Making City Arnavutköy, Istanbul

architectureworkroom

5th International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam

Making City:

Arnavutköy, Istanbul

51N4E

HNS

AWB

October.2011, Istanbul


Contents

I. Project Attitude

Tensions Used Constructively

Prioritized Readings

Considering multiple scales

II. Project Summary

Looking at the full watercycle

Water; the missing link

An interactive system

Appendix 1: Design Principles Pilot Sites

Site Selection

Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Ecological Corridor

Pilot #03: Arnavutköy Ridge City

Pilot #04: Arnavutköy Agricultural Suburb

Appendix 2: Implementation methods

How to make an integral system

Urban and landscape qualities

How to start a process


I. Introduction:

From Arnavutköy Municipality

to Productive Landscape


North Istanbu: the natural resource

South Istanbul: the mega city


A Strategic Vision

Project origin, set-up, scope

The present booklet is the summary of a study initiated jointly by the

International Architecture Biennale of Rotterdam and the Municipality of

Arnavutköy, Istanbul.The multiple agenda of the result reflects the double

scope of the study.

If the questions of the study brief are formulated by the issues and

dilemmas that a developing municipality at the edge of large metropolis is

facing, the answers are sought through palpitating the Istanbul condition

itself. On one hand confronted with the same issues as most mega cities

around the world today, Istnabul is at the same time a very specific place,

with its specific qualities, opportunities and dangers. By prioritizing the

aspect of sustainable urban development, the study vision bypasses the

dilemma between preservation and growth, and focuses on a scenario

where ostensibly conflicting dynamics become mutually dependent and

reinforcing.

The development pressure in Arnavutköy represents the dilemma rapidly

growing metropolises like Istanbul are in. On the one hand they have to

accommodate the increase of population consuming ever more space; on

the other hand they have to provide the necessary resources to provide this

population with all the essentials of life: food, water, mobility…

In Arnavutköy, the conflict is crystallizing between the growth of the city

and the supply of water. Arnavutköy, and more specifically the Sazlidere

basin, is one of the 7 important water catchment areas of the Metropolitan

municipality of Istanbul.

Already today, the importance of the water supply is taken very seriously.

ISKI, the water management company, focuses strongly on protecting

the water basin. A very clear zoning logic has been installed: urbanization

and agricultural use of the land decreases as one gets closer to the basin,

minimizing the impact of human occupation on the quality of the water.

Although the principles of these zones are very clear, it seems difficult

to cope with the incremental and informal consumption of the land. The

zoning logic exists in plan, but is not materialized on site. Maintaining the

zoning principle requires constant control, has to be enforced with authority

and often results in conflicts. In this strategic vision, we propose a more

productive mode of coexistence between the water basin and the city. To

do so, the ISKI zoning logic is taken as starting point, further developed and

refined.


The Question: Arnavutköy today

How to develop? How to preserve?

The burning questions for the Municipality of Arnavutköy as reflected

in a map of potential points of intervention around the Municipality

territory: natural creek zones crossing the grounds of the town, while

new neighbourhoods develop(ed) around, existing villages situated

in direct or close proximity to the protected drinking water reservoir,

places strategically located in proximity to planned regional road

infrastructure facing development pressure etc. The dilemma

between preservation and development becomes manifest.


Arnavutköy & drinking water reservoirs

Natural resources as a main identity feature

The Municipality of Arnavutköy happens to partly contain 3 water

reservoirs providing the entire Istanbul city with drinking water. This

gives the municipality territory a distinct identity feature, an asset to

develop upon as much as a responsibility towards the metropolitan

region that contains it.


Istanbul & drinking water reservoirs

Current supply resources

The Metropolitan Municipality of Istanbul contains 7 natural drinking

water reservoirs, all of them by now under a strict protection regime.

The supply from these reservoirs currently covers the needs of the

entire broader Istanbul. According to predictions (based on the

consumption rhythm of today), it will continue to do so until the point

the city growth surpasses a population of 15 million people.


Istanbul Water Management

Alternative water supply plan

The Istanbul strategy for water management includes on one hand

strict protection measures of the existing reservoirs, purification

units, existing and planned but also a plan to import water from

nearby territories in order to respond to the augmenting demand

within its own borders This scenario, although based on a realistic

view of the Istanbul future, will create a dependence of the city on

territories out of its direct control, even out of the national control.

The present study supports the argument that this condition should

be postponed as much as possible: the focus should be primarily on

developing the local potential to its limits.

1 Water supply Istanbul - example Sazlidere basin

7x

terkos büyükçekmece

elmalı ömerli darlık

sazlıdere

alibeyköy

?

existing connection

planned connection

existing pumpingstation

planned pumpingstation

existing purification installation

planned purification installation

planned bassin

existing reservoir

20 km


Istanbul agriculture zones

Additional potential in resources

The current zoning of the Istanbul Municipality territory includes

relatively large areas assigned as agriculture zones. Although some

being actually more functional than others, agriculture represents a

(less defined, less prioritized) potential within the region. Even if the

main agricultural production is located in other areas of the country

and the envisioned profile of Istanbul is focusing on tertiary sector,

the potential in employment, land quality preservation and local food

production should remain into consideration.


Istanbul Masterplan

focus on preservation of existing resources

The Masterplan developed for the broader Istanbul region sets in

priority natural resources preservation issues and envisions a limit

in the population growth below the tipping point of the balance

between urban development and supply on resources. Although

clear in its intentions as a general plan, its applicability in local scales

is today much less sharply defined.


Istanbul Multiple Actors

Simultaneous dynamics and their coordination


Istanbul growth 1980

Impact of First Bosphorus Bridge

The construction of the First Highway Bridge in 1973, coincided

with a process of rapid urbanization, causing the Istanbul city area

to almost double within a decade from the size it had reached

throughout its history.


Istanbul growth 2000

Impact of Second Bosphorus Bridge

Reduced rural migration during the last decades of the 20th century

didn’t hinder the rapid growth of Istanbul after the construction of

the 2nd Highway (in purple)


Istanbul growth 2045

Projected impact of of Third Bosporhus Bridge

The Istanbul Metropolitan Masterplan predicts the population of

Istanbul to stabilize after 2025 around 16-18 million inhabitants and

the extension of the urban territory to be restricted in the southern

Istanbul zone, along the Sea of Marmara.Other factors, like the new

planned highway and 3rd Bridge over the Bosphorus close to the

Black Sea will though bring along pressure for development.


The Theme: Making city

Qualitative urbanization in the focus of IABR 2012

Istanbul is featuring as one of the main focus cities in the upcoming

edition International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam. In the frame

of the Biennale, Istanbul’s booming development still today, not

having reached its saturation point, poses questions on qualitative

development, making city beyond plain growth.

Population Growth: Arnavutkoy, Istanbul, Turkey


A World of Cities

Urban agglomerations projection in 2025 (United Nations)

Focusing on the quality of cities becomes more relevant than

ever: Global predictions indicate that by 2025 80% of the global

population will be living in cities, occupying 3% of the available

territory and producing 90% of the global economy. How will these

cities, most of them metropolises already today, will manage to

cover the needs of its inhabitants in fresh water, food, ...


Urban Growth Patterns

Istanbul’s underlying potential for sustainable growth

Different urban agglomerations have different growth patterns. Next

to the archetypical concentric growth model of cities like London,

and the urban networks of western Europe, Istanbul with its linear

growth pattern presents an opportunity for urban development in

close proximity to open landscape.


Arnavutköy Dynamics

How to allow growth while preserving resources?

The most important challenge that Arnavutköy is facing is finding

a balance between preservation and development. Flexible tools,

allowing to steer and anticipate development are sought for to

overcome conflicts between dynamics.


+

Project dynamics

You are here: Territory where different dynamics meet

The setup of the project as a constellation of dynamics and expertise

allows to better address the multiplicity of the agendas concentrated

in the Arnavutköy territory.

3rd bridge highway

protected drink water

basin

developing

coast

protected green zones

developing communities

industrial corridor

2nd bridge highway

city expanding


Considering Multiple Scales

Proposals put in perspective

During the study, issues are placed in different perspectives and

projected in different scales : proposals for local interventions can

be models for similar issues in the broader region and strategic

thinking in the larger scale can lead to unexpected answers for local

problems.


Prioritized Readings

Administrative Entities as territory units

The conventional reading of a larger territory as a composition of the

different municipalities it contains facilitates certain administrative

questions, but in the case where natural features and resources

become the point of focus, this subdivision does not allow a

comprehensive study of the problem.

LEGEND

Administration in Istanbul is split up into sub Municipalities which were created through negotiation between the

people living in the city, and usually adhere to a political logic, which tends to inhibit implementing a wholesome

strategy that would be based, for instance, on the logic of water collection and distribution.

1:500 000


Prioritized Readings

Natural Entities as territory units

Acknowledging water preservation as a main point of focus for

developing a strategic vision for the Arnavutköy area, the project

also adopts a consequent reading of the territory. The city becomes

its landscape, a collection of water drainage basins providing

Istanbul with with valuable drinking water supply as well as its

characteristic relief.

01

02

03

04

C

05

A

F

B

06 07

09

10

11

12

1314

15

16

G

J

18

K

D

08

E

H

17

21

19

20

23

I

22

Map of all drainage basins of Istanbul Metropolitan Region: the central areas of the peninsula form sweet-water

basins while the perimeter sea-water basins. Together, they form a complete partioning of the city.

1:500 000


Making City

aiming at site-specific living conditions


II. Project Summary:

Sazlidere Basin

looking at the full water cycle

The readable Landscape: making administrative boundaries visible

Looking at the basin

Looking at the city

Towards a total system: alternative water cycle

Creating a future-absorbing pattern

The Ridge City: clear boundaries and in balance with the landscape

Water saved by water: water the missing link

Productive density: Directing Development with Incentive rather than Prohibition

An interactive system


oad

+100m

Urban Spine

Concentrated Islands

Grid City

Garden City/Urban Agriculture

Adjacent Urban Areas: Hadimkoy, Karaburun..

Private Villas/Gated Communities

Village

Existing Forest

Forest as edge to ridge city

Precision agriculture on the city fringe

Agriculture

Extensive grassland

Functional nature

Water

Grid

1kmx1km

+ =


Looking at the Full Water Cycle

One part of the problem of the zoning logic as proposed by ISKI is that it is

not possible to realize the zoning under present conditions. The protection

zones, which consist of concentric circles of different types of nature and

agriculture, are solely restrictive and do not come to life because they lack

the main resource to develop them: water. This water is exclusively destined

to be used for the drinking water supply for the city. As a consequence, the

different zones in the ISKI protection plan do not become a reality on the

ground. In the perception and the daily use of the population of Arnavutköy,

the grounds that make up these protection zones are in essence unused,

dead land. In the perception of the population, there is no apparent reason

why this land is not suitable for urbanization: devoid of meaning, the most

evident and lucrative use of the land is to build on it. With the planned third

highway crossing the Arnavutköy municipality, the lack of a development

perspective for these protection zones could turn out to be catastrophic. In

order to enhance the protection of the basin, it is crucial to invent a future

life for this land. (see: project specifics)

Another important step in the strategic vision is to look not only at the end

of the water cycle, but also at the beginning. This means that one should

not only look at ways how to protect the water basin, but also at ways to

prevent the pollution at the source: the urbanization that creates the waste

water, polluting the rain water destined for the water basin.

In the proposal, all future development is concentrated in a clearly defined

zone on top of the ridge of the water basin. This zone can be considered

as an extra layer added to the ISKI zoning. Contrary to the other zones,

where we propose to stop urbanization, urban development in this zone

is not limited but promoted. This attitude allows taking a clear and proactive

attitude, aiming to develop qualities instead of limiting quantities.

Concentrating urban development in a clearly defined zone running along

the ridge creates the obvious advantages linked to dense cities: it allows

developing public transport, concentrating services and creating a better

sewage infrastructure. Although putting the most polluting source on the

uppermost part of the basin seems counter intuitive on first sight, there is

a clear potential to be found is this layout: the proposal to install a water

system that collects rain water, grey water and black water separately,

allows to equip every city part with its own treatment system and to control

the water output of the city. All of this can happen by using the natural flow

of the water, pulled downstream by gravity.


Looking at the Basin

The readable landscape

Transfering the administrative boundaries from a map to reality is a

necessary step to render them visible and thus undeniable, leaving

less room for misinterpretation and landscape misuse.

The most evident way to materialize the borders is to refine them by

letting them relate to the natural topography and to then shape the

landscape giving the zones specific content.

An eloquent example of the value of boundaries materialization:

Instead of letting water run-off into the reservoir along its entire

perimeter, the physical boundaries between zones alllow separating

water flows. Cleansing systems are installed with monitored inflow

points on one side of the reservoir, while a permanent cleansing

wetland is installed on the other side

Functional Nature: safeguards the basin

Strict protection zone

Bufferzone: extensive grasslands

Short range protection zone

Agricultural land: zero-tolerance

Medium & Long range protection zone

City boundary

Strong landuse: forest and vitalised agriculture

Ridge city: welcome the city

Productive density on the high grounds

Forest

Urban

Rural

Military

Strict protection zone

nature

Short range protection zone

ecological agriculture

Medium range protection zone

allowed pop.: 40p/ha (urban) 20p/ha (rural)

Long range protection zone

allowed pop: 80p/ha (urban) 25p/ha (rural)a

Section A (next page):

The current administrative landscape: immaterial boundaries

The proposed Readable landscape: visible and physical boundaries


Functional nature zone

Current situation: direct agricultural runoff into the lake

steep slopes mark the boundary between eco-agricultural and regular agricultural zone

prominent dike/quay line with hedgerow vegetation marks the boundary between nature and eco-agricultural zone

Ecologial shoreline

filtering in reservoir

Proposal: interscept and re-route agricultural runoff

Surface flow purification alongside lake

small quay

Cascade system

filtering agricultural run-off

wetland bypass

dike

enlarged embankment

Controlled inflow Concentration allows for = Control

waterquality ISKI monitoring

stations

ca 300m

Purification within the Lake

by adding a wetland zone

enlarged embankment

small

quay

ca 300m


oad

+100m

Agriculture

Extensive grassland

Functional nature

Water

Looking at the Basin

Activating and safeguarding

The layout of the different zones is structured based on their

function. The first 300m from the reservoir become a functional

nature zone with wetlands and ecological purification. The nature

zones actively protects the reservoir agains poluted agricultural

runoff. As an additional buffer, agricultural use in close proximity to

the basin is restricted to extensive grassland, preventing intensive

nutrient input and outlow near the reservoir. Grassland vegetation

ensures a buffering function of this zone yearround, this in contrast

with ecological agriculture which implies barren grounds during

winter.

Grid

1kmx1km

The second focus for strengthening landuse is on the city edge.

By reusing urban wastewater the necessary irrigation water and

nutrients can be provided to make these zones come to life and

become robust. A Forest boundary of 300m forms a clear and

unmistakeable edge to the city and provides wood to be used in

a sustainable fertiliser: so-called black soil, or terra prata (biochar)

which binds nutrients to the soil, preventing outflow. Depending

on water and biochar availability agricultural production is boosted

in patches/zones of precision agriculture along the city fringe. For

details see appendix II

Together, forest, precision agriculture and extensive grassland

redefine the ecogical agriculture (short range protection) zone

Planted strips, small quay’s and a dike make the limits of the zones

visible.

Looking at the basin:

Functional nature zone runoff before entering the basin

Extensive grassland activates the bufferzone near the reservoir


Clearly visible, physical boundaries between zones

Small dike forms the edge of the functional nature zone and seperates runoff in a parallel system, preventing direct

inflow

Enlarged ecological banks filter water in the reservoir (ref Terkos Gölü)

Section A (see map previous page)

Short range protection zone is made productive

by reusing urban wastewater for irrgation

(3 types of agriculture redefine short range protection zone)

Forest Precision agriculture Extensive grasslands

reusing urban wastewater:

recycling H2O & P+N

to vitalise landuse

Ridge city

City Edge

Bufferzone

Functional nature zone (300m)

Forest Precision agriculture Extensive grasslands Ecological purification

Paralell wetland and

dike Lake with ecological bank


Looking at the City

The water complement

The above proposed system for restructuring the basin zones

aims at improving their performance in ecological, economical and

social terms. It also makes very clear that in the proposal as in the

existing condition, the successful preservation of the drinking water

paradoxically but intrisically depends on finding more water. Water

to feed the intermediate protection zones, to provide them with

identity and use, and to help them resist informal / incontrollable

development. A complementary side of the basin protection plan is

sought at the direct proximity of the basin: on the ridge.

But where does the (extra) water come from?


Towards a total system

An alternative water cycle

Rain water: utilise functional nature to filter before entering the

drinking water reservoir

Urban grey water: treated and reused in the city as service water to

reduce water demand

Urban black water: treated and reused for drip irrigation of precision

agriculture and forests. Reuse the sludge as input for blacksoil

(biochar)


Looking at the City

Establishing a flexible base for development

The current condition of built volume in the Sazlidere basin shows

concentrations around the Arnavutköy town with additional sparse

developments around the rest of the basin. No specific development

pattern can be distinguished, and the existing regulations, based

on non-localized percentages of development, do not suggest

one either. This strategy risks leading to sprawl: development

will happen in an opportunistic way, hard to foresee or control,

until the saturation point of the regulation percentages. To the

typical dangers of sprawl being consumption of valuable land and

landscape deterioration, an additional danger is presented here with

the lack of control over the impact of unorganized developments on

the water resources. Density becomes a menace.

The vision aims at overturning this situation by channeling urban

development in a pattern that can absorb different future scenarios.

In this pattern, the final density is not prescribed but left open to the

future needs of the area, becoming another of the parameters at

play.


Current built volume in the basin

Future projection of built based on existing regulations: imminent

sprawl risk

Proposed direction built volume: channeling development along the

ridge, zero tolerance in the interior


oad

+100m

Urban Spine

Concentrated Islands

Grid City

Garden City/Urban Agriculture

Adjacent Urban Areas: Hadimkoy, Karaburun..

Private Villas/Gated Communities

Village

The Ridge City

A new layer added to preserve and enable

The reason to concentrate development is twofold:

Concentration allows for better control over the infrastructure

quality. A properly managed sewage system will make water re-use

possible, thus activating the zones lower in the basin and assisting

the preservation process. The city edge is arguably the most

important boundary to materialize. By reusing urban wastewater

to strengthen the landscape on the city edge (irrigated forest

and precision agriculture) the city reinforces its own boundary.

Not just a clear and robust edge, the forests and vital agricultural

fields additionally provide valuable recreational space for the cities

residents, and contribute to food and wood production.

Existing Forest

Forestband as edge to ridge city

Precision agriculture on the city fringe

Water

Grid

1kmx1km

It also enables other infrastructure to happen more efficiently (for

example, road networks) or to simply happen (as in the case of

public transport, when density is enough to make it efficient).

For this concentration to find place on the ridge, seems like a natural

choice. The Sazlidere ridge and basin being part of a landscapesystem

of ridges and basins allows the Ridge City to have excellent

connections to the broader area and to profit from the variety of the

differents parts that constitute the ridge (forest, industrial cluster,

Arnavutköy Town etc)

The ridge city:

development concentrated on the ridge

Strong and productive landscape boundary as city edge: forest and precision agriculture


A very clear forest band marks the boundary of the city The Ridge as a collection of differences The Ridge as a part of a whole

Sazlidere Ridge connectivity


oad

+100m

Urban Spine

Concentrated Islands

Grid City

Garden City/Urban Agriculture

Adjacent Urban Areas: Hadimkoy, Karaburun..

Private Villas/Gated Communities

Village

Water, the missing link

As a result of this concentration principle, the water that is a byproduct

of the city can become a means to save and protect the

water that feeds the basin. Suddenly, things are turned upside down:

the urban development that threatens the water basin becomes

the necessary motor to save it. Water saved by water: the output

water of the city is used to feed the zones that protect the basin,

giving them the necessary nutrients and water to live, and therefore

survive. All elements of the system become interdependent: the

water feeding the city, the city feeding the land, the land protecting

the basin.

Existing Forest

Forest as edge to ridge city

Precision agriculture on the city fringe

Agriculture

Extensive grassland

Functional nature

Water

Grid

1kmx1km

In a bizarre twist of logic, developing more city increases the

protection of the basin. Suddenly, density is not a threat but

potentially productive.

By closing the loop, the strategic vision aims at a triple ambition:

1. To sustain and improve the collection of drinking water

2. To give a meaning to and development potential for the

ISKI protection zones

3. To invent ways to absorb urbanization in a qualitative

way, in a balanced coexistence with the above


feeds

City

Agriculture

feeds

protects

Water


A Future-Absorbing Pattern

Extrapolation of the vision on the scale of Istanbul

Although focusing solely on Sazlidere, the vision is not considering

the basin as an isolated case. The core issues that the Arnavutöy

municipality is confronted with being relevant for the entire area

in and around Istanbul, the real goal for the city should be finding

patterns that would allow it to develop sustainably in its entirety.

In this effort, flexibility and priorities rather than restrictions should

be a key.


?

Current Scenario (low growth) Current Scenario (medium growth) Current Scenario (high growth is not an option)

Alternative Scenario (low growth)

Alternative Scenario (medium growth)

Alternative Scenario (high growth)


Productive Density

Incentive rather than Prohibition

1. To improve the collection of drinking water

2. To give development potential for iSKi zones

3. To urbanize in balance with the basin

300.000 to 500.000 more people 600 to 1.000 ha high end agriculture 37.5 people / ha (total basin)


ASSUMPTIONS FOR CALCULATING

Area in plan is reduced by 15% to account for roads/infrastructure

a person is allocated 30 m 2 of living space (see attached standards in several european countries. This is an extremely

generous assumption)

PROJECTIONS

total buildable surfaced is assumed to be 50% housing (a rough estimate for Brussels metropolitan region is that this

ratio is closer to 60% housing, and we can consider that this is still a ‘sub’ urban part of Istanbul and raise the ratio to

70%, this would give even larger numbers in the above chart, or allow for more spacious development with the existing

numbers)

Another thing to consider is a development scenario for the agriculture which is as discussed earlier a combination of

vegetable and wheat farming, HNS could propose an adequate

ASSUMPTIONS

number based

FOR

on these

CALCULATING

numbers tha we now have)

- Area in plan is reduced by 15% to account for roads/infrastructure

- 30 m 2 of living space/ person

- total buildable surface: 50% housing

# people

m 2

average FAR, plot usage

% of eco-agri able to

cultivate vegetables

reference to city types

1

4 million

29.7 km 2

i = 8; a = 50%

over 100 %

a denser Hong Kong

2

1.5 mil

29.7 km 2

i = 7.9; a = 70-85%

35 %

Cerda (Barcelona),

Manhattan grid (NY)

3

0.5 mil

29.7 km 2

i = 2.3; a = 60%

12 %

dense Toki

4

0.38 mil

29.7 km 2

-

10 %

Municipal projections

as discussed last week

5

-

-

-

-

-

Excercise in calculation of the irrigation potential of different population densities of the Ridge City.


An Interactive System

Like in any eco-system, the interdependence of all elements is the key to

the story. The vision will be strategic only if the elements are related. Exactly

this aspect might be the Achilles heel of the proposal. Today, the different

authorities take full responsibility in their domain, but create very little

interaction in between domains. As long as this is the case, the strategic

vision will be useless. A crucial step in realising the vision and building a

sustainable future for the city is to build a common project in which all

levels of authority interact. This study shows that this could be possible.

Already, in the process of the last months, intelligence from the municipality

has been cross-referenced with the points of view of the water and

agriculture authorities (amongst others). It is clear that this proposal is just

a first step; we truly hope that the results of this first exercise are inspiring

enough to motivate all parties involved to continue this path towards a

better future.


ARNAVUTKOY

>>

ARNAVUTKOY

Strategic Vision:A Cross-Authority Project

ECO

ECO

Actors involved

3rd Highway

Private Enterprise + TOKi

iSKi

Independent Logics

Arnavutköy Municipality +IMR

Agriculture Ministry

Forest Ministry


LONG TERM ALLIANCE

to steer the project:

SHORT TERM ALLIANCE:

to realize seperate phases of implementatio

iSKi + Arnavutkoy Municipality

iSKi

Forest Ministry

+

iSKi

Agriculture Ministry

+

Forest Ministry

iSKi

+

Private Developers

+

TOKi

Example of constellations of authorities necessary for the different levels of realization of a project, differentiation between vision-carriers, consulting and executive parties


Appendix 1:

Design Principles Pilot Sites

Pilot Site Selection

Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Ecological Corridor

Pilot #03: Arnavutköy Ridge City

Pilot #04: Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb


Pilot Overview

Legal Map

#03

#02

#04

Hadimköy Ridge City

Arnavutköy Eco Corridor

Arnavutköy Ridge City

Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

#01

#02

#03

#04

#01


In this appendix the selection of proposed Pilot Project sites is explained

and elaborated, and each project is given a set of design principles as base

for further development.

The four proposed sites are selected based on different characteristics:

location, potential for application of the proposed methods, land

ownership, collaboration opportunities.

The first is located in a currently scarcely developed area, in close proximity

to the water reservoir, and would thus constitute a rather pure application

of the theoretical model developed in the vision.

The other three sites, located on the other side of the water and part of

existing or developing land of Arnavutköy town, form together a group:

They relate to the main water basin as much as to one of the secondary

creeks that lies within urbanized ground. Besides addressing urgent issues

for the imminent development of the town, they represent a testing ground

for the flexibility of the model, its application in a complex, real context


Pilot Site Selection

Overview of Site Areas

Diagram listing the four sites, their group formations and their

respective surfaces

03

02

04

01

Hadimköy Ridge City

a: 2.45 km²

02

Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

a: 1.01 km²

01

03

Arnavutköy Ridge City

a: 1.89 km²

04

Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

a: 3.71 km²


Pilot Site Selection

Overview of land properties, and existing built volume

Overview of the four sites charted according to land ownership

(state-owned, municipal, private) and to the existing built tissue they

contain.


#01 Hadimköy Ridge City

New Zoning Map

Located between the industrial zone of Hadimköy and the protection

zones of the Sazlidere basin, the site is a perfect sample of a future

urban edge along the ridge in direct proximity to open/ productive

landscape. Its excellent connectivity to economic poles (Industrial

cluster Hadimköy, Ataturk airport, 2nd Highway to the south, 3rd

Highway to the north) give potential to the development, while the

proximity to the water commands for thorough protection measures.


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Land ownership

An important argument behind the choice of this area as a pilot site,

and behind the belief that it could actually become the first testing

ground for the vision is its property chart: largely owned by the

municipality while practically empty from buildings, it gathers in a

small area the entire range of zones from ridge to basin.

A successful application of the system in this area, would prove

and render tangible the potential of cross-collaboration between

authorities.

Municipal Land

Municipal Shared Land

State Land (Treasury)

State Shared Land


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Land Ownership Analysis

01

total area ownership built

state

private

1.22 %

municipal

33.87 %

64.5 %

2.45 km²

(100 %)

64.5 %

33.87 %

1.22 %

0 %


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

City in balance with a readable and robust landscape

Overview of the proposed zoning: the current iSKi border that would

represent the limit between built and non-built, city and landscape, is

refined according to the topography and the property lines.

The urban patch develops along the ridge while landscape zones

cleanse both run-off water and recycled city water. City and

landscape meet in a forest zone that doubles as a public amenity.

300m

300m

1000m

strict

protection zone

short-range

protection zone

medium-range

protection zone

Current Regulations: iSKi protection zones


Starting boundary: iSKi 1000m no-build line

Boundary adjustment: topography line

Boundary adjustment: property parcels


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Laying out the basis for development

With the site topography in mind, a set of main roads is laid out

parallel to the height lines, accompanied by a secondary set of

perpendicular roads and walking paths penetrating the landscape

zone. Upon that grid a water supply and collection network is built

. The run-off water is cleansed int he lower zones of the basin, the

black city water is treated and used in a zone of precision farming.

The landscape is activated.

II

III

RIDGE ROAD

I

I

II

III

I

Main road network (parallel to toporaphy)

Green system and road system


Urban runoff water

treatment and reuse of blackwater

Urban watersystem


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Living quality

Different types of built tissue are indicatively proposed for

different parts of the development: functions of public interest

are concentrated along the ridge ring road (dense large buildings,

commercial potential) while some recreation functions and public

terraces could profit from the valley view along the lower edge.

The infill of the city is a combination of larger and smaller private

structures, of gradually lowering density towards the basin.

III

II

6

RIDGE ROAD

I

1

5

5

2

3

6

3

6

3

4

4

6

1

3

8

3

3

6

3

3

6

2

3

1b

2

4

6

1

3

5

6

8

1b

5

2

3

3

4

3

III

3

I

II

I


2

10

RIDGE

First Perimeter along the Ridge

Road tied to public transport:

Intense 3 Urban Centralities 4

Volumes that define

Third Perimeter: different characters of

Residential open Belt space toward the Basin

(public-semipublic)

1

1b

CITY OFFSET ROAD

FOREST BAND

Second Perimeter:

Levels of Urban intensity

13

1b 4

3

4

Third Perimeter:

Residential Belt toward the Basin

36 47

2

CITY O

FORES

5

3

Variations on Private

Developments, 2 home 4

and garden

3

4

8 9

5

6 7

10

III

III

III

II

II

II

6

RIDGE RIDGE ROAD ROAD

RIDGE ROAD

RIDGE ROAD

I

I

I

6

1

5

6

1

5

3

4

3

4

3

3

3

3

5

6

8

6

6

1b

2

2

Agriculture Block

3

3

3

4

6

3

6

1

1b

2

III

II

I

6 I

7

3

3

5

5

4

3

3

III

II

I

I

8

8 9

III

II

I

I

Urban concentrations along the ridge, public transport network

Public terraces with landscape view

Dense city volumes

structuring public and semi-public open spaces

Private development


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

3D Cross Section - Hadimköy Project in all its layers

Scheme explaining the combined working of city and landscape:

Urban wastewater is treated and reused for irrigation in a closed

system: precision farming on biochar enriched soils ensure efficient

nutrient reuse and prevents flushing out of nutrients to the basin.

At the same time, urban runoff is treated in a cascaded wetland system,

paralel to the basin. preventing direct runoff and offering ability

to control and monitor inflow

forest and precision agriculture

ridge city

50ha urban development

= 12500 people

extensive grasslands

ecological purification

ecological shoreline

= 25ha

precision agriculture


Urban wastewater treatment and reuse

Urban runoff treatment in a cascaded wetland system

reusing urban wastewater:

recycling H2O & P+N

to vitalise landuse

Ridge city

City Edge

Bufferzone

Functional nature zone (300m)

Forest Precision agriculture Extensive grasslands Ecological purification

Paralell wetland and

dike Lake with ecological bank


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Capacity calculation

(population/agricultural production)

6

2

6

1

5

6

5

3

3

3

6

4

4

1

3

8

3

3

6

3

3

6

2

3

1b

2

4

6

3

6

1

5

8

1b

5

2

3

3

3

4

3

(A)

Surface Flow Water Purification

500 000m²

i=8

70% is housing

A = 605 561 m²

20-30m² living area

per person

A

62.3%

PRIVATE

37.7%

PUBLIC

~25 000inh.

REQUIRES

for cleaning

greywater

C

(C)

Vertical Flow Water Purification

75 037m²


A

Reed

Surface

Allocated

170 110m²

C

IRRIGATES

top quality

vegetables

809 752m²

80ha

707 709m²

70ha


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Impression of the city edge, integration of landscape in the city


Pilot #01: Hadimköy Ridge City

Data Sheet

l

land

ownership/

main actors

other actors

opportunities

regulations

in conflict/

obstacles

conditions

operation

investment

Arnavutköy

Municipality

(70%)

-ease of implementation, minimum private ownership

-relief growth pressure in Arnavutkoy centre

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

-launch cross-authority collaboration

-

- collaboration ISKI, Metropolitan

Municipality

- Ministry support

- attract private investment

- launch

- assign developer

- coordinate property rights exchange

- building permits

- coordinate infrastructure works

5%

Private

(30%)

- increased payoff with increased real-estate value

- good connectivity to highways

- proximity to industrial cluster

-

-permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

50%

iSKi

- establish protection zones through private

developments

- control developments in basin

- monitor drinking water quality

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

-allowed population density in

area exceeded

-

- regulation revision

- supervise infrastructure works

- execute part infrastructure works

20%

Ministry of

Agriculture

- increase& consolidate agricultural production

- organize/ concentrate animal husbandry

- - - advisory on regulation revision -

IMM

- new identity for Istanbul suburbs

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

- masterplan excludes nonagricultural

destined buildings

from zone

- - regulation revision -

TOKi/KiPTAS

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

- high quality standard heighbourhood

-

- permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

25%


Overview Pilots #02,03,04

Legal Map

Located within the territory of Arnavutköy town, the three sites form

a group: the long strip corresponds to one of the Sazlidere creeks

, while the two other sites, partly already developed today, slope

towards it. In the study below the sites are worked out based on

the same principles of the general vision, adapted to the complex,

specific condition of an already occupied territory.

Together, the sites enhance the intentions of the existing masterplan,

and hint at ways to improve the ecology and the living quality in

existing areas still in development.

#03

#02

#04

Arnavutköy Eco Corridor

Arnavutköy Ridge City

Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

#02

#03

#04


Pilot #02, 03 and 04: Arnavutköy

A green framework for Arnavutkoy

Plan summarizing a main principle for the development of the three

sites: utilize the urban green zones as planning tool to structure the

city and mark city edges


Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

New Legal map

The project deals with the creek strip as a long park zone amidst

the city. It focuses on enhancing its quality by making its character

sharper as a place of public interest: acknowledging a territory as

a public asset would directly provide the necessary resistance to

development, an unresolved issue currently. At the same time it

addresses the urgent question of preventing its water from being

polluted from city run-off and pollute in turn the main basin.


Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

Land ownership map

Looking at the property map, the large percentage of private

property within the borders of the protected ecological zone makes

manifest the underlying difficulty of the site. Engaging private parties

in the development of the zone becomes a crucial condition for the

preservation of its ecological balance.The strip needs to become an

attractor, an asset in the conscience of the city in order to survive.

Municipal Land

Municipal Shared Land

State Land (Treasury)

State Shared Land


Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

Land Ownership Analysis

03

total area ownership built

2.97 %

11.88 %

municipal

state

private

76.24 %

1.01 km²

100 %

76.24 %

11.88 %

2.97 %

4 610 m²

0.46 %


Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

Municipal masterplan map

The creek is shown in the municipal masterplan as a zone empty

from development in order to maintain its ecological role. Here the

zone is further elaborated to distinguish edges from the central

empty zone, and to give these edges more specific characteristics

and a physical presence of their boundaries

wooded open area

agriculture

forest

park

green playgrounds for children

electric substation area

primary facilities (services, religious)

social facilities

technical infrastructure area

commercial

housing (4 storeys, i = 1.1)

housing (3 storeys, i = 0.65)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.65)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.33)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.17)


Tree lined Avenue

Central open space

Forest band

road as small dike

Urban boulevard

Creek System and Site Boundary Legal Offset for the creek (100m, 200m) Legal Boundary Translated into clear edges marking central open space


Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

Flooding

The effort to avoid flooding of urbanized areas has led to a hard

canalization of the creek. In order for the stream to regain its natural

aspect but still fulfill its role in times of flooding, the width of the

protected zone is stretched and existing structures that lie inside

it should be managed accordingly. The extended width becomes

a green zone, publicly accessible at most times, the abundance of

water not being the sole quality factor for the zone.

Relocate buidlings within 100m zone,

adapta buildings witihin 200m flodzone


Brook with floodplains in historic situation

natural river: meanders

Canalisation in current situation

canalised river discharge driven,

static and technocratic solution

Brook in proposed situation

renaturalisation: more robust approach

additional benefit of qualitative public space

dry situation flood event reservation for extreme scenario


Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

The readable boundary

Similarly to the proposal for the zones adjacent to the Sazlidere

reservoir, the proposal for the ecological corridor crossing

Arnavutköy is creating readable boundaries. By giving the

administrative borders a physical and varied presence, the edges of

the nature zone become undeniable and the increased value of the

zone as a public amenity will assist its protection.

shallow and steep embankment to the creek


A

A

B

B

C

D

C

Sections

D


Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

Design Economy

The success of the project for the ecological corridor is partly

dependent on its success as a public attractor. For the specific

case of the creek where an ecological zone is largely composed

out of private properties, the success as a public attractor depends

in turn on the success of the park for private investment. As well

for the public as for the private properties surrounding the zones,

control over the spatial qualities provided should be gained by the

coordinating actors. A continuous, well defined green zone upon

which different attractive and well-maintained amenities anchor will

be a winning situation for all parties involved.


The high density southwestern subcenter of Arnavutkoy offers oppurtunitiy for the urban boulevard

Urban promenade along the water, Maastricht, NL

Other oppurtunities include the direct surroundings of bridges and crossovers. Bridges should span the full lenth

of the corridor

Privately owned recreation amenity in contact with water

(Arch. Tadao Ando, Kyoto)


Borders Arnavutköy, independent logic from the city, disconnected, no-go-zone

-special character: a simple no-go zone can be a blight in itself. Reapropriating it for public use would create a very

particular park landscape for this part of the city.

-recommended as a starter project, intended to win public approval, and awareness of possibilities of combining ecology

with the city

Pilot #02: Arnavutköy Eco-Corridor

Data sheet

-a landscape project

l

land

ownership/

main actors

other actors

opportunities

regulations

in conflict/

obstacles

conditions

operation

investment

Arnavutköy

Municipality

(5%)

- ease of implementation: no regulation conflicts

- protection zone into public park

- protection zone currently

largely private and partly built

- potential high construction

and maintenance cost

- attract private owners, developers,

investors

- launch

- assign developer

- coordinate property rights exchange

- building permits

- coordinate infrastructure works

50%

Private

(80%)

- investment recreation facilities along public/ semiprivate

park

- increased value along new front

-

-permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

30%

State

(15%) iSKi

- protection eco-corridor

- preventing erosion (avoid sediment into lake)

- -

- advisory on permit conditions

- supervise infrastructure works

- execute part infrastructure works

20%


#03 Arnavutköy Ridge City

New Zoning Map

The third site is bridging from the creek to the ridge ring road, thus

giving the opportunity for a development of varying density and

varying functions, from intensely urban to a garden city condition.

Taking into account the existing condition of low-density, still

incomplete development, the project for the site is focusing on the

infill of the existing, on development as a structuring densification.


Pilot #03: Arnavutköy Ridge City

Existing regulations: Municipal Masterplan

wooded open area

agriculture

forest

park

green playgrounds for children

electric substation area

primary facilities (services, religious)

social facilities

technical infrastructure area

commercial

housing (4 storeys, i = 1.1)

housing (3 storeys, i = 0.65)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.65)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.33)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.17)


Pilot #03: Arnavutköy Ridge City

Land ownership

Two areas roughly distinguish from the land ownership map, pne

adjacent to the ridge road that is principally state owned and one

largely privately owned towards the linear park of the second Pilot

site. The former is appropriate for the development of larger scale

projects while the latter is envisioned as a collection of smaller scale,

privately owned and managed projects.

Municipal Land

Municipal Shared Land

State Land (Treasury)

State Shared Land


Pilot #03: Arnavutköy Ridge City

Land Ownership Analysis

04

total area ownership built

2.65%

municipal

private

state

34.39 %

51.85 %

1.89 km²

100 %

51.85 %

79 532 m²

34.39 % 2.65 %

4.17 %


1

3

Pilot #03: Arnavutköy Ridge City

Two complementary developments

3

3

The average occupation rate of land in Arnavutköy amounts to an

approximative 60%. For this project, between the existing buildings

on the ridge side of the site, a densification of housing projects,

mixed use and public buildings is envisioned. The creek side of the

site is filled in, based on the existing tendency, with smaller private

structures. Apart from the difference in density, a difference in the

infill of the non-built space is proposed: the western part becomes a

productive urban landscape, where small scale agriculture can take

place, benefiting from the upper city water recycling.

10

1

3

3

3

1

1

3

10

10

1

1

10

3

3

10

10

10 2

5

10

5

10

10

10

3

3

3

10

10

3

10

10


Existing roads and built Topography Purification and irrigation


Pilot #03: Arnavutköy Ridge City

Capacity calculation

(population/agricultural production)

773 608m²

455 688m²

317 920m²

12 716 inh.

EXISTING

DEVELOPMENT

18 227 inh.

NEW

DEVELOPMENT

30 943 inh.

TOTAL

DEVELOPMENT

REQUIRES

for cleaning

greywater


(A)

Surface Flow Water Purification

618 860m²

A

Lake

Surface

Allocated

possible surplus

REQUIRES

for cleaning

greywater

C

160 853m²

(C)

Vertical Flow Water Purification

92 829m²

IRRIGATES

top quality

vegetables

699 507m²

69.9ha

632 754m²

63ha

245 000m²

24.5ha


Note on Process

Property rights exchange and conditional development for

zones with diversified density

Existing condition Arnavutkoy

Urban pressure inviting sprawl, large consumption of land for low density develoment. Validated in the

municipal masterplan

Alternative proposed scenario: an offset for city growth, limiting horizontal development, preserving areas

around the sweet water creeks, agricultural land, and landscape qualities

Development can be intensified elsewhere, and landowners compensated for the land that they own outside

the boundary by way of selling develoment rights, receiving living space in the city core, and still retaining

their plots for further use, agricultural, allotments gardens, etc. A final option is to rent this land out for agricultural

purposes, or sell it.


Pilot #03: Arnavutköy Ridge City

Data sheet

l

land

ownership/

main actors

other actors

opportunities

regulations

in conflict/

obstacles

conditions

operation

investment

Arnavutköy

Municipality

- ease of implementation: large state ownership

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

-launch cross-authority collaboration

- collaboration ISKI, Metropolitan

Municipality

- attract private investment

- launch

- assign developer

- coordinate property rights exchange

- building permits

- coordinate infrastructure works

5%

Private

(50%)

- increased payoff with increased real-estate value

- good connectivity to highways

- proximity to centre

-

-permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- exchange land with building rights

iSKi

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water -

- advisory on permit conditions

- supervise infrastructure works

- execute part infrastructure works

20%

Ministry of

Agriculture

- increase& consolidate agricultural production - - - advisory on permit conditions -

IMM

- new identity for Istanbul suburbs

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

- masterplan does not foresee

building in state property zone

- - regulation revision -

State

(50%) TOKi/KiPTAS

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

- high quality standard heighbourhood

-

- permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

75%


#04 Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

New Zoning Map

The last site is also adjacent to the ecological corridor. Less central

in location in comparison to its counterpart on the irdge, this site’s

special character lies in the cohesive landscape, appropriate for

small scale interventions that connect to a single water system. The

focus is on urban agriculture: a combination of living, recreation and

production, on a site where no conflicts with existing regulations are

noted..


Pilot #04: Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

Existing regulations: Municipal masterplan

wooded open area

agriculture

forest

park

green playgrounds for children

electric substation area

primary facilities (services, religious)

social facilities

technical infrastructure area

commercial

housing (4 storeys, i = 1.1)

housing (3 storeys, i = 0.65)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.65)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.33)

housing (2 storeys, i = 0.17)


Pilot #04: Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

Land ownership

Primarily privately owned, the site development will mostly depend

on private incentive and profit. The state owned land, corresponding

with valleys in the topography, is appopriate for combination of

water purification systems.

Municipal Land

Municipal Shared Land

State Land (Treasury)

State Shared Land


02

total area ownership built

municipal

state

6.74 %

private

10.5 %

77.89 %

3.71 km²

100 %

77.89 %

10.5 %

6.74 %

68 159 m²

1.61 %


Pilot #04: Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

Topography and built

The proposal for the site takes into account the topographic

formations, as well as the municipal masterplan allocation of green

zones to come up with multi-functional green zone, where natural

streams run parallel to water purification facilities.


End of the city boundary based on masterplan

watersheds

Strips of land owned by the State/ Municipality

designated as open spaces


Pilot #04: Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

Irrigating possibilities inside& outside of city boundaries

The purificattion park allows water distribution for extended

development of small scale, privately owned agriculture in the site

area. The suburb will not only obtain a productive capacity but also

a distinctive identity by integrating farming lifestyle in close proximity

to the local town centre.

7

10

10

10

10

6

7

7

10

6

7

7

10

10 10

6

7

7

10

8

7

7

7

7

10

10

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

6

7

6

7

7

7

7

7

7


Allocation of water purification systems and irrigation pattern

(arrows in blue)

Reference: Allotment gardens, garden suburbs in the Netherlands

(Steenenkamer Deventer)

constructed wetlands can be a vital part of public green space in a

residential setting (reference Hamburg)

Reference: living in a forest band

‘t Harde Ven Son)


Pilot #04: Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

Capacity calculation

(population/agricultural production)

327 506m²

395 378m²

173 073m²

6 922 inh.

EXISTING

DEVELOPMENT

+

13 100 inh.

NEW

DEVELOPMENT

20 022 inh.

TOTAL

DEVELOPMENT


IRRIGATES

top quality

vegetables

1 318 633m²

131ha

533 428m²

53ha


Pilot #04: Arnavutköy Agriculture Suburb

Data Sheet

l

land

ownership/

main actors

other actors

opportunities

regulations

in conflict/

obstacles

conditions

operation

investment

Arnavutköy

Municipality

(20%)

- ease of implementation: no regulation conflicts

- inject new identity to suburb/ prevent sprawl

- empty space consolidation

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

-

- attract private owners, developers,

investors

- launch

- assign developer

- coordinate property rights exchange

- building permits

- coordinate infrastructure works

5%

Private

(70%)

- living in proximity to centre as well as agriculture zone

- high quality lanscape

- increased property value

-

-permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

60%

State

(10%) iSKi

- control developments in basin zone

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- state property land = productive land

- -

- advisory on permit conditions

- supervise infrastructure works

- execute part infrastructure works

20%

Ministry of

Agriculture

-increased agricultural production - - - advisory on permit conditions -

TOKi/KiPTAS

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- high quality standard heighbourhood

-

- permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

15%


Appendix 2:

Implementation methods

How to make an integral system

- linear vs cyclical

- readable landscape: forest as city edge

- functional landscape

- integral system

- site-specificity

- the system elements

Urban and landscape quality

- part of a larger whole/ enabling by concentrating

- accessibility opportunities

- public transport opportunities

- public amenities opportunities

- opportunities for specific living conditions

- quality control: principles for development

How to start a process

- actors involved

- significance of alliances and their scope

- significance of phasing

- phase 0

- property rights exchange and conditional development

- development in degrees


idge city

forestband

and precision agriculture

extensive grasslands

filtering wetland

ecological shoreline


How to make an integral system

Besides redefining the existing protection zones in relation to topography, a step in the design process is to investigate

how these zones can actually perform. In close collaboration with agricultural development specialists, the four iSKi

protection zones (eco-zone, ecological agriculture zone, high protection agriculture zone, low protection agriculture zone)

turn into 5 zones, interdependent and crucial for the functionality of the proposal as a whole:

1. The ecological zone is laid as a filtering wetland, directing flow towards a limited set of outlet points. New water

is efficiently filterd and monitored before entering the basin. This shoreline is a functional landscape that increases drinking

water quality and can double as a public natural park.

2. The ecological agriculture zone requires a drastic redefinition as it cannot fulfill its role of buffer preventing

nutrients from entering into the water basin. Ecological agriculture, with its abundant use of organic fertilizer and its

inactivity in winter, will inevitably pollute the basin and should be avoided. In the project, other solutions are developed:

the ground is enhanced with black soil, which can absorb nutrients all year round. This soil is in turn cleaned by vegetation

-grass, vegetables, etc- during the fertile season. One potential infill of this zone can be grassland: beautiful open meadow

with herds, binding nutrients and minerals to the soil. Another potential would be to fill in a very specific niche in the

agricultural market: ‘precision farming’. This type of farming sits in-between the industrial scale of farming as found in

Anatolia and the often miniscule scale of organic farming. Its means are simple but the requirements in water remain. The

project proposal avoids using water destined for the drinking water basin by using the output of the grey and black water

of the city (see point 5)

3. For the agricultural zones in general it is important to halt urbanization: zero tolerance leaves no room for

interpretation, giving all chances to the development of the 5th zone: the ridge city. The agricultural zones further from the

basin can be developed through grouping of the parcels, allowing more efficient exploitation of the land.

4. On slopes in the agricultural zone where agriculture is not possible because of the inclination, new forests are

planted. These forest blocks provide ½ of the necessary raw material to create the black soil. The forest is irrigated by the

water output of the city and also doubles as publicly accessible areas for picnic and weekend leisure.

5. The ridge city is a zone added to the ISKI plan. It is a proposal to concentrate all urbanization on the ridge of

the water catchment area. From a water perspective, the concentration of the built mass in more dense configurations

allows to install an economical grey and black water collection running towards treatment systems. The water collected in

these systems flows naturally downwards, feeding the forest, grassland and precision farming zones. In this layout, logic

seems to be turned upside down: instead of agriculture feeding the city, the city feeds the agriculture. Density becomes

productive: based on a simple equation, the denser the city the more water it will provide and thus the more chances it will

create for the agriculture to survive. The agriculture becomes a vital by-product of the water-protection strategy, besides

enhancing a local economy.


Single Water Cycle (today)

High rainwater consumption


Multiple Water Cycles (proposal)

Rainwater consumption restricted


New Forest

A funcitonal border

Forest bands providing a clear city boundary as well as wood, raw material for black soil.

Combined with steep slopes they are the most promising tool to halt urbanisation

Steep slopes in dark brown are unattractive for agriculture and urbanisation but ideal for forest blocks. Where possible the forest on the city edge is located on

steep slopes


City= Wastewater= Irrigation

Enabling forest/ agriculture/ grasslands

5000 people = 10 ha of precision agriculture


Rule 1: No Direct Urban Run-off

Use-Collection-Purification

Cascading urban drainage systems can prevent poluted sediments from flushing out

Polution form low-density urban sprawl is hard to control

By concentrating urban development on the ridge

sewerage and urban runoff can be treated and filtered

before entering the water system


der Müllverbrennung an Bord), Abfallverbrennung, Recycling, Nahrungs-

und Getränkeabfälle, Sanitärwasser (Liquid Waste – AWT)

Rule 2: Re-using Urban Wastewater

Greywater recycling/ Blackwater use in agriculture

Reference cruise ship as ‘floating cities’: reusing nutrients, water, energy, etc. in a closed system very efficiently

2 1-2 l 2011 InstallatIon DKZ

Proposed technique: drip irrigatiion: “Precision Agriculture”. very efficient, zero output

Enriching the soil with biocarbon, (a sustainable fertiliser):

ensures nutrients do not flush out and increases agricultural procuctivity


Reference: Drarga

Community of Drarga/Souss Massed, Morocco

A new wastewater treatment plant was designed, involving the

local residents. Almost 6.000 m2 reeds beds purify wastewater

of 5.700 people and the treated wastewater is sold. Sludges are

combined with organic waste to produce compost while methane

gas is recovered and used to run pumps, thus reducing electricity

consumption.

Total investment: around 2.000.000 €

The wastewater treatment plant

Treatment proces of Drarga

Purified water is sold to local farmers


Reference: Haran-al-Awamied

Haran-Al-Awamied, Syria

A new wastewater treatment plant with secondary treatment by reed

bed, currently processing 2.800m2 for 14.000 inhabitants. A reed

bed of 200m2 is used for sludge treatment. Treated wastewater is

used for agriculture. Capital costs amount to 100.000 €

Treatment proces

primary sludge drying bed

circular primary settling tank

the village Haran-al-Awamied

mineralised, earth-like sludge


Reference: El Minia & Nawaq

El Minia & Nawaq, Egypt

An experiment that converts sewage sludge from a wastewater

treatment facility to a high quality, safe and efficient fertilizing soil

conditioner in agriculture. Plants are growing significantly better

using this fertilizer. The treatment plant is designed for 200.000

inhabitants . The reed is re-used as biogas or fire material seen the

hygienical condition of the soil.

Treatment proces

Reed bed treating sludge

Test field for crops which are using the fertilizer and which are not: the third and fourth field are using the converted sludge


Reference: Wadi Mousa

Wadi Mousa, near Petra, Jordan

This wastewater re-use implementation project is treating

wastewater to reduce strain on the aquifiers in this extreme dry and

touristic region. Wastewater from the village and the many hotels is

purified in the treatment facility to be re-used in agriculture.

107 ha of farmland can be irrigated with the effluent. The

investement of 20 million dollar is a significant contribution to fight

poverty.

Transportation system to the treatment plant

Lack of water is a huge problem in the region Petra while tourism is increasing

The treatment plants and some agricultural fields


Urban and Landscape Quality

Apart from functional and quantitative aspects related to the water

catchment function, the proposal addresses the issue of urban and

landscape quality. To concentrate and reinforce the character of the built

and unbuilt parts allows envisioning an environment where both are closely

intertwined. The quality of life offered by the plan resides in this double

strategy:

1. The strategy of concentrating enhances the qualities of both

parts: the city become more urban, with better (public) accessibility

and better proximity to amenities; the landscape more open, attractive,

sustainable and robust.

2. The strategy of juxtaposition (or contrast) is creating a unique

living environment, where two different worlds are just a few steps apart.

For the future inhabitants, to be able to have a combined use of an urban

and a rural environment, will offer a quality of life which is rare and definitely

exceptional in a metropolis.


Grid

road

+100m

Urban Spine

Private Villas/Gated Communities

Village

Concentration & Connectivity

Enabling by concentrating

Channeling development along the ridge ring is primarily about

connecting. The Ridge City is not a continuous linear strip of

urbanization, but rather a collection of different entities along a

transport infrastructure. Their concentration allows their efficient

linking, amongst them as well as to other important nearby

infrastructure.

Water

Grid

1kmx1km

road

+100m

1kmx1km

Danger: Radiocentric, low-density sprawl, unstructured development along the new highway

Releasing development pressure along strategically chosen infrastructure


Gated Community

Connection Karaburun

Connection to

Terkos Basin

Village

Connection to 3rd

Highway

Picnic zone

Village

Arnavutkoy expansion

Arnavutkoy center

Hadimkoy

TOKi

Forest

Connection Kucukcekmece

basin, Istanbul city centre

Ataturk Airport

The Ridge City as a connection loop between diverse parts


More Urban, More Landscape

Concentrating as a way to accentuate conditions

The juxtaposition of the basin and the ridge condition as results

from the concentration proposed in such close proximity creates a

very specific situation. Each of the two conditions is made stronger

by the presence of its complement, in a functional as well as in a

cognitive way. The zone where the two meet, in the plan materialized

in the forest/ recreation zone, produces a moment of ambiguity:

the last zone of the city is at the same time the first zone of the

landscape.

200-800m

ON (the ridge): Urban streetscape of varying character

IN (the basin): Shaped city edge, framing of the void


Enriching Contrasts

Specific living conditions

Although such a development would offer a relatively rare living

condition, the qualities provided are not too far from the qualities

intrisically linked to Istanbul. Its ever present relief, the sudden

panoramic views will mentally link the identity of the new city parts to

the city as a whole.

01

02

03

04

C

05

A lace-like city pattern encircling open spaces, vast landscape ‘rooms’

A

F

B

06 07

09

10

11

12

1314

15

16

G

D

08

E

H

Functional landscape as a public amenity: Water REservoir, Louisville, USA

The city structure that relates to high grounds: part of the natural identity of Istanbul


90°

60°

120°

90°

150°

1- Broad views, open segments of road 2- Long and narrow views, through the built fabric 3- Blocked view, forest + built


The Gradient City

Tools for adapting city conditions along the ridge

RIDGE ROAD

First Perimeter along the Ridge

Road tied to public transport:

Intense Urban Centralities

Second Perimeter:

Levels of Urban intensity

Third Perimeter:

Residential Belt toward the Basin

CITY OFFSET ROAD

FOREST BAND

Public Centralities

(hybrid buildings)

1

1b

2

Volumes that define

different characters of

open space

(public-semipublic)

3

4

3

4

Variations on Private

Developments, home

and garden

6 7

5

8 9

Agriculture Block

A toolbox of typologies creating a gradient from the most urban to the most rural condition, and their indicative functioning in zones. Soft edges or hard edges can be created where appropriate

10


Adding a hard, formalized edge where a suburb meets the open landscape: Retaining Bars, Arizona, Steven Holl

Hard west edge/ soft east edge/ islands of urbanity

Soft edge, concealment, gradient: Hansaviertel in Tiergarten, Berlin


uilding materials

energy supply

drinking water

food

sewers


How to Process

The underlying attitude of the project is that of an indirect steering of

processes: certain goals having been set, guidelines are laid, providing an

infrastructure for the city to happen. The exact outcome is not defined, but

left open. The key to the healthy outcome of a process is depending on the

critical use of steering: robust rules on the structuring principles, rigorously

applied beyond short term interests and short range scopes should be

combined with flexibile tools and incentives wherever possible, to meet the

needs of the specific parties and the specific time.

Different tools to create the conditions for this proposal to become real will

be a necessary complement to the study of the functionality and the quality

of the plan. Certain tools, explained in this chapter, accompany the study

of the proposed Pilot Sites and concern time management, management of

property rights, as well as an investigation of the possibilities for setting up

a testing ground for cross-authorities collaboration.

At this stage of the study, these tools are presented in their principle form

and are meant to be further elaborated, enriched and refined through

the following stages of the process, with the valuable input of the parties

concerned for each fragment/ phase.


Phasing to Deal with Resistance

A proposal for time management

Implementation all at once

Too much strenght required to

overcome resistance

Timeline of projects all in one

0 yrs 5 yrs 10 yrs 15 yrs 20 yrs

Level of resistance

Phase 4

Overall project duration can

be shortened

Phase 3

Phase 2

Phase 1

Start where it is EASY

show PROFIT

8 yrs 13 yrs

12 yrs 17 yrs


overcome resistance

Timeline of projects all in one

0 yrs 5 yrs 10 yrs 15 yrs 20 yrs

Level of resistance

Phase 4

Overall project duration can

be shortened

Phase 3

Phase 2

Phase 1

Start where it is EASY

show PROFIT

8 yrs 13 yrs

12 yrs 17 yrs

Implementation 1

4 yrs 9 yrs

0 yrs 5 yrs

Resistance REDUCED as results of

phase 01 become visible

Level of resistance

LONG TERM VISION:

iSKi and Arnavutköy Municipality


Dividing to Pair

Combining profitable and vulnerable parts in a single process

The selection of projects within the vision in general, and most

importantly for the first case studies, the pilot projects, should

happen in a way that allows the development of a complete

functional system, combining urban and landscape development.

If part of the same operation, processes of property rights exchange

can compensate owners of protected basin land with building rights

on profitable land on the ridge.

Pilot Sites that can realize the full scope ot the vision


Existing condition Arnavutkoy

Urban pressure inviting sprawl, large consumption of land for low density develoment. Validated in the

municipal masterplan

Alternative proposed scenario: an offset for city growth, limiting horizontal development, preserving areas

around the sweet water creeks, agricultural land, and landscape qualities

An example of a project where ‘red’ pays for ‘green’: Waalwijk, NL

Development can be intensified elsewhere, and landowners compensated for the land that they own outside

the boundary by way of selling develoment rights, receiving living space in the city core, and still retaining

their plots for further use, agricultural, allotments gardens, etc. A final option is to rent this land out for agricultural

purposes, or sell it.


Arnavutköy: Platform for Collaboration

Actors Pilot #01

l

land

ownership/

main actors

other actors

opportunities

regulations

in conflict/

obstacles

conditions

operation

investment

Arnavutköy

Municipality

(70%)

-ease of implementation, minimum private ownership

-relief growth pressure in Arnavutkoy centre

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

-launch cross-authority collaboration

-

- collaboration ISKI, Metropolitan

Municipality

- Ministry support

- attract private investment

- launch

- assign developer

- coordinate property rights exchange

- building permits

- coordinate infrastructure works

5%

Private

(30%)

- increased payoff with increased real-estate value

- good connectivity to highways

- proximity to industrial cluster

-

-permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

50%

iSKi

- establish protection zones through private

developments

- control developments in basin

- monitor drinking water quality

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

-allowed population density in

area exceeded

-

- regulation revision

- supervise infrastructure works

- execute part infrastructure works

20%

Ministry of

Agriculture

- increase& consolidate agricultural production

- organize/ concentrate animal husbandry

- - - advisory on regulation revision -

IMM

- new identity for Istanbul suburbs

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

- masterplan excludes nonagricultural

destined buildings

from zone

- - regulation revision -

TOKi/KiPTAS

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

- high quality standard heighbourhood

-

- permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

25%


Arnavutköy: Platform for Collaboration

Actors Pilot #02

l

land

ownership/

main actors

other actors

opportunities

regulations

in conflict/

obstacles

conditions

operation

investment

Arnavutköy

Municipality

(5%)

- ease of implementation: no regulation conflicts

- protection zone into public park

- protection zone currently

largely private and partly built

- potential high construction

and maintenance cost

- attract private owners, developers,

investors

- launch

- assign developer

- coordinate property rights exchange

- building permits

- coordinate infrastructure works

50%

Private

(80%)

- investment recreation facilities along public/ semiprivate

park

- increased value along new front

-

-permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

30%

State

(15%) iSKi

- protection eco-corridor

- preventing erosion (avoid sediment into lake)

- -

- advisory on permit conditions

- supervise infrastructure works

- execute part infrastructure works

20%


Arnavutköy: Platform for Collaboration

Actors Pilot #03

l

land

ownership/

main actors

other actors

opportunities

regulations

in conflict/

obstacles

conditions

operation

investment

Arnavutköy

Municipality

- ease of implementation: large state ownership

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

-launch cross-authority collaboration

- collaboration ISKI, Metropolitan

Municipality

- attract private investment

- launch

- assign developer

- coordinate property rights exchange

- building permits

- coordinate infrastructure works

5%

Private

(50%)

- increased payoff with increased real-estate value

- good connectivity to highways

- proximity to centre

-

-permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- exchange land with building rights

iSKi

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water -

- advisory on permit conditions

- supervise infrastructure works

- execute part infrastructure works

20%

Ministry of

Agriculture

- increase& consolidate agricultural production - - - advisory on permit conditions -

IMM

- new identity for Istanbul suburbs

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

- masterplan does not foresee

building in state property zone

- - regulation revision -

State

(50%) TOKi/KiPTAS

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- participate in cross-authority collaboration

- high quality standard heighbourhood

-

- permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

75%


Arnavutköy: Platform for Collaboration

Actors Pilot #04

l

land

ownership/

main actors

other actors

opportunities

regulations

in conflict/

obstacles

conditions

operation

investment

Arnavutköy

Municipality

(20%)

- ease of implementation: no regulation conflicts

- inject new identity to suburb/ prevent sprawl

- empty space consolidation

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

-

- attract private owners, developers,

investors

- launch

- assign developer

- coordinate property rights exchange

- building permits

- coordinate infrastructure works

5%

Private

(70%)

- living in proximity to centre as well as agriculture zone

- high quality lanscape

- increased property value

-

-permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

60%

State

(10%) iSKi

- control developments in basin zone

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- state property land = productive land

- -

- advisory on permit conditions

- supervise infrastructure works

- execute part infrastructure works

20%

Ministry of

Agriculture

-increased agricultural production - - - advisory on permit conditions -

TOKi/KiPTAS

- sustainable housing/ efficient use drinking water

- high quality standard heighbourhood

-

- permit= obligation simultaneous

investment in eco-zone/water

treatment

- acquire ground/ building rights

- construction

15%


Creating Alliances

Looking for the right partners for each process

PILOT PROJECTS

OF ALLIANCE

01

Arnavutköy Municipality + IMR

iSKi

02

Arnavutköy Municipality + IMR

Private Enterprise+TOKi

03

Private Enterprise+TOKi

iSKi

04

Agriculture Ministry

Forest Ministry

iSKi

05

Private Industry? International Corporations?

Transport Department?

...

...

FUTURE

DEVELOPMENT

OF ISTANBUL

ON THE

METROPOLITAN

AND

INTERNATIONAL

SCALE


Colophon

This study is realized as part of the “Atelier Istanbul”, jointly organized by

the Municipality of Arnavutkoy and the International Architecture Biennale

Rotterdam (IABR) in the framework of the 5th IABR: Making City.

Initiated and supervised by Asu Aksoy and Joachim Declerck, members of

the 5th IABR Curator Team, and coordinated by Architecture Workroom,

this study is the result of collaborative research and design by 51N4E (BE)

and H+N+S Landscape Architects (NL).

INITIATORS

Municipality of Arnavutköy

Ahmed Hasim Baltaci

Osman Akkaya

Gülnur Kadayifçi

Elif Korkmaz

International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam

George Brugmans

Henk Ovink

Marieke Francke

ATELIER ISTANBUL

51N4E

Freek Persyn

Johan Anrys

Peter Swinnen

Sotiria Kornaropoulou

Vesna Jovanovic

Guido Brandi

H+N+S Landscape Architects

Lodewijk van Nieuwenhuijze

Dirk Sijmons

Jaap van der Salm

Adam Hofland

Joppe Veul

Architecture Workroom Brussels

Joachim Declerck

Thomas Cattrysse

5th IABR Istanbul Curator

Asu Askoy

External Experts

Istanbul: Asli Cicek

Water: Thorsten Schuetze – TU Delft, Sybrand Tjallingii – TU Delft

Agriculture: Peter Smeets – Wageningen UR

Development Strategy: Paul Jorna – BBN adviseurs

with the support of NL EVD International, the Dutch Ministry of

Infrastructure and the Environment, and the Dutch Ministry of Economic

Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation

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