; 2, 6. Sdr. Gr. Naz. Or. 27,

c. 1. PG 36, 12. Gr. Naz. Or. 16, c. 2. PG 35, 936C;

“ese arian Txrobani Cuen galilevelTani... amas

aRvwerT Cuen meTevzurTa da uswavlelTa mowafeni” (Greg. Naz. Or. 5, c. 25. PG 35,

693B9; Sdr. “uswavlelni da meTevzurni”. Gr. Naz. Or. 5, c. 30. PG

35, 701C8-10. Cod. Iber. Tbilis. A292, 208r).

11.

da _ meTevzuri da atikuri dapirispirebulia erTmaneTTan,

rogorc barbarosuli _ elinur mWevrmetyvelebasTan (G.W. Lampe,

A Patristic Greek Lexicon, s.v. . E. Norden, Die antike Kunstprosa, II, 1918, S. 522-

523. U.v. Wilamowitz-Möllendorff, Asianismus und Atticismus. Hermes. Zeitschrift für klassische

Philologie, 35, Berlin, 1900, S. 4, 44). meore mxriv, qristianul literaturaSi,

meTevzurTa sibrZne aRemateba filosofosTa da ritorTa maRalfardovan

mWevrmetyvelebas (C.A.Trypanis, Fourteen Early Byzantine Cantica, Wien, 1968, p. 37).

12.

E. Norden, Die antike Kunstprosa, II, S. 460-464. G.A. Kennedy, Greek Rhetoric under Christian

Emperors, Princeton, New Jersey, 1983, p. 50, 185.

13.

A. Mayer, Psellos’ Rede über den rhetorischen Character des Gregorios von Nazianz, in: Byzantinische

Zeitschrift, 20, 1911, S. 27-100; spec. 48-60.


narkvevi 157

amave periodSi arsdeba sami ierarqis (grigol RvTismetyvelis,

basili didisa da ioane oqropiris) erTad xsenebis

dResaswauli, romelzedac pasuxismgebelia ioane

mavropusi _ konstantinopolis universitetis damaarsebeli,

filologi da mWevrmetyveli (saubaria mis xilvaze

1084 w. sami ierarqis Tanaswori pativis Sesaxeb). misi

azriT, sami ierarqis Semoqmedebis saSualebiT aRdga harmonia

sityvasa da suls, filosofia-Teologiasa da ritorikas

Soris (-s Soris), rac aklda saxarebas 14 .

sami ierarqi ara mxolod Teologiuri modelebia bizantiisaTvis,

aramed _ ritorikuli.

sakiTxis gaazreba qarTveli elinofilebis mier

qarTveli elinofilebi _ efrem mcire da ioane petriwi

TavianTi Tanamedrove bizantiuri azrovnebis simaRleze

dganan.

efrem mcire exmaureba ritorika-filosofiis erTianobis

problemas Tavisi mosaxsenebliT svimeon loRoTetis

saxelze, sadac saubrobs sxva xilvis Sesaxeb, romelsac svimeoni

Tavisi ritorika-filosofiiT sami ierarqis Tanabar

doneze ahyavs 15 . igi marTebulad iazrebs ritorika-filosofiis

da maTi Teologiisadmi damokidebulebis saki-

Txs, iTvaliswinebs ra berZnuli literaturis procesebs

aRniSnul sakiTxebze. svimeonis sityvas efremi axasiaTebs

rogorc “ritorebrivTa maT gangrZobaTa da filosofosebrivTa

maT SemkobilebaTa”.

ioane damaskelis “dialeqtikaze” darTul kolofonSic

efremi, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tavisi Tanamedrove azrovnebis

doneze dgas. igi saubrobs “gareSe” sibrZnisadmi, ker-

Zod, antikuri filosofiisadmi, damokidebulebis Sesaxeb.

aRsaniSnavia, rom amave dros, efremi imave kolofonSi saki-

Txis literaturul-Teoriul moazrebasac gvTavazobs da

am problemas igi ukavSirebs stilis sakiTxebze msjelobas.

igi saubrobs “safilosofoso” TxzulebasTan dakavSirebul

stilTa doneebze, kerZod, metafrastikis Teoriaze. erTi

14.

H.G. Beck, Antike Beredsamkeit und Byzantinische Kallilogia, S. 95-96. G.L. Kustas, Studies

in Byzantine Rhetoric (Analecta Blatadōn,17), Thessalonike, 1973, p. 124-125. gavixsenoT,

rom kapadokielma mamebma da ioane oqropirma ganaviTares filosofiuri

safuZveli qristianuli doqtrinisaTvis da ritorikuli forma _ sakiTxavisaTvis.

ix. G.A.Kennedy, Greek Rhetoric, p. 50, 185.

15.

efrem mcire, “mosa£senebeli mcire s¢meonisaT¢s loRoTetisa”. К. Кекелидзе,

Симеон Метафраст по грузинским источникам, etiudebi, V, Tb., 1957, gv. 219, 224-

225.


158 waxnagi 1.2009

SexedviT, TiTqos ucnauri unda iyos logikur Txzulebas-

Tan mimarTebiT metafrastikaze msjeloba (miT umetes, rom

metafrastikaze efremi sagangebod msjelobs calke kolofonSi

_ svimeon metafrastis mosaxsenebelSi). magram gavixsenoT,

Tu ra konteqstSi gadadis efremi erTi sakiTxidan

meoreze. igi afrTxilebs Tavis Tanamemamuleebs, romlebic

aqamde miCveulni ar yofilan safilosofoso wignebs, rom

sxvis mier “Sekazmulad”, anu gadametafrasebulad, ar miiCnion

es wigni _ ioane damaskelis “dialeqtika”: “kualad eseca

sacnaur iyavn, viTarmed ara jer-ars, ra¡Ta sx¢sa visganme

Sekazmulad vhgonebdeT wignsa amas, viTar-igi guasmies

s¢meon loRoTetisa da sxuaTa mecnierTa berZenTagan kazmva¡

wignebisa¡...” (Cod. Iber. Tbilis. A24, s. XII, 3v); 16 Semdeg efremi

xsnis stilTa doneebs, Tu ra aris mdabiuri, “uSueri” stili

da ra _ maRali, metafrasuli, gardakazmuli, gamSvenebuli;

rogori Txzulebis gadametafraseba SeiZleba da rogoris

_ ara da a.S. ase rom, igi mijnavs metafrastikis ritorikul

stils mdabiuri stilisagan (rasac berZnuli terminologiiT

tapeinov” Seesabameba). amave dros, aqve igi erTmaneTisagan

ganasxvavebs mdabiuri stilis TxzulebaTa simartives

wm. werilisa da sxva wm. mamaTa Txzulebebis “litonobisagan”

(rasac Seesabameba swored zemoxsenebuli berZnuli

terminebi: aJplovth” da aJlieutikov”), romelic sul sxva ram aris

Tavisi saRvTo warmomavlobis gamo da xelSeuxebelia 17 .

es axsna-ganmarteba efrems, cxadia, imisTvis dasWirda,

rom ioane damaskelis Txzulebas igi swored maRali stiliT

Seqmnilad miiCnevda (mxolod ara Semdgom gadametafrasebulad

sxvis mier, aramed Tavidanve Tavad avtoris

mierve Rrmad da maRlad Seqmnilad), anu “aristotelurad”,

romelic gansxvavebulia “meTevzurisagan”, litonisagan.

maSasadame, efremma SesaniSnavad icis rwmenisa da

codnis urTierTdamokidebulebis sakiTxis orive mxare _

filosofiuric da ritorikulic.

es movlena ucnaurad ar mogveCveneba, Tu gavixsenebT,

rom ritorikuli da filosofiuri, miuxedavad maT Soris

16.

kolofonis dasawyisSi igi aseve afrTxilebs gadamwerT, rom ar gamotovon

“dialeqtika” gadawerisas da ar miiCnion igi gamousadegarad

misi siRrmis gamo: “ara dauteoT amaTi dawera¡ reca siRrmisaTvs u£mar

sagonebelobisaT¢s” (A24, XII s., 1v). ioane damaskeli, dialeqtika, m. rafavas

gamocema, Tb., 1976, gv. 66.

17.

ix. q. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika grigol

RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT, Tb., 2004,

gv. 385-387. q. bezaraSvili, “gareSe” sibrZnisadmi damokidebulebisaTvis

efrem mciris kolofonebSi, macne, els, 1-4, 2001, gv. 155-157.


narkvevi 159

winaaRmdegobisa, ganuyofeli iyo erTmaneTisagan antikurobidan

moyolebuli. es problema, rogorc zemoT vTqviT,

aqtualuri iyo XI saukuneSi da Semdgomac; isic aRvniSneT,

rom mas exmaureba ioane petriwi.

fsalmunis ganmartebaTa winasityvis bolos ioane petriwi

saubrobs sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb 18 da gulistkiviliT

aRniSnavs TanamemamuleTa siverages, gonebiT xedveb-

Si dabrZenebuli kacis xelSewyobis nacvlad. misi TqmiT,

TanamemamuleTa siyvaruli da Sewevna rom Cveneboda, RvTis

gangebis Tanadgomas mihyveboda da am saRvTo xedvaTa survils

ficavs, rom [qarTul] enasac [berZnul] enisad gaawyobda,

filosofiuri gancdis xedvebSic iaristotelurebda

da nivTisagan miuxebel RvTismetyvelebasac warmoayenebda:

“vina¡, Tumca me ra¡ve Tansiyuaruli da Sewevna¡

mCueneboda maTgan, Tana vxde dgomasa RmrTisa gangebaTasa.

da T¢T maT xedvaTa vfucav survilsa, romel ena¡mca enisada

gamewyo da xedva¡mca filosofosTa gancdisa¡ mearistotelura

da RmrTismetyueleba¡ nivTisagan miuxebeli

warmomeyena” 19 . “xedva” da “gancda” sinonimuri mniSvnelobis

terminebia da niSnavs mistikur an gonebiT Wvretas, Semmecneblis

xedvas, gagebas 20 . ase rom, “xedva¡ filosofosTa

gancdisa¡” niSnavs filosofiuri Wvretis Teorias (qewriva

– xedva). “xedva¡mca filosofosTa gancdisa¡ mearistotelurao”

ki niSnavs: filosofiuri Teoria mearistotelura,

anu misTvis aristoteleseuli filosofiuri gansjis,

anu diskursiuli xasiaTi mimeniWebinao.

rogorc vTqviT, grigol RvTismetyvelis formulirebidan

momdinare termini “aristoteluri” sazogado gamonaTqvami

iyo Sua saukuneebSi da niSnavda RvTismetyvelebisaTvis

aristoteleseuli diskursiuli xasiaTis miniWebas,

logikuri dasabuTebis meTodis Seqmnas wminda Wvreti-

Ti TeologiisaTvis 21 . am sityvebiT ioane petriwi aviTarebs

18.

damana meliqiSvilis TargmanSi am nawils ewodeba Pro domo sua. ioane petriwis

teqstis perifrazirebisas yvelgan veyrdnobiT d. meliqiSvilis

mier Tanamedrove qarTulze gadmoRebul teqsts: ioane petriwi, ganmarteba

prokle diadoxosis “RmrTismetyvelebis safuZvlebisa”, Tanamedrove

qarTul enaze gadmoiRo, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo d. meliqiSvilma,

Tb., 1999.

19.

ioane petriwi, Sromebi II, S. nucubiZis da s. yauxCiSvilis gamocema, tf.,

1937, gv. 222 17-22.

20.

d. meliqiSvili, Zveli qarTuli filosofiur-Teologiuri terminologiis

istoriidan, Tb., 1999, gv. 131-132. ix. “xedvisa gancda-Wuretani” (ioane

petriwi, Sromebi, II, gv. 107 12

) da sxv.

21.

aseve iyo es gamonaTqvami interpretirebuli samecniero literaturaSi

(g. TevzaZe, filosofiis istoriis zogierTi sakiTxi, istoriul-filo-


160 waxnagi 1.2009

misi winamorbedis _ efrem mciris moRvaweobis mizandasaxulobas.

ioane damaskelis “dialeqtikis” miseuli Targmanis

winasityvaSi (romelic warmoadgens aristoteles logikur

meTods qristianuli Teologiis samsaxurisaTvis)

efrem mcire ambobs, rom “sxua¡ arara¡ odes Targmnila safilosofosoTa

wignTagani” 22 . ioane petriws ki surs, rom qar-

Tuli azrovneba miiyvanos sqolastikuri Teologiisaken

mas Semdeg, rac am azrovnebam ukve gaiara asketikis, samonastro

Teologiis gza. rwmenisa da codnis urTierTmimarTebis

sakiTxSi ioane petriwi da mTeli qarTuli elinofiluri

skola (anu gelaTis skola) efuZneba aleqsandrieli da

kapadokieli mamebis naazrevs. amdenad, sruliad bunebrivia

imis daSveba, rom fsalmunTa ganmartebis miseul winasityvaSi

ioane petriwi topos “aristotelobas” grigol

RvTismetyveliseuli antiTeturi formulirebis sqemiT

unda warmoadgendes codnisa da rwmenis zemoT ganxiluli

urTierTmimarTebis warmosaCenad 23 .

logiuri Ziebani, II, Tb., 1984, gv. 85). terminis jAristotelikov” gagebisaTvis

Sua saukuneebSi ix. Sen. 1-Si dasax. literatura. aristoteles terminis

“nivTisagan miuxebeli” (a[neu u{lh”, cwrista; th’” u{lh”) gagebisaTvis ix. C. Cavarnos,

The Hellenic-Christian Philosophical Tradition, Balmont, Massachusetts, 1989, p. 40-42;

amonios ermisis Txzulebebi qarTul mwerlobaSi, m. rafavas gamocema, Tb.,

1983, 12 30-35.

Ammonius in Aristotelis Categorias Commentarius, ed. A. Busse [Commentaria in

Aristotelem graeca, IV, 4], Berolini, 1895, p. 11 27-28

. am sakiTxis interpretaciisaTvis

ioane petriwis Sromis mixedviT ix. q. bezaraSvili, ioane petriwis e. w. bolosityvaobis

zogierTi adgilis gagebisaTvis: “mearistotelura”, weliwdeuli

elinologiasa da laTinistikaSi, 3, Tb., 2005, gv. 17-44.

22.

Cod. A 24, XIIs., 1v. ioane damaskeli, dialeqtika, m. rafavas gamocema, gv. 66.

23.

winamdebare statiis mizania ioane petriwis formulirebis wyaros gamovlena

da misi stilisturi Rirebulebis Cveneba, rac mas aqvs filosofiur-

Tan erTad. rogorc cnobilia, azrTa sxvadasxvaoba arsebobs ioane petriwis

“aristotelurobis” gagebasTan dakavSirebiT da am diskusiaSi CarTva Cvens

miznebs scildeba. lela aleqsiZis azriT, gansaxilveli toposi erTgvari Sejamebaa

petriwis aristotelesadmi damokidebulebisa. igi unda gulisxmobdes

imas, rom petriwi qarTulenovani filosofiis gatolebas cdilobda

berZnulenovanTan adekvaturi terminologiis SemuSavebiT da “TeoretikosobiT”,

oRond qarTveli aristotele _ petriwi Tavad aristoteles imiT

“ajobebda”, rom Teologias _ metafizikas, anu RvTismetyvelebas, fizikis

kanonebisagan damoukideblad Camoayalibebda (L. Alexidze, Zum verhältnis zwischen

neuplatonischem und Christlichem im Prokloskommentar des Ioane Petrizi, in: Metaphysik

und Religion. Zur Signatur des spätantiken Denkens. Akten des Internationalen Kongresses vom

13-17 März 2001 in Würzburg, herausgegeben von T. Kobusch und M. Erler, München, 2002,

S. 438-439, n. 24). damana meliqiSvilis azriT, toposi gulisxmobs, rom ioane

petriwi dogmaturi RvTismetyvelebis sferoSi silogisturi gzis nacvlad,

Cvenebis, nimuSebis (xatebisa da igavebis) analogiis gzis gamoyenebas mimar-

Tavs elinur filosofiaSi damuSavebuli cnebiTi aparatis meSveobiT (d. meliqiSvili,

ioane petriwi da ioane italosi ori sawyisis Sesaxeb, quTaisis

universitetis moambe, 4, 1995, 169-176) da sxv. vfiqrob, rom ioane petriwi am

formulirebiT gamoxatavs imas, Tu ris gakeTebas apirebda da ara imas, Tu ra


narkvevi 161

“nivTisagan miuxebeli” filosofiis msoflmxedvelobrivi

gaazrebis Semdeg ioane petriwi iqve saubrobs stil-

Ta sxvadasxva doneze _ advil da CueulebiT Targmanebze

da upirispirebs maT rTul filosofiur Txzulebebs: Cven-

Si Cveulebadaa enis Txzva da morTva advil da CveulebiTs

TargmanebSi, magram rTul azrovnebiTsa da filosofiur

TxzulebebSi enis martivad miyolas vcdilob manamdis,

sanam meti silitoniT azrs daSla da vneba ar SeemTxvevao

(“Cueuleba¡ ars Cuenda advilTa da CueulTa saTargmanoTa

Soris Txzvad da morTvad enisad, aramed ZnelTa Soris gonebiTa

da filosofosTasa yovelsa silitonesa da Tanmiyolasa

enisaebr vemxarkebi dadebad vidre sadamdis metiTa

silitoniTa daSla¡ da vneba¡ gonebasa ar SeemTxueodis” -

ioane petriwi, Sromebi, II, 222 26-31

).

maSasadame, termini “aristoteluroba” ioane petriwTan,

grigol RvTismetyvelisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli

antiTeturobis mixedviT warmodgenili, stilTa

doneebis _ litoni saRvTo stilisa da maRalfardovani

ritorikul-filosofiuri stilis dapirispirebasac gulisxmobs;

Tumca sakuTriv “meTevzurobas”, rogorc “aristotelurobis”

sapirispiro stilistur cnebas, ioane petriwi

aq ar axsenebs.

niSandoblivia agreTve, rom amave pasaJSi da konteqstSi

ioane petriwi yuradRebas amaxvilebs filosofiuri enis Seqmnaze

(ix. “ena¡ enisada gamewyo” _ ioane petriwi, Sromebi,

II, 222 20

); gansaxilveli pasaJis (sakuTar Tavze saubris) zemoT

bibliuri wignebis Targmanis xelovnebis gansjisas ioane

petriwi saubrobs enis srulyofilebaze zrunvis Sesaxeb.

misi sityviT, rac ufro maRalganviTaebulia eri, miT ufro

warmatebulia misi ena. vinc ar flobs enas da misi gadmocemis

wesebs srulyofilad _ metyvelebis nawilebs da Sewyobis,

morTvis, sinarnaris da a. S. xelovnebas (anu gramatikisa da

ritorikis xelovnebas) 24 , is ver miswvdeba RvTismetyvelegaakeTa.

amasTan, gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom cnebebi sxvadasxva doneze

sxvadasxva Sinaarss iZenen, rogorc TviTon petriwi ganmartavda amas (ioane

petriwi, Sromebi, II, 17-18).

24.

am pasaJSi Cans gramatikis xelovnebis codnis auciloblobaze miniSneba:

ioane petriws metad saWirod miaCnia metyvelebis nawilTa (“nawilni Tqumisani”)

codna, saxelisa da zmnis (“saxeli da sityua”) erTmaneTisagan gar-

Ceva da maTi erTmaneTTan Sewyobis (e. i. sintaqsis) codniT, “pirTa SecvalebiT”

enis “morTvisa” da gadmocemis sinarnaris miRweva (d. meliqiSvili,

ioane petriwis filosofiur SromaTa ena da stili, Tb., 1975, 65-66). Sdr.

_ “Sewyobileba¡ sityuaTa¡” (basili minimusis epistole

_ Basilii Minimi... commentarii, ed. Th. Schmidt, p. 6 43

; T. oTxmezuri, grigol nazianzelis

TxzulebaTa komentirebis istoriidan. mravalTavi, XV, 1989,


162 waxnagi 1.2009

biT xedvebs da gonebis maukvdavebel naTels (“ar moigos da

amaT yovelTa sanTlad dRe RmrTismetyuelebiTTa xedvisa¡

da maukudavebeli naTeli gonebisa¡” _ II, 220 5-10

). amitom igi

Tavs ar zogavda, raTa Tavisi TanamemamuleebisaTvis Seeqmna

mecnieruli ena: aRviSurve me Cemi gvar-tomisaTvis Semeqmna

ena sityvamdidari da gansxvavebuli mdabioTagano (“da aRvi-

Surve tomisaT¢s guarTa CemTasa me midmooba¡ enisa¡ galeqsebuli

da mesxue¡ mdabrionTagan” _ II, 220 24-25

).

ioane petriwi eklesiastes imowmebs imis dasamtkiceblad,

rom sityvieri xelovneba 25 gamocxadebulia sibrZnis

nawilad (“kerZod sibrZnisad” _ II, 220 26

, anu CvenTvis

28 49

). termini garda sityvaTa wyobis aRmniSvneli gramatikuli

terminisa, niSnavs sazogadod organizebas, ritmul Sewyobas, asoTa da

xmovanTa, sityvaTa kombinacias ritorikaSi, bgerebisa da kilos Sewyobas

musikaSi (H.G. Liddel, R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, 1961; E.A. Sophocles, A Greek

Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, Boston, 1970, s.v.

25.

aqac “enis qcevaSi” da sityvaTa axsnasa da daSlaSi gramatika igulisxmeba

(d. meliqiSvili, ioane petriwis filosofiur SromaTa ena da stili, gv.

65-66). Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom sityvaTa axsna (da daSla (_

Senawevreba-gaerTianeba-gavrcoba da daSla-darRveva-Semokleba ritorikuli

xelovnebis nawilicaa (Psellos, Ad Pothum, c. 20). amas adasturebs

isic, rom petriwTan iqve qvemoT saubaria sityvis garegnul mokazmvasa

da morTvaze, Sewyobasa da sinarnareze, rasac, Cveulebriv, ritorikul

sityvaze ambobdnen xolme, mag., _ morTuloba, mokazmuloba;

_ sityvaTa Sewyoba;

_ mSve niereba, momxibvleloba, igive sinarnare da a.

S. (am terminebisaTvis ix. J. Martin, Antike Rhetorik. Technik und Methode, Münich,

1974. H. Lausberg, Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, Münich, 1960. Античные теории

языка и стиля, под ред. О. М. Фрейденберг, М. -Л.,1936. am terminebis mimoxilvisa

da klasikuri wyaroebisaTvis ix. q. bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis

Teoria da praqtika grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis

mixedviT, Tb., 2004, gv. 530-588). amitom, SesaZlebelia, aq marto gramatikaze

ar iyos saubari, aramed masTan erTad ritorikazec, anu zogadad

sityvis xelovnebaze. marTalia, gansaxilvel pasaJSi saubaria enis qcevaze

da mas uSualod mosdevs kiTxvis wesebze da prosodiis niSnebze msjeloba,

rac gramatikis sferoSi Sedioda (ix. Dionysii Thracis Ars Grammatica et Scholia in

Dionysii Thracis Artem Grammaticam. Grammatici Graeci, I, ed. G. Uhlig, Lipsiae, 1883, 105-

114), magram sayuradReboa, rom hermenevtikuli gramatikisa da ritorikis

Teoriis funqciebi xSirad faravdnen erTmaneTs Sua saukuneebis Teoriul

azrovnebaSi (ix. R. Browning, Byzantinische Schulen und Schulmeister, in: Das Altertum,

9, 1963, S. 105-118. T. Conley, Byzantine Teaching of Figures and Tropes: An Introduction, in:

Rhetorica. A Journal of the History of Rhetoric, Berkley, California, 4, 1986, 337, 349-355. R.A.

Kaster, Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity, Berkley, Los

Angeles, London, 1988, 35-50, 71-94. The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, vol. 2. The

Middle Ages by A. Minnis, I. Johnson, Cambridge, 2005, p. 285-290). kiTxvis wesi, romelsac

prosodiis sistema emsaxureboda, swored ritorikuli xelovnebis

wesi iyo da mas emsaxureboda. igi mianiSnebda, Tu rogor unda Sewyobiliyo

ritmuli periodebi da gaerTianebuliyo Txrobis nawilebi, raze unda yofiliyo

gakeTebuli intonaciuri aqcenti teqstis sworad gasagebad.


narkvevi 163

nacnob rusTveliseul “sibrZnis dargad” _ “viTar dasdebs

eklesiaste kerZod sirZnisad qcevasa enisasa da aR£snasa da

darRuevasa sityuaTasa” _ II, 220 25-27

) 26 . eklesiastes sityvidan

gamomdinared miiCnevs petriwi imas, rom morTulad da

mokazmulad unda gvqondes enis arsebis (“aobis”) aRmniSvneli

garemosili [sityva] da misi saSualebiT SevaRwioT

Sinagani sulieri logosis (sityvis) sazRvrebSi, anu CavwvdeT

suliTi sityvis arss (romlis gamoc gvewodeba swored

metyveli [arsebebi]), raTa es Sinagani sityva (logosi)

wargviZRves zesTaarsis Secnobisaken da a.S. (“ra¡Ta mor-

Tulad da aRkazmulad guaqundis garemosili da meniSne

aobaTa enisaTa da mis mier naziuanTa SevimaloT Soris

mdebarisa da suliTisa sity¢sad, romlisa meqoneobiTa

guerquas sity¢er...” _ II, 220-221). maSasadame, sityvis garegnuli

xelovnebis floba aucilebelia Sinagani sityvis,

anu saRvTo logosis Sesacnobad. Lovgo” _ lovgo”-is, anu ritorikuli

da saRvTo sityvis antiTeza, metad gavrcelebuli

iyo bizantiur mwerlobaSi. rogorc vTqviT, ritorikisa

da RvTismetyvelebis Tanaarseboba aqtualuria adrebizantiuri

patristikidan, mag., kapadokielebidan moyolebuli

sqolastikosTa, mag., miqael fselosis CaTvliT 27 .

ase rom, ioane petriwi gulisxmobs meTevzurobisa da

aristotelurobis dapirispirebas ara mxolod saRvTo ga-

26.

gamosakvlevia, Tu eklesiastes wignis romeli muxli igulisxmeba aq. SesaZloa,

es iyos Semdegi: “friad iZia eklesiaste sityuani nebisani” -


(ekl. 12, 9-10).

gnomuri, aforistuli, igavuri gamonaTqvamebi ebrael brZenT axasiaTebdaT,

gansxvavebiT berZenTagan (А.П. Лопухин, Толковая Библия, V, Петербург],

1908-1910). voluntas nebas, survils niSnavs da qarTuladac Sesabamisad

aris naTargmni, magram sayuradReboa, rom klasikuri ritorikis

Teoriebis mixedviT, ()dakavSirebulia sityvaTa gamoTqmasTan

(H. Lausberg, Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, S. 920); rusuli Targmanic gadmoscems

am niuanss: И составил много притчей. Старался Екклесиаст приискиватъ

изящные изречения, и слова истины написаны им верно. maSasadame, eklesiastes

sityvis garegnuli mSveniereba, aforistuloba da igavuroba, marTebulad

da sworad gamoxatavs saRvTo WeSmaritebas. ix. eklesiastes ganmarteba:

“gamokulevad Semkobasa igavTasa xatovnebiTTa maT magaliTTa” (

) mier warmoaCens saxarebis WeSmaritebaso (

). k. kekeliZe, Targmaneba¡ eklesiastesi mitrofane

zm¢rnelisa¡, tfilisi, 1920, gv. 175. es Txzuleba aRmoCnda grigol akrakantelis

ganmarteba: PG 98, 1168A7-15. amis Sesaxeb ix. e. WeliZe, ioane petriwis

cxovreba da moRvaweoba, werili I, “religia”, 3-5, 1994, gv. 122.

27.

ix. mag., grigol RvTismetyvelTan. M. Guignet, St.Grégoire de Nazinaze et la rhétorique,

Paris, 1911. q. bezaraSvili, patristikaSi da grigol xanZTelis

cxovrebis mixedviT, kreb. xanZTa _ sulierad mSobeli qarTvelTa, Tb.,

2002, gv. 65-74.


164 waxnagi 1.2009

mocxadebiTi litonobisa da logikur-filosofiuri me-

Todis dapirispirebis TvalsazrisiT, aramed gulisxmobs

agreTve meTevzurobisa da atikurobis (igive elinurobis)

dapirispirebas enobriv-stilisturi litonobisa da sir-

Tule-simaRlis dapirispirebis TvalsazrisiTac. orive es

ki mWidrodaa gadajaWvuli erTmaneTTan. filosofiisa da

ritorikis, azrisa da stilis erTad warmodgeniT kidev

erTxel gamoikveTeba ioane petriwis formulirebis kavSiri

grigol RvTismetyvelisa da bizantieli moazrovneebis

sxva zemoT warmodgenil formulirebebTan.

ioane petriwi exmaureba elinistur da bizantiur

stilTa Teoriebs maRal saRvTismetyvelo da samecniero

stilze Teoriuli msjelobiT da, meore mxriv, “elinTa

enamzeobis” mibaZvisa da mdabiuri enisagan gansxvavebuli

maRali stilis samecniero enis praqtikulad SeqmniT.

Ketevan Bezarashvili

Literary-theoretical Aspect of the Interrelation of Rhetoric

and Philosophy in the Writings of Georgian Hellenophiles

(Ephrem Mtsire, Ioane Petritsi)

The interrelation of faith and reason was formulated in the Middle Ages

from the wide-spread assertion of Gregory the Theologian: “Like fishers

and not in an Aristotelian way” (Gr.Naz.

or.23, c.12. PG 35, 1164C). The assertion distinguishes the monastic, ascetic,

experiential, dogmatic theology from philosophical, discursive, logical

thinking and proof, from the intellectual method of scholastic theology. The

interrelation of faith and reason expressed as interrelation of philosophy and

rhetoric was still actual in the 11th century, e.g., in the treatises of Michael

Psellos, etc. The problem has also stylistical value along with philosophical

aspect. It means the difference between “sermo piscatorius” as evangelic

plainness and high rhetorical-philosophical style. The Georgian scholars –

Ephrem Mtsire and Ioane Petritsi are on the level of the thinking processes

taking place in Byzantium. They discuss the literary-theoretical aspect of

the interrelation of rhetoric and philosophy (expressed in the analysis of the

levels of style) along with the philosophical aspect of this problem.


nestan sulava

SoTa rusTvelis poemis saTauris gaazrebis

saRvTismetyvelo-Teoriuli safuZvlebi

saRvTismetyvelo literaturaSi, mxatvrul saazrovno

sistemaSi saxeldeba, adamianis zedwodeba personaJis, pirovnebis

Sinagani bunebis sulier-inteleqtualuri samyaros

gamoxatvisa da Secnobis erT-erTi uZiriTadesi saSualebaa,

romelic mis arssa da cnobierebas gansazRvravs, misi zneobrivi

saxis Camoyalibebis urTules process warmoaCens.

saxeli sagnis arss gamoxatavs 1 . Sesabamisad, mxatvruli

nawarmoebis saTauri Txzulebis arss gamoxatavs.

qristianuli msoflmxedvelobis mixedviT, saxeldeba

bibliuri Sesaqmiseuli procesis Semadgeneli nawilia,

rac Sesaqmis wignis pirvelsave TavebSia asaxuli: “da-vehbada

ufalman RmerTman yoveli m£eci velisa¡, yoveli

mfrinveli cisa¡ da moiyvanna igini adamisa xilvad da yovelTa

mS¢nvierTa cxovelTa, romelica uwoda adam, igi ars

saxeli maTi, ra¡Zi uwodos maT. da yoveli, romeli uwoda

maT adam saxelebi yovelTa sacxovarTa da yovelTa mfrinvelTa

cisaTa da yovelTa m£ecTa qveyanisaTa, xolo adamisi

ara epova Semwe msgavsi misi” (Ses. 2, 19-20). swored bibliuri

saxeldeba da saxelis wodeba aris safuZveli yoveli

sagnisa Tu movlenisaTvis saxelis darqmevisa.

bibliuri swavlebiT, adami, viTarca RvTis nebiT

saxelmdebeli yoveli arsisa, RmerTis SemoqmedebiTi, anu

Sesaqmuri saqmianobis gamgrZelebelia. saxeli yovel arss,

yovel arsebas sxvaTagan gamorCeulobas, individualobas

aniWebs, xolo saxelmdebeli, anu adami, RvTis qmnilebaTagan

ierarqiulad umaRles safexurze ahyavs Tavad RmerTs.

1.

saxelSi moiazreba rogorc sakuTari saxeli, ise zedwodeba da is saxelebi,

romlebic sagnis simbolur saxeebs warmoaCens. es ori ukanaskneli, cxadia,

sakuTari saxeli ar aris, isini damatebiT informacias iZleva ama Tu im

sagnis Sesaxeb da sagnis Sinaarsze, mis Sinagan mdgomareobaze miuTiTebs.

165


166 waxnagi 1.2009

adamis mier yoveli sagnisTvis saxelis darqmeva TviT sagnis

bunebis, misi Tvisebriobis gamocnobas utoldeba. zurab

kiknaZem moses xuTwigneulis komentarebSi aRniSna:

“is, visac saxels arqmev, Seni gaCenilia... saxeli mas arsobas

aniWebs, ga-mo-a-Cen-s. aseTi aqti ki mxolod Sinaganad

Tavisufali moqmedisagan aris mosalodneli. da swored

“RvTisxatoba” adamianis Tavisuflebas, misi, rogorc Semoqmedis,

Tavisufali Semoqmedebis unars gulisxmobs. amave

dros, RvTisxatoba adams aniWebs uflebas yvela qmilebaze,

xolo saxeldeba, rogorc ioane oqropiri wers, aris

niSani (simbolo) uflobisa” (kiknaZe 2004: 24).

rodesac adamma yovel arss, yovel sagans Tavisi saxeli

daarqva, es ar iyo ubralo saxeldeba, sagnisTvis rame saxelis

ubralod wodeba. sagnis arsis, bunebis, Tvisebriobis

gamocnoba, zurab kiknaZis ganmartebiT, “win uZRvis saxeldebas,

raTa saxeli Sesatyvisi iyos saxelis matareblis arsebisa,

adekvaturad gamoxatavdes mas. swored amitom aris,

rom adamis mier Tavisi Sesaferisis migneba da amorCeva

cxovelTa Soris maTi saxeldebis procesSi xdeba. saxeli

ar aris ubralod sagnis aRmniSvneli sityva; saxeli imitom

aris is, rac aris, rom saxeldebuli gamoepasuxos am

saxels. saxelis siswore imiT Semowmdeba, rom viRac gamoexmaureba

mas. amrigad, yoveli cocxali arseba exmaureba im

saxels, romelic adamma daarqva mas. es ki imas niSnavs, rom

adams (saxelmdebels) da cxovelebs (saxeldebulT) Soris

sityvieri urTierToba damyarda” (kiknaZe 2004: 24).

amrigad, adami sagans saxels arqmevs maTi Secnobisa da

wvdomis mizniT, vinaidan aRsaniSnsa da aRniSnuls Soris

kavSiri arsiseulia; adamis mier gakeTebuli pirveli saqme

SemoqmedebiTi xasiaTisaa, rac saqmisa da sityvis erTianobis

(πραξις και θεορια) dadasturebaa. adamis mier RvTis nebiT

sagnis saxeldeba ipodigmuria bibliis, literaturis, sazogadod,

xelovnebisa da mecnierebis yoveli dargisaTvis,

sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferosaTvis.

sayuradReboa bibliuri movlena saxelTa gamocvlisa,

kerZod, abram _ abraam (abraham), rac mravalTa mamas niSnavs;

iakobs ewoda israel, rac, wmida ioane oqropiris ganmartebiT,

“RvTis morkinals” an “RvTismxilvels” niSnavs. es

ki imas moaswavebs, rom “amieridan isakis Ze “gaixdis” Zvels

da “imoseba” axliT. man Zveli unda datovos iabokis gaRma

napirze. axali saxeliT iwyeba axali xana misi, rogorc patriarqis,

cxovrebaSi. sikoWle am gardamtexi gamocdilebis

xiluli niSania da, SesaZloa, sasjelic imisaTvis, rasac

is, rogorc iakobi, sCadioda... misi Zveli bunebiTi saxeli,


narkvevi 167

romelic niSnavs “qusls moWidebuls”, aRar Seesatyviseba

mis mowodebas. amieridan, rasac is gaakeTebs, gaakeTebs ara

motyuebiT da xrikebiT, aramed sulieri ZalisxmeviT. iakobi

kvlav ibrZolebs, magram icvleba brZolis saxe. netari

avgustine wers, rom saxelis gamocvla iyo swored kurTxeva

da rom erTma da imave iakobma miiRo kurTxevac da sikoWlec:

kurTxeva imaTTvis, vinc misi modgmidan aRiarebs qristes,

sikoWle ki _ urwmunoTaTvis (“RvTis qalaqisaTvis”, 16,

XXXIX)” (kiknaZe 2004: 83). magram mTavari isaa, rom iakobi,

aw ukve israelad saxeldebuli, mainc araa mzad uflis saxelis

Sesacnobad, vinaidan igi kiTxvas usvams morkinals, anu

uflis angelozs, vin aris igi. uflis angelozis pasuxi, SekiTxvis

saxiT mocemuli, miuTiTebs, rom iakobi//israeli

RvTis, misi saxelis Semcnobi da Semmecnebeli ar aris; ufali

mxolod mose winaswarmetyvels unda gamocxadeboda sinas

mTaze da mas miecemoda SesaZlebloba RvTis Secnobisa.

saxels, mis saRvTismetyvelo da filosofiur arss Teoriulad

ganmartaven wmida mamebi, RvTismetyvelebi da

filosofosebi. kerZod, aristoteles SexedulebiT, “zogadi,

romelic poezias Tavisi gmirebisaTvis saxelebis micemis

drosac ki ukve miznad aqvs, is aris, rom warmoadgino,

Tu romel kacs rogori sityva an qceva Seefereba albaTobisa

an aucileblobis kanonis mixedviT” (poetika, Tavi 9).

wmida klementi aleqsandrielis SexedulebiT, “yvela

saxeli emsaxureba upirvelesad cnebis gamoxatvas, anu simboloebs,

da Semdeg sagnis arsisa” (Clem. Alex. Str. VIII, 8; 23,1).

areopagituli Txzulebis “saRmrToTa saxelTaTvis”

paximeriseul komentarebSi saxeli Semdegnairad aris

ganmartebuli: “saxeli aris arsebuli saxeldebuli sagnis

WeSmariti gamoxatva” (Το δε ονομα ετυμολογια τις εστιν εκ των

προσοντων τω ονομαζομενω πραγματι – P.G., T. 3, col. 608B); aqve na-

Tqvamia: “saxelebi aris sagnis arsSi nagulisxmevis gancxadeba”

(Τα γαρ ονοματα δηλοτικα εισι πραγματων υποκειμενων – P. G., T.

3. col. 623B-D) (florenski 1990: 435) .

ioane petriwi saxelTa da saxeldebis Sesaxeb aRniSnavs:

“rameTu saxelebi ganmkargvelisa maTda RmrTisagan dabunebebuli

ars, ars eqmnebis maTda myofTa maTTa¡sa” (petriwi

1937: 211); xolo “bolosityvaobaSi” saxelTa alegoria

gramatikis erT-erT sferod, xolo sityva cnobieri

arsebobisa da yofierebis Rirebulebad, sazrisad, arsad

aris miCneuli: “rameTu Rramatikosoba¡ ars gamomcdeli

moqmedTa¡ anu aRmwerelTa¡, viTarca mravalTa raTme zeda

gamomTqumelobisa¡ da gamoaCinebs moqmedebiTTa saxeTa,

Tu viTar jer ars gamoTquma da enaT-metyuelebaTa, ese igi


168 waxnagi 1.2009

ars saxelisagan TargmanebaTa moipovebs da Sesatyvisoba-

Ta gadmoscems da umjobesi ars naqmarTa ganmrCeveloba¡”

(petriwi 1937: 225) 2 .

saRvTismetyvelo swavlebiT, saxeli or Sres moicavs,

masSi moiazreba sagnis RvTaebrivi arsi da sagnis martivi

aRqmis Sedegad miRebuli STabeWdileba. aqedan gamomdinare,

sagani saxelSi ki ar aris moqceuli, aramed saganTa buneba

qmnis saxels misi, sakuTari arsis Sesabamisad.

pavel florenskim ramdenime naSromSi ganixila saxelis

arsis problema. misi azriT: “saxeli aris is saidumlo,

romelic saxeldebulia. rom ara saidumlo, is ara mxolod

usicocxloa, aramed sulac araa saxeli _ mxolod carieli

bgeraa... saxeli, ai, ra uxsnis samyaros saidumlos”

(florenski 1990: 316), anu saxeli gacxadebuli saidumloa.

saxelma sagnis arsi unda warmoaCinos da sagnis garegnuli

saxe mis Sina-arss unda Seesabamebodes. pavel florenskis

sityviT: “garegnuli saxe aris TvaliT xiluli, xolo saxeli

_ mosmenili saxe (garegnoba)” (florenski 1990: 319).

aleqsei losevis azriT, saxeli sagnis fenomenaluri arsis

arsobrivi gamoxatvaa (losevi 1990: 135). “saxelis gareSe adamiani

sakuTari Tavis maradiuli tyvea, arsobrivad da principulad

antisocialuria, arakomunikabeluria, arataZrulia

da, aqedan gamomdinare, araindividualuria, araarsobrivia,

is mxolod cocxali organizmia; xolo Tu kidevaa adamiani,

gonebisagan daclili adamiania” (losevi 1990: 38). man axsna

saxelSi akumulirebuli sagnis fizikuri, fiziologiuri,

ontologiuri, fsiqikuri, fenomenomenologiuri, logikuri

sferoebi (losevi 1990: 25), aq erTmaneTs xvdebian aRmqmeli

da aRsaqmeli, Semcnobi da Sesacnobi, yofierebis realuri

da SesaZlebeli gaazrebebi. saxeli sagnis arsis azrobrivi

energiaa, simbolur-azrobrivi, gonebriv-simboluri energia

(losevi 1990: 135). iuri lotmanisa da boris uspenskis azriT,

“saxelwodebisa da saxeldebulis gaigiveba gansazRvravs maT

ontologiur arss, warmodgenas sakuTar saxelTa arakonvenciur

xasiaTze” (lotmani, uspenski 1973: 282).

saxeli (agreTve, zedwodeba da simboluri saxeli)

saukuneTa manZilze dagrovili codnis anareklia, igi samyarosa

da cxovrebis Secnobis Sedegad warmoiqmneba da sx-

2.

aqve davimowmebT damana meliqiSvilis komentars: “gramatikosoba poetebisa

Tu mwerlebis gamomcdelia, rogorc mravali ramis gamomTqmelebisa.

da igi gamoaCens poetur saxeebs, Tu rogoraa saWiro gamoTqma, msjelobs

enaTmetyvelebaze, matianeTa gadmocemaze, mzametyvelebaze, e. i. saxelisagan

ganmarteba gamohyavs da Sesatyvisobebs gadmoscems. da Semoqmedebis

saukeTeso gamrCevia” (petriwi 1999: 217).


narkvevi 169

vadasxvagvari funqciiT gamoiyeneba, ZiriTadad, saxeldebiTi,

gramatikuli, mxatvruli. sagnis saxelis codna mis

arsTan wvdomis saSualebaa, rac urTierTobis, azrTa ur-

TierTgaziarebis safuZvels qmnis (losevi 1990: 155).

amrigad, saxeli sityvierad gamoxatavs sagnis arss, bgerebiT

xorcSesxmuli saxelis, misi sulieri arsis wvdoma

SesaZlebelia misi bgeriTi samoslis SegrZnebis saSualebiT.

asevea saTauric. is gamoxatavs Txzulebis ZiriTad

arss, masSia akumulirebuli mwerlis ZiriTadi saTqmeli

filosofiuri, fenomenologiuri, fizikuri, religiuri,

esTetikuri TvalsazrisiT.

yovelive amis gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia sazogadod

mxatvruli nawarmoebis, kerZod, am konkretul SemTxveva-

Si, _ SoTa rusTvelis mxatvruli azrovnebis Sesaswavlad,

misi poemis saxelwodebis raobis gansasazRvrad, vinaidan

mTeli nawarmoebis ZiriTad arss swored saTauri gamoxatavs.

SoTa rusTvelis poemis saxelwodeba _ “vefxistyaosani”

_ Rrmaazrovani da mravalSriania, igi, rogorc xatovani

da saxismetyvelebiTi arsis mqone, mTel poemas msWvalavs.

rusTvelologiur samecniero literaturaSi rusTvelis

poemis saxelwodeba _ “vefxistyaosani” da mis personaJTa

saxelebis metaforuli, simboluri, alegoriuli aspeqtebi

yovelTvis iwvevda cxovel interess. axsnilia “vefxistyaosnis”

personaJTa saxelebis etimologia, simbolika, alegoria

(iustine abulaZe, zviad gamsaxurdia), agreTve, gamoiTqva

Sexedulebebi tarielis vefxistyaosnobisa da misi arsis Sesaxeb.

Tumca, vfiqrobT, problema kvlav moiTxovs kvlevas,

vinaidan yoveli winareliteraturuli movlena axal kulturul

konteqstSi, axal politikur-socialur viTarebaSi,

axal filosofiur, literaturul, mxatvrul-esTetikur kategoriaTa

da mimarTulebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT axleburad

ikiTxeba da aixsneba. aqedan gamomdinare, tarieli, rogorc

vefxistyaosani moyme, pirveli gamoCenidanve, ukve teqstia,

romelic mimRebma unda aRiqvas da axsnas.

SoTa rusTvelis poemis saTauri mravalmxriv saintereso,

mniSvnelovani mxatvruli saxea, romelSic erTdroulad

warmoCndeba miTosuri, religiuri, zneobrivi,

mxatvrul-esTetikuri Sreebi da problemebi; rusTvelis

poemis saxelwodebad “vefxistyaosnis” SerCeva konceptualuria,

igi globaluri mniSvnelobis metaforaa, simboloa,

alegoriaa, aluziaa, enigmaa, romelic Txzulebis

mxatvrul-esTetikur fenomens, mis siRrmes gansazRvravs

da misi ZiriTadi koncefciis gamomxatvel mxatvrul sa-

Sualebad gvevlineba; saTauri nawarmoebSi gadmocemul


170 waxnagi 1.2009

mxatvrul faqtebsa da movlenebs ufro met masStaburobas

aniWebs, rac TviT poemis zogadkacobriul arsze miuTi-

Tebs; igi mTavar personaJTa xasiaTs, Tvisebebs, sulierebas,

cxovrebis urTules da winaaRmdegobebiT aRsavse gzas

warmogvidgens. “vefxistyaosani”, rogorc poemis saxelwodeba,

mravalSriania, qaragmulad kulturis istoriis

mraval faqts mianiSnebs, romelic masSi gansxvavebul doneze

aisaxeba da vlindeba. maTgan wamyvani, cxadia, mxolod

rusTveluria, sakuTriv vefxistyaosnuria, xolo danar-

Ceni Sreebi _ miTosuri, folkloruli, literaturuli,

religiuri, saRvTismetyvelo, zneobriv-eTikuri, politikur-ideologiuri

_ farulia, SeniRbulia, Tumca impliciturad

nagulisxmebi. poemis saTauris yovelmxrivi

gaazreba mwerlis Tanamedrove codnis uRrmesi Sreebisa

da ganaTlebis maRali donis gaTvaliswinebas moiTxovs.

SoTa rusTvelis poemis saTauri gasaRebia rusTveluri

mxatvruli samyaros gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebisa

da enobriv-stilisturi fenomenis aRsaqmelad, xolo misi

swori gaazreba moiTxovs masSi Caqsovil da Cakirul sxvadasxva

rigis informaciaTa sinqroniul-diaqroniul aspeqtebSi

wakiTxvas, poemis mikro da makrokonteqstebis si-

Rrmiseul aRqmas.

unda aRiniSnos, rom rusTvelologiur literaturaSi

araerTgzis gamoiTqva mosazreba vefxistyaosnobis arsis

Sesaxeb, iTqva, rom vefxistyaosnoba tarielisaTvis tragediaa,

tariels ar unda, rom iyos vefxistyaosani moyme (revaz

siraZe, nana gonjilaSvili, xvTiso zariZe). daiwera

sagangebo naSromi rusTvelis poemis saxelwodebis saxismetyvelebiTi

aspeqtis Sesaxeb, kerZod, samecniero literaturaSi

gamoTqmuli Sexedulebani Tanmimdevrulad ganixila

nana gonjilaSvilma (gonjilaSvili 2000: 30-52).

miuxedavad amisa, mainc aris ramdenime problema, romelic

poemis saTaurTan dakavSirebiT kvlav moiTxovs kvlevas.

daismis mravali kiTxva, romelTagan ramdenime gansaku-

TrebiT mniSvnelovnad gvesaxeba, vinaidan maTi garkveva

xels Seuwyobs rusTvelis mxatvruli azrovnebisa da msoflmxedvelobis

Seswavlas. upirveles yovlisa, unda ganisazRvros

rusTvelis poemis saTauris raoba da arsi. ra

aris tarielis vefxistyaosnoba arsobrivad _ dadebiTi

Tu uaryofiTi RirebulebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone metafora,

simbolo, alegoria, enigma Tu aluzia? gamoitanda

Tu ara SoTa rusTveli Tavisi poemis saTaurSi negatiuri

RirebulebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone saxeldebas? xom ar

aris igi orgvari mniSvnelobisa, anu binaruli opoziciis


narkvevi 171

momcveli da am TvalsazrisiT gansaxilveli? am mimarTulebiT

gvmarTebs imis gaTvaliswineba, rom saxelSi, zogadad

sityvaSi, Cadebulia arsobrivi da araarsobrivi antinomia,

romelSi CaRrmavebac enobriv antinomiaSi CaRrmavebas

niSnavs. antinomiuroba esTetikuri fenomenis erT-er-

Ti myari safuZvelia, vinaidan masSi ori urTierTsapirispiro

arsobrivi niSani moiazreba, xolo ramdenime sagnisa

Tu movlenis Sedareba ukvea esTetikurobis safuZveli da

esTetikuri fenomenis momcveli.

“vefxistyaosanSi”, rogorc saTaurSi, moqceulia avtoriseuli

mxatvruli koncefciis uRrmesi Sreebi, kerZod,

miTosuri, folkloruli, religiuri, literaturuli,

esTetikuri Sreebi. mas aqvs drosivrculi ganzomileba; vefxistyaosnoba

warsulis Sedegia, romelic arsebobs awmyo-

Si da momavalSi aucilebelia misgan gaTavisufleba. masSi

vlindeba tradicia, kultura, gamocdileba. igi uZvelesi

miTologemis literaturuli gardasaxvaa, romelic Soreuli

warsulidan iRebs saTaves; igi bibliuri simbolikiTaa

gajerebuli da mTavar personaJTa _ tarielisa da

nestan-darejanis Sinagani bunebis, sulieri samyaros, maTi

inteleqtis srulyofilebisaken swrafvis gamoxatulebaa.

ukve aRvniSneT, tarielis vefxistyaosnoba mravalmxriv

mniSvnelovani mxatvruli saxea, romelSic erTdroulad

warmoCndeba avtoris mxatvruli koncefciis sxvadasxva

ganzomileba. marTalia, poemis saxelwodeba gulisxmobs

tariels da mis mijnurs nestan-darejans, magram vefxistyaosnoba,

rogorc pirovnebis cxovrebis, misi arsebobis

tragikuli periodis gamovlineba, sulieri TviTCaRrmavebis,

saRvTo gzisaken svlis simbolo, alegoria, enigma,

aluzia, poemis yvela personaJisaTvis arsebiTia.

viktor nozaZis gamouqveynebel naSromSi “vefxistyaosanis

fsiqologiismetyveleba” aRniSnulia, rom tariel-

Si nestan-darejani asociaciurad vefxvze warmodgenas

daukavSirda da apercepciiT vefxvisa da nestanis msgavseba

TiTqmis namdvilad dasaxa. “da roca nestani tariels daekarga,

nestanis es msgavseba vefxTan mas gardaeqca ganuyrel

warmodgenad, rac vefxisa da nestanis msgavsebaSi gamoixata

ara marto pirgamexebiT, aramed Svenieri saxiTac. es asociacia

ukve tarielis SemecnebaSi appercepciad gardaiqca... asmaTsac

ki tarielis gavleniT nestani vefxad warmoudgenia

da iseT pirobas uqmnis, rac ganuyrelad vefxis msgavsebasTan

aris dakavSirebuli. asmaTi mas vefxis tyavis samosels ukeravs...

tarielisTvis vefxi aris namdvili fsiqologiuri

appercepcia da es urTierTobiTi warmodgena iqamde midis,


172 waxnagi 1.2009

rom asmaTi amisaTvis mas Sesaferis pirobebsac uqmnis” (nozaZe,

arqivi). tarieli ara mxolod CacmulobiTaa vefxistyaosani

moyme, aramed mTeli Tavisi arsebiT myofobs vefxvis

garemoSi, vefxviviT “wavarnaSi” cxovrobs:

viTa vefxsa wavarna da qvabi aqvso saxlad, menad (702/700).

sajdom-wamosawolic vefxvis tyavisa aqvs; avTandilic

monawile xdeba am tyavisa, gamoqvabulSi isic vefxvis

tyavis natebze jdeba. rogorc tarieli xocavs vefxvs, _

amitomac aqvs samoseli, Tavsaburavi, Tavisi da stumris

misaRebi sajdom-wamosawoli vefxvisa, _ aseve, avTandilic

xocavs lom-vefxvs, Tumca amas akisria ara simboluri,

aramed metaforuli funqcia. avTandilis SemTxvevaSi igi

personaJis fizikuri SesaZleblobebis, Zlierebisa da va-

Jkacobis gamoxatvis mxatvruli wamosaxvaa:

sadaca naxnis, daxocnis lom-vefxni moSambnareni (1330).

nana gonjilaSvilma aRniSna, rom tarielis vefxistyaosnobas

saTave edeba maSin, rodesac farsadan mefis mier Tavisi

erTaderTi asulis gasaTxoveblad mowveul didebulTa

TaTbirze tarieli, gaerTianebuli indoeTis samefos saxelovani

amirbari, taxtis memkvidris _ nestan-darejanis

mijnuri, Tavisi da nestanis siyvarulis dasacavad sityvas

ver ambobs, dros miandobs samarTliani gzisa da gamosavlis

Ziebas (gonjilaSvili 2000: 35-36). mijnuris siyvarulSi

daeWvebulma nestan-darejanma TavisTan ixmo tarieli, romelsac

vefxviviT ganrisxebuli dauxvda. tarielma avTandilTan

saubrisas, rac tarielis mxridan aRsarebis Tqmas

utoldeba, nestan-darejani pirgamexebul vefxvs Seadara:

qve wva, viT kldisa napralsa vefxi pir-gamexebuli (525/522),

xolo Txrobis dasasruls aRniSna, rom vefxvis tyavisagan

Sekerili samoseli Tavisi mijnuris mosagoneblad

acvia:

rome vefxi Svenieri saxed misad damisaxavs,

amad miyvars tyavi misi, kabad Cemad mominaxavs (659/657).

samecniero literaturaSi araerTgzis iTqva, rom SoTa

rusTvelis mier poemis saxelwodebad “vefxistyaosnis” Ser-

Cevis safuZveli tarielis mier ganrisxebuli nestan-dare-


narkvevi 173

janis pirgamexebul vefxvad aRqma gaxda. SoTa rusTvelma,

rogorc Rrma saxismetyvelebiTad moazrovne udidesma

Semoqmedma, nestan-darejanis rTuli Sinagani samyaro, suliereba

da inteleqti misi xasiaTis Sesatyvisi mxatvruli

saxe-simboloTi gadmogvca, gmiris sulieri mdgomareoba

ki garegnobaSic gamovlinda: “vefxi pirgamexebuli” aris

nestanis Sinagani mdgomareobis garegnuli gamoxatuleba,

romelic misi sulieri da inteleqtualuri, Sinagani

samyaros silamazeSi gadaizarda da sabolood mogvevlina

viTarca “vefxi Svenieri”. aseTad SemorCa igi tarielis

mexsierebas. tarielis gonebaSi nestan-darejani, viTarca

“vefxi pirgamexebuli”, maSinve iqna aRqmuli mSvenierad,

rac TviT tariels udides esTetad warmogvadgeninebs, da

aseTadve darCa, rasac adasturebs tarieliseuli Sefaseba,

romelSic nestanis pirgamexebuloba da mSveniereba Serwymul-Sexamebulia.

tarielis mier nestan-darejanis Sedareba

vefxvTan mariam karbelaSvilma tarielis esTetikuri

aRqmis safuZvlad miiCnia da ganacxada, rom tarieli

udidesi esTetia, “Sedareba da metafora tarielis azrovnebisa

da metyvelebis mudmivi elementebia” (karbelaSvili

1997: 31-32). amrigad, zemoTqmulis safuZvelze Sei-

Zleba iTqvas, rom poemis saxelwodeba, upirveles yovlisa,

esTetikuri fenomenis gamoxatulebaa, romelSic miTosuri,

folkloruli, literaturuli, religiuri aspeqtebi

ikveTeba da mas zneobriv-eTikuri samyaro marTavs.

“vefxistyaosani”, rogorc SoTa rusTvelis poemis saTauri,

aris saTauri-metafora, romelic asociaciur, kontrastul

mxatvrul azrovnebas emya reba da romelic Rrma

esTetikuri funqciisa da drosivrculi poetikis momcvelia.

“vefxistyaosanSi”, rogorc saTaurSi, grZnobadkonkretuli

sagnidan, misi Tvisebebidan momdinare az ri

cnobierdeba, rac metaforulobis safuZvels qmnis. ferTametyvelebis

TvalsazrisiT, kontrastuloba TviT vefxis

Tvi sebaTa winaaRmdegobrivobas, aqedan gamomdinare, mTavari

perso naJebis winaaRmdegobriv xasiaTs miuTiTebs, rac

saTauri-meta foris Sinaarss gamosacnobs xdis. gamosacnobia

saTauri, ro gorc erTi mTlianoba, aseve masSi Caqsovili

calkeuli mxatv rul-esTetikuri saxe, romelTa gaTvaliswinebis

gareSe adami anis dasazRvruli gonebisaTvis

SeuZlebelia misi srulyofili gaazreba da interpretacia.

poemis saTauri gamWvirvale ar aris, igi Rrmaa da swored

es siRrme, anu mxatvrul-esTetikuri informaciis sidide,

ganusazRvreloba aniWebs mas momxibvlelobas. SoTa

rusTavelma sityvaSi dafaruli idumaleba gaamJRavna da


174 waxnagi 1.2009

axali sicocxle mianiWa, saTauri poemisa mravalwaxnagovani

da mravalmniSvnelobiani gaxada. agreTve, poemis saTauri

personificirebulia, masSi ori personaJi igulisxmeba,

orives xvedri vefxvis ferebiviT monacvleobs, rac

saTaurs iSviaTi metaforuli azrovnebis gamoxatulebad

warmogvadgeninebs.

“vefxistyaosani” aris saTauri-enigma da igi gamosacnobia.

aristoteles SexedulebiT, roca saTqmeli metaforisgan

Sed geba, igi gamocanacaa, enigmacaa. enigmuri

azrovnebis mizania ara-Cveulebrivi, gasaidumloebuli

saxeebiT WeSmari tebis warmoCena. vefxistyaosnoba enigmaa,

romelic ara mxolod mkiTxvelma, TviT rusTvelis poemis

yvela personaJma unda amoxsnas, igi miTiTebaa, enigmuri

Tqmaa tarielisa da nestan-darejanis cxovrebis wuTisofluri

cvalebadobis Sesaxeb.

“vefxistyaosani”, rogorc saTauri-simbolo, mima ni-

Snebe lia, mauwyebelia tarielis sulieri mdgomareobisa,

agreTve, nestan-darejanis mZime xvedrisa da sulieri

mdgomareobisa; tarielisa da nestan-darejanis cxovreba

xom urTierTgada jaWvulia. tarielis vefxistyaosnoba,

Sesabamisad, tarielis vefxistyaosnobisas nestan-darejanis

yofa samoTxidan devnili adamisa da evas yofas, naTlis

samoslisgan ganZarcvuli da edemis baRidan devnili

pirveli adamianebis yofas mogvagonebs, im adamianebisa,

romelnic RmerTma samoslis nacvlad tyavis samosliT

Semosa: “uqmna... samoselni tyavisani da Sehmosna maT” (Ses.

3,21), rac iSviaTi saRvTismetyvelo siRrmiT warmoaCina

wmida andria kritelma “did kanonSi”. misi sityviT, TviT

pirvelma adamianebma ganbZares “samoseli pirveli, romeli

pirveliTgan miqsova RmerTman, da vZe me SiSueli...

mmosies me xeneSi kuarTi, romeli miqsova guelman edems

ganzraxviTa da kdebul var Sengan... Semikerna tyavisa samoselni

codvaman Cemman da RvTivqsovili samoseli ganm-

Zarcua” (andria kriteli 2002: 34-35). tarielic, naTlis

samosli sagan ganZarcvuli, vefxvis Wreli, Sav-yviTliT

daferili tyavis samosliT Seimosa, rac misi sulieri

mdgomareobis cvlis mauwyebelia; simbolurad igi tarielis

TviTCaRrmavebis, mRvi meSi cxovrebis, ganmartoebis

niSania, rac uTuod unda dasruldes personaJis sulieri

aRmasvliTa da srulyofiT.

“vefxistyaosani”, rogorc saTauri-alegoria, vefxistyaosnobis,

rogorc zogadi movlenis konkretul saxeebze

SeniRbulad miuTiTebs, anu vefxvisa da vefxvis tyavis

TvisebebiT tarielisa da nestan-darejanis Tvisebebisa da


narkvevi 175

mdgomareobis fonze kacobriobis istorias, awmyosa da momavals

gad mogvcems.

“vefxistyaosani” aris saTauri-aluzia. zogadad,

aluzia avtoris subieqtur TvalTaxedvas moicavs da mki-

Txvelis ga naTlebulobazea orientirebuli, vinaidan aRmqmelisaTvis

igi mxatvrul na warmoebSi samyaros avtoriseuli

xatis amokiTxvis enobrivi saSualebaa. misi mixvedra

sakmaod rTuli inteleqtualuri da sulieri procesia,

rac mkiTxvelisagan moiT xovs mwerlis Canafiqris TxzulebaSi

asaxvis wvdomas. “vefxis tyaosnis”, rogorc poemis

saTauris, aluziuroba mTel nawar moebSi vlindeba, dawyebuli

saTauridan _ damTavrebuli boloTqmiT. “vefxistyaosani”,

rogorc saTauri, erT drouladaa aluziac, enigmac,

metaforac, simboloc, alegoriac, vinaidan aluzirebulia

vefxvi Tavisi feradovnebiT da vefxvis tyavi, rac

miniSnebaa mTavar personaJebze, maT xasiaTze, Tvi sebebze,

cxovrebuliseul sirTuleebze. igi poemis zogadkacobriul

arsze migviTiTebs, qaragmulad igi kulturis istoriis

mraval faqts warmogvidgens. SeiZleba isic iTqvas,

rom igi kulturaTa Soris amyarebs kavSirsa da dialogs,

rac, Tavis mxriv, epoqis moTxovnebiTaa nakarnaxebi.

amrigad, “vefxistyaosani”, rogorc rusTvelis poemis

saTauri, aris metaforac, sim boloc, alegoriac, enigmac,

aluziac, vinaidan vefxvi, misi tyavi, misi ferebi, misi

siWrele samyarosa da adamianis mravalferovnebas mianiSnebs,

zogadad adamianis, konkretulad rusTvelis poema-

Si mTavar personaJTa sulier mdgomareobas gamoxatavs.

vefxvisa da vef xistyaosnobis mxatvrul saxeSi ramdenime

kulturuli fenomeni warmogvidgeba, oRond ise, rom rus-

Tveluri, viktor nozaZis sityviT _ vefxistyaosnuri,

sruliad gansxvavebulia winarekulturulisagan, rac poemis

personaJTa sulieri ganaxlebis sawyisad, Sesabamisad

mTeli samyaros ganaxlebad moiazreba.

damowmebuli literatura:

andria kriteli 2002: andria kriteli, didi kanoni, nekresis

eparqia, 2002.

aristotele 1893: Аристотель. Об искусстве поэзии. Греческий текст с

переводом. М., 1893.

gonjilaSvili 2000: gonjilaSvili n. SoTa rusTvelis poemis

saTauris saxismetyveleba, macne, enisa da literaturis seria,

2000, #1-4.


176 waxnagi 1.2009

karbelaSvili 1997: karbelaSvili m. vefxistyaosnis ~dRe aRvsebisa”

bibliuri paraleliT da ramdenime SeniSvniT (rusTavelis

poeturi enis sakiTxisaTvis), macne, enisa da literaturis

seria, 1997, # 1-4.

kiknaZe 2004: kiknaZe z. xuTwigneulis Targmaneba, Tb., 2004.

losevi 1990: Лосев А.Ф. Философия имени. В кн.: Из ранних произведений,

М., 1990.

lotmani, uspenski 1973: Лотман Ю. М. , Успенский Б. А. Миф – Имя –

Культура, Труды по знаковым системам, IV, Тарту, 1973.

nozaZe, arqivi: nozaZe v. ~vefxistyaosanis” fsiqologiismetyveleba,

xelnaweri Sroma saarqivo masalis mixedviT gamosacemad

moamzada manana kvataiam (Sroma inaxeba manana kvataiasTan).

petriwi 1937: ioane petriwi, Sromebi, II, Tb., 1937.

petriwi 1999: ioane petriwi, ganmarteba prokle diadoxosis

`RmrTismetyvelebis safuZvlebisa~, Tanamedrove qarTul enaze

gadmoiRo, gamokvleva, leqsikoni da SeniSvnebi daurTo damana

meliqiSvilma, Tb., 1999.

rusTveli 1966: SoTa rusTveli, vefxistyaosani, I, akaki SaniZisa

da aleqsandre baramiZis redaqciiT, Tb., 1966.

florenski 1990: Флоренский П. А. У водоразделов мысли, т.II, М., 1990.

Nestan Sulava

Theological-Theoretical Basic of Shota Rustveli’s Poem Title

In theology, in poetic system person’s pseudonym is the main item how

to express his spiritual-intellectual world. Name is the contain of thing, so

the title is the contain of composition.

In article is shown the meaning of Shota Rustveli’s poem title with connection

to methology, folklore, philosophy, theology, literature and is said it

was an enigma, symbol, allegory.It is said the title of the poem is the poetric

face in the space and time. It is the name history, which contains variety of

information.

Tiger and its skin, its colour, its colourfull shows us the variety of the

world and person, esspecialy the nature of the poem’s characters. In the poetic

face of the tiger is shown variety of cultural phenomenon. To say by the

words of V. Nozadze –`very different from earlier culture`. Poem’s heroes’

character is the face of renewal world.


zurab kiknaZe

guramiSvilis igavi

I. “daviTianis” dasasruli leqsebi

“daviTiani” Sedgeba oTxi wignisgan. bolo wigni “wigni

ese mxiaruli zafxuli~ krebulis bolo nawarmoebia, xolo

is Svidi leqsi (ie-ka), romelic mas mosdevs, aRar ekuTvnis

“daviTians”, _ isini Seicavs informacias “daviTiansa” da

mis avtorze, rasac Tavad maTi saTaurebi mowmobs:

1. id. adamis saCivari. aq poeti adamis saxiT imasve mo-

Tqvams, rasac Tavad mTels “daviTianSi” moTqvamda. araferi

yofila mis cxovrebaSi iseTi, rac zogad adamians,

adams, ar gardaxdomoda Tavs, garda imisa, rac leqsis dasasrulisken

gvecnoba:

daviT, galad danerguli,

var uSrto da me ufeso.

2. ie. meoTxe daviTis Sesxma da “daviTnis” qebis igavi.

es aris daviTis Semajamebeli Sesxma im sami Sesxmis Semdeg,

romlebic daviT mefsalmunis da qristes “mamis”

sxvadasxva aspeqtebs aCendnen (wigni b: md, nd, nv). es Sesxma

mTlianad agebulia “igavT xis” Temaze. aq erTxel kidev

da sabolood gvicxadebs mkiTxvelebs, rom misi “davi-

Tiani” aRmocenda daviTis baRSi (walkotSi), sxvanairad,

“daviTiani” aris im daviTis xeze mobmuli nayofi; kidev

sxvanairad, am daviTma Tavis baRSi amyno im daviTis “cxovrebis

xeni”| da, amdenad, is ukvdavebis xis nayofTan da

sasmelTan aris naziarebi. da Tumca es daviTi im daviTis

cudi (avi) “mosaxea”, mainc sabolood, “daviTiani” amarTlebs

Tavis amocanas, rogorc “xe kaciani da RvTiani”, anu

rogorc sxvagan aqvs naTqvami, “orgziTve nayofs miscemda,

visganac moirxeoda”.

177


178 waxnagi 1.2009

daviTis es Sesxma, misi arqiteqtonika, gvarwmunebs, rom

miuxedavad imisa, rom ~daviTianSi~ avtoris saxeli iki-

Txeba, wigni mainc im daviTis saxelzea monaTluli:

amad am wignsa saxelad uwode `daviTiani~,

daviT Sevawyev, Sevkone, viT vardni da viT iani (ie, 8).

es “amad” ajamebs zemo strofebSi naTqvamebs: “daviT mogviTxrobs”,

“daviT iSena walkoti”, “daviTis baRis xili

sjobs”, “baRi daviTis baRisebr”, “man daviT Tavis baRSia”.

amrigad, “daviTians” sxvas verafers vuwodebT, Tu ara daviTis

baRs, sadac erTi daviTi damrgvelia, meore _ damynobi

da gamxarebeli.

3. iv. am wignTa gamleqsavis gvarisa da saxelis gamocxadeba,

sadac avtori mTeli “daviTianis” manZilze pirvelad

Tavisi piriT axsenebs Tavis saxelsa da gvars (am 18-strofian

leqss sagangebod qvemoT Sevexebi: II-VI).

4. iz. anderZi daviT guramiSvilisa. es 15-strofiani

leqsi am saTauriTve gvauwyebs, rom misi avtori cocxali

aRaraa, aRar ekuTvnis arc am sofels, arc “daviTians”,

romlis mudmivi mTavari personaJi iyo. is “mcxedrad mdebare,

gul-xel-krefulia”; da sabolood gvaxsenebs: “umkvidro

viqmen, ar damrCa Svili”, rac misi udidesi satkivari

aRmoCnda am sofelSi, Tumca am uSvilobam “daviTians” dauviwyari

igavi Seuqmna.

5. iÀ. mRrdelT vedreba daviT guramisSvilisa, sadac

sxva ganzomilebidan (miwier da ciur samyaroebs Soris

myofi) amunaTebs mRvdels, axsenebs ra misTvis miniWebuli

madlis usasyidlobas: “ase gibrZana: viT Sen mogeca, usasyidloda

sxvaT miec Senca”.

6. iT. saflavis qvazed dasaweri. am “epitafiaSi” mocemuli

informacia erTgvarad azustebs “daviTianis” ZiriTad

nawilSi Tqmuls “me viyav erTi Tavadi, mosaxle gorisubansa”,

romelic konkretuls arafers gveubneba poetis warmomavlobis

Sesaxeb. Tu am saxelwodebis sofeli, romelic

poetis Sobis adgilad unda miviCnioT, saqarTvelos yovel

kuTxeSia mosalodneli, zedazeni kaxeTSi da SiomRvime

qarTlSi _ erTaderTia.

7. k. sulis ambavi. Tu epitafia, rogorc xorci, materia,

am sofels ekuTvnis, gaSiSvlebul suls Tavisi gza

aqvs gasavleli saboloo gankiTxvis dRemde. xorcisa da

sulis Temas, romelic msWvalavs mTels “daviTians”, es

34-strofiani Tavi axal rakursSi warmogvidgens: suli

xorcs adanaSaulebs adamianis hubrisSi: igi ar dasjer-


narkvevi 179

da miwis xelmwifebas, risTvisac Seiqmna, da cis mitaceba

moindoma.

8. da bolos, ukanaskneli _ ka. am wignis gamleqsavis sulis

moxseneba _ Seicavs aRsarebas da vedrebas RvTisadmi

codvebis Sesamsubuqeblad. aRsaniSnavia, rom am bolo Tav-

Si samgzis aris naxsenebi “daviTianis” avtoris saxeliT da

gvariT. aq “daviTiani”, rogorc avtoris mxolodSobili

Ze, SeiZleba misi sulis meoxe iyos gankiTxvis dRes:

es wigni, leqsad Tqmuli, aris sul imisi,

RmerTman ixsnas warwymendisagan suli misi.

da kvlav da ukanasknelad, saboloo akordad, Semodis

ori daviTis Tema da Tavi Tavdeba uCveulo metaforiT:

amad qaCalman mis Tmis navarcxni

qoCrad movisxi, Tavzeda viTme.

amgvari siTamamiT gamoxata poetma Tavisi memkvidreoba

daviT mefsalmunidan. Tu Tavisi “daviTianiT” igi rus-

TvelTan SedarebiT “Calis Ziria”, Tavad “daviTiani” im

daviTis “Tmis navarcxnia” 1 .

II. vinaobis gamocxadeba

SevCerdeT 18-strofian tirada-monologze iv. am wignTa

gamleqsavis gvarisa da saxelis gamocxadeba 2 . am Tavs

1.

es “Tmis navarcxni” mutatis mutandis imis analogiuria, rac egnate antioqielma

Tqva Tavis Tavze, rom igi mtveria, jvarcmidan Camoyrili.

2.

avtoris nebis sawinaaRmdegod, “daviTianis” yvela bolodroindel gamocemaSi

es teqsti prologad aris qceuli im motiviT, TiTqos (rogorc “sabWoTa

saqarTvelos~ 1980 wlis gamocemis winasityvaobaSia naTqvami) “igi faqtiurad

krebulis Sesavals warmoadgens”. Tumca arsaidan ar Cans, rom es monakve-

Ti mainc da mainc Sesavali unda iyos. “daviTiani” erTaderTi wignia, romlis

avtori, amave dros, misi Semdgenel-redaqtoric aris. intuiciam mas ukarnaxa,

swored ase da ara sxvanairad ganelagebina sxvadasxva dros, rogorc Tavad

ambobs erTgan, “oblad” dawerili leqsebi. wignis agebulebac xom misi Semoqmedebis

nayofia, Semoqmedeba ki _ pirovnebis gamomxatveli. amas ki Seswavla

esaWiroeba da ara koreqtireba. SemCneulia, rom “daviTianis” kompozicia myife

da gauwonasworebelia” [RaRaniZe 2002: 134], rac savsebiT Seesatyviseba misi

avtoris sulier mdgomareobas im xanad, roca krebuls adgenda. meore mxriv,

aseTma pirovnebam Seqmna `daviTianis~ leqsebis polifoniuri musikaloba.

“daviTianis” absoluturi dasawyisi RmerTia: “RmerTo, romelsa gxadian...”,

rasac meore SairSi mosdevs “Sevamko erTi ufali, RvTiv zeciT qveynad

mkobili”. sqema da tradicia rusTveluria: “romelma Seqmna samyaro” _

“misgan ars yovli xelmwife saxiTa mis mieriTa”.


180 waxnagi 1.2009

ase ewodeba, Tumca avtoris gvari da saxeli wignis sa-

TaurTan erTad ukve mTeli `daviTianis~ absolutur dasawyisSivea

gacxadebuli: “q. wigni ese, romelsa ewodebis

saxelad daviTiani, Tqmuli guramisSvilis daviTisagan”

(ix. avtografi S-1598). magram am teqsts sxva mizanic aqvs,

garda vinaobis ganmeorebiTi gacxadebisa: aq, am damasrulebel

monologSi, CamoTvlilia yvela is Tema da problema,

rasac misi poemebi da calkeuli leqsebi eZRvneba.

yvelaze naklebad aq avtoris vinaobazea laparaki. vinaobaze

arc iq gvecnobeba bevri, sadac es mosalodnelia.

iSviaTia, TiTqmis ar ipoveba, mis nawerebSi rame yofiTi

niSani, romelic cocxlad warmogvidgenda saqarTvelo-

Si mis yofnas. wignis im adgilas, sadac poeti Tavisi Tavgadasavlis

Txrobas iwyebs, TiTqos dasaxelebulia misi

“qveynis” zusti misamarTi:

me viyav erTi Tavadi, mosaxle gorisubansa,

jvarobas Cveni qal-rZalni icvemden ar avs jubansa.

magram es aris da es. Cans, mSobliuri gorisubani, guramianTkaris

erTi ubani, jvarobiT da koxta jubebSi

gamowyobili qal-rZaliT daamaxsovrda. Cans, jvarobebi

da misi feradovani samoseli Rrmad CabeWdila mis

mexsierebaSi. magram siWabukis es gamocdileba (soflis

dResaswaulebSi monawileoba) gakvriT aris naxsenebi.

sxvagan leqsis saTaurmac asaxa es mogoneba 3 . suraTs

naxevrad paganisturi jvarobebisa, sadac gaismoda kopales

saxeli, upirispirdeba zedaznisa da SiomRvimis

sakralizmi. teqstis es adgili mniSvnelovania, rogorc

am ori savanis saswaulmoqmedi siwmidis dadastureba

im adamianis piriT, romlis sagvareulo samarxebic

isini iyo:

wminda ione kaxeTs zedazens

saswaulobiT qvitkirs cremls adens;

qarTls wminda Sio Rvimes Zvlebs avlens,

orniv Svrebian saswauls amdens.

saflavis qvaze dasaweri es sityvebi Cafiqrebulia im

kontrastis saCveneblad, Tu raoden didia gza am siwmideebsa

da misTvis madlsmoklebul im miwas Soris, sadac

3.

ix. wigni b: mv. xarebobis dRis Sesxma: “axa, wmida kopales” sanaclod naTqvami”;

n. “simRera qa[rT]l-kaxeTis jvarobas sanaclod saTqmeli”.


narkvevi 181

damarxva moeloda. “aq xorciT vlpebi”, TiTqos iq, sagvareuli

samarxSi, wmidaTa mezoblobaSi, misi xorci uxrwnelad

unda Senaxuliyo.

sazogadod, unda iTqvas, rom “daviTiani”, miuxedavad

imisa, rom masSi gansakuTrebiT Zlierad Cans avtoris

meoba, Raribia Tavisi “wamxdari” da dakarguli qveynis

konkretuli suraTebiT. igi yvelafers Tavis TavgadasavalSi

didi siswrafiT, TiTqos sulmouTqmelad, gviambobs,

TiTqos weris procesSic isev is gaqceuli tyve iyos

da saamboblad dro ar hqondes. da rasac ixsenebs, naklebad

arsebiTia, SeiZleba iTqvas, kuriozuli im “igavT xis”

fonze, romelic ekranad gasdevs “daviTians”. magram es

ararsebiTi detalebi, rogorc xdeba xSirad, misi mexsierebis

Tanamdevi gaxda, erTxelve ise Rrmad CaibeWda mis

cnobierebaSi, rogoric iyo Tundac ori kitri da damWknari

sazamTros naxevari, romlebic man RvTisgan gamogzavnil

sazrdod miiCnia, magram sulmokleobis mizeziT

dakarga (wigni a: T., lz). am metismetad yofiT, Tumca mis

dReSi adamianisTvis, SesaZloa, simbolur epizods cxra

strofi aqvs daTmobili, romelic sinanulis locvaSi gadadis.

ras inaniebs?

kitri momec da wamarTvi, ver moviTmine TmeniTa;

Sevswuxdi, maze gayvedre, gcode piriTa, eniTa.

Sen, RmerTman, igi damiTme sulgrZelebiTa SeniTa.

_ erTi mxriv, RvTisadmi sayvedurs (“kitri momec da

wamarTvi”), meore mxriv, daudevrobas (“ver moviTmine TmeniTa”),

romelmac aq mSieri datova igi, magram sxvagan radikalurad

Seucvala cxovreba. im sabediswero diliT

wyalze piris sabanad Casulma damSvidebiT aixsna Tofi da

xmali, da muxis Ziras miayuda, rom rogorc wesi da rigia

(magram ara “qveynis waxdenis” dros), Seesva wyali. nacvlad

imisa, rom iaraRi xelSi CaebRuja im samasi msvlepeliviT,

romlebic RmerTma airCia midiamelebze gasamarjveblad 4 .

4.

“da uTxra ufalma gedeons: mainc bevria xalxi. wyalze Caiyvane da iq gamigirCev

maT. viszec getyvi, gamogyves-meTqi, gamogyves. viszec getyvi, nu gamogyveba-meTqi,

nu gamogyveba. da Caiyvana man xalxi wyalze. da uTxra ufalma

gedeons: vinc eniT Sesvleps wyals, rogorc ZaRlebi svlepen, calke daayene,

agreTve isinic, vin Caimuxlebs da ise dalevs. eniT msvlepelTa ricxvi samasi

iyo. da narCenma Caimuxla da ise dalia wyali. da uTxra ufalma gedeons:

samasi msvlepeliT gixsniT da xelSi CagagdebinebT midians, danarCeni xalxi

Sin wavides” (msaj. 7: 4-7).


182 waxnagi 1.2009

III. “igavT xe”

yvela qmedebas da saqciels Tavisi igavi aqvs. daviT mefis

codvas misi erTguli uria xeTelis mimarT (rac sabolood

RvTis winaSe Secodeba aRmoCnda, ix. fsalm. 50: 4) naTan winaswarmetyvelis

mier moTxrobili igavi (Raribi kacisa

da misi erTaderTi batknis Sesaxeb _ 2mef. 14:1-4), rogorc

amgvari codvis pirvelsaxe, ganmartavs. magram Tavis mxriv,

amieridan daviTis codva TavisTavad am tipis codvaTa igavis

Zalas iZens. Tu im daviTma naTanis igavSi sakuTari Tavi

Seicno, es daviTi Tavis qmedebebSi, mTels Tavis gzaSi erT

mTlian igavs xedavs.

“igavT xe” erTi mniSvnelovani, metic, arsebiTi toposia

jer, Tavad “daviTianSi” da mere masze daweril samecniero

teqstebSi. sakuTari gzis igavuri xedva msWvalavs “davi-

Tians”. Tu vaxtang mefe “vefxistyaosans” ganmar tavs igavurad,

radgan darwmunebulia, rom igavuroba misi avtoris

Canafiqria, guramiSvili, romelic “igavT xis” dasabamad

rusTvelis poemas miiCnevs, Tavisi cxovrebis monakveTs

_ motacebas, tyveobaSi yofnas da tyveobidan gaqcevas _

igavis niSniT xedavs da, raki es gacnobierebuli aqvs, Tavadve

kisrulobs Tavisi gamocdileba-gansacdelis egzegeziss

5 . cxovreba amicanaa, amitomac amosacnobi. amitomac

Tavgadasavlis aRweraSi naklebad ipoveba iseTi momentebi,

romlebic, SesaZloa, TavisTavad saintereso iyos

mkiTxvelisTvis Tu istorikosisTvis, magram egzegetika

masSi fexis mosakideblad siRrmes ver poulobs. samagierod,

gansakuTrebul wonas iZens erTi, TavisTavad umniSvnelo

SemTxveva, romelic misi tyved Cavardnis sababi

Seiqmna. “odes daviT guramisSvili kistrinis omSi cxeni-

TurT liaSi daefla, imis monasibad RvTismSoblis Sesxma”

(wigni b: me). ar gvaqvs mizezi, ar verwmunoT avtors,

rom is marTlac WaobSi cxenianad Caeflo, rom es SemTxveva

realurad moxda, rom Caeflo da amotomac Cavarda

tyved, Tumca tyveobis peripetiebs is ar aRadgens leqsSi.

5.

vin iyo “vefxistyaosnis” igavurad ganmartebis Taosani _ mefe vaxtangi Tu

vinme uCino inteleqtuali (esec SesaZlebelia!), guramiSvilma is imdenad

gaiTavisa, rom qveynis xedvis erTaderT principad aqcia, sakuTari Tavic ki

igavuri xedvis obieqtad warmoadgina. leqsTweris am meTodiT is amayobda

kidec. gavixsenoT, rogor uwunebs igi vinme meleqse Tomas brtyel, uigavo

leqsebs: “Sens qalTamzes bevriTa sjobs Cemi mzeTamzeo” (qalTamze yofi-

Ti, erTganzomilebiani lamazmania; mzeTamze rac aris, amas Tavad daviTi

ganmartavs, wigni a: k, 349-350). pirdapiria, cota ar iyos, Seuracxmyofelic,

rasac daviTi Tomas eubneba: “gamovarCie me ifqli, Sen saxvete bzeo” (wigni

a: l, 396).


narkvevi 183

RvTismSoblis am SesxmaSi “kistrinis lia” “codvis liad”

aris gardaqmnili:

codvis liad ukuvardi, Rrmad Sig davefalo,

da Tu Sen ar aRmomiyvan, Znelad aRmovalo.

aq aSkaraa im pirveli tyveobis, xaroSi jdomis, gamocdilebis

gamoZaxili, sabolood, ki es orive SemTxveva erT

gamocdilebad aris aRqmul-gaazrebuli. aqac Tavs iCens

RvTismSoblis saxe, rogorc iq, pirvel tyveobaSi. maSin

RvTismSobeli iyo misi mxsneli, WeSmariti gzis maCvenebeli.

is xma, romelic ZilSi Caesma mas da aRviZebda xvrinvisgan

6 “Sin wasasvlelad” (wigni a: la), RvTismSoblis xmaa; da

is vinc “joxiT daaSina”, aseve RvTismSobelia, romelic sxva

leqsSi isev da isev joxs (“did kets”) scems TavSi swor gzaze

dasayeneblad (wigni b: nT. simRera daviTisa zubovka).

Tu “daviTiani” Raribia araigavuri empiriul-yofiTi

faqtebiT (niSandoblivia, rom “daviTianSi” arc erTi

striqoni ar eZRvneba mis ukrainul yofas), amas ver vityviT

“qarTlis Wirze”, romelic konkretul istoriul faqtebs

da viTarebis gadmogvcems. istoriuli nawili “daviTianisa”

sruliad moklebulia igavurobas, igi ar aris

damynobili “igavT xeze”, is ar xarobda “daviTis baRSi”.

igavs istoriul nawilSi analizi cvlis 7 . Tumca guramiSvili

mainc Tavis igavur gansacdels uSualod qveynis

bedTan, “qveynis waxdenasTan” akavSirebs, riTac igi amkvidrebs

Tavs, rogorc homo historicus, romelic aris Tavisi

qveynis istoriis monawilec da Sedegic. “daviTianis”

kompozicia asaxavs amas. qarTl-kaxeTis istoriis Txroba

droebiT wydeba, roca “erTi Tavadi, mosaxle gorisubnisa”

Semodis asparezze Tavisi TavgadasavliT, da ganaxldeba,

roca tyveobidan Tavdaxsnili kaci SeuerTdeba gadaxvewil

mefes da mis kars, raTa kvlav gagrZeldes istoriis

Txroba erTi periodis saboloo dasasrulamde, roca

qarTuli emigracia arCevanis winaSe dgeba _ samSobloSi

6.

“xma mesma Zilsa Sinao: ras xvrinav, rasa fSvinao!

aq ras uwevxar saZilod, ratom ar waxval Sinao!”

aq “xvrinva”, “Zili” scildeba tyveobis gamocdilebas da uqmi cxovrebis

simboloebad iqceva, “Sin wasvla” misgan Tavis daRwevad.

7.

analizis sferos unda mivakuTvnoT cnobili “viT mamali sxvis mamalsa” _

fraza, Tumca figuraluri, romelsac “qarTlis Wiris” avtori qarTl-kaxe-

Tis uerTierTSuRls usadagebs; an kvlav figuraluri “kaxelebis aRma xnuli

qarTvelebma daRma farcxes”, aseve, unda gavigoT, rogorc ukuRmarToba,

romelic amoZravebs istorias.


184 waxnagi 1.2009

dabruneba Tu “rusT xelmwifis samsaxurSi ganweseba” (wigni

a: T. mg). qveynis Tavgadasavlis aseTi dasasruli providenciulia,

aq Txroba ramdenime aTeuli wliT win uswrebs

istoriul faqts. amieridan “daviTianis” avtori am dasasrulSi

ipovebs axal identobas _ is aRar laparakobs gorisubneli

Tavadis, qveynis Svilis saxeliT, aramed masSi

laparaks adami iwyebs. am gaigivebiT guramiSvili TiTqos

Tavis Tavs, rogorc pirovnebas, ubrundeba.

III-a. wisqvilis igavi

guramiSvilis xedvas (sulier Tvals) ar unda gamoparvoda

wisqvilis, rogorc aseTis, igavuroba. yovel SemTxvevaSi,

mTesvelis saxarebiseuli igavi misTvis xom cnobili

iqneboda (maTe 13:3). mesmis, rom verbalurad mas gauZneldeboda

wisqvilze imgvari laparaki, rogorc mzeze, rogorc

mzeTamzis xatze laparakobda. SesaZloa, naZaladevi

iyos im sityvebSi igavuri azris amokiTxva, romlebic man

wisqvilis sqemas waumZRvana:

RmerTo, maCvene yanebi,

am sarwyavT monayvanebi;

RmerTo, damaswar zafxulsa,

fqvils am, wisqvilze dafqulsa.

mainc ar SeiZleba ar monawileobdes mis am proeqtSi

igavuroba im nayofis saxiT, romelic egzegeturi ganmartebis

simbolod aris miCneuli “daviTianSi”:

scan am leqsTa igavi, Targmne, Tu giyvardeo!

qrTilis puris qerqSia Sig TaTuxo Cavdeo!

qerqi gafrcven, ganagde, SigniT ki guls sWamdeo (wigni a: ke).

igavurobis gareSe rom ar tovebs daviTi Tavis gamogonebas,

romlis aRweriloba man “daviTianis” ydaSi moaTavsa,

amas Semdegi minaweri mowmobs:

q. axsirkis mRTisSoblis xatisa da imis win sanTlisa da kolofis

igavi is aris: kaci rom dgas da ilocavs, magizgan SeTqmuloba

ase aris: am wisqvilman rom fqva Seqmnas, mis dros imis pirvelad

mnaxavs kacsa Tu dedakacsa TviTo deniSka sTxoos, mag kolofSi

Tavisis sulisaTvis Caagdos sanTlisaTvis. mag rigi xati

unda im wisqvilSi esvenos da RamiT gauqroblad sanTeli enTos.


narkvevi 185

Tu “daviTianSi” Wama, SimSili, sazrdeli, ifqli da TavTuxi

fizikur mniSvnelobasTan erTad (upiratesadac ki!)

sulier mniSvnelobasac Seicavs 8 , wisqvili am simbolikis

misaRebad gamzadebulia.

IV. karavi 9

adamis saxeliT laparaks (moTqmas) an adamis alaparakebas

istoriulad dasazRvruli kacis piriT, rogorc amas

vkiTxulobT epiloguri leqsis iv. am wignTa gamleqsavis

gvarisa da saxelis gamocxadeba me-16 strofSi:

mamao, Tavsa mfaravi, dagedga kargi karavi,

ganiari da maRali, xelTagan miukaravi,

Sig viyav, sadRac gamagde, paRuri amamkar avi,

miT cremli Cemi zRvad gaxda, TvalTagan nawanwkaravi _

aqvs Tavisi pirvelsaxe “igavT xis” iniciatoris Saireb-

Si, maT Soris mkafiod:

vin uwin edems nazardi alva mrgo, momrwyo, maxia,

dRes sawuTroman laxvarsa mimca, danasa maxia,

dRes guli cecxlsa uSretsa dabmiT damiba, maxia,

awya vcan, saqme soflisa zRaparia da Cmaxia.

avTandili, romelsac ekuTvnis es sityvebi, arc motacebulia,

arc qveynidan maradsaxetialod gagdebuli tyvea

(tyvis meore mniSvnelobiT 10 ), ar Sexebia mas sawuTros

8.

ix. Tundac iambikod wodebuli locvis saTauri “locva, odes daviTs tyveobasa

Sina moSivda da RmerTs puri sTxova” (wigni a: kz), an es galoba mama-

RmerTisadmi:

mWmeo, msmeo, Cemo tanTa mcmeo!

ver mogeSvebi cocxali, Tunda mawameo,

miboZe sazdo sulisa, mSian, maWameo...” (wigni a: lv. 448).

9.

Zirs ‘hl sityvisa, romelic ebraul, ugaritul, finikiur da arameul eneb-

Si “karavs”, rogorc materialur Senobas niSnavs, sxva semituri enebi _ aqaduri

da arabuli “krebulis” mniSvnelobas aniWeben. arabulad ahlu es aris

xalxi, aqadurad alu qalaqi, rogorc Temi, mosaxleobiTurT. Tuki aqadurad

daiwereboda avgustines “RvTis qalaqis” (Civitas dei) msgavsi wigni, misi

saxelwodeba iqneboda alu ilim. wigni ara, magram amgvari sintagma arsebobs

aSurul-babilonur enaze da aRniSnavs zeciur qalaqs _ karavs, romlis yaidaze

agebulia yoveli miwieri qalaqi.

10.

“Svid weliwads tyved iara” (arsenas leqsidan).


186 waxnagi 1.2009

msaxvrali xeli, radgan es sawuTro misTvis arc arsebobda.

magram mas surs adamiviT moTqvamdes, radgan qveynidan

Tundac nebayoflobiT gasvlis win winaswarve a priori Seicno

warmavali da uxano wuTisoflis mTeli arseba. unda

damdgariyo ganSorebis wuTi, rom mas, aqamde galaRebuls,

“sarosa mjobsa nazards”, es ganecada. misTvis am wamebSi

arabeTi, rostevanis kari, samoTxea 11 , sadac igi izrdeboda

rogorc edemSi darguli alva. da es unda yofiliyo misi

erTaderTi samyofeli, romelic ar eqvemdebareba drois

gamanadgurebel Zalas. magram aRmoCnda, rom am samoTxes

gars akravs ukidegano qveyana, sadac iRvreba cremli. da

igi unda gavides im sivrceSi, sadac adamiani cis mfarvelobis

gareSea. magram mainc unda iTqvas, rom avTandils

araferi aqvs cremlis saRvreli, misi piriT Tavad poemis

avtori moTqvams Tavis bedze, rac imaze migvaniSnebs, rom

poema qveynis gareT, eqsoriobaSia, dawerili. avtoris ukan

ki maradiuli adami dgas.

davubrundeT guramiSvilis Sairs “mamao, Tavsa mfaravi”,

romelic Zveli aRTqmidan sazrdoobs. karvis, rogorc

safarvelis 12 , metafora Zveli aRTqmidan modis 13 . rom igi

`ganiari da maRalia~ da `xelTagan mikaravia~, TiTqos caze

unda miuTiTebdes. guramisSvili am metaforasac icnobs:

`romelman cani viTarca karavni Segvimzadisa~ 14 . magram am

SairSi karavi arc mxolod safarvelia da arc ca. am Sairis

tragikuli gmiris sityvebi mowmobs, rom aqac aSkarad ismis

adamis xma, es adamis sityvebia. adamis sityvebSi karavi samo-

Txea, imTaviTve misTvis samyofelad, samSoblod Seqmnili.

~Sig viyav, gareT gamagde~ 15 _ aseTi lakonizmiT aris gadmocemuli

adamisgan samoTxis dakargva. Sin da gareT _ adamis

ori mdgomareobaa. gareT mimdinareobs istoriis procesi:

11.

Tamaris istoria _ “istoriani da azmani”, romelic leqsikurad did

msgavsebas iCens “vefxistyaosanTan”, swored aseTad warmoadgens Tamaris samefos:

“viTarca samoTxe, dasxmuli £eliTa RmrTisaTa”. am samoTxidan aris

gandevnili giorgi rusi: “viTarca ese xilulisa amis samoTxisa da ubrwyinvalesisa

edemisada Seumzadebia eqsoria-qmna”.

12.

“daviTianSi” karavi da mfaravi (farva) sariTmo wyvilia: mfaravi/karavi,

karavsa/mfaravsa, karvad/farvad.

13.

“rameTu damfara me karavsa missa dResa borotsa, Semivedra safarvelsa

karvisa misisa” (fsalm. 26: 5-6).

14.

“gardaTxen cani viTarca karavni” (fsalm. 103: 2). Sdr. “ityvian uflis

akvansa mun da abrahamis karavsa, mdgoms usuetod, usablod” [vaxuSti 1973:

357-8]. “abrahamis karavi” aq aSkarad cis metaforaa.

15.

Sdr. “moikveTeba karvidan, Tavisi saesavidan, da Seiyvans sikvdili saSinel

meufesTan... naTlidan bnelSi gadaisvrian da am soflidan gariyaven”

(iob. 18:14).


narkvevi 187

kacobrioba gareT aris, rogorc TiToeuli adamiani, bedis

ukuRmarTobisgan usaxlkarod darCenili. epilogis leqsSi

(wigni d: id) samoTxe mkvidrad naSeni saxlia, romelic mterma

daungria adams. adami jer uflis mcnebidan gamovida, mereRa

samoTxe-saxlidan, romelic misTvis dangreulia:

mterman ase wamaxdina,

mamatyua, mamaRora;

RvTis mcnebasa gardmaxdina,

dids pativsa mamaSora.

saxli mkvidrad agebuli

damiqcia, mamiSala.

amieridan usaxlkaro adami gareT aris darCenili. da

ocnebobs saxlze, Sinaze da maspinZelze:

vinc rome saxlSi SemiSva, gamaTbo, gamomSuSao,

damidga kargi sadili, win RviniT savse SuSao (wigni b: md).

gareT yofna “daviTianis” erT-erTi toposia, romlis

saSualebiTac adamTan erTad Tavad poetis tragikuli

xvedria gamoxatuli. mis gamocdilebaSi amosavalia gareT

yofna. gareT yofna aris samkvidro qveynidan gaZeveba, gareT

dgoma da rekva Sin Sesasvlelad, bneli RamiT dakargva,

farexis gareT darCena mglis kerZad, marcxena adgilad, sadac

Tiknebi dgebian ukanasknel samsjavroze, karvis gareT

aris “eSmakeulT axo”, uRrani tye, sadac saxifaTo gza elis

usagzlod gaSvebul satrfos (adamianis suls); karvis gareT

wuTisofelia, sadac tyvevdeba da ikargeba adamianis

suli; karvis gareT aris “sxvisi baRi”, sadac “mgelni jdebian”

(sapirispirod daviTis baRisa, sadac kravi zis); karvis

gareT aris “ormo”, “xaro”, “codvis flato”, “codvis

xnarcvi”, “codvis lia”, “codvis muxruWi”, maxe da bade _ es

yvelaferi win xvdeba adamians karvidan gasvlisas; iq elis

mas ukeTuri gza, kacebrivi saxis dakargvis safrTxe (“nu

xval gzasa ukeTursa, nu gardiqajeo”); iq aris urjuloTa

qveyana, `qristianT mterT samZRvari~, romlis iqiT WeSmariti

rjulisTvis ikargeba adamiani (“aw momZebnos dakarguli...”);

karvis gareT aris bneli Rame (`vikargvi bnelis

RamiTa, dRev, rad ar momiZiebo~)...

“daviTiani” mravalmxrivad amuSavebs am Temas.

“gareT yofnis” sevda da SiSi nacvlad “Sig yofnis” netarebisa

da uzrunvelobisa, rac adamis bunebrivi mdgomareoba

unda yofiliyo, adamis ganuSorebeli Tanamdevia.


188 waxnagi 1.2009

cxadSi Tu sizmrad mis Tvalwin aris samoTxis daxSuli

kari. “daviTianSi” es toposi mravalgzis, daJinebiT da

mravalsaxad aris gamoTqmuli. erT-erTi gamoxatuleba

aseTia:

sizmrad vixile, kars gareT vrekdi,

qorwilSi Sesvlad SigniT viwevdi (wigni b: ng, 4).

poeti grZnobs qorwilis gareSe darCenis perspeqtivas,

mas esizmreba aTi qalwulis igavi, siZis molodinSi

is Zrwis, vai Tu, ver ifxizlos da lampari Cauqres. sulis

Zili codvaa, sulis sifxizle _ siqvele. es WeSmariteba

man tyveobaSi myofma Seicno, roca ZilSi Caesma mxsnelis

xma, romelic aRviZebda:

xma mesma Zilsa Sinao: ras xvrinav, rasa fSvinao!

aq ras uwevxar saZilod, ratom ar waxval Sinao?

. . . .

damawvenelman aq Senman aq aRar dagawvinao,

masTan gibrZana dawola, visTanac gaqorwinao (wigni a: la).

daRestnis tyves sZinavs, is xvrinavs udardelad, Ti-

Tqos gaTavisuflebis yoveli neba daukargavs. Tumca sxva

leqsSi mas gaqcevis gadawyvetileba Tavad aqvs miRebuli

zebunebrivi Zalis Caurevlad (“gulman miTxra: adeo, ra-

Rad maicadeo!”, wigni a: ke). aSkaraa, zemoTmoyvanili striqonebi

(“xma mesma...”) imaze mets gveubneba, rac SeiZleba

daRestnis tyveze Tqmuliyo: es mZinare suli wuTisoflis

tyvea, “Zili” da “xvrinva” wuTisoflis niSnebia, romlebic

abrkoleben adamianis suls siZesTan Sesaxvedrad, karvis

ufalTan, iobis sityvisamebr: “roca RmerTi ijda Cemi karvis

Tavze” (29: 4).

V. “movkvdi, damrCa unaTlavi~

kidev erTi mniSvnelovani, sruliad originaluri, toposi

“daviTianSi” uSvilo avtoris mier Tavisi wignis Svilebaa.

am Temas “am wignTa gamleqsavis gvarisa da saxelis

gamocxadebaSi” oTxi Sairi eZRvneba. Svileba meore Semoqmedebaa

im pirvelis Semdeg, romelic wlebis manZilzea

gaSlili. es ki, SeiZleba iTqvas, myisieria. man, rogorc

kruxma, mouyara Tavi “TiTo oblad” naTqvam leqsebs da erT

wignad Sekra mirian ufliswulis molodinSi.


narkvevi 189

me uSvilom es oboli mZliv gavzarde didis WiriT:

rac vicodi sacodneli, mas vaswavle sibrZnemciriT.

movkvdi, damrCa unaTlavi, ver SeviZel me simwiriT.

vinc monaTlavs, me mas vlocav codvilisa Cemis piriT

(wigni d: iv, 9).

magram wigni TiTqos ar aris zrdadasrulebuli (“rac

me vSobe, Svilad vsjervar, Tu es mzrdelman gamizarda”,

“aw rom me iq wamiyvanon, vin gamizrdis am obolsa?”) da mounaTlavic

aris, _ mSobeli ise mokvda, rom ver moaswro misi

monaTvla. mSobeli anu avtori ukve mkvdaria, roca mkiTxveli

am sityvebs waikiTxavs:

brZensa kacsa vexvewebi, es oboli maminaTlos;

Tu ram iyos sxvis rjulisa, momiqcios, gamiqarTlos,

an Tu iyos matyuara, ecados, rom ganmimarTlos,

sxvasi nuras moindomebs mazed metsa usamarTlos (str. 11)

Tu bolomde mivyeviT wignis Svilebis metaforas Tu alegorias,

Znelia warmovidginoT ukve dawerilis, Tu is sxva

“rjulisaa”, moqceva-monaTvla. an vin Seecdeba “Tu iyos matyuara”,

gaamarTlos? an rogor unda Sehmatos sxvam, rac unda

brZeni iyos, is, rac avtorma daaklo? vin unda iyos es “brZeni”

da “mzrdeli” an, ufro sworad, brZeni gamzrdeli, romelzec

amyarebs avtori cxonebis imeds? ras unda niSnavdes wignis gazrda,

Tu ara momavali brZeni mkiTxvelis xelSi moxvedras,

roca namdvilad izrdeba wigni, ufro meti emateba, vidre

avtors hqonda Cafiqrebuli. mSobeli Tu mSvilebeli uTuod

gulisxmobs “igavT xis” swor hermenevtikas, Tumca is gzadagza

axorcielebda am amocanas, rac sxva unda ganexorcielebina.

miuxedavad imisa, rom man gasca “igavT xis” amicanas gasa-

Rebi, vxedavT, rom mama-avtori mudmivad SeSfoTebulia,

ra bedi elis mis naSvilebs da mis obols, mis erTaderTs.

“daviTianis” momaval bedze avtoris amgvari kveTeba “mxiaruli

zafxulis” im ymawvilis sinanulis analogiuria, romelmac

usagzlod gaistumra udabur tyeSi arseba, Tavisi

satrfo, romelic sabolood misi suli aRmoCnda. sxva analogiur

strofebSi amovarCioT es strofi:

vame Tu, sulo, Sena gciodes,

anu gwyurodes, anu gSiodes,

an rame gtkiodes,

miT cremli gdiodes,

CemgniT guls gakldes! (wigni d, 301)


190 waxnagi 1.2009

avtoris naSvilebi mounaTlavi wigni da misi suli, bedis

anabara gaSvebuli wuTisoflis tyeSi da RameSi, mSivrad

da usagZlod (300), erTi bedisani arian. raRa ganuki-

Txavi oboli da raRa ganumartavi (daxuruli) wigni! rogorc

Tavis sulze adamiania pasuxismgebeli, ise _ Tavis

wignze avtori. ra daskvna SeiZleba gamovitanoT am gantolebidan?

_ “daviTiani” poetis sulis oreulia, misi

gamoxatulebaa. poets imedi aqvs, rom “daviTiani” mis sanacvlod

darCeba sofelSi. es wigni misi sulis obieqtivaciaa.

da is gaiziarebs avtoris sulTan erTad ukvdavebas.

poetis ZvelaRTqmiseuli daTrgunuloba uSvilobis

gamo, siberwis perspeqtiva, romelic didi tkiviliT msWvalavs

“daviTians”, TiTqos daamebulia sulieri Svilobis

upiratesobiT fizikur STamomavlobaze, rac, es icis,

avtorma, warmavalia, “daviTis walkoti” ki, sadac man, Tumca

“mosaxed aviT”, mainc sakuTaric dargo, maradiulia. da,

rac mTavaria, am naSvilebiT moigeria yvela mteri, romelic

berwobis dayvedrebiT amcirebda mas.

imas Svilad vervina sjobs, daviT vinc Zed moigera,

vinc gamoTqva, is iSvila, mteri imiT moigera (wigni a: mb, 565).

gamoTqmulis Svileba aZlierebs mis rwmenas, ramdenadac

es warmosaxviTi aqti Zis ganxorcielebaSi poulobs analogs.

rogorc Ze aris mamis sityva, “sityva _ Zed RvTisad

Txrobili” (wigni b: nz, 4), “sityva gaqvs Zed moTxrobili”

(wigni a: kg, 414), _ amis kvalze daviTmac, “vinc gamoTqva, is

iSvila”, romlis ukeTesi Svili arc SeeZlo mas enatra.

VI. “rac damrCa, ver vTqvi”. cdis cda

“iv. am wignTa gamleqsavis gvarisa da saxelis gamocxadeba”

Seicavs Sairs (14), romlis Temas `daviTianSi~ sxvagan

versad SevxvdebiT:

rac damrCa, ver vTqvi, mewada meTqva grZlad, Tavi mecada.

vera vsTqvi, moclas ucdidi, netamca ara mecada!

meswrafa sevdis laxvari, sakvdavad gulsa meca da

aw amas vRonob, ar vici, qvesknad waval Tu me cada.

aq poeti ukanaskneli gankiTxvis molodinSia: jer kidev

ar aris gadawyvetili, sad iqneba misi saboloo samyofeli,

ra moelis mas cxovrebis jildod Tu sasjelad. amave

dros, mas nawvnevi aqvs am soflis warmavaloba da uxanoba.


narkvevi 191

adamianma cxovreba TiTqos moaswro, magram Semoqmedeba _

vera. Vita brevis, ars longa. cda (Semoqmedeba) da cda (mocda)

SeuTavsebeli aRmoCnda. aq dasaxelebulia is mdgomareoba,

rusTvelma mijnurobis erT-erT aucilebel pirobad

rom CaTvala _ mocaleoba: “vera vsTqvi, moclas ucdidi”.

“daviTianis” avtori moclas (=mocaleobas) Semoqmedebis

pirobad saxavs.

es majamuri strofi virtuozulad SeaTamaSebs erTi

da imave Ziridan aRmocenebul fonetikurad identur

(cd), magram gansxvavebuli, metic, urTierTsawinaaRmdego

eksistencialuri Sinaarsis sityva-cnebebs. iSviaTia

majama, romelic, garda evfoniisa, konceptualur sazrissac

yovelgvari xelovnurobis gareSe gadmoscemdes, rogorc

aq vxedavT. “meTqva grZlad, Tavi mecada” _ rusTveluri

“grZlad Tqmis” esTetikis reminiscenciaa, rogorc

sasinji qva, romelsac unda gamoecada poetis SesaZleblobebi.

“Tavis gamocda” Semoqmedebas gulisxmobs, rac,

poetis azriT, mocaleobis Jams hpovebs ganxorcielebas.

rogorc mijnurobis Semoqmedeba (“var mzrdeli siyvarulisa...”),

aseve inteleqtualuri Semoqmedeba mxolod da

mxolod moclilobis Jams aris SesaZlebeli. ai, poetic

ucdida, rom movidoda mocla, rogorc Semoqmedebis asparezi,

roca (sadac) grZlad TqmulSi gaiSleboda yovelive

gancdili. amrigad, poetis cxovreba sami periodisgan

Sedgeba: erTia, romelic gamoixateba sityviT “cda” (gamocdilebis

mniSvnelobiT) da meorea, amave `cda~ sityviT

gamoxatuli, roca im pirvel cdaSi mopovebulis gaazreba-gardaqmna

xdeba. es aris SemoqmedebiTi aqtivoba. am or

cdas Soris periodic aris cda (mocda), molodini, rom

dadgeba cdis (meore mniSvnelobiT) Jami. es periodi Ti-

Tqos uqmad yofnaa, TiTqos Jamis gacdenaa. magram Semoqmedeba

swored maSin iwyeba, roca Sewydeba an amoiwureba

cxovrebiseuli cda (gamocdileba) da adgils uTmobs

moclas. mxolod cdisgan gaTavisuflebis SemTxvevaSia

SesaZlebeli Semoqmedeba, roca adamiani ukan moxedavs yovelive

gan-cd-ils. moclilobis, cxovrebiseuli cdisgan

daclilobis, periodSi xdeba warsuli cdis aqtualizeba.

mxolod am niadagze amoizrdeba “igavT xe”. es imas niSnavs,

rom mis nawerSi araferi iqneba iseTi, rac mis cdaSi

ar iyo mocemuli.

SeniSvna. mocla, mocaleoba _ am sityvebis Ziri amosaval-

Si cal/si-cal-ieris ideas Seicavs. fizikur samyaroSi gasagebia,

risgan SeiZleba iyos raime carieli. magram roca saqme


192 waxnagi 1.2009

gvaqvs adamianis sulier-fsiqikur mdgomareobasTan, rogor

unda gavigoT sicariele? sulxan-saba orbelianis “sityvis

kona” orive mniSvnelobas acnobierebs: “dacla _ savses warmocla”,

“mocla – saqmisgan mocaleba”. idea erTia, xolo mo- da

da- prefiqsebi specifikas aniWebs erTsa da imave Zirs (cal/

cl). mo-cla, romlis drouli ganzomileba aSkaraa, kvlav cad

ZirTan poulobs saerTos swored droJamuli niSniT. “sityvis

kona” amasac acnobierebs: “macale _ mocda momec”, an “macale _

momicade”, “daacala _ adrova”, “damacala _ macada”, “clevineba

_ saqme adroos”.

ra xdeba im dros, roca adamiani moclilia an, maSin, rac

igivea, roca is icdis, roca molodinSia? mocliloba da cda

(molodini) sxvadasxva mdgomareobaa, magram maT saerTo niSani

aqvT: moclilobisas da mocdisas dro gadis adamianis gareSe,

mis gareT. dro adamians ar ekuTvnis, dro mocdenilia.

adamianma gaacdina dro, drom mis gareSe Caiara, adamianma

dakarga kontroli droze, dro gauuucxovda adamians. xolo

cdisas, gansacdelisas, gamocdilebisas, gancdisas dro adamianTan

aris, masTan “erTad” gadis ise, rom adamiani ver amCnevs

mas. dro da adamiani erTianobaSia. es aris is mdgomareoba,

romelsac zrunvas uwodebs eksistencialuri filosofia.

paradoqsia TiTqos: roca dro gaucxoebulia molodinSi, mas

vxedavT, ganvicdiT, Tumca is carielia. magram gansacdelSi,

cdaSi, roca dro moculia zrunviT, me mas ver vamCnev, ver vxedav,

is savsea.

damateba I

gavimeoroT me-16 Sairis bolo ori striqoni:

Sig viyav, sadRac gamagde, paRuri amamkar avi,

miT cremli Cemi zRvad gaxda, TvalTagan nawanwkaravi.

adamis gandevna samoTxidan groteskulia: warmovidginoT

gapaRurebuli adami. paRuris amokvra “daviTianSi”

kidev orgzis Segvxvdeba: “Tu amas avad vambobde, paRuri

amamkaria”; “gavepare, damiWires, rad waxvelo, dampaRures”.

kuriozulia adamis gapaRureba, roca gaqceuli tyvesac ase

eqcevian. Tumca adamis “avi” paRuri am kuriozulobas sxva

TvaliT dagvanaxebs. es ukve aRar aris damcirebis, agdebuli,

Tundac, ironiuli damokidebulebis paRuri. epiTeti

“avi” im risxvis gamomxatvelia, romelic adamma savsebiT

daimsaxura. Tumca karvis SairSi adami arafers ambobs im

mizezze, romelmac misi gagdeba gamoiwvia. mamam moaTavsa


narkvevi 193

karavSi da mamamve gaagdo gareT, “sadRac”. es ganadgurebuli

iobis amoZaxils hgavs: “ufalma momca da ufalma waiRo”

(iob. 1: 21).

XIX saukunis pirveli meoTxedis gamocanebis xelnawer

krebulSi [aTaneliSvili 1975: 39] erTi aseTi amocanaa:

mamaman saxli amigo kekluci banis baniTa,

gZeli da camdin maRali sigZe da misis ganiTa,

Seval, gamoval siciliT, simReriT bani baniTa,

is damiqcia satanam, var mas ukaniT naniTa. 16

amocanas kriptogramulad (saidumlo anbaniT) miwerili

aqvs pasuxi: samoTxe. “daviTianis” Sairis da am

gamocanis struqturisa da Sinaarsis igiveoba eWvs ar

unda iwvevdes. isic ueWvelia, guramiSvilis “karavic”

amocanaa da mis avtors SeeZlo misi amgvari dasaTaureba:

“amicanad igavi, asaxsnelad advili”, rogorc erTgan

asaTaurebs Zveli da axali dRis igavs (ix. wigni b: ¡z).

am or teqsts Soris gansxvaveba is aris, rom gamocanaSi

samoTxe xalxurad gagebuli uzrunvelobis _ sicilisa

da simReris adgilia da adami pirdapir asaxelebs sabediswero

macdunebels _ satanas, rac guramiSvilisTvisac

ar aris ucxo:

mterman ase wamaxdina,

mamatyua, mamaRora;

RvTis mcnebasa gardmaxdina,

dids pativsa mamaSora.

saxli mkvidrad agebuli

damiqciva, mamiSala (wigni d: id, 5-6).

cxadia, es “saxli mkvidrad agebuli” igive “ganiari da

maRali” karavia. gamocanis adami gagdebuli ki ar aris,

aramed daqceuli saxlis (gauCinarebuli samoTxis) winaSe

dgas sinanuliT savse. samoTxis gareT yofnis periodi sinanulis

periodia, magram ar Cans sinanulis nayofi (maTe

3:8). guramiSvilis adamis cremli zRvad aris qceuli da

es zRva cremlisa adamisgan nabarty mTel kacobriobas

ekuTvnis. es aris cremlis periodi.

16.

am gamocanis identuri teqsti Cawerilia petre umikaSvilis mier 1871

wels kaxeTSi, arsebobs misi aseve identuri qarTluri varianti. informatorma

Camwers teqsti aseve gamocanad miawoda [umikaSvili 1937: #1965].


194 waxnagi 1.2009

damateba II

Tu “daviTiani”, avtorisave gansazRvrebiT, Tavis mTlianobaSi

erTi igavia, metaforulad “igavTa xea”, es Sairi

am xis iseTi Sto da, Tundac iseTi nayofia, romelSic

unaklod, mTeli sisavsiT aris gamoxatuli misi igavurobis

ganzogadebuli Sinaarsi. es strofi TiTqos SemoWrilia

prologSi romeliRac, sxva “grZlad saTqmeli” simReridan,

rac darCa da ver Tqva poetma moclis (mocaleobis)

amao molodinSi, an is aris ukiduresad dawnexili igavi Tu

daskvna kacobriobis religiuri istoriisa, sadac avtorisgan

dalocvili mkiTxveli misi TiToeuli striqonis

ganSlilad amokiTxvas SeZlebda.

zemoT Tqmuli _ “mis nawerSi araferi iqneba iseTi, rac

mis cdaSi ar iyo mocemuli” _ “daviTianis” avtobiografiulobaze

laparakobs. es imasac niSnavs, rom qveynis istoriac

misi biografiaa; qveynis istoriam ganumzada mas

is gansacdeli, romelmac mis cxovrebas igavuroba (alegoriuloba)

SesZina.

“daviTianSi” aris ori plani: erTi _ gansacdelis yofi-

Ti aRwera dawyebuli lamisyanis wyarodan vaxtang mefis

karamde moskovs, swored is monakveTi, romlis Tqma ewada

mas grZlad. aq aris savsebiT realuri kuriozuli sami kitri

da sazamTros namusrevi, “dai xleba lazari” da “fxovleli

ianvara”, da meore _ fizikuri Tavgadasavlis Tanmxlebi

egzegetika. magaliTisTvis, striqonSi

damedva didi imedi, vTqvi, Turme RmerTi mfaravsa

Tu CemTvis kargi ar swaddes, ar damidgemdes karavsa

karavi aSkarad alegoriulia, simboluric ki, radgan

“gamoqobuli”, romelic gaqceul tyves elvam apovnina, fizikuri

TvaliT Tu SevxedavT, gamoqvabulic ki ar iyo, aramed

kldidan “lod-gaZrobili” viwro saTavsi, romelic

poetis ganmartebiT ufro xvrelia, vidre gamoqvabuli.

magram poets hqonda meore Tvali momarjvebuli, ramac

mas daanaxa am “lod-gaZrobili” xvrelis namdvili saxe. es

“xvreli”, romelic erT adamians Tu daitevda, alegoriulobis

maRal xarisxs aRwevs, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu ra

surda eTqva poets am sityvebiT: “avdeq, iela, mivadeq kars

mTa-xvrels lod-gaZrobilsa”. es lodi sxva araferia, Tu

ara macxovris prefigurativi, romelic dasabams danielis

wignidan (dan. 2: 34, 44) iRebs, misi egzegezisi aseTia:

mTa RvTismSobelia (“mTad gamosCndi sacnaurad, danielis


narkvevi 195

sityvisamebr” [iadgari 1980: 286]), misgan gamosrolili

lodi _ qriste. da, amrigad, “daviTianis” es saxe, romelsac

fizikur-realuri warmoSoba aqvs, Tavis mTlianobaSi

soteriologiur saxeTa marags ekuTvnis.

SeniSvna. aq ukuprocesia: simboluri prefigurativi,

romlis wyaro winaswarmetyveluri xilvaa (Tundac is nabuqodonosors

ekuTvnodes), dakarguli tyvis gamocdilebaSi

nivTier gamoxatulebas iZens. mas gzaze xvdeba realuri

gamoqvabuli: prefigurativi ubrundeba Tavis nivTier

saxes da soteriologiur ganzomilebasTan erTad fizikuri

xsnis ganzomilebas iZens. gadarCenili amgvarad mimar-

Tavs RmerTs: “Cvenad xsnad, Senad saqebrad mis mTiT mis

lodis mZrobelo”.

gamoqvabulis gamocdileba imdenad mniSvnelovania

avtorisTvis, rom am Temas sami Tavi eZRvneba. Tavebi

amgvarad aris dasaTaurebuli: “odes daviT avis drisagan

Sewuxebuli svindisis mxilebiT elvisagan gamoqobili

klde ipova da imas Saefara, iqidam gamosulman iloca”, “vedreba

RvTis-mSoblisa daviTisagan, odes im zeiT Tqmuls

lod-gamokveTils kldes Saafara avis dris mizeziT”,

“odes zeiT xsenebulis kldidam wamosuls daviT guramisSvils

ucxoni Sexvdnen da maTis SiSiT muxli moeWra”.

tyvisTvis es lod-gamokveTili xvreli, romelic gamotyorcnili

lodis adgilas warmoiqmna, swored karavia,

romelic RmerTma aRmouCina (daudga) mas gaWirvebis Jams.

karavi aq xsnis simboloa. RvTismSoblisadmi mimarTul

vedrebaSi RvTismSoblis sxva prefigurativebis gverdiT

“abramis karavic” ixseneba:

saxiT abramis karao, RvTis tevniT gulTa myrdnobelo.

literatura

aTaneliSvili 1975: lili aTaneliSvili, qarTuli kriptogramebiani

gamocanebi, mravalTavi, IV, Tb.: mecniereba, 1975.

vaxuSti 1973: vaxuSti, aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa, qarTlis

cxovreba IV, Tb.: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1973.

iadgari 1980: uZvelesi iadgari, Tb.: mecniereba, 1980.

umikaSvili 1937: petre umikaSvili, xalxuri sityviereba, Tb.:

federacia, 1937.

RaRaniZe 2002: merab RaRaniZe, sinamdvile da warmosaxva daviT

guramiSvilis `mxiarul zafxulSi~, Tb.: lomisi, 2002.


196 waxnagi 1.2009

Guramishvili’s Parable

Zurab Kiknadze

1. The allegorical standpoint of his own life imbues the poetry of Davit

Guramishvili. The poet reads one period of his life – the kidnapping, the

captivity and the escaping – as a parable of human history in general. And

since it becomes fully conscious for him, he himself undertakes the task of

exegesis of his own experience and trial.

2. One of the main (central) parables is a parable of Tent (Eden, Home).

To be in the Tent and out of it – are two historical and existential situations

of the man. To be outside represents together with Adam’s trial the tragic lot

of the poet himself.

3. The book as the son. The depression caused by perspective of hearlessness

is solved by adopting his own book, named by his own name Davit

– Davitiani. But there is an allusion of David, Psalmist in whose garden he

has planted his own tree laden with fruit.


iuza evgeniZe

vaJa-fSavelas biografiis erTi sakiTxi

vaJa-fSavelas fenomenisadmi qarTveli sazogadoebis

mimarTebis Seswavla didi mgosnis sicocxleSi da dResac

uaRresad saintereso socialur-literaturuli problemaa.

mZafrad aRiqmeba am problemis Rirebuleba imitomac,

rom Cveni erovnuli cxovrebis wiaRSi urTulesi sazogadoebriv-politikuri

da kulturuli procesebis pirobebSi

movlenili es marTlac sakacobrio fiqrTa mpyrobeli

poeti swored rom “qarTuli xelovnebis sulis ganmasaxierebeli

geniosi” (artur laisti) aRmoCnda. aseTi movlena

yvela drosa da sivrceSi gamokveTilad inaxavs da asxivebs

unikaluri erovnuli koloriT aRbeWdil zogadkacobriul

sulier faseulobebs. albaT, amitomacaa, rom eris

rCeulTa Soris vaJas mimarT TavCenili siTbo-siyvarulis

amouwuravi grZnobis gverdiT, TvalSisacemia totalitarizmisa

da neototalitarizmis epoqaSi XIX da XX saukunis

saqarTvelos tragikuli xvedris gamo, Tavis droze

rusuli biurokratiuli oficiozis mier danergili, kanonizirebul

dokumentTa gafetiSebis kompleqsi. Aaqedan

iRebs saTaves is gaorebuli mimarTeba vaJa-fSavelas fenomenisadmi,

romlis danaleqebma nihilizmis, zedapirulobis,

indiferentizmis formiT araerTxel iCina Tavi XIX,

da gansakuTrebiT, XX-XXI saukunis saqarTveloSi.

sxva drosac araerTgzis Tqmula da amjeradac SeiZleba

gavixsenoT, rom es exeba ara mxolod vaJa-fSavelas mxatvruli

samyaros Sefasebis Jams warmoSobil gaugebrobebs, aramed

am WeSmaritad diadi Semoqmedis yofiTi cxovrebis,

misi biografiis mimarT agorebul “Woris Wurebsac”, sicocxleSic

rom uwamlavdnen genialur mgosans wuTisofels

da sikvdilis Semdegac ar asveneben mis naTel suls. magram

unda iTqvas, rom es movlena araa oden qarTuli mentalobis

Strixi. is globaluri movlenaa da saTanado interesis gamomJRavnebisas

mas SeiZleba mravali analogia-paraleli

197


198 waxnagi 1.2009

daeZebnos sxvadasxva qveynis sazogadoebriv-literaturul

cxovrebaSi. ase, rom am mxriv arc vaJa-fSavelaa gamonaklisi.

amiT kidev erTxel dasturdeba goeTes cnobili maqsimis

_ “Zlieri Suqi Zlier Crdils gamoscems” _ fsiqologiuri

safuZvlis WeSmariteba; miT ufro, rom vaJa-fSavela mxolod

Suqi ki ara, qarTuli poeziis da erTianad Cveni erovnuli

kulturis mzecaa, _ mze, romelsac, qarTvelTaTvis

mainc, Casvla ar uweria. aseT viTarebaSi yuradRebas iqcevs

erTi faqti vaJa-fSavelas biografiidan.

vfiqrobT, sagangebo axsna ar sWirdeba imas, Tu ramdenad

didi mniSvneloba aqvs mweralTa da, sazogadod, xelovanTa

SemoqmedebiT samyarosTan dasaaxloeblad maTs

pirovnul cxovrebas. TumcaRa mainc gavixsenebT zogierT

rCevas. iyo xana, roca xelovanTa biografiis maTsave SemoqmedebasTan

koregirebisas calkeuli romantikulad

ganwyobili moazrovne da mwerali daJinebiT imasac ki

amtkicebda, rom “Seqspiris erTaderTi biografi Tavad

Seqspiria” 1 , misive nawarmoebebiao. magram arc Tu didi

xnis Semdeg isic gairkva, rom “literaturis istoriis da

kritikis sferoSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, ar aris ufro sayuradRebo,

ufro sasiamovno da amasTan kidev ufro didad

samoZRvro sakiTxavi, vidre did adamianTa Sesaxeb dawerili

biografiebia~ 2 . ufro metic: saxelovan mweralTa

da xelovanTa saqveynod cnobili biografi, Tavad SesaniSnavi

mwerali andre morua ki ase gvmoZRvravs: “biografia

SesaniSnavi literaturuli Janria,” magram “literaturis

istorikosebi mas saTanado adgils ar uTmoben” 3 .

literaturismcodneobis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove doneze

aseve fiqroben, rom “biografia mwerlis fenomenologiis

STambeWdavi realizebaa” 4 . misi Rirebuleba da specifika

ki `saxeldobr imaSi mdgomareobs, rom masSi Qjerovnad vlindeba

mwerlis adamianuri naturis dasrulebuli mTlianobanairferovneba

da imaSic, rom literaturul nawarmoebTa

SemweobiT is gvabrunebs misi avtoris cxovrebis sferoSi” 5 .

am konteqstSi xSirad imarjveben karl gustav iungis gamona-

Tqvams, rom “goeTes ki ar Seuqmnia ‘fausti’, aramed ‘faustis’

1.

Р. Эмерсон, Представители человечества (Шекспир или поэт), Собр. соч. T. 3. Перевод

с английского, 1903, с. 78.

2.

Ш. Сент-Бев, Литературние портреты: Критичесие очерки. Перевод с французского.

М., 1970, с. 47.

3.

a. morua, Cemi literaturuli cxovrebis samoci weli. literaturuli

etiudebi. frangulidan Targmna T. qiqoZem. Tb., 1988, gv. 25.

4.

М. Верли, Общее литературоведение. Перевод с немецкого. М., 1957, с. 165.

5.

m. verli, iqve, gv. 162.


narkvevi 199

sulierma komponentebma Seqmna goeTes pirovneba” 6 . Aamitomacaa,

rom, pol valeris Tqmisamebr, mweralTa biografiebSi

moqceuli `auxsneli patara faqtebi yovelTvis Seicavs ra-

Rac iseTs, rasac SeuZlia Tavdayira daayenos didi faqtebis

nebismieri interpretacia” 7 ; xolo sxva SemTxvevaSi, andre

moruas sityviT, am faqtTagan “saWiroa davimaxsovroT mxolod

is, rac misi avtoris gagebaSi dagvexmareba” 8 .

saxelganTqmuli moazrovne da mwerali, eqsistencializmis

erT-erTi mTavari warmomadgeneli Jan pol sartri

xelovanTa biografiuli monacemebis SemoqmedebiTi

Rirebulebebis gasacnobiereblad, sakuTar TviTdakvirvebebze

damyarebiT, aseT rCevas gvTavazobs: “me vcdilob,

gavigo adamiani misi wignebis saSualebiT da Cemi amocanaa,

adamianisagan miRebuli STabeWdilebebis niadagze gaviazro

misi wignebi... es erTiani dialeqtikuri procesia” 9 .

aseTia evropul literaturul sivrceSi saxelovan

mweralTa da swavlulTa mier xelovanTa SemoqmedebiTi

cxovrebis Sesaswavlad biografiis Rirebulebis Sesaxeb

mowodebuli zogierTi moTxovna.

am TvalsazrisiT, qarTul sinamdvileSi, Tuki vinmes

mTeli sigrZe-siganiT hqonda gacnobierebuli mweral-

Ta SemoqmedebiTi biografiebis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba,

es, pirvel yovlisa, TviT vaJa-fSavelas mier `eris

mamad” wodebuli ilia WavWavaZe iyo. man kargad uwyoda,

rom `poezia madlia, niWia, romelic eZleva mxolod kacTa

QRvTivrCeulTa” 10 . misi arsis axsnas da poeziis, xelovnebis

saidumloebaTa wvdomas anu WeSmariti SemoqmedebiTi biografiis

agebas mxolod maSin moaxerxebs mkvlevari, Tuki is

mwerlis gare da Sina samyaros urTierTkavSirs daadgens.

ilias azriT, am SemTxvevaSi literaturis istorikosis

mizani saTaves iRebs “adamianis bunebis wyurvilSi”, wvdes,

“waikiTxos da Tvalwin gagvitaros” ama Tu im mwerlis pirovnuli

da SemoqmedebiTi cxovreba, radgan “amisTana kacis istoria

xom Cveni sakuTari istoriaa” 11 . sakuTriv literatu-

6.

m. verli, iqve, gv. 160.

7.

p. valeri, azrebi, mxatvruli proza. frangulidan Targmna baCana bregva-

Zem, Tb., 1983, gv. 77.

8.

a. morua, iqve, 255.

9.

Ж.-П. Сартр, Самое главное для меня – это деиствие, Иностранная литература, 1966,

№ 9, с. 244.

10.

i. WavWavaZe, sityva Nnikoloz baraTaSvilis neStis gadmosvenabaze, ilia

WavWavaZe literaturisa da xelovnebis Sesaxeb, t. II, Tb., 1998, gv. 257.

11.

i. WavWavaZe, iona meunargias momavali leqciebi grigol orbelianze, iqve,

gv. 149.


200 waxnagi 1.2009

ris istorikosis erT-erT amocanad ilia imas miiCnevs, rom

mwerlis `sulSi da gulSi Cagvaxedos”. Ees damyarebuli unda

iyos sabuTianobaze, romlis erTi pirvelwyaroTagani, sxva

masalaTa Soris, mwerlis biografiaa. misi azriT, erovnuli

cnobierebis gamosafxizleblad da “ramdenime safexuriT

maRla aswevad” literaturis istorikosis Rvawls

ilia WavWavaZe “TvalsaCino da Tavmosawonebel” saqmianobad

saxavs.Aamitomacaa. rom igi “siamovnebiT da madlobiT” 12

egebeba xolme am mimarTulebiT gaSlil muSaobas.

vfiqrobT, esaa mainc adamianis SesaZleblobebisadmi

rwmeniT aRvsil da GjansaRi sulieri GRirebulebebisadmi

erTgul mweral-moazrovneTa pozicia, xedva im tipis moazrovnisa,

romelic safuZvelSive ucxadebs oms XIX saukunis

dasasrulisa da XX saukunis, _ am yvelaze `sastiki da

sisxliani saukunis” 13 , _ uaryofiTi niSniT daRdasmul

“cruaristokratias”, “cruinteligents”, aTeizmiT, kosmopolitizmiT,

nihilizmiT daSxamuli janyisa da revoluciis

molodinsa Tu mis wiaRSi Sobil “ganebivrebul

bavSvs” anu “amboxebul velurs” 14 . Aam fonze, roca igor stravinskis

TqmiT, “adamiani kargavs Rirsebis grZnobas”, absurdis

gancda batondeba samyaroSi da, RirebulebaTa gaufasurebis

pirobebSi, bunebrivia, nihilisturi midgoma fexs

ikidebs ara mxolod yofaSi, aramed sulieri Semoqmedebis

sferoSi da maT Soris mweralTa individualebis, TviT biografiebis,

SefasebaSic. magram esaa ara sent biovis an ilia

WavWavaZisnair gaubzaravi sulis mweral-moazrovneTa Tav-

Si Sobili azri, aramed iseT adamianTa pozicia, romlebis-

Tvisac miuRebelia “RvTaebrivi samyaros parametrebi” 15 .

vaJa-fSavela ki Tavisi mrwamsiT, aRzrdiT, yoveldRiuri

cxovrebis wesiT swored rom gaubzaravi, mTliani,

jansaRi sulierebis matarebeli adamianis mexotbea da,

rogorc moazrovne da inteleqtuali, TanamedroveTagan

ilia WavWavaZis Rirseuli sulieri memkvidre. Tumca, tician

tabiZis TqmiT, man “gaiara Tanamedrove poeziis Sxamiani

gza; man icoda XIX saukunis yvela sawamlavi” 16 , magram

sadReiso gadasaxedidan sagulisxmo mainc isaa, rom “kul-

12.

i. WavWavaZe, iqve, gv. 149-151.

13.

T. faCulia, neototalitarizmi, Tb., 2003, gv. 63.

14.

xose Oortega i gaseti, masebis amboxi, espanuridan Targmna baCana bregvaZem.

Tb. 1993, gv. 99.

15.

T. faCulia, dasax. wigni, gv. 67.

16.

t. tabiZe, vaJa-fSavela, qarTveli mwerlebi vaJa-fSavelas Sesaxeb, krebuli

Seadgines iuza evgeniZem, lado minaSvilma da jumber WumburiZem, Tb.,

2003, gv. 350.


narkvevi 201

turis krizisis” fazaSi myof globalur sivrceSic igi

adamianTa Soris siyvarulis, sicocxlis Rirebulebebis

mouRlel qadagad darCa. A

amitom araferia moulodneli imaSi, rom Tavisi cxovrebis

garkveul etapze igi asrulebs gulSematkivar megobarTa

Txovnas da iwyebs sakuTari biografiis weras,

saTauriT _ “Cemi wuTisofeli”, sadac mgosani mkiTxvels

auwyebs: “rasac vwer, rac ki SemiZlian vecdebi simarTle davicva,

vsTqva ise, rogorc iyo, uferadod, gadauWarbeblad.

vgoneb aseT avtobiografias ufro didi mniSvneloba unda

hqondes kritikisTvisa da mkiTxvelisTvisac, vidre mogonilsa

da nakeTebs” 17 . ukanasknelad, 1912 wels, sakuTar biografiaSi

gaparul uzustobaTa gamo, vaJa kvlav daubrunda

am sakiTxs da presis saSualebiT (gaz. ”saxalxo furceli~,

1912, # 584) mTeli saqarTvelos gasagonad ganacxada: “Tu

biografia iwereba, unda daiweros simarTliT, nametnavad

siyalbe unda Seswordes Cems sicocxleSive, radgan igi Cemi

sikvdilis Semdegac ibartyebs sakmaod” 18 . Aaq warmodgenili

prognozi _ “siyalbe Cemi sikvdilis Semdegac ibartyebs

sakmaod” _ didi mgosnis mraval winaswarmetyvelur prognozTa

Soris gamarTlda, da mere rogor? “siyalbem” sworedac

rom “ibartya” vaJas saxelis garSemo mravalgzis,

magram mere ra?!. “cudas rad unda mteroba, kargia mudam

mtriani!” ra daaklda amiT vaJas? gamJRavnda mxolod qar-

Tuli sazogadoebis indiferentizmi did pirovnebaTa mimarT,

Cveni cxovrebis socialur-kulturul dinamikas rom

aferxebda yovel droSi da garkveulwilad dResac Tavis

Sinagan moumwifeblobas rom adasturebs.

aRniSnulis erTi gamovlenaa poetis biografiis, ker-

Zod, misi dabadebis TariRis dadgenasTan gaparuli is

erTi SexedviT, “mcire” uzustoba, romelic vaJas “mcire SeniSvnis”

saxelwodebiT cnobili replikis presaSi gamoqveynebis

sababi gamxdara. rogorc irkveva, poets “mcired” ki

ara, metad mniSvnelovan movlenad miuCnevia is garemoeba,

rom mis TxzulebaTa gamomcemlebi faqtobriv Secdomebs

uSvebdnen biografiis Sedgenisas.

Tavis droze es sakiTxi sagangebod Seiswavla solomon

yubaneiSvilma da Tavis wignSi “vaJa-fSavela (dokumente-

17.

vaJa-fSavela, Cemi wuTisofeli, vaJa-fSavela literaturisa da xelovnebis

Sesaxeb, krebuli Seadgines, komentarebi da saZiebeli daurTes grigol

kiknaZem, niko yiasaSvilma, vano Sadurma, jumber WumburiZem da solomon xuciSvilma,

Tb., 1967,Ggv. 27.

18.

vaJa-fSavela, mcire SeniSvna, iqve, gv. 206-207.


202 waxnagi 1.2009

bi da masalebi)”, _ romelic orjer gamoica 1937 da 1961

wlebSi, _ calke Tavadac gamoyo es problema. man misTvis

Cveuli keTilsindisierebiT sayuradRebo dokumenturi

masala miawoda mkiTxvel sazogadoebas. am TvalsazrisiT

arsebuli viTarebis cxadsayofad, Tu ramdenad Rirebulia

es masala da ufro metad _ masze darTuli komentari, publikacias

movixmobT srulad.

aq ki Semdegs vkiTxulobT:

vaJas dabadebis TariRi

vaJas dabadebis TariRSi azrTa sxvadasxvaoba arsebobs,

zogi mis dabadebas 1861 wels miawers, zogi 1862 w., amitom

saWirod migvaCnia specialurad SevexoT am sakiTxs, rom

erTxel da sabolood gamoirkves poetis dabadebis namdvili

TariRi, miT umetes, rom, rogorc sCans, TviT vaJasac

ki ar scodnia, Tu romel welsa da TveSi daibada is.

1911 wlis miwurulSi qarTvelTa Soris w. k. gam. sazogadoebis

WiaTuris ganyofilebam gamosca vaJa-fSavelas

sami saymawvilo moTxroba, romelsac iv.Ggomelaurma va-

Jas mokle biografia daurTo. aRniSnul biografiaSi iv.

gomelaurs vaJas dabadebis TariRi 1861 w. aqvs naCvenebi

da amasTan erTad moTxrobili aqvs, TiTqos vaJas pirveldawyebiTi

swavla tfilisis sasuliero saswavlebelSi

mieRos, Semdeg goris saostato seminariaSi, xolo kursdamTavrebuli

axalgazrda vaJa TiTqos sof. CargalSi

daeniSnoT maswavleblad da sxva, rac, ra Tqma unda, simarTles

ar Seefereba. rogorc sCans, vaJa am yalb cnobebs

auRelvebia da 1912 wlis “saxalxo gazeTis” 584 nomerSi

“mcire SeniSvnis” saTauriT aTavsebs Semdeg werils:

“Cemi nawerebis gamomcemlebis sayuradRebod vwer am

SeniSvnas, rom dRevandeli Secdoma ar gameordes: b. iv.G gomelaurma

dabeWda calke wignakad Cemi sami saymawvilo mo-

Txroba saTauriT: ‘sami saymawvilo ambavi”. aqve CaurTavs

Cemi biografia, sadac blomad Secdomebi Sehparvia pativcemul

gamomcemels. saWiroa am Secdomebis Sesworeba: Tu

biografia iwereba, unda daiweros simarTliT, nametnavad

siyalbe unda Seswordes Cem sicocxleSive, radgan igi

Cemi sikvdilis Semdegac ibartyebs sakmaod.

me davibade sof. CargalSi 1862 w. 15 maiss, ara dros

me Cem sofelSi saswavlebelSi ar miswavlia da arc

maswavleblad vyofilvar. Ppirvelad mamaCemma mimabara

Telavis sasuliero saswavlebelSi. am saswavleblis me-


narkvevi 203

same klasidan me Sevedi tfilisis samoqalaqo skolaSi,

romelic institutTan arsebobs. samoqalaqo skolaSi

rom davasrule kursi, Semdeg goris seminariaSi Sevedi.

roca iqac swavla davamTavre, damniSnes maswavleblad

toladsofelSi (erwoSi), sadac erTi weliwadi davyavi

da Semdeg peterburgSi wavedi universitetSi leqciebis

mosasmenad... danarCen cnobebze, rac b. iv. gomelaursa

aqvs moyvanili Cems biografiaSi, araferi meTqmis”.

am sayuradRebo dokumentidan sCans, rom vaJa 1862 w.

maiss 15 dabadebula da erTis SexedviT TiTqos saki-

Txi amowurulid unda CaiTvalos, magram oficialuri

dokumentebi am sakiTxis Sesaxeb sawinaaRmdego cnobebs

gvawvdian.

Cven xelT aris vaJa-fSavelas naqoni Semdegi metrikuli

amonaweri, romelic mas tf. Aaleqsandres sax.

samaswavleblo institutTan arsebul orklasian samoqalaqo

saswavlebelSi Sesvlis dros auRia.

Свидетельство

Дано сие священническому сыну Луке Разикову в том, что он,

Разиков, в метрической книге Чаргальской Святогеоргиевской

церкви, за тысяча восемьсот шестьдесят первый год в графе

мужескаго пола под №8 записана статья, родился четырнадцатого

июля, а двадцтать второго того же ме месяца крещен (Лука).

Родители его: житель селения Чаргали, причетник Чаргальской

Святогеоргиевской церкви Павел Разиков и законная жена его

Варвара, оба православного вероисповедания. Восприемником

был благочинный и Кавалер Тионетского Округа Иов Цискаров,

а таинство крещения совершил Священник Чаргальскаго прихода

Йоссей Давидов сын Геладзе с причетником Василием Цоцкораули.

В чем подписью моею и приложением церковной печати

удостоверяю Священник Чаргальской Святогеоргиевской церкви

Георгий Геладзе.

1877 года 17 сентября.*

[*dokumentebi inaxeba yazbegis muzeumSi]


204 waxnagi 1.2009

rogorc sCans, am metrikuli amonaweriT, vaJa dabadebula

1861 w. 14 ivliss. ase rom arc weli da arc Tve dabadebisa

vaJas mocemul cnobebs ar eTanxmeba.

aRsaniSnavia Semdegi garemoebac: goris seminariis yof.

maswavlebelma sudakovma, romelic daaxloebiT icnobda

vaJas, werilobiT gvacnoba da pirad saubris drosac da-

JinebiT gamimeora Semdegi: “seminariaSi misaRebad vaJam

kancelariaSi gadmomca Tavisi sabuTebi, magram miRebas

xels uSlida misi wlovanebis sidide. maSin vaJa metrikiT

ukve 20 wlisa iyo, amitom vurCie wasuliyo sofelSi da

wlovaneba daklebuli metrika moetana. Aasec moiqca. wavida

Tavis sofelSi da moitana axali metrika, romelSiac

namdvil wlovanebas sami weli hqonda daklebuli”.

ase rom sudakovis cnobiT, vaJa 1859 wels yofila dabadebuli.

ismeba kiTxva, am sam TariRs Soris (1859, 1861, 1862)

romelia swori? Cveni azriT, zedmetia laparaki sudakovis

mier mocemuli cnobis sinamdvileze. aRniSnuli

cnobis gamosarkvevad, Cven mivmarTeT saq. mmaCis sammarTvelos,

sadac 1861 wlis metrikul Canawer wignSi

vaJas dabadebis TariRi aRmoCnda ise, rogorc zemoT

moyvanil metrikul amonawerSia aRniSnuli. Tanac araviTar

gadasworebebs iq adgili ar aqvs. vaJa aRniSnul

wignSi Cawerilia Semdegi saxiT:

a) saTvalavi dabadebulTa: mamaTa sqesi: 8.

b) Tve da dRe: dabadeba _ ivlisis id.

naTlisReba _ ` kb.

g) saxelebi dabadebulTa: luka.

d) wodeba, saxeli, mamis saxeli da gvari mSobelTa da

romlisa sarwmunoebisa arian: Carglis w-is giorgis

eklesiis priCetniki pavle razikovi da sjulieri

coli amisi barbale fxiklesSvilis daviTis asuli.

oriveni marTmadidebelis sarwmunoebis aRsarebisani.

e) wodeba, saxeli, mamis saxeli da gvari mimrqmelTa: mimrqmeli

TianeTis okruRis blaRoCini da kavaleri

ivobi ciskarovi.

v) vin aRasrula saidumlo naTlis Reba: Carglis w-is

giorgis eklesiis mRvdelma iase gelaZem (amave eklesiis

priCetnikis pavle razikovisaTa).**

[**frCxilebSi moTavsebuli sityvebi dedanSi waSlilia.

dokumenti amowerilia saq. mmaCis sammarTvelos

arqividan]


narkvevi 205

arc TviT vaJa-fSavelas cnoba aris swori, rom Ti-

Tqos is 1862 w. 15 maiss iyo dabadebuli. 1862 wlis Carglis

eklesiis metrikul wignSi arcerTi razikaSvil-

Tagani ar aris dabadebulad aRniSnuli.

Cvens mosazrebas mxars uWers Semdegi faqtic: 1879 w.

vaJam daamTavra tfilisis samoqalaqo saswavlebeli da

imave wlis seqtemberSi goris saostato seminariaSi Sevida.

seminariaSi misaReb sagamocdo JurnalSi vaJa 18

wlisad aris aRniSnuli da sworicaa, radganac kursis

damTavrebisas, 5 ivniss, is sruli 17 wlisa iyo da me-18-

Si imyofeboda, xolo 14 ivliss Seusruldeboda 18 weli

da me-19-Si gadadgeboda; es faqtic imas adasturebs, rom

vaJa marTlac 1861 w. ivlisis TveSi yofila dabadebuli.

ase rom, arsebuli sabuTebis mixedviT, vaJa-fSavelas

dabadebis TariRi 1861 w. 14 ivlisi unda iqnes miCneuli. 19

rogorc vxedavT, s. yubaneiSvilis mier dawvrilebiTaa

aRnusxuli vaJa-fSavelas dabadebis TariRTan dakavSirebuli

TiTqmis yvela detali: oRondac, avtori _ oficialurad

dadasturebul dokumentebze damyarebiT Tavis

simarTleSi darwmunebuli _ kategoriulad askvnis: “rogorc

sCans, TviT vaJasac ki ar scodnia, Tu romel welsa

da TveSi daibada is” (dasax. wigni, gv. 46), riTac ukve imTaviTve

gamoricxavs poetis statiis _ “mcire SeniSvna” _ Seqmnis

mizezs. miT ufro, rom ratomRac Tavis am uapelacio

ganacxads urTavs komentars, romlis Tanaxmad, “arsebuli

sabuTebis mixedviT, vaJa-fSavelas dabadebis TariRi 1861

w. 14 ivlisi unda iqnes miCneuli” (dasax. wigni, gv. 49). aSkaraa,

rom mkvlevari sabuTis Zalas ar aniWebda mgosnis da-

Jinebul moTxovnas da srul undoblobas ucxadebda mas. Ees

meordeba aRniSnuli wignis meore gamocemaSic (1961).

vaJa-fSavelas dabadebis TariRis amgvar kanonizacias,

albaT, xeli imanac Seuwyo, rom poetis dabadebis 100 wlis-

Tavis saiubileo mzadebasTan dakavSirebiT gamoqveynda

vaJas mier jer kidev siymawvileSive poeziaSi gzadalocvili

saxelovani poetis, giorgi leoniZis mier moZiebuli

metrikuli Canaweri, sadac vaJa-fSavelas dabadebis Tari-

Rad swored 1861 wlis 14 (26) ivlisia miTiTebuli.

unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTuli literaturis istoriis

mkvlevarTa umetesobac vaJa-fSavelas dabadebis TariRad

1861 wlis 14 (26) ivliss miiCnevs.

19

sol. yubaneiSvili. vaJa-fSavela, Tb., 1937, gv. 46-49.


206 waxnagi 1.2009

am mxriv, erTaderTi gamonaklisia geronti qiqoZe, romelmac

1935 wels, vaJas gardacvalebidan 20 wlisTavis da

mis mTawmindaze gadasvenebasTan dakavSirebiT gamoqveynebul

statiaSi “vaJa-fSavela” aRniSna: “vaJa mokvda ise

stoikurad, rogorc Tavisi sicocxlis 53 weli gaatara” 20 .

sxva drosac gamoCenili moazrovne da mkvlevari rusul

enaze beWdavs narkvevs, sadac vaJas dabadebis TariRad 1862

wels afiqsirebs.

Cven ramdenjerme mogveca SesaZlebloba, poetisadmi

miZRvnil monografiebsa da narkvevebSi (1. vaJa-fSavela:

cxovrebisa da SemoqmedebiTi istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb. 1989,

gv. 56; 2. vaJa-fSavela, qarTuli mwerloba, t. 17, Tb. 2000,

gv. 528; 3. narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istoriidan,

t. II, Tb., 20003, gv. 349), SeniSvnis formiT, magram mainc Segvexsenebina

mkiTxvelTaTvis vaJas sawuxari: “Secdoma ar

ganmeordes”, “siyalbe unda Seswordes”, TumcaRa dRemde

aravin ismina poetis vedreba...

erTi SexedviT, marTlac, ra mniSvneloba aqvs 1861 Tu

1862 wels daibada mwerali, magram Tavad vaJa xom aniWebda

mas arsebiT xasiaTs? erTis mxriv, SeiZleba pragmatulad

momarTulma pedanturma gonebam skeptikuri TvaliT Sexedos

vaJas biografiisadmi amgvar midgomas, “Wiqa wyalSi

qariSxlad” miiCnios erTi wlisTvis esoden gazviadebuli

msjeloba, magram, meore mxriv, mxedvelobaSia misaRebi, rom

erT wels diaRac aqvs didi SemoqmedebiTi Rirebuleba yoveli

xelovanisaTvis da maT Soris iseTi SemoqmedisaTvis,

rogoric vaJa-fSavela iyo. marTlac, poetis cxovrebaSi,

Tavisi sicocxlis mimwuxris Jams, sul eqvsiode Tvis manZilze,

mZime avadmyofobis miuxedavad, vaJa-fSavelas Seqmnili

aqvs 14 nawarmoebi, maT Soris iseTi poeturi da publicistur-filosofiuri

Sedevrebi, rogoricaa: “didi Tamari”,

“simRera” (“me Seni trfobiT ver gavZeR”), “Cemi angelozebi”,

“simRera” (“balRi rasaca vxedavdi”), “zogi ram fiqrebidam”,

“sagazafxulo fiqrebi” da sxva. bevr SesaniSnav poets, mweralsa

da moazrovnes ver Seuqmnia erTi wlis manZilze ase-

Ti Txzulebebi. Ees mxolod vaJa-fSavelas SesaZleblobis

mqone Semoqmedis xvedria. nawarmoebTa am statistikasac

aqvs Ggarkveuli mniSvneloba literaturis istoriisTvis.

genialuri vaJa profeturad Wvrets movlenaTa arss da

wuxilis mizezic araa umniSvnelo, radgan misi fiqriT, Tu

mcire “Secdoma” ar gasworda, romelic araa Turme “mcire”,

20.

g. qiqoZe, vaJa-fSavela, g. qiqoZe, rCeuli Txzulebani sam tomad, t. I, Tb;

1963, gv. 246.


narkvevi 207

man SeiZleba iseT “siyalbed” “ibartyos”, rom cxovrebis wesad

iqces da daRi daasvas TaobaTa azrovnebas. zemoaRniSnulis

gaTvaliswinebiT, undobloba vaJasadmi, rom ucxoel-

Taganac “geniosad” aRiarebul poets (artur laisti) iseTi

elementaluri faqtis ucodinaroba davabraloT, rogoric

sakuTari dabadebis TariRis codnaa, sxva araferia, Tu ara

kuriozi. Nndobas vucxadebT vaJa-fSavelas uSreti fantaziis

wyalobiT ukvdavyofil mxatvrul samyaros, mis winaswarmetyvelur

xedvas, xolo ar vendoT mas sakuTari biografiis

dadgenaSi, vfiqrobT, gaugebrobaa. solomon yubaneiSvilis

mier moxmobili dokumentebidanac Cans da sxva

monacemebiTac irkveva, rom naTlobis mowmobaSi, praqtikuli

miznebisaTvis dabadebis TariRis Secvla XIX saukune-

Si Cveulebrivi movlena yofila. amis TvalsaCino nimuSad

meore, aseve didi qarTveli mgosnis akaki wereTlis mier,

ukvdav “Cem TavgadasavalSi”, sakuTari biografiis gadmocemisas,

analogiur sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mowodebuli

cnobis gaxsenebac kmara: “davbadebulvar me 9 ivniss, ganTiadisas

1840-Si, Tumca naTlobis mowmobaSi ki 1841 miweria”-o,

_ brZanebs poeti da qarTuli literaturis uklebliv yvela

mkvlevari uryev WeSmaritebad saxavs akakis azrs. ismis

kiTxva: Tuki erT SemTxvevaSi uyoymanod vujerebT akaki wereTels

msgavs sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, ratom vucxadebT

undoblobas vaJa-fSavelas, roca mas koreqtivi Seaqvs sxvis

SecdomaSi? rogorc Cans, am undoblobam marTlac “ibartya”

da amis wyalobiTaa, rom qarTuli literaturis istorikosTa

nawerebSi vaJa-fSvelas biografiasTan dakavSirebiT

araa gaTvaliswinebuli TviT poetis Txovna da cnoba.

aleqsandre xaxanaSvili, jer kidev 1913 wels, vaJas dabadebis

TariRad 1859 wels acxadebs 21 , xolo yvela sxva

avtori: kita abaSiZe 22 , vaxtang kotetiSvili 23 , mixeil zandukeli

24 , Salva radiani 25 , dimitri benaSvili 26 , akaki gawerelia

27 , apolon maxaraZe 28 , grigol kiknaZe 29 1861 wlis 14

21.

a. xaxanaSvili, qarTuli sityvierebis istoria, tf., 1913.

22.

k. abaSiZe, etiudebi XIX saukunis qarTuli literaturis istoriidan,

Tb., 1962.

23.

v. kotetiSvili, qarTuli literaturis istoria (XIX s.), Tb., 1959.

24.

m. zandukeli, vaJa-fSavela, Tb., 1953.

25.

S. radiani, axali qarTuli literatura, Tb., 1954.

26.

d. benaSvili, vaJa-fSavela: Semoqmedi da moazrovne, Tb., 1961.

27.

a. gawerelia, vaJa-fSavela, qarTuli literaturis istoria, IV, Tb., 1974.

28.

a. maxaraZe, razikaSvilebis poezia, Tb., 1987.

29.

g. kiknaZe, vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedeba, g. kiknaZe, Txzulebani xuT tomad, t. I.

Tb., 2005.


208 waxnagi 1.2009

(26) ivliss miiCnevs. ZiriTadad aseTia vaJa-fSavelas biografiis

erT detalis _ dabadebis TariRis _ Sesaxeb arsebuli

faqtobrivi mxare.

Cveuli patiosnebiT, poeti damarwmuneblad aRwers Tavis

biografias daumTavrebel, magram brwyinvale, avtobiografiuli

xasiaTis nawarmoebSi “Cemi wuTisofeli”,

moTxrobaSi “mogoneba”, xolo bolos “mcire SeniSvnaSi”

(1912) naTlad gvidgens Tavisi cxovrebis faqtobriv mxares.

“Cems wuTisofelSi” poeti STambeWdavad acocxlebs

mkiTxvelis TvalSi Tavis yrmobas, roca wers: “rva wlamde

vizrdebodi Zvel wignebze: “vefxistyaosani”, “mzeWabukisa

da jimSedis ambavi” (CubinaSvilis qrestomaTia), gribuli

JorJ zandisa Seiqmna Cems sayvarel wignebad”. mamamisis,

mRvdel pavle razikaSvilis mier Canergili siyvaruli

Zveli da axali aRTqmis wignebisadmi laRi warmosaxvis,

gamorCeuli niWierebis ymawvilis fantazias aRviZebda:

“Cems yuradRebas izidavda daviTisagan goliaTis damarcxeba,

samson Zlieris moqmedebani, ZmaTa makabelTa Tavdadeba

da sxv.” “unda mogaxsenoT, rom Cemi Tavi samson Zlierad

myavda warmodgenili,” wers poeti da iqve miuTiTebs:

“rva wlisa Telavis sasuliero saswavlebelSi mimabares”

(“Cemi wuTisofeli”), xolo moTxrobaSi “mogoneba” vaJa

aRniSnavs, rom TelavSi klasSi asakiT yvelaze patara yofila;

amitomac patara lukas uadgilobis gamo buxarSi

svamdnen: “buxari iyo Cemi skami mTeli ori weli, radgan

adgili aRar iyo SegirdisaTvis da erTTavad nacarSi amogangluli

davdiodi”-o (“mogoneba”, 1888). misi TqmiT, “am

saswavlebelSi yofnam Cems gulsa da gonebas veraferi Sehmata,

Cems fantasias, gonebis moTxovnilebas ver akmayofilebda

laTinuri da berZnuli frazebis zepiroba” (“Cemi

wuTisofeli”).

Cven vvaraudobT, rom Tu SemdgomSi metrikuli Canaweris

_ naTlobis mowmobis gadasworebazea saubari, vaJas ki

ar daakles dabadebis weli, aramed moumates, imitom, rom

im dros, rva wlis asakis bavSvs saswavlebelSi ar iRebdnen.

ojaxSi mdidar sulier sazrdos dawafebuli, araCveulebrivi

monacemebis luka razikaSvilis saswavlebelSi adre

Seyvana, rogorc Cans, Tavad maZiebeli sulis, mkvircxli

gonebis, ganaTlebisa da wignis trfial pavle razikaSvilisaTvis

gardaual aucileblobad iqca. Zneli iyo biblias,

qarTul da evropuli klasikis nimuSebs naziarebi

ymawvilis TviTdinebaze miSveba da usistemo garemocvaSi

yofna saxlSi. miT ufro, am pirobebSi dabadebis mowmobis

Sedgena, fSavSi Tavisi mdgomareobiT cnobil iseTi sasu-


narkvevi 209

liero moRvawisaTvis, rogoric pavle razikaSvili iyo,

problemas ar warmoadgenda, rac man, rogorc Cans, ganaxorciela

kidec. amitomacaa vaJa, roca SesaZlebloba eZleva,

daJinebiT Seaxsenebs mkiTxvels, rom is 8 wlisa miabares

saswavlebelSi...

amrigad, poeti dabadebuli aris ara 1861 wlis 14 (26)

ivliss, aramed 1862 wlis 15 maiss.

bolos da bolos, visac surs ndoba gamoucxados genialur

vaJas, unda irwmunos sxvadasxva konteqstSi warmodgenili

naambobi da replika, romelic cxra aTeulze meti

xnis win, 1912 wels, gamoaqveyna didma poetma.

yvela qveyanaSi met-naklebad Znelia geniosis bedi, magram

CvenSi ki ufro metad, rac vaJas biografiis garSemo

arsebuli am mcire detalis gaxsenebamac cxadyo. araerTgzisi

miniSneba-gancxadebis miuxedavad, erTianad qarTulma

sazogadoebam (iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda), Tavi daiyrua

genialuri poetis nawerebSi gacxadebuli faqtebisa

da TviT misi kategoriuli Txovnis mimarT, rac, samwuxarod,

kidev erTxel dasturyofs mware realobas: saqarTveloSi

Turme dRemde ufro metad endobian da pativs miageben

caristul biurokratiul samyaroSi kancelaristTa

mier gacemul beWdian qaRalds, rogorc simarTlis umaRles

instancias, vidre geniosis sityvas...

rasakvirvelia, esec, totalitarizmisa da neototalitarizmis

xanaSi, qarTvelTa cxovrebis Znelbedobis pirobebSi,

sanimuSod