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LEVEL<br />

A practical guide<br />

for local<br />


This resource book is part of a toolkit th<strong>at</strong><br />

will equip you to co-design <strong>the</strong> sequence<br />

of actions for an inclusive (re)development<br />

of your neighbourhood. A series of Portraits<br />

takes you on an inspiring journey along<br />

<strong>district</strong>s across Europe th<strong>at</strong> are maximizing<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir <strong>energy</strong> efficiency and production.<br />

We dissected <strong>the</strong>ir insights, tools and<br />

breakthroughs on how to prepare, coordin<strong>at</strong>e,<br />

empower, finance and evalu<strong>at</strong>e this co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

process. Eleven oper<strong>at</strong>ional Keys and nine<br />

fundamental Consider<strong>at</strong>ions structure<br />

a practical method and a set of building<br />

blocks for you to start working with.

Table of contents<br />


The <strong>district</strong> as driver of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong><br />

CHAPTER 1<br />

Portraits of PED experiments<br />

11 3<br />

PORTRAIT 1. Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, Brussels 15<br />

PORTRAIT 2. aspern Seestadt, Vienna 31<br />

PORTRAIT 3. Stockholm Royal Seaport, Stockholm 43<br />

PORTRAIT 4. Bospolder-Tussendijken, Rotterdam 57<br />

PORTRAIT 5. Lyon Confluence, Lyon 71<br />

PORTRAIT 6. Georgian Quarter, Limerick 85<br />

CHAPTER 2<br />

Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

99<br />

KEY 1.<br />

KEY 2.<br />

KEY 3.<br />

KEY 4.<br />

KEY 5.<br />

KEY 6.<br />

KEY 7.<br />

KEY 8.<br />

KEY 9.<br />

KEY 10.<br />

KEY 11.<br />

How to analyse <strong>the</strong> local context103<br />

How to empower local stakeholders113<br />

Which <strong>district</strong> targets do we set127<br />

How to co-design <strong>the</strong> step-by-step str<strong>at</strong>egy139<br />

Who coordin<strong>at</strong>es <strong>the</strong> multi-stakeholder process151<br />

Which projects can become c<strong>at</strong>alysts161<br />

How to finance inclusive,<br />

long-term development173<br />

How to multiply skills and capacity185<br />

How to activ<strong>at</strong>e city instruments193<br />

How to monitor and evalu<strong>at</strong>e progress203<br />

Which enabling environment is needed215<br />

CHAPTER 3<br />

Consider<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

227<br />

Quick result vs Deep transform<strong>at</strong>ion231<br />

Energy as a goal vs Energy as a means235<br />

Urban renewal vs Gentrific<strong>at</strong>ion239<br />

Empowering vs Unburdening243<br />

Energy infrastructure first vs Renov<strong>at</strong>ion first247<br />

District-based vs Citywide approach251<br />

Experiment<strong>at</strong>ion first vs Regul<strong>at</strong>ion first255<br />

Intern<strong>at</strong>ional standards vs Local culture and context259<br />

Technical vs Social innov<strong>at</strong>ion263<br />


For a wave of <strong>energy</strong> <strong>district</strong>s<br />

267<br />

Glossary273<br />

List of practices277<br />

Liter<strong>at</strong>ure list283<br />

On <strong>Cities4PEDs</strong>287<br />






LEVEL<br />

A practical<br />

guide<br />

for local<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ors<br />

October 2023<br />

Authors<br />

Hanne Mangelschots<br />

Chiara Cicchianni<br />

Joachim Declerck<br />

Research consortium<br />

Architecture Workroom Brussels<br />

Urban Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Vienna GmbH<br />

City of Stockholm<br />

City of Brussels<br />

City of Vienna<br />

City Mine(d)<br />

3E NV<br />

FH Technikum Wien<br />

Wien 3420 aspern Development AG<br />

Vienna University of Business and Economics<br />

Energy Cities<br />

Publisher<br />

Architecture Workroom Brussels,<br />

independent innov<strong>at</strong>ion house for<br />




3<br />

The <strong>district</strong> as driver<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong><br />

This toolkit equips local initi<strong>at</strong>ors with<br />

a method and a set of building blocks to realize<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> <strong>at</strong> <strong>district</strong> <strong>level</strong>. It bundles<br />

a multitude of urban experiments, tools and<br />

testimonies th<strong>at</strong> will inspire anyone with a morethan-average<br />

interest in <strong>the</strong> <strong>transition</strong> of our cities<br />

and <strong>energy</strong> systems. Accounting for 35% of all<br />

<strong>energy</strong>-rel<strong>at</strong>ed greenhouse gas emissions, our<br />

built environment is a crucial lever to decarbonize<br />

our society by 2050. Its transform<strong>at</strong>ion is one<br />

of <strong>the</strong> more complex and multidimensional<br />

challenges society is facing in every city and<br />

village in Europe. But today, <strong>the</strong> built environment<br />

is lagging behind in <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>. All our<br />

cre<strong>at</strong>ive capacity must be oriented towards<br />


The <strong>district</strong> as driver of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>

con ceiving and implementing str<strong>at</strong>egies th<strong>at</strong><br />

reduce <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> demand of our buildings by<br />

40% while connecting <strong>the</strong>m to 100% renewable<br />

<strong>energy</strong> sources.<br />

But why realize this major <strong>transition</strong> <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> scale? As Europe’s <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> affects<br />

all households and organiz<strong>at</strong>ions in every single<br />

<strong>district</strong>, <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion can only m<strong>at</strong>erialize<br />

when <strong>the</strong>y actively particip<strong>at</strong>e. We need a double<br />

shift: a change in <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> use of citizens, companies<br />

and institutions on <strong>the</strong> one hand, and a<br />

fundamental transform<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> physical infrastructure<br />

th<strong>at</strong> makes up our <strong>energy</strong> systems,<br />

buildings and public spaces on <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r. Working<br />

in and with <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood allows us to realize<br />

<strong>the</strong>se two <strong>transition</strong>s in an integr<strong>at</strong>ed, collective<br />

and inclusive way. And it presents a unique<br />

opportunity to embed <strong>the</strong> necessary technical<br />

investments in <strong>energy</strong> efficiency and production<br />

into a broader motiv<strong>at</strong>ion: to achieve a more<br />

qualit<strong>at</strong>ive and healthier living environment for all.<br />

4<br />

An approach to <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> <strong>level</strong> is wh<strong>at</strong> cities, n<strong>at</strong>ion st<strong>at</strong>es and <strong>the</strong><br />

European Union are calling for. With <strong>the</strong> ambition<br />

of realizing 100 Positive Energy Districts (PEDs) by<br />

2025 as part of its Str<strong>at</strong>egic Energy Technology<br />

Plan, Europe gave a boost to experiments across<br />

<strong>the</strong> continent. Ra<strong>the</strong>r than placing some of <strong>the</strong>se<br />

exemplary cases on a pedestal, this toolkit dissects<br />

<strong>the</strong>m. A series of Portraits reveals <strong>the</strong> importance

of a strong governance structure and co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

process, of <strong>the</strong> empowerment of local communities,<br />

or of effective city instruments. This Resource<br />

identifies a series of such oper<strong>at</strong>ional Keys and<br />

more fundamental Consider<strong>at</strong>ions th<strong>at</strong> initi<strong>at</strong>ors<br />

and partners face when setting up those<br />

processes. It documents and structures <strong>the</strong><br />

practical methods and tools <strong>the</strong>y tested for you<br />

to start working with. This toolkit allows you to<br />

stand on <strong>the</strong> shoulders of many experiences in<br />

different parts of Europe. So th<strong>at</strong> you can push<br />

one step fur<strong>the</strong>r when pursuing <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong> in <strong>the</strong> next <strong>district</strong>.<br />

5<br />

Empowering local initi<strong>at</strong>ors in<br />

co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion processes<br />

This public<strong>at</strong>ion is written from <strong>the</strong> vantage point of <strong>the</strong> stakeholders th<strong>at</strong><br />

come toge<strong>the</strong>r around <strong>the</strong> table to co-cre<strong>at</strong>e a <strong>district</strong> (re)development. It looks<br />

through <strong>the</strong> eyes of <strong>the</strong> initi<strong>at</strong>ors th<strong>at</strong> are guiding or listening in on <strong>the</strong> convers<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

They notice how contributions jump from good but vague intentions to<br />

very concrete but anecdotal actions. The moder<strong>at</strong>or has a hard time structuring<br />

<strong>the</strong> convers<strong>at</strong>ion and finding common ground between so many voices. Very<br />

practical questions are formul<strong>at</strong>ed. When and where would it be logical to<br />

start with a first project? Should <strong>the</strong>y first connect with existing neighbourhood<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions and dynamics? Should <strong>the</strong>y focus on <strong>energy</strong> m<strong>at</strong>ters in <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egy or include o<strong>the</strong>r aspects th<strong>at</strong> citizens find more important? Is wh<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong>y are imagining too ambitious or risky for banks to provide standard loans?<br />

This group of stakeholders is looking for inspir<strong>at</strong>ion and a method to define a<br />

sequence of concrete actions th<strong>at</strong> add up to a Positive Energy District (PED).<br />

At this co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion table, it becomes clear th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> success of<br />

a <strong>district</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> depends on <strong>the</strong> quality of <strong>the</strong> co-cre<strong>at</strong>ive process.<br />

In both existing <strong>district</strong>s and new neighbourhoods, a diversity of stakeholders<br />

from different backgrounds and disciplines joins <strong>the</strong> convers<strong>at</strong>ion: urban<br />

planners, <strong>energy</strong> experts, community organiz<strong>at</strong>ions, developers, social housing<br />

companies, <strong>energy</strong> providers, financiers, residents … Each of <strong>the</strong>ir viewpoints<br />

is needed and each of <strong>the</strong>ir contributions must be integr<strong>at</strong>ed. When <strong>the</strong> people<br />

around this table formul<strong>at</strong>e targets, <strong>the</strong>se will focus ei<strong>the</strong>r on <strong>energy</strong>-technical,<br />

socio-economic or purely economic aspects, on sp<strong>at</strong>ial quality or on clim<strong>at</strong>e<br />

adapt<strong>at</strong>ion. One of <strong>the</strong> stakeholders wants to go quick, as <strong>the</strong>y now have <strong>the</strong><br />

political backing and budgets, while <strong>the</strong> one sitting across <strong>the</strong> table needs<br />

more time to align <strong>the</strong>ir planning with th<strong>at</strong> of o<strong>the</strong>rs. Each of <strong>the</strong> participants<br />

realizes th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y can’t move forward in isol<strong>at</strong>ion. They are part of one big<br />

domino game. Opening <strong>the</strong> street to install a he<strong>at</strong> network, for example, is <strong>the</strong><br />

ideal moment to improve <strong>the</strong> quality and clim<strong>at</strong>e robustness of public spaces.<br />


The <strong>district</strong> as driver of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>

This in turn affects <strong>the</strong> mobility system and parking spaces, which implies th<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> mobility <strong>transition</strong> of this <strong>district</strong> needs to be taken into account in <strong>the</strong><br />

redesign of its public spaces. And <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> network can only be connected to<br />

houses th<strong>at</strong> have been renov<strong>at</strong>ed to be sufficiently <strong>energy</strong>-efficient. A systemic<br />

approach and integr<strong>at</strong>ed projects aren’t a luxury: <strong>the</strong>y’re a condition for a<br />

successful <strong>district</strong> (re)development.<br />

If you particip<strong>at</strong>e once in such a stakeholder meeting, you’ll<br />

share <strong>the</strong> conviction th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> <strong>at</strong> <strong>district</strong> <strong>level</strong> is a multi-actor,<br />

multidisciplinary, multi-target and multi-annual endeavour. The fact th<strong>at</strong> no<br />

single measure or procedure will suffice to get <strong>the</strong> job done is frightening. But<br />

when different stakeholders and investments reinforce each o<strong>the</strong>r in a cre<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

process, this is extremely rewarding and leads to powerful results. The better<br />

we are able to structure and guide a co-cre<strong>at</strong>ive process, <strong>the</strong> more we can<br />

activ<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> chain reactions needed.<br />

Pooling insights from a diversity of<br />

experiments<br />

This flywheel effect is not as far away as it may seem. The ongoing experiments<br />

in European cities already show us <strong>the</strong> c<strong>at</strong>alytic dynamics th<strong>at</strong> can be achieved<br />

by connecting sectors, actors and targets. In one case, a city authority pushes<br />

developers to go beyond building standards and reach for maximum <strong>energy</strong><br />

efficiency. In ano<strong>the</strong>r <strong>district</strong>, <strong>the</strong> empowerment of local stakeholders leads to<br />

an unexpectedly high sense of co-ownership around an inventive solar <strong>energy</strong><br />

project. In yet ano<strong>the</strong>r city, an innov<strong>at</strong>ive rolling fund enables residents with<br />

insufficient financial means to particip<strong>at</strong>e in a <strong>district</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion scheme.<br />

None of <strong>the</strong>se <strong>district</strong>s is successful on all fronts. A contemporary map of<br />

Europe’s <strong>district</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> would show a confetti-like sprinkling of<br />

diverse breakthroughs. To move from <strong>the</strong>se sc<strong>at</strong>tered singular experiments to<br />

a consolid<strong>at</strong>ed practice, <strong>the</strong> multitude of lessons learned requires pooling and<br />

structuring. With this toolkit, we want to contribute to <strong>the</strong> incremental development<br />

of an increasingly m<strong>at</strong>ure practice and to push <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> scale to a next phase of targeted experiment<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

The groundwork for this toolkit was realized within <strong>the</strong><br />

European action research project ‘<strong>Cities4PEDs</strong>’ th<strong>at</strong> ran from early 2021<br />

until <strong>the</strong> spring of 2023. A multidisciplinary coalition of city authorities,<br />

<strong>energy</strong> experts, developers, designers, neighbourhood workers and innov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions from Vienna, Stockholm and Brussels joined forces to advance<br />

<strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion str<strong>at</strong>egies for PEDs. The project combined three work<br />

methods: in-depth research on different dimensions of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong>; recurrent intervisioning and exchange with researchers, local<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ors and parallel research projects; and test-running practical methods<br />

to co-design a str<strong>at</strong>egy and actions in three local <strong>district</strong> labs. <strong>Cities4PEDs</strong><br />

made it possible to harvest, unravel and combine lessons learned from diverse<br />

ongoing experiments throughout Europe. These learnings were fur<strong>the</strong>r explored<br />

and developed into a series of topical research reports, each of which was<br />

written by one of <strong>the</strong> project’s lead partners, each with <strong>the</strong>ir own expertise.<br />

At <strong>the</strong> end of this Resource, you will find an overview of <strong>the</strong>se reports and<br />

a link th<strong>at</strong> allows you to explore <strong>the</strong>m fur<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

As coordin<strong>at</strong>ors of <strong>Cities4PEDs</strong>, we combined <strong>the</strong> accumul<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

learnings and reports in this practical guide for local initi<strong>at</strong>ors. We<br />

complemented <strong>the</strong>m with our own ‘learnings by doing’ from our involvement<br />

in <strong>district</strong> experiments in Belgium and <strong>the</strong> Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands. Moder<strong>at</strong>ing co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

tables with initial coalitions of <strong>the</strong> willing or engaging diverse stakeholders in<br />

<strong>the</strong> co-design of a step-by-step process: <strong>the</strong>se are <strong>the</strong> situ<strong>at</strong>ions, role plays and<br />

exchanges we kept in mind when editing this toolkit for Positive Energy Districts.<br />


Can all <strong>district</strong>s become a<br />

‘Positive Energy District’?<br />

7<br />

Yes. We are convinced this should be <strong>the</strong> aim. We propose a definition of<br />

Positive Energy Districts th<strong>at</strong> can mobilize all <strong>district</strong>s in Europe, new and<br />

existing, to become drivers of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>. While PEDs are often<br />

described more narrowly, as <strong>district</strong>s th<strong>at</strong> produce more renewable <strong>energy</strong> than<br />

<strong>the</strong>y consume, in this toolkit, we use <strong>the</strong> term to refer to all (re)development<br />

projects th<strong>at</strong> incorpor<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> following five dimensions:<br />

1. A high ambition for <strong>energy</strong> efficiency and <strong>the</strong> overall<br />

<strong>energy</strong> balance<br />

A PED is as ambitious in lowering <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> demand and<br />

<strong>energy</strong> losses as it is in maximizing <strong>the</strong> system efficiency and<br />

local <strong>energy</strong> production. The target is to reach <strong>the</strong> maximum<br />

<strong>energy</strong> balance possible in <strong>the</strong> specific <strong>district</strong>.<br />

2. A focus and targets on more liveable, qualit<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

and sustainable <strong>district</strong>s<br />

A PED also targets quality of life, socio-economic aspects and<br />

sustainability. The upgrading of homes and neighbourhoods,<br />

employment opportunities and social cohesion are considered<br />

essential dimensions of PEDs. Inclusivity also means equal<br />

opportunities for all different groups and minorities in <strong>the</strong><br />

local (re)development process.<br />

3. The deline<strong>at</strong>ion of a <strong>district</strong> as a socio-sp<strong>at</strong>ial entity th<strong>at</strong><br />

transcends <strong>the</strong> project <strong>level</strong><br />

A neighbourhood is a part of <strong>the</strong> urban fabric th<strong>at</strong> is larger<br />

than a single project or large plot of land. It is both a physical<br />

and a social entity, defined by communities with different<br />

forms of belonging to this urban fabric. Since <strong>energy</strong> targets<br />

can only be achieved by changing <strong>the</strong> demand and supply of<br />

renewable <strong>energy</strong>, a PED always touches on <strong>the</strong> sp<strong>at</strong>ial and<br />

social dimensions of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

4. An incremental process of (re)development<br />

The (re)development of a <strong>district</strong> is more than <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of a master plan drawn <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> start of a project. A PED is<br />

a step-by-step process th<strong>at</strong> includes building up partnerships,<br />

setting up actions th<strong>at</strong> empower local stakeholders, initi<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

first integr<strong>at</strong>ed pilot projects, monitoring consistently and<br />

mainstreaming <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion. To ensure th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> actions<br />

and projects add up to <strong>the</strong> shared targets, flexibility and regular<br />

adapt<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> process on <strong>the</strong> basis of progressive insights<br />

are needed.<br />

5. An approach to build, mobilize and connect capacities<br />

The need for <strong>the</strong> right (and sufficient) skills and competences<br />

is an often forgotten but crucial dimension for <strong>the</strong> (re)development<br />

of PEDs. From citizens to <strong>energy</strong> providers, developers,<br />

contractors, neighbourhood organiz<strong>at</strong>ions and different policy<br />

departments: capacities need to be streng<strong>the</strong>ned and linked.<br />

These five dimensions pay equal <strong>at</strong>tention to <strong>the</strong> ambitious outcome th<strong>at</strong><br />

should be achieved as <strong>the</strong>y do to <strong>the</strong> road to get <strong>the</strong>re. The <strong>energy</strong> performance,<br />

<strong>the</strong> broader benefits, <strong>the</strong> activ<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>district</strong> characteristics, a step-by-step<br />

process and <strong>the</strong> needed capacity-building: <strong>the</strong>y are all part of <strong>the</strong> PED practice.<br />

All <strong>district</strong> projects th<strong>at</strong> address <strong>the</strong>se five dimensions are considered Positive<br />

Energy Districts in <strong>the</strong> making.<br />


The <strong>district</strong> as driver of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>

Portraits, Keys and Consider<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

We call <strong>the</strong> volume th<strong>at</strong> you are now holding in your hands <strong>the</strong> Resource. It is<br />

a collection of inspiring experiences, tools and insights from as many <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>s. It structures <strong>the</strong> key questions local initi<strong>at</strong>ors face. As a local initi<strong>at</strong>or,<br />

researcher or <strong>energy</strong> aficionado, you can read this Resource as a book,<br />

from beginning to end. Or you can browse through it and first dive into those<br />

parts th<strong>at</strong> interest you most. You can also use it in combin<strong>at</strong>ion with <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

elements of <strong>the</strong> toolkit and put <strong>the</strong> building blocks into practice in your<br />

ongoing PED processes.<br />

The Resource consists of three chapters. In ‘Chapter 1:<br />

Portraits of PED experiments’, we dissect six experimental projects in Sweden,<br />

Belgium, Austria, <strong>the</strong> Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands, France and Ireland. The Portraits invite<br />

you to dive deep into a mix of new and existing urban <strong>district</strong>s. You’ll discover<br />

<strong>the</strong> specific local contexts and fabrics, which types of analysis were carried<br />

out, and which targets were set in terms of <strong>energy</strong> efficiency and balance. Wh<strong>at</strong><br />

are <strong>the</strong> organiz<strong>at</strong>ional and social dynamics, and which methods and tools have<br />

been tested? In each Portrait, we unravel a number of specific experiments,<br />

innov<strong>at</strong>ions and breakthroughs.<br />

‘Chapter 2: Keys for realizing PEDs’ forms <strong>the</strong> heart of <strong>the</strong><br />

Resource. It structures <strong>the</strong> insights and learnings from a multitude of <strong>district</strong><br />

experiments under eleven key oper<strong>at</strong>ional dimensions of PED developments:<br />

how to empower local stakeholders; which <strong>district</strong> targets need to be set; how<br />

to finance inclusive, long-term development; etc. Each of <strong>the</strong> Keys starts with<br />

an outline th<strong>at</strong> introduces why this oper<strong>at</strong>ional dimension is important and<br />

wh<strong>at</strong> its specific challenges and opportunities are. The second part of each Key<br />

presents a selection of relevant and complementary ‘building blocks’: concrete<br />

methods, tools or actions th<strong>at</strong> will inspire your work. Each of <strong>the</strong>se blocks is<br />

rooted in concrete experiences and is documented with a best practice. The<br />

toolkit provides a playing card for each building block: you can use <strong>the</strong>m to<br />

co-design a sequence of actions pertinent for your <strong>district</strong>.<br />

Every PED process is a sequence of steps and choices th<strong>at</strong><br />

stakeholders make toge<strong>the</strong>r. When weighing <strong>the</strong> potential directions you have<br />

on <strong>the</strong> table, you inevitably and sometimes unconsciously face conflicting<br />

logics. ‘Chapter 3: Consider<strong>at</strong>ions’ offers you a series of nine tensions we identified.<br />

How do you deal with <strong>the</strong> unwanted gentrific<strong>at</strong>ion th<strong>at</strong> is often directly<br />

linked to <strong>the</strong> revitaliz<strong>at</strong>ion of neighbourhoods? Do you opt for quick results<br />

first or go for a deep transform<strong>at</strong>ion immedi<strong>at</strong>ely? Is <strong>energy</strong> <strong>the</strong> main focus<br />

in your narr<strong>at</strong>ive or is it a lever for o<strong>the</strong>r challenges in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood?<br />

This chapter helps you to voice and discuss <strong>the</strong>se underlying questions with<br />

your coalition of stakeholders. The idea is not to solve <strong>the</strong>se tensions, but to<br />

position your own <strong>district</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy in rel<strong>at</strong>ion to each of <strong>the</strong> Consider<strong>at</strong>ions.<br />

‘For a Wave of Energy Districts’. With this title, <strong>the</strong> epilogue<br />

places an exclam<strong>at</strong>ion mark <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> end of this Resource. Where do we want to<br />

be by 2030? We formul<strong>at</strong>e three calls for action th<strong>at</strong> we believe are necessary<br />

to get <strong>the</strong>re. When heard and implemented, <strong>the</strong>se will ensure th<strong>at</strong> today’s<br />

sprinkling of experiments will evolve towards a structured practice.<br />


CHAPTER 1<br />

Portraits of<br />

PED experiments<br />

11<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> do actual PEDs look like? This<br />

chapter illustr<strong>at</strong>es <strong>the</strong> directions th<strong>at</strong> PEDs can<br />

take, through six illustr<strong>at</strong>ed Portraits of very<br />

different neighbourhoods in as many countries.<br />

They are a sample of <strong>the</strong> first gener<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>district</strong>s<br />

across Europe th<strong>at</strong> aim to become Positive<br />

Energy Districts. The selected neighbourhoods<br />

may have similarities, but <strong>the</strong>y mostly provide<br />

complementary insights and breakthroughs on<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ing a PED. These six experiments exemplify<br />

<strong>the</strong> five dimensions of PEDs we elabor<strong>at</strong>ed in<br />

<strong>the</strong> general introduction of this resource.<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments

First, each of <strong>the</strong> cases maximizes its<br />

<strong>energy</strong> performance and local production. While<br />

none of <strong>the</strong>m produce more <strong>energy</strong> locally than<br />

<strong>the</strong>y consume, <strong>the</strong>y do explore how <strong>the</strong>y can<br />

reach <strong>the</strong> maximum possible <strong>energy</strong> balance.<br />

The efforts involved to install PV panels on all<br />

roofs, provide individual he<strong>at</strong> pumps or a central<br />

he<strong>at</strong> grid, build highly <strong>energy</strong>-efficient buildings or<br />

go through deep renov<strong>at</strong>ions in existing buildings<br />

are titanic.<br />

Second, all of <strong>the</strong>m combine <strong>energy</strong><br />

targets with ambitions in terms of clim<strong>at</strong>e<br />

adapt<strong>at</strong>ion, local employment or living quality.<br />

Some experi ments go even fur<strong>the</strong>r: <strong>the</strong>y explicitly<br />

position investments in <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> as<br />

a means to realize o<strong>the</strong>r local benefits. In <strong>the</strong><br />

Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter of Brussels (BE), for example,<br />

experiments by local communities test how <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> can become a lever to improve<br />

housing quality, public safety and <strong>the</strong> socioeconomic<br />

position of residents in <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

12<br />

Third, <strong>the</strong> six <strong>district</strong>s show how a ‘neighbourhood’<br />

transcends <strong>the</strong> scale of an individual<br />

plot. They are of a significant scale. But <strong>the</strong>re are<br />

still large differences in how <strong>the</strong>se <strong>district</strong>s are<br />

deline<strong>at</strong>ed: <strong>the</strong> historical Georgian Quarter in<br />

Limerick (IE), for example, is ‘only’ 0.35 km2 large<br />

and has 3,000 inhabitants, while aspern Seestadt<br />

in Vienna (AT) covers 2.40 km2 and will be home<br />

to 20,000 residents once finished. These geo-

graphical deline<strong>at</strong>ions are always linked to social<br />

dynamics and movements, and vice versa. For<br />

each of <strong>the</strong>m, we recognize how specificities of<br />

<strong>the</strong> local context and historic developments play a<br />

role in <strong>the</strong> analysis of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood potential<br />

and in <strong>the</strong> choice for <strong>the</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egic actions.<br />

13<br />

Fourth, all <strong>the</strong>se <strong>district</strong>s are going<br />

through a step-by-step development process.<br />

We see <strong>district</strong>s in different stages of <strong>the</strong> process,<br />

from very early explor<strong>at</strong>ions to more m<strong>at</strong>ure, stepby-step<br />

implement<strong>at</strong>ions. Lyon Confluence (FR),<br />

a mixed new and existing <strong>district</strong>, started its<br />

(re)development process in 1999. Lessons are<br />

learned throughout <strong>the</strong> sequence of actions<br />

and projects, for example on <strong>the</strong> affordability of<br />

housing. These are taken into account in <strong>the</strong> next<br />

phases of development.<br />

And fifth, all of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhoods focus<br />

on building local capacity, each in <strong>the</strong>ir own way.<br />

In Bospolder-Tussendijken in Rotterdam (NL),<br />

local residents become <strong>the</strong> ones installing <strong>the</strong><br />

new <strong>energy</strong> infrastructure via a social employment<br />

programme. The urgent need for more job opportunities<br />

is taken into account in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy.<br />

But also in <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport (SE),<br />

a newly built <strong>district</strong>, it appeared necessary<br />

to increase <strong>the</strong> capacity and know ledge of<br />

developers and contractors to implement <strong>the</strong><br />

PED str<strong>at</strong>egy.<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments

14<br />

In conclusion, <strong>the</strong>re is more to Positive<br />

Energy Districts than technical challenges alone.<br />

PEDs deal just as much with activ<strong>at</strong>ing different<br />

stakeholders, communic<strong>at</strong>ing about goals, building<br />

local capacity, ensuring continuity, financing<br />

‘unprofitable’ aspects of <strong>district</strong> development and<br />

much more. The six experiments in this chapter<br />

show different approaches to this co-cre<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

process. The Portraits allow us to learn from<br />

<strong>the</strong> diversity of insights and tools.

PORTRAIT 1<br />

15<br />

Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter,<br />

Brussels<br />

Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

covers 150 ha<br />

16,000 inhabitants<br />

Pentagon<br />

covers 461 ha<br />

51,566 inhabitants

A <strong>district</strong> in continuous transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

The Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter in Brussels has<br />

gone through major transform<strong>at</strong>ions. In <strong>the</strong> 1960s, some<br />

10,000 residents of this popular area were evicted to make way<br />

for wh<strong>at</strong> was set to become a new business <strong>district</strong> <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> heart<br />

of Europe. The residential area was abruptly altered into a<br />

fragmented neighbourhood where individual terraced houses<br />

and cafés existed alongside <strong>the</strong> new office towers and small<br />

industrial activities benefiting from proximity to <strong>the</strong> canal.<br />

Today, several urban development projects are under way<br />

th<strong>at</strong> will significantly change <strong>the</strong> area’s character again.<br />

1. Driven by moderniz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

ambitions, <strong>the</strong> so-called Manh<strong>at</strong>tan<br />

Plan involved <strong>the</strong> demolition of a<br />

large part of <strong>the</strong> former residential<br />

area with <strong>the</strong> aim of <strong>at</strong>tracting<br />

investors to <strong>the</strong> city. By 1976<br />

<strong>the</strong> World Trade Center (WTC)<br />

towers 1 and 2 had already been<br />

built. But for several decades, <strong>the</strong><br />

rest of <strong>the</strong> master plan remained<br />

unfinished and left a physical and<br />

social vacuum in <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

1.1 World Trade Center (WTC)<br />

towers 1 and 2, Manh<strong>at</strong>tan Plan<br />

© CIVA Collections, Brussels<br />

1.1<br />


2. The <strong>district</strong> is composed<br />

of contrasting sp<strong>at</strong>ial and social<br />

realities as a result of <strong>the</strong>se transform<strong>at</strong>ions.<br />

The density of <strong>the</strong><br />

area increased <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong><br />

nineteenth century with <strong>the</strong> development<br />

of industrial activity along<br />

<strong>the</strong> canal. Many of <strong>the</strong> remaining<br />

terraced houses and <strong>the</strong>ir groundfloor<br />

workshops pred<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> 1960s,<br />

while <strong>the</strong> office towers and apartment<br />

blocks were built from <strong>the</strong><br />

l<strong>at</strong>e twentieth century onward.<br />

2.1 Aerial view of <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter, showing <strong>the</strong> very<br />

heterogeneous n<strong>at</strong>ure of<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong><br />

© Filip Dujardin<br />

2.2 Foyer Laekenois social<br />

housing block with office<br />

building in <strong>the</strong> background<br />

© Bob van Mol<br />

2.3 Typical local shop in <strong>the</strong><br />

Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, on <strong>the</strong><br />

ground floor of a densely<br />

popul<strong>at</strong>ed apartment block<br />

© Architecture Workroom<br />

Brussels<br />

17<br />

2.1<br />

2.2<br />

2.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 1 – Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, Brussels

3. The legacy of urban renewal<br />

continues to this day. The former<br />

bed of <strong>the</strong> river Zenne is being<br />

reconfigured as a linear park<br />

through <strong>the</strong> inner areas of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>’s blocks. The WTC towers<br />

th<strong>at</strong> once stood alone in a desol<strong>at</strong>e<br />

landscape are being dismantled<br />

and rebuilt according to new<br />

circular principles. Similarly, <strong>the</strong><br />

construc tion of new apartments,<br />

a sports tower, <strong>the</strong> conversion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> fire st<strong>at</strong>ion and a cultural hub<br />

around <strong>the</strong> former car factory aim<br />

to glue toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> p<strong>at</strong>ches of this<br />

dispersed <strong>district</strong>. The transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of <strong>the</strong> ‘Manh<strong>at</strong>tan’ area into a<br />

more mixed neighbourhood is still<br />

receiving a lot of <strong>at</strong>tention today.<br />

Will <strong>the</strong> residential areas behind<br />

it be more than an afterthought in<br />

this next development phase?<br />

3.1 Parc de la Senne in<br />

<strong>the</strong> Masui area<br />

© Contr<strong>at</strong> de Quartier Masui<br />

3.2 Project for <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of Kanal Centre Pompidou<br />

(former car factory) in<br />

<strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

© Secchi Smith for Atelier<br />

Kanal (noArchitecten,<br />

Sergison B<strong>at</strong>es architects,<br />

EM2N)<br />

3.3 Construction site of <strong>the</strong><br />

new ZIN tower, former World<br />

Trade Center towers 1 and 2<br />

© Bob van Mol<br />

3.1 3.2<br />

3.3<br />


Energy potential in local,<br />

collective projects<br />

Like most of <strong>the</strong> built fabric in Belgium,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter runs mainly on individual gas boilers<br />

and electricity gener<strong>at</strong>ed by nuclear power. With <strong>the</strong> goal<br />

of becoming clim<strong>at</strong>e-neutral by 2050, <strong>the</strong> City of Brussels<br />

decided to explore how this <strong>district</strong> could become exemplary<br />

as a PED. The analyses and simul<strong>at</strong>ions highlight <strong>the</strong> importance<br />

of <strong>energy</strong> sharing and collective projects. Behavioural<br />

change among all users in <strong>the</strong> area is also crucial.<br />

4. In its Majority Agreement<br />

2018-24, as well as in <strong>the</strong> most<br />

recent Smart City Str<strong>at</strong>egy 2023,<br />

<strong>the</strong> City of Brussels declared its<br />

ambition to implement a first PED<br />

in <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter. Energy<br />

targets are linked to biodiversity<br />

and smart city ambitions. To this<br />

end, <strong>the</strong> municipality has defined<br />

two lines of action th<strong>at</strong> seek to<br />

combine technological ambitions<br />

and a particip<strong>at</strong>ory approach:<br />

improving local <strong>energy</strong> efficiency<br />

through <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion of existing<br />

buildings and <strong>the</strong> development of<br />

new high-performance buildings;<br />

and increasing <strong>the</strong> use of renewable<br />

<strong>energy</strong> through <strong>the</strong> install<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of new <strong>energy</strong> infrastructures<br />

such as electrical storage units<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

4.1 Majority Agreement 2018-2024<br />

© City of Brussels<br />

4.2 Smart City Str<strong>at</strong>egy 2023<br />

© City of Brussels<br />

19<br />

4.1<br />

4.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 1 – Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, Brussels

5. An <strong>energy</strong> analysis by 3E<br />

shows th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> potential for local<br />

renewable <strong>energy</strong> in <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter lies mainly in solar, geo<strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

and rio<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong>.<br />

While <strong>the</strong>re is a lot of potential in<br />

absolute terms (e.g. for PV panels),<br />

<strong>the</strong> self-sufficiency of most buildings<br />

does not exceed 30% due to<br />

a mism<strong>at</strong>ch between production<br />

and consumption times. Sharing<br />

<strong>energy</strong> among actors with different<br />

consumption p<strong>at</strong>terns has been put<br />

forward as a decisive element in <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>’s <strong>energy</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy.<br />

5.1 Map illustr<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

<strong>the</strong> PV potential in<br />

<strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

© 3E, Architecture Workroom<br />

Brussels, Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Pl<strong>at</strong>form Brussels<br />

Self-consumption (%)<br />

70%<br />

60%<br />

50%<br />

40%<br />

30%<br />

20%<br />

10%<br />

5.2 Regarding <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s<br />

consumption p<strong>at</strong>terns, <strong>the</strong><br />

analysis shows th<strong>at</strong> even if<br />

<strong>the</strong> production/consumption<br />

r<strong>at</strong>io were to increase, <strong>the</strong><br />

self-sufficiency r<strong>at</strong>e would<br />

stabilize <strong>at</strong> a <strong>level</strong> of 30%<br />

for <strong>the</strong> entire <strong>district</strong><br />

© 3E, Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion Pl<strong>at</strong>form<br />

Brussels<br />

Self-consumption<br />

Self-sufficiency<br />

5.2<br />

0%<br />

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5<br />

5.1<br />

PV potential [kWh/year]<br />

1 - 2500<br />

2500 - 4500<br />

4500 - 7000<br />

7000 - 10000<br />

10000 <<br />

20<br />

Production/consumption r<strong>at</strong>io

6. Different scenarios for<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> performance of <strong>the</strong><br />

Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter were simul<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

by FH Technikum Wien and 3E.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> most ambitious simul<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

about half of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> consumed<br />

can be produced locally. This<br />

scenario entails <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of 92% of <strong>the</strong> building stock<br />

(50% collective renov<strong>at</strong>ions and<br />

42% individual renov<strong>at</strong>ions), a<br />

combin<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

and low-temper<strong>at</strong>ure he<strong>at</strong> pumps,<br />

<strong>the</strong> install<strong>at</strong>ion of PV on 80% of<br />

<strong>the</strong> roof area, an 8% reduction<br />

in <strong>energy</strong> consumption through<br />

behavioural changes, and a fur<strong>the</strong>r<br />

17% reduction in consumption by<br />

lowering <strong>the</strong> indoor temper<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

to 19°.<br />

6.1 Table and graph illustr<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

<strong>the</strong> simul<strong>at</strong>ed scenarios for<br />

<strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

© 3E, FH Technikum Wien,<br />

<strong>Cities4PEDs</strong><br />

7. These suggestions and<br />

reflections have been taken up<br />

by <strong>the</strong> City of Brussels in a Vision<br />

Document for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. The<br />

document provides an overview of<br />

<strong>the</strong> relevant aspects of PED implement<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

in <strong>the</strong> area, defines local<br />

ambitions, and shapes priorities<br />

and next steps. A key next step for<br />

<strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter is to link<br />

and integr<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> process towards<br />

a PED with o<strong>the</strong>r ongoing plans<br />

and interventions in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

21<br />

Specific <strong>final</strong> <strong>energy</strong> [kWh/m 2 GFA *a]<br />

140<br />

120<br />

100<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

Electricity<br />

Gas SH<br />

Gas DHW<br />

District He<strong>at</strong>ing SH<br />

District He<strong>at</strong>ing DHW<br />

PV yield<br />

Density context factor<br />

0<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

1<br />

Baseline<br />

2<br />

Generic Policy<br />

3<br />

AI Floor He<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

4<br />

AI Radi<strong>at</strong>ors<br />

5<br />

AC BC<br />

6<br />

AC no BC<br />

7<br />

Excellence<br />

Renov<strong>at</strong>ion RE production Behavioural change<br />

# Scenarios<br />

Renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

r<strong>at</strong>e<br />

U-values He<strong>at</strong>ing PV r<strong>at</strong>e<br />

Desired<br />

comfort<br />

DHW<br />

reduction<br />

1 Baseline 0% Based on Tabula<br />

research 2 Gas he<strong>at</strong>ing Currently installed 21°C 0%<br />

2 Generic policy 1%/year roof/walls/floors =<br />

0.24<br />

windows = 1.5<br />

glazing = 1.1<br />

doors = 2<br />

He<strong>at</strong> pumps<br />

(SH)<br />

0.8%/year<br />

(22.5% in 2050)<br />

21°C 5%<br />

3 Ambitious individual –<br />

floor he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

3%/year “ Lowtemper<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

he<strong>at</strong> pumps<br />

(SH & DHW)<br />

1.43%/year<br />

(40% in 2050)<br />

19°C 15%<br />

4 Ambitious individual –<br />

radi<strong>at</strong>or he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

3%/year “ Hightemper<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

he<strong>at</strong> pumps<br />

(SH & DHW)<br />

1.43%/year<br />

(40% in 2050)<br />

19°C 15%<br />

5 Ambitious collective –<br />

behavioural change<br />

10%/2 years<br />

until 50%<br />

“ District<br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

70% per step (35%<br />

in 2050)<br />

19°C 15%<br />

6.1<br />

6 Ambitious collective –<br />

no behavioural change<br />

1.5%/year<br />

10%/2 years<br />

until 50%<br />

1.5%/year<br />

Hightemper<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

he<strong>at</strong> pumps<br />

(SH & DHW)<br />

“ District<br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

Hightemper<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

he<strong>at</strong> pumps<br />

(SH & DHW)<br />

7 Excellence 3.7% “ Lowtemper<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

he<strong>at</strong> pumps<br />

(SH & DHW)<br />

SH = Space He<strong>at</strong>ing, DHW = Domestic Hot W<strong>at</strong>er<br />

0.9%/year<br />

(25% in 2050)<br />

70% per step (35%<br />

in 2050)<br />

0.9%/year<br />

(25% in 2050)<br />

2.85 %/year (80%<br />

in 2050)<br />

21°C 5%<br />

19°C 25%<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 1 – Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, Brussels

Involving local communities in a shared<br />

<strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong><br />

The residential areas of <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

are home to diverse communities and a combin<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

long-established and immigrant families, many of who live<br />

in precarious socio-economic situ<strong>at</strong>ions. Due to historical<br />

tensions with urban development and an ongoing feeling<br />

of neglect, distrust of formal, top-down organiz<strong>at</strong>ions and<br />

transform<strong>at</strong>ion plans is strong. A cluster of six social housing<br />

blocks, managed by <strong>the</strong> Foyer Laekenois, was proposed as<br />

a test bed for reversing this narr<strong>at</strong>ive. By building trust and<br />

setting up a process of co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion, residents are encouraged<br />

to take on an active role in <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion process of <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

homes and <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> as a whole.<br />

8.1<br />

8. The six social housing est<strong>at</strong>es<br />

of <strong>the</strong> Foyer Laekenois are due for<br />

major refurbishment over <strong>the</strong> next<br />

decade. The unclear time frame of<br />

<strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion process is one of <strong>the</strong><br />

main concerns of residents today.<br />

Some of <strong>the</strong> houses are in such an<br />

unsafe and unhealthy condition th<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong>y can’t wait any longer for <strong>the</strong><br />

refurbishment to take place, while<br />

o<strong>the</strong>rs are worried th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y will be<br />

evicted during <strong>the</strong> refurbishment<br />

process. The mism<strong>at</strong>ch between<br />

top-down decisions and bottom-up<br />

realities fuels mistrust of (new)<br />

public and priv<strong>at</strong>e actors.<br />

8.1 Surroundings of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Foyer Laekenois<br />

© Daniel Parnitzke<br />

8.2 City Mine(d) in <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter with <strong>the</strong>ir Energy<br />

Trailer, opening discussions<br />

with residents about <strong>energy</strong><br />

and local issues<br />

© Daniel Parnitzke<br />

8.3 Energy Trailer in<br />

<strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

© Daniel Parnitzke<br />

8.3<br />

8.2<br />


9. In this context, City Mine(d),<br />

a local non-profit organiz<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ed a four-year process to<br />

co-design an urban windmill with<br />

residents of <strong>the</strong> Foyer Laekenois,<br />

They integr<strong>at</strong>ed <strong>energy</strong> into <strong>the</strong><br />

daily lives of <strong>the</strong> residents by<br />

thinking and discussing toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

how to build this common object.<br />

They spent several months slowly<br />

building up trust through informal<br />

ch<strong>at</strong>s over coffee, children’s workshops<br />

and co-design sessions.<br />

Can <strong>the</strong> windmill become a<br />

symbol strong enough to cre<strong>at</strong>e<br />

a productive environment<br />

amidst <strong>the</strong> uncertainty of <strong>the</strong><br />

redevelopment process?<br />

9.1 Foyer Laekenois socialhousing<br />

apartments during<br />

<strong>the</strong> ‘Quartier d’éte’ project<br />

© Daniel Parnitzke<br />

23<br />

9.1<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 1 – Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, Brussels

10. The joint cre<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

windmill refers to a citizen art<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ive from <strong>the</strong> 1970s. A local<br />

entrepreneur had built a small<br />

windmill th<strong>at</strong> became an important<br />

landmark for <strong>the</strong> area, alongside<br />

a series of graffiti murals th<strong>at</strong><br />

popped up during <strong>the</strong> turbulent<br />

transform<strong>at</strong>ions of <strong>the</strong> area <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

time. The windmill shows how<br />

<strong>energy</strong> has always been <strong>the</strong>re and<br />

could become part of <strong>the</strong> narr<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> once again.<br />

10.1 Historical views of<br />

10.2 <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

10.3 with <strong>the</strong> local windmill<br />

and graffiti murals<br />

© Joris Sleebus &<br />

Brukselbinnenstebuiten,<br />

Lueur d’espoir<br />

11. In 2022, photographs of<br />

<strong>the</strong> windmill and murals were<br />

displayed in an exhibition titled<br />

Fleurs électriques held <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

local sports centre. By reviving<br />

<strong>the</strong> social <strong>energy</strong> of <strong>the</strong> years<br />

following <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Manh<strong>at</strong>tan Plan, <strong>the</strong> exhibition<br />

showed how an artistic and cocre<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

process can enhance a<br />

neighbourhood in transform<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

City Mine(d) organized <strong>the</strong> expo<br />

to provide a space for citizens<br />

and actors to come toge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong><br />

start of an ‘electric collabor<strong>at</strong>ion’<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. The rediscovery<br />

of this local history triggered a<br />

dialogue on new possibilities for<br />

a collective project.<br />

11.1 Opening of <strong>the</strong> exhibition<br />

Fleurs électriques<br />

© Lachlan Mackenzie<br />

10.1<br />

10.2<br />


10.3<br />

25<br />

11.1<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 1 – Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, Brussels

Experimenting with an open<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ional model<br />

How to guide <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion of a <strong>district</strong><br />

as diverse and socially complex as <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter into<br />

a PED? The process will be gradual and will depend on <strong>the</strong><br />

commitment of many local and supralocal partners, such as<br />

<strong>the</strong> various municipalities involved, <strong>the</strong> Brussels Region, <strong>the</strong><br />

(associ<strong>at</strong>ion of) property developers and landowners, as well<br />

as civil and social organiz<strong>at</strong>ions. The cre<strong>at</strong>ion of a coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

pl<strong>at</strong>form in 2021 has provided a testing ground for an open<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ional model in which different actors built a shared<br />

framework and a common ambition for <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong><br />

in <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter.<br />

12. In 2021 Architecture<br />

Workroom Brussels and 3E,<br />

commissioned by <strong>the</strong> City of<br />

Brussels, set up <strong>the</strong> Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Pl<strong>at</strong>form as an informal table<br />

ga<strong>the</strong>ring <strong>the</strong> different stakeholders<br />

involved in <strong>the</strong> development of<br />

a PED in <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter.<br />

Through a series of workshops,<br />

webinars and local walks through<br />

<strong>the</strong> area, <strong>the</strong>se stakeholders<br />

got to know each o<strong>the</strong>r’s work<br />

methods and ambitions, laying<br />

<strong>the</strong> found<strong>at</strong>ions for a long-term<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egy and a framework for<br />

concrete pilot projects.<br />

12.1 Promenade Atelier with<br />

12.2 diverse local actors to<br />

imagine local opportunities<br />

for <strong>energy</strong> projects<br />

© Bob van Mol<br />


13. After a year of experiment<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

<strong>the</strong> ownership of <strong>the</strong><br />

Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion Pl<strong>at</strong>form needs to<br />

be fur<strong>the</strong>r developed. How do <strong>the</strong><br />

city’s vision documents fit in with<br />

sociocultural programmes such as<br />

<strong>the</strong> one initi<strong>at</strong>ed by City Mine(d)<br />

and with <strong>the</strong> investments already<br />

planned by o<strong>the</strong>r municipalities and<br />

<strong>the</strong> region? The <strong>final</strong> report of <strong>the</strong><br />

Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion Pl<strong>at</strong>form sets out a<br />

roadmap for <strong>the</strong> development of a<br />

long-term str<strong>at</strong>egy, including a local<br />

<strong>energy</strong> m<strong>at</strong>chmaker, a collective<br />

sociocultural programme and a<br />

<strong>district</strong> dashboard.<br />

13.1 Diagram illustr<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

<strong>the</strong> roadmap for a<br />

long-term str<strong>at</strong>egy in<br />

<strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

© Architecture Workroom<br />

Brussels, 3E, Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Pl<strong>at</strong>form Brussels<br />

12.2<br />

27<br />

!<br />

...<br />

1C<br />

Local Energy M<strong>at</strong>chmaker<br />

3A<br />

Local Energy<br />

3C<br />

Knowledge exchange and coalition building - Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion Pl<strong>at</strong>form<br />

?<br />

Public Buildings<br />

Community Pilot(s)<br />

Str<strong>at</strong>egy<br />

1A<br />

LEAP<br />

Local Energy Action Plan<br />

3B<br />

Collective Renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

13.1<br />

District Dashboard<br />

2B<br />

2A<br />

Sociocultural Programme<br />

Citizen engagement<br />

Building local trust<br />

Pilot<br />

1B<br />

LET<br />

Local Energy Table<br />

Organiz<strong>at</strong>ion of local workshops, seminar, deb<strong>at</strong>es, exhibition<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 1 – Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, Brussels

14. Three promising directions<br />

for pilot projects in <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter emerged from <strong>the</strong> discussions<br />

in <strong>the</strong> Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion Pl<strong>at</strong>form:<br />

(a) forming local <strong>energy</strong> communities<br />

to share locally produced<br />

<strong>energy</strong>, (b) developing collective<br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion str<strong>at</strong>egies to acceler<strong>at</strong>e<br />

<strong>the</strong> refurbishment of existing buildings,<br />

and (c) using public buildings<br />

as c<strong>at</strong>alysts for priv<strong>at</strong>e investment.<br />

An integr<strong>at</strong>ed mapping exercise<br />

identified nine priority areas where<br />

<strong>the</strong>se pilot projects could be implemented.<br />

These are <strong>the</strong> places where<br />

steps towards concrete projects can<br />

now be taken through fieldwork and<br />

coalition building.<br />

14.1 Map of opportunities –<br />

nine priority areas as<br />

result of <strong>the</strong> integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

mapping excercise<br />

© Architecture Workroom<br />

Brussels<br />

14.1<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />

4<br />

5<br />

6<br />

7<br />

8<br />

9<br />


29<br />

Clusters for building<br />

potential coalitions of<br />

actors for <strong>energy</strong> projects<br />

Clusters for potential<br />

collective renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

projects<br />

Productive activities<br />

& manufacturing /<br />

industrial actors in<br />

<strong>the</strong> nine priority areas<br />

Civil society and<br />

social organiz<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

in public buildings in<br />

<strong>the</strong> nine priority areas<br />

Civil society and<br />

local organiz<strong>at</strong>ions in<br />

<strong>the</strong> nine priority areas<br />

Existing PV install<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

in <strong>the</strong> nine priority areas<br />

1 School environment as local<br />

lever for <strong>energy</strong> projects<br />

1<br />

1<br />

2<br />

2<br />

3<br />

3<br />

2 Integr<strong>at</strong>ing productive<br />

activities and public building<br />

as potential for <strong>energy</strong><br />

exchange<br />

3 Productive environment<br />

potential for collective<br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion str<strong>at</strong>egies<br />

4 Existing PV install<strong>at</strong>ion as<br />

lever for potential <strong>energy</strong><br />

sharing<br />

4<br />

4<br />

5 Planned urban transform<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

as lever for <strong>energy</strong>-integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

projects<br />

5<br />

5<br />

6 Local educ<strong>at</strong>ion organiz<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

potential for <strong>energy</strong>-activ<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

projects<br />

6<br />

6<br />

7<br />

7<br />

8<br />

8<br />

7 School as local lever for<br />

collective renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

8 Resident mobiliz<strong>at</strong>ion using<br />

<strong>energy</strong> as a lever for improving<br />

local quality of life<br />

9 Public building as c<strong>at</strong>alyst for<br />

<strong>energy</strong> project<br />

9<br />

9<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 1 – Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, Brussels


PORTRAIT 2<br />

31<br />

aspern Seestadt,<br />

Vienna<br />

aspern Seestadt<br />

covers 240 ha<br />

20,000 inhabitants<br />

20,000 workplaces<br />

Innere Stadt<br />

covers 288 ha<br />

16,409 inhabitants

A peri-urban s<strong>at</strong>ellite city in response to<br />

demographic growth<br />

At <strong>the</strong> beginning of <strong>the</strong> twenty-first century,<br />

<strong>the</strong> growing demand for residential and commercial space<br />

in Vienna led to <strong>the</strong> decision to develop a former airfield in<br />

<strong>the</strong> 22nd <strong>district</strong> into a new urban area: aspern Seestadt.<br />

The development process is now halfway. It is defined<br />

by a mix of multistorey residential buildings, office and<br />

commercial buildings, and production facilities, all bound<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r by large public and open spaces. By <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong><br />

development, this city within <strong>the</strong> city will be home to more<br />

than 25,000 residents and offer some 20,000 new workplaces.<br />

1. This new urban centre is<br />

being developed on <strong>the</strong> site of a<br />

former airfield th<strong>at</strong> declined after<br />

World War II and was shut down in<br />

<strong>the</strong> l<strong>at</strong>e 1970s. The area is part of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Donaustadt <strong>district</strong>, Vienna’s<br />

largest in terms of surface, loc<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

on <strong>the</strong> city’s north-eastern outskirts.<br />

In 1982 General Motors/<br />

Opel Wien moved part of its<br />

production to <strong>the</strong> former airfield,<br />

kick-starting <strong>the</strong> reuse of <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> early 2000s, a political<br />

decision was taken to redevelop <strong>the</strong><br />

airfield into a new urban area with<br />

focus on residential and business<br />

usage as an extension of Vienna’s<br />

inner city. The former owners of <strong>the</strong><br />

area and <strong>the</strong> City of Vienna agreed<br />

on developing a <strong>district</strong> with high<br />

clim<strong>at</strong>e and <strong>energy</strong> ambitions.<br />

1.1 Initial development of <strong>the</strong><br />

site <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> former airfield<br />

© Luftbild-redl.<strong>at</strong><br />

1.2 aspern Seestadt today<br />

© Wien 3420 AG<br />

1.1<br />

1.2<br />


2. The process of drawing<br />

up <strong>the</strong> master plan for aspern<br />

Seestadt started between 2005<br />

and 2007. After a combined<br />

competition and tender process,<br />

Tov<strong>at</strong>t Architects & Planners<br />

and N+ Objektmanagement were<br />

commissioned to develop <strong>the</strong><br />

master plan for <strong>the</strong> area, while<br />

Gehl Architects focused on <strong>the</strong><br />

guidelines for <strong>the</strong> development<br />

of public spaces. The master plan<br />

design is based on <strong>the</strong> principle<br />

of <strong>the</strong> 15-minute-city, with a<br />

central open area with an artificial<br />

lake and a vast park as <strong>the</strong><br />

structuring elements.<br />

2.1 Draft of <strong>the</strong> aspern<br />

Seestadt master plan<br />

© Johannes Tov<strong>at</strong>t<br />

33<br />

2.1<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 2 – aspern Seestadt, Vienna

3. In aspern Seestadt, many<br />

of <strong>the</strong> plots are being developed<br />

individually by priv<strong>at</strong>e developers.<br />

However, as part of <strong>the</strong> urban<br />

development of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, land<br />

has been made available specifically<br />

for Vienna’s ‘Baugruppen’ (building<br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ives made up of residents<br />

and local organiz<strong>at</strong>ions) through<br />

zoning plans. By organizing <strong>the</strong>mselves<br />

autonomously and acting<br />

as developers, <strong>the</strong>se cooper<strong>at</strong>ives<br />

set up six co-housing and mixeduse<br />

projects in both Seepark and<br />

‘Pioneer Quarter’. The projects<br />

are required to meet <strong>the</strong> same high<br />

ambitions and standards as priv<strong>at</strong>e<br />

developers, with <strong>energy</strong> efficiency<br />

as a priority value for <strong>the</strong>se communities.<br />

They demonstr<strong>at</strong>e a diverse<br />

model of land development, an<br />

altern<strong>at</strong>ive to today’s business-asusual<br />

where residents are solely <strong>the</strong><br />

end buyers of <strong>the</strong> developed units.<br />

3.1 Inaugur<strong>at</strong>ion and work day<br />

<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> LiSA co-housing<br />

© LiSA/Horst Kargl<br />

3.2 LiSA co-housing in<br />

aspern Seestadt<br />

© LiSA/Hansjörg Schwab<br />

3.2<br />

3.1<br />


Central <strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing for<br />

<strong>energy</strong> sustainability<br />

At <strong>the</strong> time of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s development<br />

planning, <strong>the</strong>re was no explicit mand<strong>at</strong>e to become an <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>. Instead, <strong>the</strong> development goal focused on liveability.<br />

The 2014 Smart City Vienna framework str<strong>at</strong>egy provided a<br />

strong impulse for <strong>energy</strong> efficiency. Today, aspern Seestadt is<br />

a gas-free <strong>district</strong>. The connection and expansion of <strong>the</strong> city’s<br />

<strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing system laid <strong>the</strong> groundwork for <strong>the</strong> exclusive<br />

use of renewable <strong>energy</strong>. In addition, this newly built environment<br />

offered <strong>the</strong> opportunity to test decentralized renewable<br />

<strong>energy</strong> technologies such as he<strong>at</strong> pumps as well as <strong>the</strong>rmal and<br />

electrical storage. A monitoring model optimizes consumption<br />

p<strong>at</strong>terns and <strong>the</strong> exchange of d<strong>at</strong>a between buildings.<br />

4. In 2014 <strong>the</strong> City of Vienna<br />

committed to reduce greenhouse<br />

gas emissions by 50% by 2030<br />

and by 85% by 2050 compared to<br />

<strong>the</strong> base year 2005, as st<strong>at</strong>ed in<br />

its Smart City Wien Framework<br />

Str<strong>at</strong>egy with concrete actions to<br />

achieve <strong>the</strong>se goals. Today, <strong>the</strong><br />

new Smart Clim<strong>at</strong>e City Str<strong>at</strong>egy<br />

sets an even higher target: to<br />

become carbon-neutral by 2040.<br />

In both <strong>the</strong>se documents, aspern<br />

Seestadt is mentioned as a test bed<br />

for Smart City research where <strong>the</strong><br />

City of Vienna and Siemens AG are<br />

implementing sustainable solutions<br />

based on real buildings.<br />

4.1 Smart City Wien Framework<br />

Str<strong>at</strong>egy 2014<br />

© Stadt Wien<br />

4.2 Decarboniz<strong>at</strong>ion trajectory<br />

broken down by sector<br />

© Vienna City Administr<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

Vienna Clim<strong>at</strong>e Guide<br />

35<br />

4.1<br />

P<strong>at</strong>hway of Vienna’s greenhouse gas emissions to <strong>the</strong> 2040 target<br />

4.2<br />

Greenhouse gas emissions in million tonnes of CO equivalents<br />

2<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

Buildings (he<strong>at</strong>)<br />

Transport<br />

Waste management<br />

O<strong>the</strong>rs<br />

Vienna’s greenhouse gas budget 2021–2040:<br />

60 million tonnes of<br />

CO 2<br />

equivalents<br />

2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 2 – aspern Seestadt, Vienna

5. The recently developed<br />

aspern Klimafit criteria refer to<br />

<strong>the</strong> individual CO2 footprint of<br />

future occupants or users and<br />

transl<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> overall goals of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Smart City Wien Framework<br />

Str<strong>at</strong>egy to <strong>the</strong> <strong>level</strong> of individual<br />

properties. The criteria have <strong>the</strong><br />

ultim<strong>at</strong>e goal of reducing <strong>the</strong> CO2<br />

footprint of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. They are<br />

formul<strong>at</strong>ed per building plot and<br />

consist of a set of six stan dards.<br />

They are tied to <strong>the</strong> sale of <strong>the</strong> land<br />

and transferred to <strong>the</strong> developer<br />

along with <strong>the</strong> development rights.<br />

Developers are contractually oblig<br />

ed to demonstr<strong>at</strong>e compliance<br />

by submitting implement<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

plans and certific<strong>at</strong>ions.<br />

5.1 Scheme illustr<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong><br />

transl<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> Smart<br />

City Wien Framework Str<strong>at</strong>egy<br />

to singular uses<br />

© FH Technikum Wien,<br />

Institute of Building<br />

Research & Innov<strong>at</strong>ion ZT Gmbh,<br />

Urban Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Vienna<br />

5.2 Syn<strong>the</strong>sis table of <strong>the</strong> six<br />

aspern Klimafit criteria<br />

5.3 Aerial view of <strong>the</strong><br />

still-to-be-developed areas<br />

in aspern Seestadt<br />

© Wien 3420 AG<br />

5.2<br />

aspern Klimafit<br />

Criteria<br />

Ambition<br />

5.1<br />

Energy efficiency<br />

Renewable supply<br />

Energy flexibility<br />

and smart<br />

readiness<br />

Summer <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

comfort<br />

GHG reduced<br />

construction<br />

GHG reduced<br />

mobility<br />

Lowest possible <strong>energy</strong> consumption for<br />

residual <strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong><br />

Highest possible use of on-site renewable<br />

<strong>energy</strong> sources (PV and waste he<strong>at</strong>,<br />

groundw<strong>at</strong>er and geo<strong>the</strong>rmal)<br />

High degree of self-sufficiency in oper<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

electricity through PV install<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Avoidance of overhe<strong>at</strong>ing in summer through<br />

optimized façade design or external solar<br />

shading<br />

Use of sustainable construction methods<br />

and m<strong>at</strong>erials<br />

Promotion of eco-mobility and e-mobility in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> beyond <strong>the</strong> building plot<br />

5.3<br />


6. The part of aspern Seestadt<br />

developed already was assessed<br />

using a simul<strong>at</strong>ion model by FH<br />

Technikum Wien. Due to <strong>the</strong> very<br />

high density in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> (with<br />

an average floor area r<strong>at</strong>io of 2.7),<br />

it seems difficult to produce all<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> needed locally. The<br />

most ambitious possible scenarios<br />

include 100% of <strong>the</strong> gross roof area<br />

covered with PV (or <strong>the</strong> equivalent<br />

of combined façade and roof PV),<br />

or altern<strong>at</strong>ively 70% of <strong>the</strong> gross<br />

roof area covered with PV, balanced<br />

with flexible grid use by storing<br />

regional wind peaks to compens<strong>at</strong>e<br />

for <strong>energy</strong> produced outside <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>. This would allow around<br />

62% of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> required to be<br />

produced in aspern Seestadt itself.<br />

6.1 Primary Energy Balance<br />

(demand and supply) resulting<br />

from <strong>the</strong> simul<strong>at</strong>ion model<br />

© FH Technikum Wien,<br />

<strong>Cities4PEDs</strong><br />

37<br />

PEQ Alpha context factor<br />

PV surplus<br />

Flexible grid use<br />

B<strong>at</strong>teries<br />

PV own consumption<br />

Evs<br />

User plug loads and lights<br />

Building oper<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

90<br />

80<br />

70<br />

Primary Energy [kWhPE/m 2 NFA/a]<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

32<br />

32<br />

43.9 43.9 43.9 43.9 43.9 43.9 32<br />

43.9<br />

32<br />

32 32<br />

3.0<br />

0.6<br />

1.7<br />

3.5<br />

12.4<br />

4.1<br />

14.4<br />

8.0<br />

32<br />

13.2<br />

20<br />

10<br />

35.0 35.5<br />

0.0<br />

30.1<br />

35.5 35.8 36.1 35.9 34.6 36.1<br />

30.1 29.6<br />

29.0<br />

36.4<br />

11.8<br />

0<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Baseline PV<br />

25% Roof<br />

PV 70% Roof +<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmFlex<br />

PV.7, tf.5°C +<br />

0.3 kWh/kWp<br />

PV 70% Roof +<br />

0.5°C +<br />

PV 70% Roof +<br />

2°C + WPS<br />

PV 90% Roof +<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmFlex<br />

PV 105% Roof +<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmFlex<br />

6.1<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 2 – aspern Seestadt, Vienna

Public-priv<strong>at</strong>e cooper<strong>at</strong>ion for<br />

<strong>district</strong> development<br />

A central development organiz<strong>at</strong>ion is<br />

<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> heart of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s evolution and management.<br />

Wien 3420 aspern Development AG, an independent development<br />

company, is responsible for <strong>the</strong> construction of<br />

infrastructure, <strong>the</strong> sale of land to developers, and <strong>the</strong> overall<br />

project coordin<strong>at</strong>ion until completion. The company was<br />

founded in 2004 by <strong>the</strong> federal real-est<strong>at</strong>e company BIG<br />

(‘Bundesimmobiliengesellschaft’) and <strong>the</strong> municipal Vienna<br />

Business Agency (‘Wirtschaftsagentur’). After 2010, two<br />

priv<strong>at</strong>e companies took over some of <strong>the</strong> shares and it<br />

became a public-priv<strong>at</strong>e partnership.<br />

7.2<br />

7. The independent development<br />

company Wien 3420 AG is<br />

<strong>the</strong> central point of coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

in <strong>the</strong> area. This organiz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

brings toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> capacities of<br />

<strong>the</strong> city administr<strong>at</strong>ion and<br />

local stakeholders focusing on<br />

housing, mobility, <strong>energy</strong> and<br />

urban development to coordin<strong>at</strong>e<br />

<strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

In addition, a project coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

unit was established in 2011 within<br />

<strong>the</strong> city administr<strong>at</strong>ion. As a priv<strong>at</strong>e<br />

company, Wien 3420 AG has<br />

been able to establish subsidiaries<br />

(e.g. for construction logistics and<br />

central purchasing management),<br />

particip<strong>at</strong>e in research projects (such<br />

as <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> research ‘Aspern Smart<br />

City Research’), and co-finance<br />

and cooper<strong>at</strong>e with innov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

labs on mobility, digitiz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

or public health. These actions<br />

led to <strong>the</strong> transfer of knowledge<br />

into concrete interventions in <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> and to <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of research insights into concrete<br />

developments.<br />

7.1 Organigram of <strong>the</strong> independent<br />

development company Wien 3420 AG<br />

© Wien 3420 AG<br />

7.2 Urban design sketch of Seebogen<br />

illustr<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong> different<br />

<strong>level</strong>s of accessibility of<br />

<strong>the</strong> various public streets<br />

© Johannes Tov<strong>at</strong>t<br />

7.1<br />

33,33%<br />

sBau Holding GmbH<br />

The building society of <strong>the</strong> Austrian savings bank group<br />

österreichische Sparkassen AG<br />

Public-Priv<strong>at</strong>e-<br />

Partnership<br />

33,33%<br />

WSV Immoholding GmbH<br />

Vienna Insurance Group<br />

The Austrian federal<br />

property administr<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

33,33%<br />

WA Wien Immobilien GmbH<br />

Vienna Business Agency.<br />

A fund of <strong>the</strong> City of Vienna.<br />

100%<br />

Gelup GmbH<br />

ARE Austrian Real Est<strong>at</strong>e<br />

Development GmbH<br />

73,4% 26,6%<br />

100%<br />

Wien 3420 Holding GmbH<br />

49%<br />

1,29%<br />

38<br />

aspern Seestadt<br />

Einkaufsstraßen GmbH<br />

100%<br />

Wien 3420 Umwelt und Baulog GmbH<br />

Aspern Smart City<br />

Research GmbH & Co KG

8. Wien 3420 AG is also responsible<br />

for <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>’s high <strong>energy</strong> and clim<strong>at</strong>e<br />

adapt<strong>at</strong>ion targets. The company<br />

owns <strong>the</strong> land until it is sold to<br />

developers and <strong>the</strong> targets and <strong>the</strong><br />

applic<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> aspern Klimafit<br />

criteria are transferred via sale<br />

contracts. Wien 3420 AG reinvests<br />

profits from <strong>the</strong>se land sales in local<br />

infrastructure and public spaces.<br />

Also, <strong>the</strong> use of commercial and<br />

open-space land is managed by <strong>the</strong><br />

development company to ensure <strong>the</strong><br />

right mix of activities and quality<br />

of space for residents. Public spaces<br />

are handed over to public maintenance<br />

once <strong>the</strong>y’ve been completed.<br />

8.1 Elinor Ostrom Park<br />

© Luiza Puiu<br />

8.2 Final land-use plan<br />

for aspern Seestadt<br />

© Wien 3420 AG<br />

8.1<br />

39<br />

8.2<br />

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W3 vorwiegend Wohnen, flexible Nutzung in allen Geschossen<br />

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M1 alle Nutzungen außer Gewerbe und Wohnen<br />

M2 alle Nutzungen außer Gewerbe<br />

M3 alle Nutzungen außer Wohnen<br />


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F&E Forschung und Entwicklung<br />

S Soziale Infrastruktur<br />

K Kultur<br />

urbane Freifläche<br />

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Grünfläche<br />

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angestrebte Betriebsgleisverlegung<br />

U-Bahn U2<br />

Garagen / Parkplätze Eigenbedarf<br />

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100<br />

0 200 400<br />

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Stadtraumindex<br />

Baufeldbezeichnung<br />

IV4Bo<br />

Bebauung Umgebung<br />

Stand 10.01.2018<br />

© Wien 3420 Aspern Development AG<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 2 – aspern Seestadt, Vienna

Community-building in a developing<br />

neighbourhood<br />

As part of its support for neighbourhood<br />

development, aspern Seestadt Neighbourhood Management,<br />

commissioned by Wien 3420 AG, focuses on local communitybuilding.<br />

A team of nine people is responsible for setting up a<br />

programme to support and empower citizens. By responding<br />

to local issues, supporting bottom-up initi<strong>at</strong>ives and informing<br />

citizens about <strong>the</strong> development process, <strong>the</strong> organiz<strong>at</strong>ion aims<br />

to build bridges between residents and local businesses and<br />

institutions, to cre<strong>at</strong>e new spaces for meeting and exchange<br />

and <strong>the</strong> development of a lively community in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

9. How to build local communities<br />

in new development projects?<br />

How to foster a sense of belonging<br />

in a new neighbourhood and promote<br />

cultural exchange? In aspern<br />

Seestadt, under <strong>the</strong> motto ‘Seestadt<br />

is wh<strong>at</strong> we all make of it toge<strong>the</strong>r’,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Neighbourhood Management<br />

team works with local residents,<br />

businesses and o<strong>the</strong>r parties to<br />

develop local neighbourhood<br />

dynamics. Through <strong>the</strong>ir mobile<br />

office, <strong>the</strong>y work closely with <strong>district</strong><br />

stakeholders on projects such<br />

as cooking classes, interactive maps<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, inform<strong>at</strong>ion sessions<br />

and conferences to build up sociocultural<br />

dynamics in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

9.1 Hannah Arendt Park in<br />

<strong>the</strong> ‘Pioneer Quarter’<br />

© Daniel Hawelka<br />

9.2 Neighbourhood Management team<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> with <strong>the</strong> mobile<br />

neighbourhood point<br />

© IBA_Wien-J.Fetz<br />

9.1<br />

9.2<br />


10. Since 2018 a neighbourhood<br />

budget has been alloc<strong>at</strong>ed to fund<br />

citizen initi<strong>at</strong>ives. The ‘Ich. Du.<br />

Wir. Nachbarschaftsbudget’ (Me,<br />

you, we, neighbourhood budget) is<br />

an annual programme open to all<br />

actors in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. Following <strong>the</strong><br />

submission of project proposals,<br />

a jury of citizens selects projects<br />

such as cooking classes for children,<br />

bricolage workshops or a shared<br />

wheelchair bicycle for <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood.<br />

In recent years, selected<br />

projects have received an average<br />

grant of € 300 each, with a maximum<br />

annual budget of € 3,000.<br />

10.1 Neighbourhood fair<br />

© NikoHavranek<br />

10.2 Cooking classes organized<br />

with local citizens and <strong>the</strong><br />

Neighbourhood Management team<br />

© Luiza Puiu<br />

10.3 Simone de Beauvoir Square<br />

© Luiza Puiu<br />

10.2<br />

10.3<br />

41<br />



PORTRAIT 3<br />

43<br />

Stockholm<br />

Royal Seaport,<br />

Stockholm<br />

Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

covers 236 ha<br />

22,000 inhabitants<br />

35,000 workplaces<br />

Gamla Stan<br />

covers 36 ha<br />

3,000 inhabitants

Brownfield redevelopment offers<br />

opportunities for new sustainable living<br />

At <strong>the</strong> beginning of <strong>the</strong> new millennium,<br />

<strong>the</strong> City of Stockholm started planning <strong>the</strong> moderniz<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> former harbour area. With <strong>the</strong> reloc<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> container<br />

terminal and <strong>the</strong> closure of <strong>the</strong> oil depot, <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal<br />

Seaport went from one of <strong>the</strong> most important g<strong>at</strong>eways to<br />

<strong>the</strong> Baltic Sea to an unused brownfield. In 2009 <strong>the</strong> City of<br />

Stockholm decided th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport should<br />

become <strong>the</strong> city’s next environmentally profiled <strong>district</strong> and a<br />

model for sustainable urban planning in Europe. This set <strong>the</strong><br />

machinery in motion to build a fossil-free <strong>district</strong> with a high<br />

<strong>level</strong> of local renewable <strong>energy</strong> production.<br />

1. The Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

(‘Norra Djurgårdsstaden’) was one<br />

of Stockholm’s largest industrial<br />

and port areas. Its direct connection<br />

to <strong>the</strong> Baltic Sea contributed<br />

to making it one of <strong>the</strong> largest<br />

coal ports. Through time, <strong>the</strong> port<br />

development enlarged and in 1927<br />

<strong>the</strong> Loudden oil depot was <strong>the</strong><br />

last industrial development in <strong>the</strong><br />

area. In <strong>the</strong> early 1950s, container<br />

traffic moved to a new and deeper<br />

harbour, reducing <strong>the</strong> activity here<br />

to mainly cruise and ferry traffic.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> legacy of <strong>the</strong> industrial<br />

activity remains a challenge: soil<br />

remedi<strong>at</strong>ion has been a key factor<br />

in <strong>the</strong> redevelopment of <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

1.1 Historical picture of<br />

<strong>the</strong> former oil depot<br />

1.2 Historical map showing<br />

<strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

1.1<br />

1.2<br />


2. In <strong>the</strong> heart of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>,<br />

several historic industrial buildings<br />

have been preserved and converted<br />

into prominent public buildings.<br />

Where gas was once produced for<br />

<strong>the</strong> entire city, <strong>the</strong> Gasverket area is<br />

now a central cultural and community<br />

hub for <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal<br />

Seaport. The heritage buildings<br />

reconnect <strong>the</strong> area with its former<br />

identity and <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> production<br />

of <strong>the</strong> past.<br />

2.1 Aerial view of <strong>the</strong><br />

Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

2.2 Redevelopment of <strong>the</strong> local<br />

Heritage Building<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

2.3 Refurbishment of <strong>the</strong> gasometer<br />

in <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

45<br />

2.1<br />

2.3<br />

2.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 3 – Stockholm Royal Seaport, Stockholm

3. Today, <strong>the</strong> first phase of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

development is complete. Three<br />

thousand apartments have been<br />

built and are occupied (<strong>the</strong>se come<br />

on top of <strong>the</strong> existing 1,600). Soil<br />

remedi<strong>at</strong>ion has been a key step in<br />

making this <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood it<br />

is today. Instead of transporting<br />

<strong>the</strong> soil to a tre<strong>at</strong>ment facility, it<br />

is remedi<strong>at</strong>ed on site. Using new<br />

technology th<strong>at</strong> stabilizes <strong>the</strong> soil<br />

during tre<strong>at</strong>ment, <strong>the</strong> clay has<br />

been remedi<strong>at</strong>ed and streng<strong>the</strong>ned<br />

through chemical oxid<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

These complex tre<strong>at</strong>ments<br />

come <strong>at</strong> a cost and, combined<br />

with <strong>the</strong> <strong>at</strong>tractive loc<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> development and highly<br />

innov<strong>at</strong>ive construction methods,<br />

lead to rel<strong>at</strong>ively high land and<br />

building prices.<br />

3.1 Stockholm Royal Seaport oil<br />

dock in <strong>the</strong> 1970s<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

3.2 Workers in <strong>the</strong> oil dock<br />

during <strong>the</strong> 1970s<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

4. The next phase of <strong>the</strong> development<br />

is loc<strong>at</strong>ed in <strong>the</strong> Loudden<br />

area, <strong>the</strong> former oil depot and<br />

container terminal. It will house<br />

around 4,000 new homes mixed<br />

with commercial premises. This<br />

new development brings new opportunities<br />

to test and implement a<br />

range of appropri<strong>at</strong>e and integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

technical solutions, contributing<br />

to increased sustainability for <strong>the</strong><br />

whole Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

development. But how can highly<br />

ambitious (and <strong>the</strong>refore expensive)<br />

redevelopments like this one<br />

be reconciled with ambitions of<br />

housing affordability?<br />

4.1 Aerial view of <strong>the</strong> Stockholm<br />

Royal Seaport and <strong>the</strong> Loudden<br />

area still to be developed<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

4.1<br />

3.1 3.2<br />


High <strong>energy</strong> targets as a driver for<br />

<strong>district</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Stockholm has a long history of integr<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

environmental consider<strong>at</strong>ions into urban management in a<br />

structured and targeted way. Following <strong>the</strong> Environmental<br />

Programme and <strong>the</strong> Clim<strong>at</strong>e Action Plan, <strong>the</strong> City of<br />

Stockholm decided to set even higher sustainability and<br />

<strong>energy</strong> efficiency targets for <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport.<br />

Under <strong>the</strong> slogan ‘A world-class environmental urban <strong>district</strong>’,<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> aims to be fossil-free by 2030 (compared to <strong>the</strong><br />

citywide target of 2040) by focusing, among o<strong>the</strong>r things,<br />

on <strong>energy</strong> use and efficiency.<br />

5. The Clim<strong>at</strong>e Action Plan<br />

provides a step-by-step process to<br />

make <strong>the</strong> city fossil-free by 2040.<br />

The str<strong>at</strong>egy and <strong>the</strong> plan include<br />

a clim<strong>at</strong>e budget th<strong>at</strong> limits <strong>the</strong><br />

maximum <strong>level</strong> of CO2 emissions,<br />

implying a reduction of 19 million<br />

tonnes of emissions from <strong>energy</strong><br />

production and use and from <strong>the</strong><br />

transport sector. The development<br />

of <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

aims to be an exemplary <strong>district</strong><br />

in which all <strong>the</strong>se measures are<br />

implemented in <strong>the</strong> most ambitious<br />

way, with even stricter local targets.<br />

5.1 Clim<strong>at</strong>e Action Plan 2020-2023<br />

© Stockholms Stad<br />

5.2 Environmental Programme<br />

2020-2023<br />

© Stockholms Stad<br />

5.3 Clim<strong>at</strong>e Budget 2022-2024<br />

© Stockholms Stad<br />

47<br />

5.1<br />

5.2<br />

5.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 3 – Stockholm Royal Seaport, Stockholm

6. The high sustainability<br />

targets of <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal<br />

Seaport are reached by reducing,<br />

controlling and recovering <strong>energy</strong>,<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erial and waste streams in a<br />

circular way. The maximum amount<br />

of waste is limited to 1.5 kg per<br />

person per week and <strong>the</strong> maximum<br />

amount of construction waste<br />

to 20 kg/m 2 . Waste streams in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> are reused as much<br />

as possible. Sixty-five per cent of<br />

excav<strong>at</strong>ed m<strong>at</strong>erial is reused in<br />

<strong>the</strong> Mass Consolid<strong>at</strong>ion Centre, a<br />

local facility for <strong>the</strong> management<br />

of excav<strong>at</strong>ed m<strong>at</strong>erial, where it<br />

is sorted for local use and sold<br />

to external projects. The centre<br />

was established <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> start of <strong>the</strong><br />

development project to manage<br />

and coordin<strong>at</strong>e on-site soil<br />

decontamin<strong>at</strong>ion. In addition, grey<br />

w<strong>at</strong>er is recycled for irrig<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

he<strong>at</strong> recovery is increased, and<br />

biogas production from waste<br />

w<strong>at</strong>er is optimized.<br />

6.1 Mass Consolid<strong>at</strong>ion Centre<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

6.2 Waste sorting and recovery<br />

system in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

© Charlotte Sandberg<br />

6.2<br />

6.1<br />


7. The City of Stockholm has<br />

implemented a centralized <strong>energy</strong><br />

infrastructure system, both for<br />

<strong>energy</strong> production and distribution<br />

and for m<strong>at</strong>erial flow management.<br />

The central <strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing system<br />

is connected to <strong>the</strong> citywide<br />

system which is powered by waste<br />

inciner<strong>at</strong>ion and residual he<strong>at</strong> and<br />

<strong>energy</strong>. It provides <strong>energy</strong> to 72% of<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. The rest is supplied by<br />

decentralized technical solutions,<br />

such as geo<strong>the</strong>rmal he<strong>at</strong>ing systems<br />

for multistorey buildings toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

with PV install<strong>at</strong>ions on façades<br />

and roofs.<br />

7.1 Circular cycle of <strong>energy</strong>,<br />

w<strong>at</strong>er and m<strong>at</strong>erials for<br />

<strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

© Stockholms Stad<br />

7.2 PV install<strong>at</strong>ions on<br />

roofs and façades<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

7.1<br />

49<br />

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CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 3 – Stockholm Royal Seaport, Stockholm

8. FH Technikum Wien simul<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

potential positive <strong>energy</strong><br />

configur<strong>at</strong>ions in <strong>the</strong> Loudden<br />

area prior to its development.<br />

The aim is to provide guidance<br />

for future interventions and<br />

technological solutions to be<br />

implemented in <strong>the</strong> Stockholm<br />

Royal Seaport. The most ambitious<br />

scenario envisaged 90% of<br />

<strong>the</strong> gross roof area covered with<br />

PV, combined with <strong>the</strong> use of <strong>the</strong><br />

building core as a flexible <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

storage, assuming a maximum<br />

in indoor temper<strong>at</strong>ure shift of<br />

0.5°C. As a result, almost 57%<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> required can be<br />

produced in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. Though<br />

<strong>the</strong> local clim<strong>at</strong>e allows for lower<br />

solar yields and <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing demand<br />

in Stockholm is higher than in o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

European cities, it is especially <strong>the</strong><br />

density of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> th<strong>at</strong> forms<br />

a key challenge in achieving a<br />

Positive Energy Balance.<br />

8.1 Primary Energy Balance<br />

(demand and supply) resulting<br />

from <strong>the</strong> simul<strong>at</strong>ion model<br />

© FH Technikum Wien,<br />

<strong>Cities4PEDs</strong><br />

8.2 PV install<strong>at</strong>ion of local roofs<br />

© Stockholms Stad<br />

Primary Energy [kWhPE/m 2 NFA/a]<br />

80<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

43.3 43.3 43.3<br />

43.3<br />

32.3 32.3 32.3<br />

9.9<br />

7.8 7.9<br />

32.3<br />

43.3<br />

32.3<br />

14.8<br />

PEQ Alpha context factor<br />

PV surplus<br />

Flexible grid use<br />

B<strong>at</strong>teries<br />

PV own consumption<br />

Evs<br />

User plug loads and lights<br />

Building oper<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

10<br />

30.8 30.8<br />

0.0<br />

23.5<br />

31.7<br />

29.3<br />

25.6 25.4<br />

31.7<br />

28.0<br />

11.9<br />

0<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Demand<br />

Supply<br />

Baseline PV 25%<br />

Roof<br />

PV 70% Roof PV 70% Roof +<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmFlex 0.5°C<br />

PV.7, tF.5°C +<br />

wastew<strong>at</strong>er<br />

recup 50%<br />

PV 90% Roof +<br />

<strong>the</strong>rmFlex 0.5°C<br />

8.1<br />

8.2<br />


Engagement of priv<strong>at</strong>e developers and<br />

capacity-building in public administr<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

In order to meet <strong>the</strong> high <strong>energy</strong> targets, <strong>the</strong><br />

local authorities set up a capacity-building programme with<br />

priv<strong>at</strong>e developers and <strong>the</strong>ir consultants in <strong>the</strong> first phase<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s development. This made it possible to test<br />

different sustainable building str<strong>at</strong>egies in <strong>the</strong> first 600 homes<br />

developed. The ambitious n<strong>at</strong>ure of this urban development<br />

also requires new capacities within <strong>the</strong> public administr<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

<strong>the</strong> leading organiz<strong>at</strong>ion for transforming <strong>the</strong> whole <strong>district</strong>,<br />

including civil servants and consultants. By setting up an<br />

interdepartmental process and exchange, an overarching<br />

vision and common str<strong>at</strong>egy could be developed, coordin<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

by <strong>the</strong> city’s development administr<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

9. Since <strong>the</strong> alloc<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

first plots to developers, <strong>the</strong> city has<br />

been running a capacity-building<br />

programme, a series of seminars for<br />

developers and <strong>the</strong>ir consultants<br />

to transfer knowledge about sustainability<br />

targets such as <strong>energy</strong><br />

requirements for <strong>the</strong> new buildings.<br />

By illustr<strong>at</strong>ing best practices,<br />

technical solutions, <strong>the</strong> l<strong>at</strong>est<br />

pilot projects and research results,<br />

developers have been given <strong>the</strong><br />

tools to build up new sustainable<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egies. Monitoring progress is<br />

key to this process. At <strong>the</strong> end of<br />

<strong>the</strong> first two years, initial results<br />

showed th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> first homes hadn’t<br />

fully met <strong>the</strong>ir targets: consumption<br />

was still too high (though lower<br />

than n<strong>at</strong>ional requirements in <strong>the</strong><br />

Swedish Building Code), while local<br />

<strong>energy</strong> production was higher than<br />

originally anticip<strong>at</strong>ed.<br />

51<br />

9.1<br />

9.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 3 – Stockholm Royal Seaport, Stockholm

The monitoring and web-based<br />

reporting tool supports <strong>the</strong> transparency<br />

of <strong>the</strong> process and allows<br />

<strong>the</strong> programme to make adjustments<br />

based on preliminary results.<br />

The impact of user behaviour plays<br />

a key role in <strong>the</strong> actual performance<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. Which str<strong>at</strong>egies<br />

can activ<strong>at</strong>e behavioural change<br />

among future residents of new<br />

developments?<br />

9.1 Seminar in <strong>the</strong> framework<br />

of <strong>the</strong> capacity-building<br />

programme<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

9.2 Capacity-building programme,<br />

on-site visit<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

9.3 Process developed for <strong>the</strong><br />

capacity-building programme<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

10. The capacity-building programme<br />

also targeted <strong>the</strong> city’s<br />

administr<strong>at</strong>ions and departments.<br />

The city’s development, planning,<br />

transport, environment and health<br />

departments, as well as contracted<br />

consultants, were involved in <strong>the</strong><br />

process to cre<strong>at</strong>e an overarching<br />

and shared vision for <strong>the</strong> Stockholm<br />

Royal Seaport and to avoid working<br />

in isol<strong>at</strong>ion. As this urban development<br />

touches on many policy<br />

aspects, with <strong>energy</strong> targets and<br />

sustainability as key drivers, <strong>the</strong><br />

capacity-building programme<br />

aimed to bring <strong>the</strong> multiple departments<br />

involved on board and to<br />

facilit<strong>at</strong>e knowledge-sharing and<br />

<strong>the</strong> collective decision-making<br />

process. As a result of <strong>the</strong> programme,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal<br />

Seaport is now seen as a joint<br />

urban development project.<br />

11. Urban development projects<br />

in Stockholm are often planned<br />

and implemented by <strong>the</strong> City. For<br />

<strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong> Stockholm<br />

Royal Seaport, a core group was<br />

formed within <strong>the</strong> City’s urban<br />

development department with sustainability<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egists. This separ<strong>at</strong>e<br />

development unit is responsible for<br />

coordin<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong> whole process and<br />

mand<strong>at</strong>es specific departments to<br />

act in <strong>the</strong> different phases of <strong>the</strong><br />

project. The urban development<br />

unit also led and supported interdepartmental<br />

work groups, made<br />

up of experts from <strong>the</strong> municipality<br />

and municipal companies, to<br />

address specific issues within<br />

<strong>the</strong> urban development process.<br />

Public land<br />

Resident survey<br />

and follow-up<br />

Selection of<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erials<br />

Social inclusion<br />

(multi gener<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

and gender<br />

equality)<br />

Seminar 1<br />

Seminar 2 Seminar 4 Seminar 6<br />

2021<br />

Seminar 3 Seminar 5<br />

2020<br />

Jan Apr July Oct Jan Apr July Oct<br />

2022<br />

Mobility<br />

Selection of<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erials<br />

Test phase<br />

(daylight, <strong>energy</strong>,<br />

GYF and mobility)<br />

Humidity and indoor<br />

environment<br />

Construction<br />

and logistics<br />

Start-up phase<br />

Energy<br />

Sustainable<br />

means of<br />

transport<br />

Testing phase/parallel pilots<br />

Clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

and green structure<br />

LCA and<br />

clim<strong>at</strong>e-smart<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erials<br />

Developers working in:<br />

Södra Värtan area<br />

Kolkajen area<br />

Loudden area<br />

9.3<br />


Integr<strong>at</strong>ed urban design<br />

Efficient <strong>energy</strong> technologies and solutions<br />

are incorpor<strong>at</strong>ed into <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

through an integr<strong>at</strong>ed urban design. Attention is paid to<br />

<strong>the</strong> quality of public spaces and collectivity, and measures<br />

to manage and support sustainable public transport are<br />

included. Architectural qualities and landscape design are<br />

important components to turn this <strong>energy</strong> <strong>district</strong> into an<br />

<strong>at</strong>tractive neighbourhood.<br />

12.1<br />

12. Can sustainability goals<br />

lead to <strong>the</strong> development of new<br />

architectural typologies, rethinking<br />

and redesigning not only <strong>the</strong> forms<br />

of our buildings but also <strong>the</strong> ways<br />

in which <strong>the</strong>y are used? In 2014 a<br />

special land-alloc<strong>at</strong>ion competition<br />

was held for plus-<strong>energy</strong> buildings<br />

in <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Seaport.<br />

The competition required high<br />

<strong>energy</strong> performance for <strong>the</strong> building,<br />

but also very high architectural<br />

qualities, both inside and out,<br />

resulting in a clear architectural<br />

language for this specific type<br />

of building: straight outer wall,<br />

rot<strong>at</strong>ed roof ridges to cre<strong>at</strong>e more<br />

surface for PV install<strong>at</strong>ions, with<br />

a 30-degree angle for optimal sun<br />

exposure, and green roofs.<br />

12.1 Residential buildings where<br />

<strong>the</strong> architectural qualities<br />

have been tested to meet<br />

sustainable objectives<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

12.2 Plus-<strong>energy</strong> houses<br />

resulting from <strong>the</strong> landalloc<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

competition<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

53<br />

12.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 3 – Stockholm Royal Seaport, Stockholm

13. Plant beds, open spaces and<br />

street designs are incorpor<strong>at</strong>ed to<br />

cre<strong>at</strong>e a clim<strong>at</strong>e-resilient neighbourhood.<br />

Energy sustainability<br />

is a key priority here, but it is<br />

envisaged alongside clim<strong>at</strong>eadap<br />

t<strong>at</strong>ion measures, resulting in<br />

a diversified sp<strong>at</strong>ial design. Stormw<strong>at</strong>er<br />

management, recre<strong>at</strong>ion and<br />

biodiversity define <strong>the</strong> design and<br />

implement<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s<br />

open spaces. This also leads to a<br />

different way of inhabiting spaces<br />

and new design fe<strong>at</strong>ures tailored to<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir sustainable purpose and use.<br />

13.1 Plant beds for<br />

storm-w<strong>at</strong>er storage<br />

© Lennart Johansson<br />

13.2 Children taking care of<br />

<strong>the</strong> local beehives<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport<br />

13.3 Public spaces and street<br />

design for w<strong>at</strong>er management<br />

© Kasper Dudzic<br />

13.1<br />

13.2<br />

13.3<br />


14. The neighbourhood as a<br />

whole is designed to limit priv<strong>at</strong>e<br />

car use, with few central car parks<br />

to encourage walking and cycling.<br />

Public transport is <strong>the</strong> backbone<br />

of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood, with ample<br />

street space for buses and trams,<br />

and a reduction in car-based design.<br />

How can our street design encourage<br />

different modes of mobility?<br />

Can new urban development be a<br />

lever to change behaviour and push<br />

for a shared, sustainable way of<br />

moving around <strong>the</strong> city?<br />

14.1 Street design for sustainable<br />

and public transport<br />

© Eric Cung<br />

14.2 Illustr<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> planned<br />

centralized parking area <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> edge of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong><br />

© Stockholm Parkering AB<br />

14.3 Biking in Stockholm Royal<br />

Seaport area<br />

© Jansin & Hammarling<br />

55<br />

14.1 14.2<br />

14.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 3 – Stockholm Royal Seaport, Stockholm


PORTRAIT 4<br />

57<br />

Bospolder-<br />

Tussendijken,<br />

Rotterdam<br />

Bospolder- Tussendijken<br />

covers 78 ha<br />

13,180 inhabitants<br />

Stadsdriehoek <strong>district</strong><br />

covers 172 ha<br />

12,060 inhabitants

A solidary neighbourhood rising out of<br />

an accidental Allied bombing<br />

After being accidentally bombed by<br />

Allied forces during World War II, <strong>the</strong> Bospolder-Tussendijken<br />

(BoTu) <strong>district</strong> underwent extensive reconstruction.<br />

The <strong>district</strong> was almost completely rebuilt and a new neighbourhood<br />

with high-density social housing emerged. The<br />

quality of <strong>the</strong> housing and architectural renov<strong>at</strong>ion received<br />

compar<strong>at</strong>ively less <strong>at</strong>tention and budget than <strong>the</strong> city centre<br />

and was <strong>the</strong>refore referred to as <strong>the</strong> ‘forgotten reconstruction’.<br />

This resulted in poor housing quality and small housing<br />

units. Today, <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> is home to many less privileged<br />

Rotterdammers. At <strong>the</strong> same time, people of different na tionalities<br />

are closely involved in <strong>the</strong> daily life of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> and<br />

a sense of community is a key value in <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

1. The area’s proximity to <strong>the</strong><br />

port turned out to be a disadvantage<br />

on 31 March 1943, when a<br />

hundred bombs were dropped<br />

on Rotterdam West. The target<br />

was a series of dockyard factories<br />

th<strong>at</strong> were part of <strong>the</strong> German war<br />

machine. The entire area had to be<br />

completely rebuilt. In Bospolder-<br />

Tussendijken, this was done with<br />

a number of high-density social<br />

housing blocks alongside so-called<br />

maisonettes and several perimeter<br />

housing blocks. The development<br />

of <strong>the</strong> large public space in front<br />

of <strong>the</strong> towers only followed in <strong>the</strong><br />

1980s. The architectural quality of<br />

<strong>the</strong> buildings was not particularly<br />

remarkable, especially when compared<br />

to <strong>the</strong> <strong>at</strong>tention paid to <strong>the</strong><br />

city centre and <strong>the</strong> <strong>level</strong> of experiment<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

<strong>at</strong> work <strong>the</strong>re.<br />

1.1 Rotterdam West after<br />

<strong>the</strong> bombing of 1943<br />

© Municipal Archive Rotterdam<br />

1.2 Aerial view of Rotterdam<br />

West after <strong>the</strong> reconstruction,<br />

April 1984<br />

© Municipal Archive Rotterdam<br />

1.2<br />

1.1<br />


2. Public life in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

is very visible: people meet and<br />

interact on <strong>the</strong> streets or in communal<br />

spaces. This is rooted in <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood’s DNA and history.<br />

As Rotterdammers began to move<br />

to <strong>the</strong> outskirts after reconstruction,<br />

many neighbourhoods became<br />

available for newcomers to settle in,<br />

including Bospolder-Tussendijken.<br />

At <strong>the</strong> time, <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> had a high<br />

vacancy r<strong>at</strong>e and many retail spaces<br />

were abandoned. It was <strong>the</strong> beginning<br />

of a strong civic movement<br />

around <strong>the</strong> appropri<strong>at</strong>ion of empty<br />

spaces for collective activities. This<br />

movement still characterizes <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood today. In <strong>the</strong> 1980s<br />

and 1990s, when a market-oriented<br />

perspective predomin<strong>at</strong>ed, several<br />

residential buildings were demolished<br />

to be rebuilt in <strong>the</strong> context<br />

of urban renewal. This mobilized<br />

residents to take action, streng<strong>the</strong>ning<br />

<strong>the</strong> grassroots movements<br />

and giving rise to self-organized<br />

groups of citizens caring for <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood. For <strong>the</strong> mostly<br />

underprivileged and diverse communities<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, collectivity<br />

was a response to <strong>the</strong> challenges<br />

<strong>the</strong>y faced. This is still <strong>the</strong> case<br />

today: communities continue to<br />

raise issues such as <strong>the</strong> lack of jobs<br />

and decent incomes as well as <strong>the</strong><br />

need for good local services and<br />

a safe neighbourhood.<br />

2.1 High-density residential area<br />

in Bospolder-Tussendijken<br />

© Frank Hanswijk<br />

2.2 Market square in<br />

Bospolder-Tussendijken<br />

© Florian Braakman<br />

2.3 Self-managed <strong>district</strong> house for<br />

local residents, facilit<strong>at</strong>ed by<br />

Delfshaven Coöper<strong>at</strong>ie<br />

© Frank Hanswijk<br />

59<br />

2.1<br />

2.2 2.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 4 – Bospolder-Tussendijken, Rotterdam

Energy as a lever to respond to<br />

local challenges<br />

Most of Bospolder-Tussendijken is powered<br />

by individual gas boilers and centrally gener<strong>at</strong>ed electricity.<br />

As part of <strong>the</strong> New Energy for Rotterdam programme, <strong>the</strong><br />

area was selected as one of <strong>the</strong> first five pilot <strong>district</strong>s to<br />

go gas-free. Centralized <strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing is being installed,<br />

ushering in a new wave of urban transform<strong>at</strong>ion. This technical<br />

solution was met with resistance from local residents, who once<br />

again felt excluded from <strong>the</strong> decisions about <strong>the</strong> changes taking<br />

place in <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>district</strong>. The Resilient BoTu 2028 neighbourhood<br />

plan, co-designed by a range of local stakeholders, provides<br />

a shared str<strong>at</strong>egy to address local socio-economic challenges<br />

and link <strong>the</strong>m to <strong>the</strong> forthcoming transform<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood in light of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>. Energy is<br />

used as a lever for a socially inclusive neighbourhood.<br />

3.1<br />

3. The Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands wants to be<br />

gas-free by 2050. To achieve this<br />

goal for more than eight million<br />

households, a n<strong>at</strong>ional programme<br />

has been set up with sixty-four local<br />

test beds to draw collective lessons<br />

and establish a n<strong>at</strong>ional multiplic<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egy for gas-free <strong>district</strong>s.<br />

Supported by this framework, <strong>the</strong><br />

City of Rotterdam initi<strong>at</strong>ed <strong>the</strong> New<br />

Energy for Rotterdam programme,<br />

which identified Bospolder-Tussendijken<br />

as one of <strong>the</strong> city’s six test<br />

beds. Here, a p<strong>at</strong>h is being explored<br />

towards a collective solution for<br />

<strong>energy</strong> sharing and production,<br />

for both he<strong>at</strong> and electricity. In<br />

BoTu, this was transl<strong>at</strong>ed into a<br />

centralized <strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing system<br />

by Eneco, <strong>the</strong> local priv<strong>at</strong>e <strong>energy</strong><br />

distributor, through a concession<br />

awarded in 2006. Responsibility<br />

for bringing citizens on board and<br />

mobilizing <strong>the</strong>m to connect to this<br />

centralized solution lies with <strong>the</strong><br />

city administr<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

3.1 Map illustr<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong><br />

64 pilot <strong>district</strong>s for <strong>the</strong><br />

Gas-free District programme<br />

© Ministry of Economic<br />

Affairs and Clim<strong>at</strong>e Policy,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands<br />

3.2 Illustr<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> different<br />

phases for <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of <strong>the</strong> centralized <strong>district</strong><br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing in BoTu, as part<br />

of <strong>the</strong> New Energy for<br />

Rotterdam programme<br />

© City of Rotterdam<br />

3.2<br />

1<br />

Gijsinglaanbuurt<br />

2<br />

Korfmakersbuurt<br />

3<br />

Gijsingstra<strong>at</strong>buurt<br />

Ma<strong>the</strong>nesserweg<br />

Park 1943<br />

Grote Visserijstra<strong>at</strong><br />

2 2022 - 2023<br />

Rösener Manzstra<strong>at</strong><br />

3<br />

2024 - 2026<br />

2021 - 2022<br />

1<br />

Schiedamseweg<br />

Jan Kruijffstra<strong>at</strong><br />


4. To bridge <strong>the</strong> gap between<br />

<strong>the</strong> planned urban transform<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

and local needs and dynamics, a<br />

ten-year local str<strong>at</strong>egy was drawn<br />

up to improve overall quality of life<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. This str<strong>at</strong>egy was<br />

developed by <strong>the</strong> local coalition<br />

between <strong>the</strong> City of Rotterdam,<br />

Delfshaven Coöper<strong>at</strong>ie, <strong>the</strong> local<br />

housing company Havensteder, <strong>the</strong><br />

Intern<strong>at</strong>ional Architecture Biennale<br />

Rotterdam (IABR) in co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

with local residents. The first year<br />

delivered a cooper<strong>at</strong>ion agreement,<br />

<strong>the</strong> basis of an open programme<br />

for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. This programme,<br />

called Resilient BoTu 2028, is based<br />

on a 3x3 str<strong>at</strong>egy: three topics (i.e.<br />

health, young people and parenting;<br />

work, language and debt; <strong>energy</strong>,<br />

housing and open space), three<br />

methodologies, starting from three<br />

loc<strong>at</strong>ions in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. Resilient<br />

BoTu 2028 combines local capacities<br />

and links <strong>the</strong>m with environmental<br />

ambitions, empowering<br />

local communities to prepare for<br />

a different future. Becoming an<br />

<strong>energy</strong> <strong>district</strong> is a key component<br />

of this <strong>district</strong> plan.<br />

4.1 The 3x3 str<strong>at</strong>egy<br />

Resilient BoTu 2028<br />

© City of Rotterdam<br />

4.2 Illustr<strong>at</strong>ion showing <strong>the</strong><br />

vision of Resilient BoTu 2028<br />

© Yvet Elisabeth Ellenkamp<br />

4.1<br />

3x WHERE<br />


BoTu <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> urban social average in 10 years’ time<br />

3x WHAT<br />

61<br />

Schans-W<strong>at</strong>ergeus<br />

Work, Language<br />

and Debt<br />

Healthcare,<br />

Young People and<br />

Parenting<br />

Energy, Housing<br />

and Outdoor Space<br />

The Heart of BoTu<br />

Call for Action<br />

Resilient schools<br />

and public squares<br />

Community Building<br />

Professionals<br />

3x HOW<br />

Safety as a precondition<br />

4.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 4 – Bospolder-Tussendijken, Rotterdam

Combining <strong>energy</strong> technical potential<br />

and social sustainability goals<br />

In <strong>the</strong> context of <strong>the</strong> BoTu 2028 partnership,<br />

<strong>the</strong> IABR launched a design <strong>at</strong>elier to cre<strong>at</strong>e new imaginaries<br />

for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> in which residents play a gre<strong>at</strong>er role. The<br />

result is a Local Energy Action Plan (LEAP), a step-by-step<br />

and integr<strong>at</strong>ed <strong>district</strong> approach based on both an anthropological<br />

analysis and an <strong>energy</strong> technical analysis. The narr<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

and scenarios in <strong>the</strong> LEAP were shaped toge<strong>the</strong>r with local<br />

actors to cre<strong>at</strong>e opportunities and collabor<strong>at</strong>ions within<br />

<strong>energy</strong>-rel<strong>at</strong>ed pilot projects for residents and organiz<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

already working locally.<br />

5.1<br />

5. The IABR has played a key<br />

role as a cultural institution in<br />

guiding <strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood approach. It moved<br />

from <strong>the</strong> city centre to a former<br />

warehouse in <strong>the</strong> port area near<br />

BoTu a few years ago, taking on <strong>the</strong><br />

opportunity to become an active<br />

player in <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood itself. The IABR<br />

commissioned a four-year (ongoing)<br />

research-by-design Atelier in collabor<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

with <strong>the</strong> City of Rotterdam<br />

to bring in new ideas and cre<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

design scenarios to this vulnerable<br />

neighbourhood. The focus of <strong>the</strong><br />

Atelier has been to build a strong<br />

community around <strong>energy</strong> questions<br />

and to show how <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong> can be a lever for a<br />

socially inclusive neighbourhood.<br />

5.1 Diagram illustr<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong><br />

two parallel studies th<strong>at</strong><br />

were carried out, forming<br />

<strong>the</strong> basis for <strong>the</strong> LEAP<br />

© OOZE/IABR 2020-21<br />

5.2 IABR–Atelier Rotterdam,<br />

Citizen workshop on <strong>energy</strong><br />

© Frank Hanswijk<br />

5.2<br />


6. First, a mapping was made of<br />

<strong>the</strong> potential for <strong>energy</strong> production,<br />

saving, storage and exchange in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> by PosadMaxwan &<br />

Gener<strong>at</strong>ion.Energy. They concluded<br />

th<strong>at</strong> 60% of CO2 emissions could be<br />

saved and 45% of electricity could<br />

be produced in <strong>the</strong> area. In parallel,<br />

Transformers, Beekhuizen Bindt,<br />

Eliza Works and Steps2Inspir<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

carried out an anthropological<br />

explor<strong>at</strong>ion of social networks and<br />

key actors. They recognized many<br />

different (known and unknown)<br />

networks in <strong>the</strong> area, but also saw<br />

th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y do not rel<strong>at</strong>e to each o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

due to <strong>the</strong> high <strong>level</strong> of cultural,<br />

ethnic and religious diversity.<br />

One of <strong>the</strong> highlights was <strong>the</strong><br />

importance of local organiz<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

working with residents. Could <strong>the</strong>y<br />

become facilit<strong>at</strong>ors of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong>?<br />

6.1 Potential he<strong>at</strong> source in BoTu<br />

© IABR–Atelier Rotterdam –<br />

PosadMaxwan & Gener<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

Energy<br />

6.2 (In)visible social networks<br />

in BoTu<br />

© IABR–Atelier Rotterdam –<br />

Transformers, Beekhuizen Bindt,<br />

Eliza Works, Steps2Inspir<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

63<br />

6.1<br />

Supermarkt<br />

1,84 GWh (30-45 °C)<br />


GFT (biogas, HT)<br />

12 kg/inwoners (85 kg) , 169,86 ton = 56 dagen (3 ton/dag) 0,4 GWh/jaar<br />

500-1000 m Afstand tussen w<strong>at</strong>er en woningen<br />

TEO/TEA/TED (LT)<br />

4,2 + 1,1 + 0,86 GWh/jaar<br />

Restwarmte (MT)<br />

Chocoladefabriek<br />

5,7 GWh (30-45 °C)<br />

17,0 GWh/jaar<br />

1.5 km Afstand tussen boring<br />

Supermarkt<br />

7,87 GWh (30-45 °C)<br />

Geo<strong>the</strong>rmie (HT)<br />

1 ha ‘covered area’<br />

De ingesch<strong>at</strong>te potentie voor een<br />

geo<strong>the</strong>rmie doublet (op basis van 4.000 vollast uren):<br />

in de Delftzandsteen is 40.000 MWht<br />

in de reservoirs in de Rijnland groep is 24.000 MWht<br />

Bakkerij<br />

1,58 GWh (30-45 °C)<br />

Woning<br />

typen:<br />

V<br />

IV<br />

II - III<br />

I<br />

Legenda<br />

Warmte temper<strong>at</strong>uur per brom<br />

en gebruikers<br />

Lage temper<strong>at</strong>uur<br />

Lage - Midden temper<strong>at</strong>uur<br />

Midden temper<strong>at</strong>uur<br />

Hoge temper<strong>at</strong>uur<br />


35<br />

6.2<br />






PARK 1943<br />











SPORT<br />

...<br />


3. BOUWKEET<br />

LE MEDI<br />




2. MIDDEN<br />




SCHOOL<br />






SCHANS /<br />


(-PLEIN)<br />






CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 4 – Bospolder-Tussendijken, Rotterdam

7. In a next step, <strong>the</strong>se two<br />

parallel analyses were combined by<br />

OOZE, a design practice working<br />

<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> intersection between artistic<br />

intervention, architecture and<br />

urbanism. They asked <strong>the</strong>mselves:<br />

how can we build an integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

<strong>district</strong> approach, co-owned by<br />

local residents and communities,<br />

th<strong>at</strong> combines clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

ambitions and <strong>energy</strong> interventions?<br />

This str<strong>at</strong>egy shouldn’t<br />

disrupt <strong>the</strong> local reality but<br />

improve <strong>the</strong> quality of life and<br />

respond to local needs. The LEAP<br />

<strong>the</strong>y developed ga<strong>the</strong>rs existing<br />

socio-sp<strong>at</strong>ial qualities (such as <strong>the</strong><br />

existing green open spaces or <strong>the</strong><br />

different housing typologies in <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>) and uses <strong>the</strong>m as a basis<br />

for designing four different types<br />

of <strong>energy</strong> projects. These combine<br />

social, financial, legal and technical<br />

aspects of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>.<br />

Toge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong>se pilots pave <strong>the</strong> way<br />

for a gradual transform<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

entire <strong>district</strong>. The LEAP proposes<br />

in-between milestones, such as <strong>the</strong><br />

development of low-temper<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

micro-grids, which are <strong>the</strong>n integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

into a locally owned <strong>district</strong><br />

network. The result is an integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

plan towards 2030, centred on <strong>the</strong><br />

interaction between social dynamics<br />

(‘coalitions’), technical solutions<br />

(‘<strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>’) and clim<strong>at</strong>e<br />

adapt<strong>at</strong>ion measures (‘green blue’).<br />

7.1 LEAP process and illustr<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of <strong>the</strong> different milestones –<br />

Countdown to 2030<br />

© OOZE/IABR 2020-21<br />

7.1<br />


8. Toge<strong>the</strong>r with technical and<br />

financial experts and in exchange<br />

with local residents and organiz<strong>at</strong>ions,<br />

OOZE drew up four <strong>energy</strong><br />

pilot projects in four specific<br />

environments: Schie, low-density<br />

apartment blocks along <strong>the</strong> w<strong>at</strong>erway;<br />

Gijsing, a series of multi-storey<br />

apartment blocks; Zelfregiehuis, a<br />

community house th<strong>at</strong> serves as an<br />

<strong>energy</strong> hub; and Dakparkschool, a<br />

school and its communal courtyard.<br />

The four pilots were selected for<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir <strong>energy</strong> and social potential<br />

and for <strong>the</strong>ir potential to be replic<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

in o<strong>the</strong>r parts of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

Dakparkschool, for example,<br />

illustr<strong>at</strong>es how a typical <strong>district</strong><br />

school can cre<strong>at</strong>e social, <strong>energy</strong> and<br />

clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion opportunities.<br />

The projects started with a shared<br />

PV install<strong>at</strong>ion, which is owned by a<br />

local neighbourhood fund initi<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

by Delfshaven Coöper<strong>at</strong>ie, a local<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ion th<strong>at</strong> defines itself as<br />

‘<strong>the</strong> glue between <strong>the</strong> joints’, striving<br />

for more cooper<strong>at</strong>ion between<br />

priv<strong>at</strong>e, public parties and local<br />

residents to build local entrepreneurship<br />

and a more sustainable<br />

neighbourhood. Toge<strong>the</strong>r with <strong>the</strong><br />

sharing of locally produced <strong>energy</strong><br />

with <strong>the</strong> surrounding housing and<br />

<strong>the</strong> re-greening of <strong>the</strong> courtyard,<br />

<strong>the</strong>se can all be seen as replicable<br />

elements th<strong>at</strong> contribute to a more<br />

resilient BoTu.<br />

8.1 The four <strong>energy</strong> pilot projects<br />

in Bospolder-Tussendijken<br />

© OOZE/IABR 2020-21<br />

8.2 Dakparkschool <strong>energy</strong> pilot<br />

© OOZE/IABR 2020-21<br />

65<br />

8.1<br />

Zelfregiehuis<br />

community house<br />

Schie, low-density<br />

apartment blocks<br />

Gijsing fl<strong>at</strong>s<br />

Dakparkschool<br />

8.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 4 – Bospolder-Tussendijken, Rotterdam

Sociocultural programme to build<br />

local capacity<br />

Next to str<strong>at</strong>egic trajectories, Bospolder-<br />

Tussendijken also runs a sociocultural programme to build<br />

local capacity for <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>. Several local organiz<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

have included <strong>energy</strong> issues in <strong>the</strong>ir agendas, and<br />

new programmes have been initi<strong>at</strong>ed focusing on <strong>energy</strong> and<br />

citizen empowerment, behavioural change, ownership and<br />

awareness. However, engaging <strong>the</strong> diverse communities in <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> is challenging, especially when language is a barrier<br />

and <strong>energy</strong> is not perceived as a primary concern. Promising<br />

approaches can be identified th<strong>at</strong> bring <strong>energy</strong> closer to everyday<br />

life in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, embedding it in <strong>the</strong> cultures, values and<br />

ways of living and working in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood.<br />

9. The Rotterdam Environmental<br />

Centre has been training<br />

environmental coaches since<br />

2009. Local residents were trained<br />

to provide inform<strong>at</strong>ion to <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

neighbours about <strong>energy</strong> saving<br />

and sustainability in <strong>the</strong>ir homes<br />

and communities. This paid role<br />

involves going door-to-door and<br />

providing inform<strong>at</strong>ion and useful<br />

tips on how to save <strong>energy</strong> and<br />

money and how to make <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

own homes more sustainable and<br />

more comfortable. In BoTu, <strong>the</strong><br />

coaches play a key role in reaching<br />

out to communities in <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong> whose mo<strong>the</strong>r tongue<br />

is not Dutch.<br />

9.1 Environmental coach<br />

illustr<strong>at</strong>ing diverse<br />

<strong>energy</strong>-saving measures<br />

© Stichting Pauw<br />

11.1<br />

9.1<br />

10.1<br />

11.2<br />


10. WijkEnergieWerkt (District<br />

Energy Works) is an organiz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

th<strong>at</strong> trains local residents to<br />

work for <strong>the</strong>ir construction and<br />

install<strong>at</strong>ion company. Toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

with De Beroepentuin (The<br />

Career Garden), <strong>the</strong>y train<br />

residents struggling to enter <strong>the</strong><br />

regular labour market to become<br />

electricians. In <strong>the</strong> same way,<br />

younger gener<strong>at</strong>ions are involved<br />

in <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion of apartments<br />

in Gijsinglaan to gain experience<br />

before entering <strong>the</strong> labour market.<br />

In this way, <strong>the</strong> skills programme<br />

in BoTu simultaneously addresses<br />

sustainable <strong>transition</strong>s and local<br />

socio-economic challenges.<br />

10.1 Participants in<br />

<strong>the</strong> ‘De Beroepentuin’<br />

training programme<br />

© De Beroepentuin<br />

11. ‘Huis van de Toekomst’<br />

(House of <strong>the</strong> Future) ‘practises<br />

living toge<strong>the</strong>r without gas or<br />

petrol’. Workshops are organized<br />

to make and mend clo<strong>the</strong>s, <strong>the</strong>re<br />

is an annual <strong>energy</strong> agora, vegan<br />

meals are cooked, and <strong>the</strong> oven<br />

is lit to bake fl<strong>at</strong> Turkish bread.<br />

Their programme aims to give<br />

local residents <strong>the</strong> tools to take<br />

ownership of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>.<br />

For <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> Prof.<br />

Oud housing block, residents were<br />

involved in a co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion process<br />

to define how <strong>the</strong>y want to take<br />

action to improve <strong>the</strong> quality of<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir environment in light of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>. With <strong>the</strong> support<br />

of experts through workshops and<br />

discussions, different p<strong>at</strong>hways<br />

were identified, with citizens as<br />

<strong>the</strong> main drivers of <strong>the</strong> process.<br />

11.1 Javad Shiamizadeh,<br />

local resident with<br />

<strong>the</strong> communal oven<br />

© Huis van de Toekomst<br />

11.2 Local resident during a baking<br />

day <strong>at</strong> Huis van de Toekomst<br />

© Florian Braakman<br />

11.3 Energy agora with<br />

Ayse Yalcinkaya<br />

© Huis van de Toekomst<br />

11.4 Energy agora<br />

© Huis van de Toekomst<br />

67<br />

11.3<br />

11.4<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 4 – Bospolder-Tussendijken, Rotterdam

12. In 2020-2021, <strong>the</strong> IABR’s<br />

two-yearly exhibition focused<br />

on Bospolder-Tussendijken, its<br />

residents and its <strong>transition</strong> towards<br />

an <strong>energy</strong> <strong>district</strong>. The show was<br />

titled Down to Earth: Whose Energy<br />

Is It, Anyway? When entering <strong>the</strong><br />

exhibition space, <strong>the</strong> visitors were<br />

welcomed by <strong>the</strong> voices of <strong>the</strong><br />

residents who actively particip<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

in <strong>the</strong> development of this local<br />

<strong>district</strong> approach. The exhibition<br />

<strong>the</strong>n showcased <strong>the</strong> design research<br />

developed by OOZE, explaining<br />

<strong>the</strong> LEAP and its pilot projects,<br />

and challenged <strong>the</strong> visitors in a<br />

game in which <strong>the</strong>y become players<br />

in <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion of BoTu. The<br />

space became a place of encounter<br />

and was appropri<strong>at</strong>ed by <strong>the</strong> local<br />

community to fur<strong>the</strong>r discuss <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

<strong>district</strong>’s future.<br />

12.1 The exhibition Down to Earth:<br />

Whose Energy Is It, Anyway?<br />

© Aad Hoogendoorn, IABR<br />

12.2 Portraits of BoTu residents<br />

in Down to Earth: Whose<br />

Energy Is It, Anyway?<br />

© Aad Hoogendoorn, IABR<br />

12.1<br />

12.2<br />


Energy District Table guiding formal<br />

and informal processes<br />

The vibrant reality of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> – with its<br />

many citizen initi<strong>at</strong>ives working on <strong>energy</strong> and its multiple<br />

sustainability programmes, its public officials and communities<br />

– provides a fertile breeding ground for urban innov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

and transform<strong>at</strong>ion. To manage <strong>the</strong> collabor<strong>at</strong>ion and<br />

exchange between <strong>the</strong> different actors involved, an Energy<br />

District Table was established. Monthly meetings made it<br />

possible to bridge <strong>the</strong> formal and informal processes in <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> and to connect <strong>the</strong> public, priv<strong>at</strong>e and civic partners<br />

working on <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> to each o<strong>the</strong>r and to <strong>the</strong><br />

municipal tools th<strong>at</strong> support <strong>the</strong>m.<br />

13. Many formal and informal<br />

processes and coalitions are working<br />

towards <strong>the</strong> development of<br />

an <strong>energy</strong> <strong>district</strong>, so structural<br />

exchange is needed. With <strong>the</strong><br />

establishment of <strong>the</strong> Energy<br />

District Table and <strong>the</strong> definition of<br />

a cooper<strong>at</strong>ion agreement between<br />

<strong>the</strong> City of Rotterdam, <strong>the</strong> housing<br />

company Havensteder, Delfshaven<br />

Coöper<strong>at</strong>ie and <strong>the</strong> IABR, a flexible<br />

governance model was defined to<br />

steer <strong>the</strong> complex local process<br />

in Bospolder-Tussendijken. The<br />

City of Rotterdam funds part<br />

of this exchange, and toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

with Eneco and <strong>the</strong> n<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

gas-free programme, <strong>the</strong> annual<br />

budget is € 150,000. This budget<br />

is exclusively used to develop <strong>the</strong><br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ional structure, to manage<br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ion between <strong>the</strong> different<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions, and to finance small<br />

<strong>energy</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ions.<br />

13.1 Organiz<strong>at</strong>ional model<br />

and collabor<strong>at</strong>ion among<br />

actors in BoTu<br />

© Delfshaven Coöper<strong>at</strong>ie<br />

69<br />

13.1<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 4 – Bospolder-Tussendijken, Rotterdam


PORTRAIT 5<br />

71<br />

Lyon Confluence,<br />

Lyon<br />

1 er Arrondissement<br />

Lyon Confluence<br />

covers 151 ha<br />

29,303 inhabitants<br />

covers 150 ha<br />

12,000 inhabitants

Formerly an industrial area,<br />

today an extension of <strong>the</strong> city centre<br />

Taking its name from <strong>the</strong> junction of <strong>the</strong><br />

Rhône and Saône rivers, <strong>the</strong> Lyon Confluence lost its role as<br />

Lyon’s wholesale and industrial area in <strong>the</strong> twentieth century.<br />

But with its existing infrastructure, residential area and links<br />

to <strong>the</strong> city centre, <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> held out a promise of a different<br />

future. When <strong>the</strong> last industries closed in 1995, <strong>the</strong> municipalities<br />

of Gre<strong>at</strong>er Lyon began to imagine how <strong>the</strong> area could be<br />

transformed into a new smart <strong>district</strong>.<br />

1.1<br />

1. The loc<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> Confluence<br />

has always been str<strong>at</strong>egic. Plans to<br />

exploit this strip of land surrounded<br />

by w<strong>at</strong>er began in <strong>the</strong> eighteenth<br />

century with <strong>the</strong> Perrache project<br />

th<strong>at</strong> would connect <strong>the</strong> island to <strong>the</strong><br />

mainland. When <strong>the</strong> ambitious plan<br />

failed, <strong>the</strong> king <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> time decided<br />

to buy <strong>the</strong> land to build an imperial<br />

palace. However, <strong>the</strong> fall of <strong>the</strong><br />

Empire put an end to th<strong>at</strong> project.<br />

Then, in <strong>the</strong> nineteenth century, <strong>the</strong><br />

mayor of Lyon decided to devote<br />

<strong>the</strong> land to industrial use. This led<br />

to <strong>the</strong> construction of a railway<br />

st<strong>at</strong>ion and <strong>the</strong> establishment of<br />

metallurgical, chemical and gas<br />

industries. Over time, two prisons<br />

were also built.<br />

1.1 Project by M. Perrache for<br />

<strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn part of Lyon, 1760<br />

© City of Lyon, Municipal<br />

Archives<br />

1.2 Historical picture of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Lyon Confluence<br />

© City of Lyon, Municipal<br />

Archives, 505WP/21<br />

1.2<br />


2. The bridge between <strong>the</strong> twentieth<br />

and twenty-first centuries has<br />

witnessed both <strong>the</strong> decline of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> and <strong>the</strong> hope th<strong>at</strong> it would<br />

rise again. In <strong>the</strong> mid 1990s, industrial<br />

activity officially ceased. As<br />

<strong>the</strong> city’s popul<strong>at</strong>ion grew, <strong>the</strong> main<br />

purpose of <strong>the</strong> area’s redevelopment<br />

was to accommod<strong>at</strong>e new residents.<br />

The fact th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> land was almost<br />

entirely publicly owned acceler<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

<strong>the</strong> process. By <strong>the</strong> l<strong>at</strong>e 1990s an<br />

initial redevelopment concept was<br />

already in place. Clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

objectives were part of <strong>the</strong> project<br />

from <strong>the</strong> outset, as was <strong>the</strong> ambition<br />

to cre<strong>at</strong>e an area where new<br />

and contemporary architecture<br />

meets heritage.<br />

2.1 The Bohigas-Melot-Mosbach<br />

project, <strong>the</strong> winning master<br />

plan for <strong>the</strong> Confluence area<br />

© Thierry Melot, Ama<br />

Architecture, Paris, team<br />

leader architect and town<br />

planner; Oriol Bohigas, MBM<br />

Studio, Barcelona, architect<br />

partner; Ca<strong>the</strong>rine Mosbach,<br />

Paris, landscape architect;<br />

SETEC TPI, Engineering studies<br />

2.2 The former prison, now<br />

<strong>the</strong> university campus<br />

© Laurence Danière/<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence – 2015<br />

2.3 Quai Rambaud, redevelopment of<br />

former industrial buildings<br />

© Michel Denancé<br />

2.1<br />

73<br />

2.2<br />

2.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 5 – Lyon Confluence, Lyon

Combining centralized and decentralized<br />

<strong>energy</strong> solutions<br />

The Lyon Confluence is now a mixed area<br />

of new and existing buildings. The redevelopment was seen<br />

as an opportunity to test new clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion and <strong>energy</strong><br />

solutions. By connecting to <strong>the</strong> existing <strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing network<br />

(powered by biomass and waste inciner<strong>at</strong>ion), a number<br />

of passive buildings and a Positive Energy Block (PEB) could<br />

be realized. In parallel, decentralized <strong>energy</strong> solutions have<br />

been tested, such as a local <strong>energy</strong> community th<strong>at</strong> exchanges<br />

<strong>energy</strong> between <strong>the</strong> local concert hall and <strong>the</strong> surrounding<br />

buildings. In <strong>the</strong> existing part of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, a programme<br />

is under way to renov<strong>at</strong>e and reduce <strong>energy</strong> consumption<br />

by 25 to 50%.<br />

3.1<br />

3. Since 2016, <strong>the</strong> Confluence<br />

has been he<strong>at</strong>ed by a collective<br />

<strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing system th<strong>at</strong> runs<br />

on biogas from forest waste and<br />

general waste inciner<strong>at</strong>ion. New<br />

developments in <strong>the</strong> area are legally<br />

obliged to connect to <strong>the</strong> central<br />

<strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing system as part of<br />

<strong>the</strong> land-sale contracts. However,<br />

<strong>the</strong> same oblig<strong>at</strong>ion doesn’t apply<br />

to renov<strong>at</strong>ed existing buildings.<br />

The <strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing is combined<br />

with 7,000 m² of solar panels on<br />

roofs and façades, a number th<strong>at</strong><br />

is expected to triple in <strong>the</strong> coming<br />

years. In <strong>the</strong> parts of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong><br />

th<strong>at</strong> already exist, a small number<br />

of houses have switched already<br />

from individual gas boilers to<br />

he<strong>at</strong> pumps. Although one of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>’s main ambitions is to<br />

produce as much renewable <strong>energy</strong><br />

locally as feasible, it is not yet<br />

possible to estim<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> current<br />

balance between locally produced<br />

and consumed <strong>energy</strong> due to lack<br />

of access to d<strong>at</strong>a.<br />

3.1 Ground work of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong><br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing in Rue Seguin<br />

© Jérémy M<strong>at</strong>hieu/SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence – 2018<br />

3.2 Focus on PV panels <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> Confluence<br />

© Aerofilms/Lyon<br />

Confluence – 2019<br />

3.2<br />


4. The Lyon Confluence has<br />

become a test bed for passive and<br />

even positive <strong>energy</strong> buildings,<br />

starting with <strong>the</strong> Amplia Residence<br />

in 2013. In addition, Positive<br />

Energy Blocks are experimenting<br />

with collective self-consumption,<br />

such as <strong>the</strong> Hikari project. The<br />

three buildings toge<strong>the</strong>r use around<br />

60% less <strong>energy</strong> than traditional<br />

buildings. The different consumption<br />

p<strong>at</strong>terns in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> could<br />

encourage much more <strong>energy</strong><br />

exchange of this kind. Over time,<br />

self-consumption experiments have<br />

led to <strong>the</strong> cre<strong>at</strong>ion of local <strong>energy</strong><br />

communities: <strong>the</strong> first <strong>energy</strong><br />

community in <strong>the</strong> Confluence<br />

produces electricity on <strong>the</strong> roof<br />

of <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ed Marché Gare,<br />

a concert hall and artist-in-residence<br />

centre, and exchanges <strong>energy</strong> with<br />

<strong>the</strong> surrounding public and office<br />

buildings. In 2023, as part of <strong>the</strong><br />

European Ascend project, two new<br />

buildings in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> will start<br />

sharing <strong>energy</strong> as part of a new<br />

<strong>energy</strong> community, with <strong>the</strong> aim<br />

of gradually including residential<br />

units as well.<br />

4.1 Amplia, a positive<br />

<strong>energy</strong> building<br />

© Aurélie Pétrel/<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence – 2014<br />

4.2 Hikari, a Positive<br />

Energy Block<br />

© Jérôme Boucher<strong>at</strong>/<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence – 2015<br />

4.3 Marché Gare after renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

© Laurence Danière/<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence – 2022<br />

75<br />

4.2 4.3<br />

4.1<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 5 – Lyon Confluence, Lyon

5. However, half of <strong>the</strong> area<br />

is still a historic neighbourhood,<br />

mostly made up of early-twentieth-century<br />

social and working-class<br />

housing: standardized,<br />

dense, multistorey blocks with<br />

small, enclosed communal spaces.<br />

Given <strong>the</strong> heritage value of <strong>the</strong><br />

existing buildings in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, an<br />

<strong>energy</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion programme was<br />

launched to preserve <strong>the</strong>m while<br />

improving <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>energy</strong> efficiency.<br />

To reduce <strong>the</strong> primary <strong>energy</strong><br />

consumption/m²/year to 96 kWh<br />

(compared to <strong>the</strong> French n<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

average of 250 kWh for existing<br />

buildings), <strong>the</strong> works are adapted to<br />

<strong>the</strong> needs of each building. To d<strong>at</strong>e,<br />

70,000 m² of office and residential<br />

space have been renov<strong>at</strong>ed. The<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence, <strong>the</strong> initi<strong>at</strong>or<br />

of this renov<strong>at</strong>ion programme,<br />

has a threefold str<strong>at</strong>egy to support<br />

building retrofitting. First, <strong>the</strong>y<br />

sell part of <strong>the</strong> public land <strong>the</strong>y<br />

own, including buildings th<strong>at</strong> need<br />

to be renov<strong>at</strong>ed, to priv<strong>at</strong>e developers<br />

through a land sale contract.<br />

Second, <strong>the</strong>y establish a close<br />

collabor<strong>at</strong>ion with social housing<br />

oper<strong>at</strong>ors to accompany <strong>the</strong>m with<br />

technical and financial support<br />

<strong>at</strong> each stage of <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

process, from obtaining <strong>the</strong><br />

building permit to finding <strong>the</strong> best<br />

technical solution for listed buildings.<br />

Third, <strong>the</strong>y particip<strong>at</strong>e in<br />

European projects to test different<br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion str<strong>at</strong>egies. The next<br />

steps: How to involve individual<br />

owners, tenants and groups<br />

of citizens in this renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

programme? Are more collective<br />

solutions or diversified models<br />

needed to support <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

households, so th<strong>at</strong> more financially<br />

vulnerable families can also stay in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>?<br />

5.1 City of Lyon, social housing.<br />

Rue Rav<strong>at</strong>, Rue Delandine,<br />

Rue Quivogne<br />

© City of Lyon, Municipal<br />

Archives/L.Lambert & fils,<br />

Architectes, 15/12/1922<br />

5.2 Renov<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> social<br />

housing block La Cité Perrache<br />

© Stéphane Boit<strong>at</strong>/<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence – 2021<br />

5.3 Building renov<strong>at</strong>ion Cité Mignot<br />

© Jérémy M<strong>at</strong>hieu/<br />

Lyon Confluence – 2019<br />

5.1 5.2<br />

5.3<br />


A semi-public company to lead <strong>the</strong> way<br />

towards a sustainable <strong>district</strong><br />

In 1999 a development concession agreement<br />

was signed th<strong>at</strong> established <strong>the</strong> semi-public company<br />

Lyon Confluence. With a team of twenty-four multi-skilled<br />

professionals, this organiz<strong>at</strong>ion has been responsible for <strong>the</strong><br />

redevelopment of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> <strong>the</strong>se past twenty years. With<br />

<strong>the</strong> Métropole de Lyon becoming its majority shareholder, it<br />

turned into a local public company in 2012, enabling <strong>the</strong> SPL<br />

Lyon Confluence to fully take charge of <strong>the</strong> different aspects<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s development.<br />

6. The mission of <strong>the</strong> Lyon<br />

Confluence independent local<br />

public organiz<strong>at</strong>ion has grown over<br />

time due to its transform<strong>at</strong>ion into a<br />

100% public development company,<br />

with <strong>the</strong> Métropole de Lyon and <strong>the</strong><br />

City of Lyon as its shareholders.<br />

The Métropole de Lyon has made<br />

this organiz<strong>at</strong>ion fully responsible<br />

for <strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

Over <strong>the</strong> past twenty years, <strong>the</strong> SPL<br />

Lyon Confluence has drawn up and<br />

implemented <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s master<br />

plan, designed public spaces,<br />

carried out studies, communic<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

with stakeholders, sold plots to<br />

developers and helped <strong>the</strong>m to meet<br />

high standards of clim<strong>at</strong>e-proofing<br />

and social sustainability. The<br />

gradual integr<strong>at</strong>ion of ever-higher<br />

ambitions for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, from<br />

a smart <strong>district</strong> to a sustainable,<br />

<strong>energy</strong>-positive one, has been a key<br />

aspect of <strong>the</strong> work carried out by<br />

this development company.<br />

6.1 Organiz<strong>at</strong>ional structure<br />

of Lyon Confluence public<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

© SPL Lyon Confluence<br />

77<br />

6.1<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 5 – Lyon Confluence, Lyon

7. Energy and clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

are not <strong>the</strong> only driving principles<br />

for <strong>the</strong> urban transform<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Confluence. The redevelopment<br />

has a high social sustainability<br />

target as well. To improve inclusion<br />

and address <strong>the</strong> professional integr<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of people far from <strong>the</strong> labour<br />

market, <strong>the</strong> local development company<br />

signed a framework agreement<br />

th<strong>at</strong> provides guidance to contractors<br />

and developers on how to<br />

achieve clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion clauses<br />

and social sustainability objectives.<br />

In collabor<strong>at</strong>ion with <strong>the</strong> Lyon<br />

Métropole Centre for Integr<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

and Employment, <strong>the</strong> SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence has developed a stepby-step<br />

process to raise awareness<br />

among companies to improve ‘local<br />

employability’. Although developers<br />

didn’t fully embrace this initi<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

initially, it is now becoming <strong>the</strong><br />

norm, boosted by <strong>the</strong> French Public<br />

Procurement Code, which has made<br />

<strong>the</strong>se social clauses mand<strong>at</strong>ory.<br />

7.1 Workers on <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> network<br />

in <strong>the</strong> Lyon Confluence<br />

© Laurence Danière/<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence – 2021<br />

8. Having <strong>the</strong> political <strong>level</strong> on<br />

board is key for <strong>the</strong> continu<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> redevelopment of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

The Lyon Confluence steering<br />

group is made up of represent<strong>at</strong>ives<br />

of <strong>the</strong> public shareholders and <strong>the</strong><br />

(non-elected) top management of<br />

each of <strong>the</strong> municipalities in Lyon<br />

Métropole. The group meets three<br />

or four times a year to discuss,<br />

monitor and valid<strong>at</strong>e changes<br />

to <strong>the</strong> Confluence development<br />

plan. In this way, continuity in <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> is ensured, but <strong>the</strong> different<br />

decision-making <strong>level</strong>s and<br />

public authorities are also actively<br />

involved in <strong>the</strong> process. The process<br />

was kickstarted by <strong>the</strong> presence of<br />

<strong>the</strong> former Mayor of Lyon, who, <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> start of <strong>the</strong> Confluence urban<br />

development process, presided<br />

both Lyon Métropole and SPL<br />

Lyon Confluence.<br />

In this way, <strong>the</strong> independent public<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ion SPL Lyon Confluence<br />

retains its autonomy, but always<br />

has <strong>the</strong> political <strong>level</strong> and <strong>the</strong> public<br />

authorities on board.<br />

8.1 Launch of a European project<br />

with <strong>the</strong> particip<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> steering group<br />

© Laurence Danière/SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence – 2023<br />

8.1<br />

7.1<br />


Citizen engagement for <strong>the</strong> co-design of<br />

neighbourhood transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Since <strong>the</strong> beginning of <strong>the</strong> redevelopment<br />

process, engagement, inform<strong>at</strong>ion and knowledge have been<br />

shared with citizens and local actors through a series of public<br />

exhibitions and <strong>the</strong> cre<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood centre<br />

Maison de La Confluence. Dialogue, exchange and monitoring<br />

of <strong>the</strong> process have taken place in this neighbourhood centre<br />

with interested citizens. This has helped to cre<strong>at</strong>e a shared<br />

framework in which new qualities and values for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong><br />

are now flourishing.<br />

9. Loc<strong>at</strong>ed in a former wholesale<br />

building in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, <strong>the</strong> Maison<br />

de la Confluence is now <strong>the</strong> central<br />

point in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> for citizens,<br />

stakeholders and interested parties<br />

to learn about <strong>the</strong> Lyon Confluence<br />

development projects. It is also<br />

<strong>the</strong> headquarters of <strong>the</strong> SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence and <strong>the</strong> place where<br />

public consult<strong>at</strong>ion, workshops and<br />

deb<strong>at</strong>es take place. The neighbourhood<br />

centre has been active since<br />

1999, moving from one loc<strong>at</strong>ion to<br />

ano<strong>the</strong>r until finding a permanent<br />

home in 2013.<br />

9.1 European heritage day <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> Maison de la Confluence<br />

© Laurence Danière/SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence – 2014<br />

9.2 Maison de la Confluence,<br />

Rue Delandine<br />

© Laurence Daniere/SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence – 2023<br />

79<br />

9.1<br />

9.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 5 – Lyon Confluence, Lyon

10. The Maison de la Confluence<br />

is also <strong>the</strong> venue for public exhibitions.<br />

These have been used as<br />

a key tool in <strong>the</strong> development<br />

process. In 1998 <strong>the</strong> exhibition Lyon<br />

Confluence, an Urban Project opened<br />

a public consult<strong>at</strong>ion on <strong>the</strong> possible<br />

future of <strong>the</strong> area. In <strong>the</strong> early<br />

2000s, <strong>the</strong> three-month exhibition<br />

Urban Dialogue presented <strong>the</strong><br />

results of <strong>the</strong> consult<strong>at</strong>ion phase<br />

and a first master plan for <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

In 2008-2009, My City Tomorrow<br />

presented <strong>the</strong> experience of <strong>the</strong> first<br />

phase of <strong>the</strong> project and illustr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

<strong>the</strong> next.<br />

Today, Cultiv<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong> City with<br />

Intelligence illustr<strong>at</strong>es <strong>the</strong> last<br />

twenty years of work in <strong>the</strong> area and<br />

highlights <strong>the</strong> integr<strong>at</strong>ed approach<br />

of this urban transform<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

10.1 First exhibition <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> Maison<br />

de la Confluence new site, 2013<br />

© bureau 205<br />

10.2 Visitors <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> ‘Fabrique<br />

de la Ville’ exhibition <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> Maison de la Confluence<br />

© Laurence Daniere/<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence – 2023<br />

10.1<br />

10.2<br />


11. Three times a year since 2006,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Maison de la Confluence has<br />

hosted <strong>the</strong> so-called Particip<strong>at</strong>ory<br />

Monitoring Committee. Local<br />

socio-economic, cultural and<br />

governmental actors come toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

to discuss <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>, share different points of<br />

view and inform each o<strong>the</strong>r about<br />

<strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong> project.<br />

New residents are welcomed<br />

and invited to take part in <strong>the</strong>se<br />

moments so as to get involved in <strong>the</strong><br />

life of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. But how to reach<br />

<strong>the</strong> group of <strong>district</strong> residents who<br />

aren’t yet part of this process? New<br />

spaces have been made available<br />

in <strong>the</strong> area for this purpose. The<br />

Eurêka Club is an incub<strong>at</strong>or of civic<br />

activities which, through a series<br />

of calls for projects, encourages<br />

citizens to take concrete actions,<br />

such as urban agriculture initi<strong>at</strong>ives.<br />

St<strong>at</strong>ion Mue is an urban<br />

labor<strong>at</strong>ory for co-construction and<br />

experiment<strong>at</strong>ion, where workshops<br />

and events are organized to raise<br />

awareness and empower diverse<br />

groups of citizens to co-cre<strong>at</strong>e<br />

<strong>the</strong> sustainable and resilient city<br />

of tomorrow.<br />

11.1 Atelier des Nouveaux Designs,<br />

upcycling and sewing<br />

workshop for social inclusion<br />

© Laurence Danière/SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence – 2021<br />

11.2 Public meeting ‘Ouvrons<br />

Perrache’<br />

© Laurence Daniere/SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence – 2016<br />

11.3 Citizens and children from<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> Festival<br />

of Wooden Games <strong>at</strong> St<strong>at</strong>ion Mue<br />

© Laurence Danière/SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence – 2023<br />

81<br />

11.1<br />

11.2<br />

11.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 5 – Lyon Confluence, Lyon

A new architectural language for<br />

a new type of <strong>district</strong><br />

The redevelopment of Lyon Confluence has<br />

not only provided an opportunity to test new models of urban<br />

transform<strong>at</strong>ion and <strong>energy</strong> technology, it has also triggered<br />

new architectural languages th<strong>at</strong> integr<strong>at</strong>e existing and newly<br />

built environments and respond to multiple sustainability<br />

challenges. Lyon Confluence has <strong>the</strong>refore been <strong>the</strong> test bed<br />

for many ‘starchitects’ to challenge <strong>the</strong> traditional ways of<br />

building and designing housing and public spaces, living and<br />

working. The result is a new identity for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

12. Today, <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> speaks<br />

an abundance of architectural<br />

languages across a range of experimental<br />

buildings and high-quality<br />

public spaces. Many ‘starchitects’<br />

have contributed to <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>,<br />

resulting in <strong>the</strong> construction of<br />

several iconic buildings. The Musée<br />

des Confluences, for example,<br />

designed by Austrian architectural<br />

collective Coop Himmelb(l)au, is<br />

<strong>the</strong> emblem<strong>at</strong>ic entrance to <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood. Made of crystal<br />

glass, concrete and steel, it formed<br />

<strong>the</strong> starting point for <strong>the</strong> urban<br />

development. The emblem<strong>at</strong>ic<br />

architecture th<strong>at</strong> characterizes <strong>the</strong><br />

new buildings on <strong>the</strong> peninsula has<br />

been a tool to change and improve<br />

<strong>the</strong> perception of <strong>the</strong> area. It has<br />

highlighted <strong>the</strong> Confluence as a<br />

labor<strong>at</strong>ory for both sustainability<br />

and innov<strong>at</strong>ive architectural language.<br />

Open architecture competitions<br />

made it possible to select <strong>the</strong><br />

right design proposals to meet <strong>the</strong><br />

sp<strong>at</strong>ial, sustainability and <strong>energy</strong><br />

targets set independently by SPL<br />

12.1 12.3<br />

12.2<br />


Lyon Confluence. From <strong>the</strong> outset,<br />

<strong>the</strong> public tenders have been a key<br />

tool to set high standards for <strong>the</strong><br />

m<strong>at</strong>erials, <strong>energy</strong> performance<br />

and use of <strong>the</strong> new buildings. The<br />

land-sale contracts and <strong>the</strong> close<br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ion between <strong>the</strong> SPL, <strong>the</strong><br />

town planning department, <strong>the</strong><br />

contractor and <strong>the</strong> designer have<br />

made it possible to achieve highly<br />

sustainable constructions.<br />

12.1 Musée des Confluences<br />

© Raimund Koch<br />

12.2 Monolite, MVRDV, part of <strong>the</strong><br />

development of an urban block<br />

© MVRDV Winy Maas, Jacob van<br />

Rijs, N<strong>at</strong>halie de Vries<br />

12.3 The A3 pilot block for <strong>the</strong><br />

second phase of <strong>the</strong> Lyon<br />

Confluence master plan<br />

© Julien Lanoo<br />

13. How can sustainable and<br />

<strong>energy</strong>-efficient developments<br />

become affordable for everyone<br />

in <strong>the</strong> city, not just for <strong>the</strong> happy<br />

few? The SPL Lyon Confluence<br />

is trying to tackle this question<br />

by implementing new str<strong>at</strong>egies<br />

and collabor<strong>at</strong>ions. For example,<br />

new developments are subject to<br />

precise construction guidelines<br />

th<strong>at</strong> determine <strong>the</strong> percentage of<br />

social housing to be built within<br />

<strong>the</strong> project, depending on <strong>the</strong> size<br />

of <strong>the</strong> development. This helps to<br />

balance <strong>the</strong> target groups for <strong>the</strong><br />

project, combining both market-r<strong>at</strong>e<br />

and social housing. In <strong>the</strong> same way,<br />

by supporting <strong>the</strong> renov<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

existing social housing blocks in <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>, <strong>the</strong> development company<br />

aims to keep existing residents in<br />

<strong>the</strong> city centre, improving <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

housing quality and preventing<br />

<strong>the</strong>m from being displaced by urban<br />

development dynamics. On <strong>the</strong><br />

o<strong>the</strong>r hand, <strong>the</strong> Lyon Confluence<br />

offers very few affordable solutions<br />

for medium- to lower-income<br />

households th<strong>at</strong> cannot access<br />

social housing because <strong>the</strong>y don’t<br />

meet <strong>the</strong> requirements. Through<br />

a collabor<strong>at</strong>ion with <strong>the</strong> Land<br />

Solidarity Organiz<strong>at</strong>ion, which is<br />

based on community land-trust<br />

business models, <strong>the</strong>y now <strong>at</strong>tempt<br />

to implement more affordable<br />

housing in <strong>the</strong> newest developments<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, accessible to a wider<br />

popul<strong>at</strong>ion group.<br />

13.1 The Sollys projects will<br />

enable <strong>the</strong> deployment of selfconsumption<br />

on a larger scale<br />

of 12 multifunctional buildings<br />

© Virtual Building/Bouygues<br />

Immobilier<br />

13.2 Aerial view of <strong>the</strong> redeveloped<br />

area of Lyon Confluence<br />

© Guillaume Perret, Ateliers<br />

Jean Nouvel<br />

13.3 Renov<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> social<br />

housing block Cité Perrache<br />

© Vladimir de Moller<strong>at</strong> du Jeu/<br />

SPL Lyon Confluence<br />

83<br />

13.1 13.2<br />

13.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 5 – Lyon Confluence, Lyon


PORTRAIT 6<br />

85<br />

Georgian Quarter,<br />

Limerick<br />

Georgian Quarter<br />

covers 35 ha<br />

3,000 inhabitants<br />

Administr<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

boundary of<br />

Limerick city centre

Reinhabiting a historic city centre<br />

The historic city centre of Limerick is<br />

characterized by distinctive Georgian architecture but has<br />

experienced a slow but steady decline over <strong>the</strong> last century.<br />

Suburbaniz<strong>at</strong>ion, economic crises and stagn<strong>at</strong>ion in <strong>the</strong><br />

nineteenth century left <strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter with very few<br />

inhabitants. This decline is manifested in both <strong>the</strong> physical<br />

architecture and <strong>the</strong> social fabric. In recent decades, <strong>the</strong> City<br />

of Limerick, in collabor<strong>at</strong>ion with <strong>the</strong> N<strong>at</strong>ional Government,<br />

embarked on a programme of regener<strong>at</strong>ion in <strong>the</strong> historic<br />

city centre.<br />

1. Built between 1760 and 1840,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Newtown Pery area – known<br />

as <strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter for its<br />

distinctive Georgian architecture –<br />

was historically one of <strong>the</strong> most<br />

important city ports in Ireland<br />

due to its proximity to <strong>the</strong> river<br />

Shannon. After <strong>the</strong> city walls were<br />

razed, this new <strong>district</strong> was developed<br />

with an orthogonal grid plan<br />

of rectangular blocks of equal size,<br />

with a mix of residential blocks and<br />

small industries and factories. In<br />

<strong>the</strong> second half of <strong>the</strong> nineteenth<br />

century, with <strong>the</strong> end of <strong>the</strong><br />

1.1 1.2<br />

1.3<br />


Georgian era and due to economic<br />

decline and lack of subsequent<br />

investment, life in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> began<br />

to fade. Coupled with <strong>the</strong> trend<br />

towards suburban living, this has<br />

led to <strong>the</strong> deterior<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> whole<br />

area in recent years.<br />

1.1 Georgian industry<br />

© P<strong>at</strong>rick Comerford<br />

1.2 Vacant house in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong><br />

© William Murphy<br />

1.3 Historical map of Limerick<br />

city centre, 1837<br />

© Limerick City Library<br />

2. Over <strong>the</strong> past decade, <strong>the</strong><br />

City of Limerick and <strong>the</strong> Irish<br />

n<strong>at</strong>ional government have been<br />

pursuing a programme to regener<strong>at</strong>e<br />

<strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter. The Living<br />

City Initi<strong>at</strong>ive is a programme<br />

which offers income tax relief to<br />

owners-occupiers who undertake<br />

<strong>the</strong> refurbishment of residential,<br />

commercial and retail premises in<br />

<strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter built before<br />

1915. The tax deduction provides<br />

a tax relief for <strong>the</strong> full cost of <strong>the</strong><br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion for individual interventions,<br />

deductible over a seven-year<br />

period. This has already triggered a<br />

wave of renov<strong>at</strong>ions in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

Sufficiently high income earners,<br />

who are in a tax bracket allowing<br />

larger amounts to be deducted,<br />

can benefit gre<strong>at</strong>ly by contributing<br />

to <strong>the</strong> improvement of<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood.<br />

2.1 Street in <strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter<br />

with many houses for sale<br />

© William Murphy<br />

2.2 Pery Square, Georgian Quarter<br />

© William Murphy<br />

2.3 O’Connell Street,<br />

Georgian Quarter<br />

© William Murphy<br />

87<br />

2.1<br />

2.2<br />

2.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 6 – Georgian Quarter, Limerick

A long-standing history of<br />

<strong>energy</strong> sustainability<br />

Ireland has been a pioneer in <strong>energy</strong> sustainability.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> early twentieth century, <strong>the</strong> Ardnacrusha hydroelectric<br />

power st<strong>at</strong>ion near Limerick was <strong>the</strong> first of its kind,<br />

supplying clean <strong>energy</strong> to <strong>the</strong> whole country via a n<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

grid. Today, however, <strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter is mainly served<br />

by individual gas boilers, with only a small proportion of its<br />

electricity coming from <strong>the</strong> hydro plant. Thanks to <strong>the</strong> City<br />

of Limerick’s incentivized renov<strong>at</strong>ion wave and <strong>the</strong> N<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

Government’s decarboniz<strong>at</strong>ion zoning, <strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter<br />

had all <strong>the</strong> makings of a potential Positive Energy District<br />

test bed.<br />

3. In 1915 <strong>the</strong> first hydroelectric<br />

power st<strong>at</strong>ion was built on <strong>the</strong><br />

river Shannon, six kilometres from<br />

Limerick, providing clean electricity<br />

to <strong>the</strong> whole of Ireland. Today,<br />

<strong>the</strong> plant provides only 2% of <strong>the</strong><br />

country’s electricity. As part of <strong>the</strong><br />

European project +CityxChange,<br />

<strong>the</strong> City of Limerick worked with<br />

a team of experts and engineers<br />

to investig<strong>at</strong>e how a tidal turbine<br />

could power its historic centre.<br />

3.1 Ardnacrusha hydro power plant<br />

© ESB Archives<br />

3.2 W<strong>at</strong>er pipe <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> Ardnacrusha<br />

hydro power plant<br />

© ESB Archives<br />

3.1<br />

3.2<br />


4. The City of Limerick<br />

particip<strong>at</strong>ed in <strong>the</strong> European<br />

Union’s Horizon 2020 research<br />

and innov<strong>at</strong>ion programme<br />

+CityxChange as a lighthouse city<br />

for <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> PED.<br />

The Georgian Quarter was used as<br />

a test case for <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of historic <strong>district</strong>s, providing<br />

lessons for many o<strong>the</strong>r city centres<br />

in terms of renov<strong>at</strong>ion, <strong>energy</strong>saving<br />

measures and local <strong>energy</strong><br />

production and exchange. Limerick<br />

has initi<strong>at</strong>ed ten experiments, such<br />

as co-cre<strong>at</strong>ing a shared city vision<br />

and integr<strong>at</strong>ing e-mobility into <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong> <strong>energy</strong> system. The project<br />

explored <strong>the</strong> concept of <strong>the</strong> Positive<br />

Energy Block (PEB) as a minimum<br />

component for PED development.<br />

In this sense, a PED is conceived<br />

as a <strong>district</strong> consisting of many<br />

interconnected PEBs.<br />

4.1 Co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion of Positive<br />

Energy Blocks<br />

© Dirk Ahlers, P<strong>at</strong>rick<br />

Driscoll, Håvard Wibe,<br />

Annemie Wyckmans<br />

5. GKinetic, <strong>the</strong> turbine technology<br />

company involved in <strong>the</strong><br />

+CityxChange consortium, initi<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

a series of open consult<strong>at</strong>ions with<br />

local citizens and organiz<strong>at</strong>ions to<br />

shape <strong>the</strong> tidal turbine project in<br />

Limerick. In particular, concerns<br />

about noise, size, environment and<br />

transportability of <strong>the</strong> turbines<br />

were raised during <strong>the</strong>se public<br />

consult<strong>at</strong>ions. The meetings helped<br />

to define <strong>the</strong> testing phase and<br />

<strong>the</strong> realiz<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> <strong>final</strong> model<br />

for <strong>the</strong> tidal turbine, resulting in a<br />

rel<strong>at</strong>ively small and light device of<br />

two tonnes, capable of producing<br />

12 kWh through <strong>the</strong> use of slow<br />

turning turbines th<strong>at</strong> follow <strong>the</strong><br />

flow of w<strong>at</strong>er and do not harm local<br />

wildlife. With <strong>the</strong> approval of <strong>the</strong><br />

planning department for <strong>the</strong> install<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of three devices, this will be<br />

<strong>the</strong> first renewable <strong>energy</strong>-sharing<br />

project implemented in Limerick.<br />

The <strong>energy</strong> produced by <strong>the</strong><br />

turbines will be used to power a<br />

community building and local<br />

e-charging st<strong>at</strong>ions. The <strong>energy</strong><br />

will partly be sold to <strong>the</strong> local city<br />

council. To d<strong>at</strong>e, thirty residents<br />

are interested in joining <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

community, along with a local<br />

museum and art gallery. The longterm<br />

aim is to install fifteen units<br />

along <strong>the</strong> river to help transform<br />

Limerick’s <strong>energy</strong> supply.<br />

5.1 Install<strong>at</strong>ion of one of <strong>the</strong><br />

tidal turbines in Limerick<br />

© GKinetic<br />

89<br />

4.1<br />

5.1<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 6 – Georgian Quarter, Limerick

6. In line with <strong>the</strong> N<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

Clim<strong>at</strong>e Action Plan 2019, <strong>the</strong><br />

City of Limerick was required to<br />

establish ‘decarboniz<strong>at</strong>ion zoning’<br />

by identifying areas where CO2<br />

emissions must be reduced by 51%<br />

by 2030. With <strong>the</strong> support of <strong>the</strong><br />

+CityxChange project, <strong>the</strong> City<br />

identified <strong>the</strong> historic centre as <strong>the</strong><br />

core decarboniz<strong>at</strong>ion zone. This<br />

paved <strong>the</strong> way for new experiments<br />

around <strong>energy</strong> sustainability in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

6.1 Clim<strong>at</strong>e Action Plan 2019<br />

© Government of Ireland<br />

6.2 Map illustr<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong><br />

Decarboniz<strong>at</strong>ion zone<br />

in Limerick<br />

© Limerick City and<br />

County Council<br />

6.1<br />

6.2<br />


A sustainable historic city centre<br />

The redevelopment of <strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter<br />

won’t take place <strong>at</strong> once, a step-by-step str<strong>at</strong>egy is needed.<br />

The City of Limerick has started to implement PEBs, selfsufficient<br />

groups of buildings th<strong>at</strong> produce more <strong>energy</strong><br />

than <strong>the</strong>y consume. By using public buildings as c<strong>at</strong>alysts for<br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion, a block-by-block multiplic<strong>at</strong>ion str<strong>at</strong>egy has been<br />

put in place to achieve clim<strong>at</strong>e and social sustainability.<br />

7.1<br />

7. The City of Limerick initi<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

a first test PEB in <strong>the</strong> core of <strong>the</strong><br />

Georgian Quarter. The building of<br />

Limerick 2030, a Special Purpose<br />

Vehicle working for <strong>the</strong> city’s<br />

Development Council, served as<br />

an anchor building. One-to-one<br />

discussions and meetings were held<br />

with <strong>the</strong> owners of <strong>the</strong> surrounding<br />

buildings to engage <strong>the</strong>m in <strong>the</strong><br />

process of refurbishment and<br />

<strong>energy</strong> sharing. As of today, five<br />

Georgian buildings with similar<br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion challenges within <strong>the</strong><br />

same block are taking part in <strong>the</strong><br />

process of becoming a PEB.<br />

7.1 Typical Georgian Quarter block<br />

© William Murphy<br />

7.2 Pilot project for a PEB,<br />

Garden Intern<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

© Limerick Twenty Thirty<br />

91<br />

7.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 6 – Georgian Quarter, Limerick

8. The first PEB experiment<br />

showed <strong>the</strong> potential to acceler<strong>at</strong>e<br />

<strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> Georgian<br />

Quarter by tackling one block <strong>at</strong> a<br />

time. The City has initi<strong>at</strong>ed a wider<br />

survey of residents and owners in<br />

<strong>the</strong> area to assess and understand<br />

general interest in and readiness<br />

for renov<strong>at</strong>ion. This input will<br />

help to identify <strong>the</strong> next blocks<br />

to be renov<strong>at</strong>ed, with <strong>the</strong> aim of<br />

mobilizing <strong>at</strong> least twenty owners<br />

in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood to carry<br />

out renov<strong>at</strong>ions and build shared<br />

<strong>energy</strong> infrastructure.<br />

8.1 Anchor buildings for<br />

PEB experiment<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

© +CityxChange project<br />

consortium<br />

9. The process was supported<br />

by a digital twin of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

This simul<strong>at</strong>ion model collects<br />

d<strong>at</strong>a from <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, such as an<br />

estim<strong>at</strong>ion of CO2 production or<br />

actual <strong>energy</strong> bills. It <strong>the</strong>n uses<br />

<strong>the</strong>m to build scenarios by means of<br />

a machine-learning algorithm. The<br />

digital twin is part of a set of digital<br />

tools, including an intelligent community<br />

design and an intelligent<br />

community inform<strong>at</strong>ion model, to<br />

engage citizens, property owners,<br />

planners and community leaders.<br />

9.1<br />

They get access to oper<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

dashboards and portfolio management<br />

to support <strong>the</strong>ir own actions.<br />

The dashboards are available online<br />

and in <strong>the</strong> Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Lab, an<br />

interactive labor<strong>at</strong>ory where <strong>the</strong>se<br />

pl<strong>at</strong>forms can be used to observe<br />

<strong>the</strong> changes in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood.<br />

9.1 Digital twin investing PEB<br />

© Integr<strong>at</strong>ed Environmental<br />

Solutions (IES)<br />

8.1<br />


Capacity-building with citizens and<br />

local authorities<br />

In light of <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> Georgian<br />

Quarter, <strong>the</strong> city has cre<strong>at</strong>ed a dedic<strong>at</strong>ed new unit. Urban<br />

Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Limerick is <strong>the</strong> new city department managing<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s transform<strong>at</strong>ion str<strong>at</strong>egy. It is leading <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong> one block <strong>at</strong> a time. To achieve this, everyone has<br />

to be on board. The infrastructure and tools for community<br />

empowerment and local capacity-building are <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> heart<br />

of <strong>the</strong> process.<br />

10.1<br />

10. The city has set up a new<br />

unit to guide <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of <strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter: Urban<br />

Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Limerick. Loc<strong>at</strong>ed in a<br />

former shopping centre in <strong>the</strong> heart<br />

of <strong>the</strong> city, <strong>the</strong> unit’s primary aim<br />

is to lead <strong>the</strong> cross-departmental<br />

<strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> and to align <strong>the</strong><br />

various local programmes and tools<br />

to manage <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion. It<br />

provides a one-stop shop to support<br />

refurbishment projects, linking<br />

available property owners with<br />

developers to bring financial viability<br />

to <strong>the</strong> refurbishment of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s<br />

housing stock. They review<br />

and develop support programmes<br />

and incentives, such as <strong>the</strong> Living<br />

Cities Initi<strong>at</strong>ive programme.<br />

10.1 Engagement hub, part of<br />

Urban Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Limerick<br />

© Citizens Innov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Lab Limerick<br />

10.2 Community design workshop<br />

with <strong>energy</strong> game<br />

© Citizens Innov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Lab Limerick<br />

93<br />

10.2<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 6 – Georgian Quarter, Limerick

11. One of <strong>the</strong> priorities in<br />

Limerick is to engage local citizens<br />

to particip<strong>at</strong>e and take ownership<br />

of <strong>the</strong> sustainable transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. Urban Innov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Limerick has opened <strong>the</strong> Citizens<br />

Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Lab, which provides<br />

a physical and digital space for<br />

citizens and o<strong>the</strong>r stakeholders<br />

to get involved. With a FabLab,<br />

a Citizens’ Observ<strong>at</strong>ory and a<br />

Community Engagement Hub, a<br />

programme of public consult<strong>at</strong>ions,<br />

workshops and events, <strong>the</strong>y aim<br />

to build knowledge toge<strong>the</strong>r with<br />

citizens and activ<strong>at</strong>e local dynamics<br />

and action.<br />

11.1 Community design workshop<br />

with <strong>energy</strong> game<br />

© Citizens Innov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Lab Limerick<br />

11.1 12.2<br />

12.1<br />


12. One of <strong>the</strong> initi<strong>at</strong>ives<br />

recently launched by <strong>the</strong> Citizens<br />

Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Lab is <strong>the</strong> Academy of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Near Future. This educ<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

programme provides students with<br />

<strong>the</strong> skills, knowledge and knowhow<br />

to rethink <strong>the</strong> future of our<br />

cities. With a focus on technology,<br />

it organizes hands-on activities<br />

to raise awareness and empower<br />

students to tackle <strong>the</strong> challenges<br />

of <strong>the</strong> future. Similarly, <strong>the</strong> Smart<br />

Building Living Lab explores<br />

new ways to make buildings more<br />

sustainable and intelligent. Around<br />

one hundred residents in Limerick<br />

are installing sensors to monitor<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir buildings.<br />

This form of citizen science enables<br />

residents to become more aware<br />

of <strong>the</strong> actual <strong>energy</strong> performance<br />

and to use this knowledge to reduce<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir <strong>energy</strong> consumption and start<br />

planning possible interventions<br />

to make <strong>the</strong>ir homes more<br />

future-proof.<br />

12.1 Academy of <strong>the</strong> Near Future<br />

© Citizens Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Lab<br />

Limerick<br />

12.2 Smart Lab, sensor to be<br />

installed, to monitor<br />

local buildings<br />

© Smart Lab Limerick<br />

12.3 Smart Building living lab,<br />

retrieving inform<strong>at</strong>ion from<br />

<strong>the</strong> local sensor<br />

© Smart Lab Limerick<br />

95<br />

12.3<br />

CHAPTER 1. Portraits of PED experiments<br />

PORTRAIT 6 – Georgian Quarter, Limerick


CHAPTER 2<br />

Keys for<br />

realizing<br />

PEDs<br />

99<br />

How do PEDs evolve from an ambitious<br />

idea to a logical sequence of concrete actions?<br />

In this chapter, eleven key dimensions structure<br />

a working method and a set of building blocks<br />

for <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> <strong>at</strong> <strong>district</strong> <strong>level</strong>. From <strong>the</strong><br />

PED experiments in <strong>the</strong> previous chapter, we<br />

learn th<strong>at</strong> initi<strong>at</strong>ors and participants are confronted<br />

with similar, recurring questions. Who do you build<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy with? When and where do<br />

you start? How do you connect to existing neighbourhood<br />

dynamics? Which city instruments can<br />

help to implement a PED? Wh<strong>at</strong> are your targets<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs

and how do you assess whe<strong>the</strong>r you’re reaching<br />

<strong>the</strong>m? However, despite <strong>the</strong> fact th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> same<br />

questions are asked again and again, <strong>the</strong>re is no<br />

single answer or quick fix. Initi<strong>at</strong>ing and coordin<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

a Positive Energy District will always remain<br />

a cre<strong>at</strong>ive and <strong>district</strong>-specific endeavour. Instead<br />

of a recipe, <strong>the</strong> eleven Keys provide you with a<br />

framework. They are <strong>the</strong> partitioned dimensions<br />

of a multilayered development process, each of<br />

which you and your coalition will need to find<br />

answers for.<br />

Each Key begins with a short story. The<br />

protagonist takes you through a fictional situ<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

th<strong>at</strong> highlights one of <strong>the</strong> challenges th<strong>at</strong> PED<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ors and processes face. To answer those,<br />

<strong>the</strong> Key first elabor<strong>at</strong>es a reasoning th<strong>at</strong> arms you<br />

for <strong>the</strong> convers<strong>at</strong>ions with your colleagues or<br />

partners. It argues why you’d need a higher involvement<br />

of local stakeholders, for example, wh<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

benefits are and which <strong>level</strong>s of involvement can<br />

be recognized. Subsequently, <strong>the</strong> Key provides<br />

you with a set of practical, inspir<strong>at</strong>ional building<br />

blocks to get started. Each of those is illustr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

with an exemplary initi<strong>at</strong>ive, method or project.<br />

The building blocks allow you to start exploring<br />

possibilities. They become <strong>the</strong> pieces of a puzzle.<br />

100<br />

With <strong>the</strong>se building blocks in mind, you<br />

can co-design your own action plan. There is a<br />

playing card for each building block in <strong>the</strong> deck<br />

th<strong>at</strong> is part of this toolkit. We invite you to start

using <strong>the</strong>m, ei<strong>the</strong>r to frame and inspire an open<br />

convers<strong>at</strong>ion with colleagues, citizens and partners,<br />

or in Workshop B, described in <strong>the</strong> Instructions<br />

booklet. You’ll become <strong>the</strong> moder<strong>at</strong>or of a<br />

step-by-step working session and challenge your<br />

stakeholders to position different cards on a<br />

long-term timeline until <strong>the</strong>y add up to a coherent<br />

action plan. The deck of cards is a starter set.<br />

You may want to add or change a card, or combine<br />

two cards, to better suit your ideas or<br />

your neighbourhood.<br />

101<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs


KEY 1<br />

103<br />

How to analyse<br />

<strong>the</strong> local<br />


104<br />

As a priv<strong>at</strong>e <strong>energy</strong> provider, we are in<br />

discussion with an ambitious local authority about<br />

how to implement a he<strong>at</strong> network in an existing<br />

pilot <strong>district</strong>. The technical study shows a high<br />

potential for switching to a low-temper<strong>at</strong>ure he<strong>at</strong><br />

network based on geo<strong>the</strong>rmal <strong>energy</strong>. But we need<br />

to solve a number of issues before we can submit a<br />

full proposal for <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion phase of <strong>the</strong><br />

project: we don’t know <strong>the</strong> exact loc<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong><br />

underground sewer system, which was built in <strong>the</strong><br />

1960s, nor <strong>the</strong> extent of <strong>the</strong> root systems of <strong>the</strong><br />

old trees in <strong>the</strong> area’s main streets. We need this<br />

inform<strong>at</strong>ion before we start digging. O<strong>the</strong>rwise<br />

we run <strong>the</strong> risk of hitting a pipe or getting too<br />

close to <strong>the</strong> tree roots and damaging or altering<br />

<strong>the</strong> temper<strong>at</strong>ure of <strong>the</strong> underground ecosystems.<br />

At <strong>the</strong> same time, <strong>the</strong> local authority wants to<br />

have a clear idea of <strong>the</strong> residents’ willingness and<br />

readiness to connect to <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> network. They<br />

won’t let us proceed with <strong>the</strong> <strong>final</strong> dossier before<br />

<strong>the</strong>n. As a priv<strong>at</strong>e company, we aim to be <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

forefront of <strong>the</strong> sustainability <strong>transition</strong>. Th<strong>at</strong>’s<br />

why my team and I have proposed to our board<br />

th<strong>at</strong> we extend <strong>the</strong> analysis phase of this project<br />

by several months. This will allow us to ga<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong><br />

necessary inform<strong>at</strong>ion on <strong>the</strong> existing sewerage<br />

systems, root networks and residents’ willingness,<br />

and also to avoid future financial risks to <strong>the</strong><br />

project. We’ll fill in <strong>the</strong> gaps in our maps and try<br />

to grasp <strong>the</strong> dynamics of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

before embarking on this intervention.

Each <strong>district</strong> has its own sp<strong>at</strong>ial, social<br />

and <strong>energy</strong> constitution and dynamic. To ensure<br />

th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> PED process meets a <strong>district</strong>’s specific<br />

needs and taps into its potential, a <strong>district</strong> analysis<br />

on different <strong>level</strong>s is a necessary starting point.<br />

105<br />

Implementing a fixed templ<strong>at</strong>e of actions and investments in a neighbourhood<br />

doesn’t equal becoming a PED. Ra<strong>the</strong>r than start from a standard set of interventions<br />

or projects, we first need to understand <strong>the</strong> specificities of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>district</strong>(s) we are working in. Str<strong>at</strong>egies th<strong>at</strong> work in one neighbourhood,<br />

city or country may not be <strong>the</strong> best solution in ano<strong>the</strong>r. A telling example is<br />

<strong>the</strong> experience of City Mine(d), a Brussels-based non-profit organiz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

whose mission is ‘to make urban development everyone’s business’. After<br />

successfully carrying out a community-driven <strong>energy</strong> project in <strong>the</strong> Brussels<br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter, <strong>the</strong>y realized th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir approach had to be completely<br />

rethought for <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter. The inhabitants of <strong>the</strong> l<strong>at</strong>ter <strong>district</strong> are<br />

deeply sceptical about <strong>the</strong> public authorities, <strong>the</strong>ir intentions and projects.<br />

This is due to <strong>the</strong> massive destruction and reloc<strong>at</strong>ion of more than half <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood in <strong>the</strong> 1970s and 1980s to allow for <strong>the</strong> construction of a<br />

central business <strong>district</strong> [see Chapter 1, p. 16]. It is only after City Mine(d)<br />

spent a considerable amount of time among <strong>the</strong> inhabitants th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y were<br />

no longer distrusted as agents of priv<strong>at</strong>e or public actors who had come to<br />

present <strong>the</strong>ir l<strong>at</strong>est plans for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s future. They gained trust as people<br />

who were genuinely interested in <strong>the</strong> needs and aspir<strong>at</strong>ions of citizens. This<br />

enabled <strong>the</strong>m to launch several actions toge<strong>the</strong>r. Although both <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

and Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarters are deprived areas situ<strong>at</strong>ed around important railway<br />

st<strong>at</strong>ions and with high <strong>level</strong>s of (<strong>energy</strong>) poverty, <strong>the</strong>ir specificities require<br />

different approaches, actions and, ultim<strong>at</strong>ely, investments.<br />

A lack of knowledge or misreading of <strong>the</strong> local specificities with<br />

regard to technical, physical and social aspects can easily lead to lock-ins and<br />

resistance. Conversely, a more profound understanding of your neighbourhood<br />

will allow you to make <strong>the</strong> smartest, most effective and most interesting choices.<br />

In Limerick’s Georgian Quarter, for example, a decentralized hydroelectric plant<br />

was chosen because of <strong>the</strong> proximity to w<strong>at</strong>er, but also because of <strong>the</strong> specific<br />

n<strong>at</strong>ure of <strong>the</strong> historic buildings, which can’t be adequ<strong>at</strong>ely insul<strong>at</strong>ed and will<br />

<strong>the</strong>refore continue to have a higher <strong>energy</strong> demand. The usual solutions such as<br />

a he<strong>at</strong>ing network or individual solutions such as he<strong>at</strong> pumps and solar panels<br />

wouldn’t suffice [see Chapter 1, p. 85].<br />

The experiments in Chapter 1 teach us th<strong>at</strong> a strong awareness<br />

and understanding of <strong>the</strong> local characteristics of a neighbourhood are a precondition<br />

for a targeted approach to neighbourhood (re)development. As <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> of a <strong>district</strong> touches on social, economic and environmental<br />

dimensions of <strong>the</strong> living environment and people’s lives, a multidimensional<br />

analysis is needed. In this Key we look <strong>at</strong> those different <strong>level</strong>s of neighbourhood<br />

analysis. As a general principle, it makes sense for this analysis to be carried<br />

out <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> start of <strong>the</strong> PED process. But this doesn’t mean th<strong>at</strong> concrete actions<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> can only start once this analysis has been completed. Some analy<br />

ses will take longer and will run parallel to (and draw on) early empowering<br />

actions, pilot projects or capacity-building [see Keys 2, 6 and 8]. The need for a<br />

particular analysis may also become clear in <strong>the</strong> course of <strong>the</strong> process and only<br />

be carried out between two and five years after <strong>the</strong> start of <strong>the</strong> process. As an<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>or, you are invited to use this Key <strong>at</strong> different moments in your process.<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 1 – How to analyse <strong>the</strong> local context

Different <strong>level</strong>s of analysis<br />

We have already touched upon several types of contextual differences th<strong>at</strong><br />

must be analysed for <strong>the</strong> development of a PED (<strong>the</strong> social dynamics in Brussels,<br />

<strong>the</strong> technical potential in Limerick). Each development process involves<br />

specific <strong>energy</strong> infrastructures th<strong>at</strong> need to arrive <strong>at</strong> specific physical loc<strong>at</strong>ions.<br />

Each process is about people and <strong>the</strong>ir current and future <strong>energy</strong> use, <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

motiv<strong>at</strong>ion and (financial) capacities. It requires investment and a return<br />

on th<strong>at</strong> investment. While it is not a must (or not even possible) to realize a<br />

complete analysis of a <strong>district</strong>, we do advoc<strong>at</strong>e devoting sufficient time and<br />

resources to a multilayered analysis.<br />

But how are we to make such an analysis? Some inform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

can be ga<strong>the</strong>red through desk research while o<strong>the</strong>r dimensions will require<br />

you to go out into <strong>the</strong> streets and reach out to stakeholders and users. Some<br />

factors are obvious and visible: <strong>the</strong>y include physical characteristics such as<br />

building morphology, current <strong>energy</strong> consumption p<strong>at</strong>tern, availability of<br />

residual he<strong>at</strong> or space for PV panels. O<strong>the</strong>r factors are non-physical: existing<br />

neighbourhood dynamics, rel<strong>at</strong>ions between tenants and landlords, or political<br />

trust and planning culture. Some analyses are easier for architects or <strong>energy</strong><br />

experts to carry out, while o<strong>the</strong>rs are <strong>the</strong> domain of anthropologists and<br />

neighbourhood managers. You need a multidisciplinary team to perform<br />

a multifaceted analysis.<br />

1.A Geographical analysis<br />

Maps can be a powerful tool for reading<br />

a neighbourhood and discussing it with colleagues and<br />

stakeholders. Looking <strong>at</strong> physical places makes clear th<strong>at</strong><br />

setting up a PED is an integr<strong>at</strong>ed challenge. A he<strong>at</strong> network,<br />

a w<strong>at</strong>er-buffering wadi, a new cycle p<strong>at</strong>h, trees and charging<br />

points: <strong>the</strong>se should all end up in <strong>the</strong> same street with certain<br />

dimensions and current qualities. The cre<strong>at</strong>ion of a basic<br />

cartography showing <strong>the</strong> physical fe<strong>at</strong>ures of <strong>the</strong> environment<br />

is a logical step <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> beginning of a PED process. Relevant<br />

map layers include existing infrastructures, greenery, asphalted<br />

vs soft areas, density of <strong>the</strong> built environment, use of buildings<br />

and spaces, ownership structure and age of <strong>the</strong> building stock.<br />

Many non-physical d<strong>at</strong>a are also linked to a geoloc<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

and can <strong>the</strong>refore be visualized on a map, such as average<br />

household income and <strong>energy</strong> consumption.<br />

Bicycle parking<br />

Park & Ride<br />

Car park<br />

Disabled parking<br />

Resident parking<br />

A complete geographical area<br />

analysis was carried out for<br />

<strong>the</strong> 2nd and 20th <strong>district</strong>s of<br />

Vienna (AT) as part of <strong>the</strong> WieNeu+<br />

urban renewal programme. The<br />

Urban Renewal Office of <strong>the</strong> City<br />

of Vienna examined <strong>the</strong> built<br />

environment, <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> potential<br />

and <strong>the</strong> socio-economic dynamics<br />

of <strong>the</strong> two <strong>district</strong>s. Both publicly<br />

available and non-public d<strong>at</strong>a were<br />

collected. A design office also<br />

conducted a field analysis to obtain<br />

more specific inform<strong>at</strong>ion, such as<br />

<strong>the</strong> use of ground-floor space or <strong>the</strong><br />

condition of <strong>the</strong> inner courtyards<br />

of <strong>the</strong> residential blocks. All <strong>the</strong><br />

inform<strong>at</strong>ion ga<strong>the</strong>red through field<br />

observ<strong>at</strong>ion and d<strong>at</strong>a analysis was<br />

compiled to produce a cartography,<br />

making it possible to define twentyfive<br />

urban regener<strong>at</strong>ion interventions<br />

to be developed in <strong>the</strong> two <strong>district</strong>s.<br />

For example, one of <strong>the</strong> maps<br />

showed th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> number of parking<br />

spaces in <strong>the</strong> 2nd and 20th <strong>district</strong>s<br />

is much higher than <strong>the</strong> number of<br />

cars owned by local residents. This<br />

map helped to identify <strong>the</strong> potential<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> to use parking spaces<br />

in more clim<strong>at</strong>e-resilient ways.<br />

Similarly, based on a micro-mapping<br />

simul<strong>at</strong>ion of street temper<strong>at</strong>ures in<br />

summer, a series of ‘cooling zones’<br />

were defined, dedic<strong>at</strong>ed to comb<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

<strong>the</strong> clim<strong>at</strong>e he<strong>at</strong>-island effect in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

© Based on WieNeu+, Vienna (AT)<br />


1.B Energy potential analysis<br />

The context determines <strong>the</strong> potential for local<br />

production of he<strong>at</strong> and electricity, on <strong>the</strong> one hand, and for <strong>the</strong><br />

reduction of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> demand, on <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r. The share of<br />

well-oriented roofs or façades affects <strong>the</strong> potential for solar<br />

<strong>energy</strong>. The presence of residual he<strong>at</strong> close to <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>,<br />

<strong>the</strong> suitability of <strong>the</strong> subsoil for boreholes and <strong>the</strong> future he<strong>at</strong><br />

demand are some of <strong>the</strong> factors th<strong>at</strong> will determine wh<strong>at</strong> type<br />

of he<strong>at</strong> network can be implemented or not. Proximity to w<strong>at</strong>er<br />

can provide opportunities for aqua<strong>the</strong>rmics. Buildings th<strong>at</strong><br />

consume a lot of hot w<strong>at</strong>er, like hospitals, are perfect to deliver<br />

sewage he<strong>at</strong>. The morphology of <strong>the</strong> buildings will determine<br />

how much efficiency increase can be achieved through<br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion. It helps to visualize and calcul<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong>se and o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

scenarios <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> start of a PED process. This will allow you to<br />

identify <strong>the</strong> opportunities th<strong>at</strong> are specific to your <strong>district</strong> and<br />

th<strong>at</strong> might require first actions or become a first project. It is<br />

also a necessary step to establish your neighbourhood-specific<br />

target in terms of <strong>energy</strong> balance [more about this in Key 3].<br />

To find out if Loudden, a sub<strong>district</strong><br />

of <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal<br />

Seaport (SE), could become a<br />

fossil-free area, <strong>the</strong> city’s development<br />

administr<strong>at</strong>ion asked a team<br />

of <strong>energy</strong> consultants to carry<br />

out an <strong>energy</strong> system analysis. In<br />

addition to electricity and cooling,<br />

<strong>the</strong> demand for he<strong>at</strong>ing is particularly<br />

high in Sweden due to <strong>the</strong><br />

cold winters. By comparing <strong>the</strong><br />

two scenarios th<strong>at</strong> were studied,<br />

we can understand <strong>the</strong> importance<br />

of an <strong>energy</strong> potential analysis.<br />

Both assume a low-temper<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

local he<strong>at</strong> network and (exchange<br />

between) highly <strong>energy</strong>-efficient<br />

buildings, which is almost a given<br />

for a new development. However,<br />

<strong>the</strong> scenarios differ in <strong>the</strong> source of<br />

<strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> network, which is he<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

ei<strong>the</strong>r by local he<strong>at</strong> pumps or by<br />

using residual he<strong>at</strong> from <strong>the</strong> return<br />

flow of <strong>the</strong> city’s existing central<br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing network. In <strong>the</strong> first scenario,<br />

a lot of electricity is needed<br />

to run <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> pumps. Given<br />

Stockholm’s clim<strong>at</strong>ic conditions<br />

(lack of sunlight) and <strong>the</strong> proposed<br />

density of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, it will be<br />

very difficult, if not impossible, to<br />

produce <strong>the</strong> necessary amount of<br />

electricity within <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> itself.<br />

This is why <strong>the</strong> second scenario is<br />

being fur<strong>the</strong>r investig<strong>at</strong>ed, toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

with <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> utility Stockholm<br />

Exergi. Of course, open questions<br />

remain in this scenario as well: How<br />

to determine <strong>the</strong> costs to be paid<br />

for <strong>the</strong> excess he<strong>at</strong> from <strong>the</strong> return<br />

flow? And is this <strong>energy</strong> considered<br />

‘locally produced’?<br />

© Stockholm Royal Seaport,<br />

Stockholm (SE)<br />

107<br />

1.C Neighbourhood dynamics analysis<br />

Beyond its physical characteristics, a neighbourhood<br />

is also a web of social interactions and behaviour.<br />

It is essential to comprehend <strong>the</strong> lifestyles of residents,<br />

land lords, workers or passers-by, and <strong>the</strong> formal and<br />

informal bonds and networks <strong>the</strong>y form. These dynamics<br />

are often closely linked to culture, history, discourses,<br />

shared beliefs, values, perspectives, paradigms, habits and<br />

practices. Therefore, talking to inhabitants and to people and<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions th<strong>at</strong> work daily in or on <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood is<br />

a way to map <strong>the</strong>se (often implicit) dynamics. While some<br />

aspects might have a direct impact on <strong>energy</strong> consumption<br />

(ventil<strong>at</strong>ion or he<strong>at</strong>ing habits), o<strong>the</strong>rs are crucial because <strong>the</strong>y<br />

can be picked up in <strong>the</strong> PED str<strong>at</strong>egy (important initi<strong>at</strong>ives<br />

as a lever, local aspir<strong>at</strong>ions as part of <strong>the</strong> integr<strong>at</strong>ed target,<br />

or rel<strong>at</strong>ions between landlords and renters).<br />

In Bospolder-Tussendijken in<br />

Rotterdam (NL), two anthropologists,<br />

a social entrepreneur and<br />

a social architect (two of <strong>the</strong>m<br />

residents <strong>the</strong>mselves) mapped <strong>the</strong><br />

networks, needs and opportunities<br />

of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood as a starting<br />

point for <strong>the</strong> development of<br />

a transform<strong>at</strong>ion str<strong>at</strong>egy th<strong>at</strong><br />

connects <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong><br />

to o<strong>the</strong>r needs and ambitions<br />

of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood (Knoop<br />

et al., 2019). The anthropological<br />

research involved interactions<br />

with different residents and users,<br />

taking part in different segments of<br />

neighbourhood life: convers<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

on a park bench, during a meeting<br />

of a women’s network or before<br />

prayers in <strong>the</strong> mosque, and meetings<br />

with formal organiz<strong>at</strong>ions. Partly<br />

based on <strong>the</strong> oral histories and <strong>the</strong><br />

mapping, <strong>the</strong> formal and informal<br />

networks and initi<strong>at</strong>ives th<strong>at</strong> make<br />

↧<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 1 – How to analyse <strong>the</strong> local context

up <strong>the</strong> social fabric of BoTu were<br />

indexed and mapped. This mapping<br />

of <strong>the</strong> social dynamics was carried<br />

out in parallel with an <strong>energy</strong><br />

engineering study th<strong>at</strong> looked <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> potential for production and<br />

reduction. Toge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong>se two<br />

mappings provided a solid basis<br />

for a co-cre<strong>at</strong>ed roadmap or Local<br />

Energy Action Plan (LEAP): <strong>the</strong><br />

social networks around a school,<br />

for example, became <strong>the</strong> basis<br />

for <strong>the</strong> construction of <strong>the</strong> first<br />

pilot action. For <strong>the</strong> Intern<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

Architecture Biennale Rotterdam<br />

(IABR 2022), artist Jan Rothuizen<br />

visualized some of <strong>the</strong>se dynamics<br />

in a subjective cartography of <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood: his hand-drawn<br />

map shows buildings and places<br />

th<strong>at</strong> are significant to <strong>the</strong> users of<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood.<br />

© Jan Rothuizen, IABR,<br />

Rotterdam (NL)<br />


CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 1 – How to analyse <strong>the</strong> local context<br />


Institutional actors<br />

Facilit<strong>at</strong>or<br />

Civil society<br />

Priv<strong>at</strong>e actors<br />

Oper<strong>at</strong>ors<br />

1.D Stakeholder analysis<br />

To better understand local dynamics, it is<br />

important to know more about <strong>the</strong> local actors and <strong>the</strong> rel<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

between <strong>the</strong>m: how power is distributed, where <strong>the</strong>re is<br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ion (or not), where <strong>the</strong>re are tensions, which actors<br />

have a major stake in <strong>the</strong> PED and which can make a major<br />

contribution. A stakeholder analysis or mapping identifies <strong>the</strong><br />

groups of actors th<strong>at</strong> have an interest in, and an influence on,<br />

<strong>the</strong> development of PEDs in a particular neighbourhood. A<br />

distinction can be made between <strong>the</strong> end users of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

(residents, shop owners, office workers) and <strong>the</strong><br />

drivers of PED development (<strong>energy</strong> consultants, financiers,<br />

PV suppliers, sociocultural organiz<strong>at</strong>ions, regul<strong>at</strong>ors) (Cheng<br />

et al., 2021). As PEDs are dynamic processes, <strong>the</strong> roles of<br />

different stakeholders also change over time. The PED<br />

stakeholder analysis is a dynamic map.<br />

Energy<br />

Different<br />

The explor<strong>at</strong>ory phase of <strong>the</strong><br />

PED development in <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter in Brussels (BE) involved a<br />

series of interviews with potential<br />

stakeholders: <strong>the</strong> three municipalities<br />

where <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> is administr<strong>at</strong>ively<br />

loc<strong>at</strong>ed, <strong>the</strong> regional planning<br />

service, <strong>the</strong> regional environmental<br />

service, <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> utility company,<br />

a Brussels social organiz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

for citizen particip<strong>at</strong>ion with<br />

experience in <strong>energy</strong> <strong>district</strong>s, <strong>the</strong><br />

hospital loc<strong>at</strong>ed in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, <strong>the</strong><br />

social housing service, <strong>the</strong> owners<br />

of <strong>the</strong> office buildings, <strong>the</strong> n<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

railway company th<strong>at</strong> manages an<br />

important st<strong>at</strong>ion in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> port coordin<strong>at</strong>or, who<br />

considers <strong>the</strong> canal a str<strong>at</strong>egic area<br />

(Architecture Workroom Brussels<br />

and Engie, 2020). On <strong>the</strong> basis of<br />

<strong>the</strong>se initial discussions, <strong>the</strong> wishes<br />

and needs of each of <strong>the</strong>se actors were identified and<br />

<strong>the</strong> question of how <strong>the</strong>y could be linked was explored.<br />

As part of <strong>the</strong> establishment of a coordin<strong>at</strong>ion pl<strong>at</strong>form<br />

[see Key 5, p. 155], <strong>the</strong> evolving involvement of<br />

different stakeholders was <strong>the</strong>n mapped out step<br />

by step. The willingness to play a driving role in <strong>the</strong><br />

development of <strong>the</strong> PED was assessed and <strong>the</strong> outlines<br />

of an initial oper<strong>at</strong>ional governance model were defined<br />

(3E and Architecture Workroom Brussels, 2021).<br />

© Based on Architecture Workroom Brussels, Brussels (BE)<br />

Cabinet<br />

Hellings<br />

Cabinet<br />

Maron<br />

BE<br />

Sus. Dev.<br />

BE<br />

WS<br />

Brugel<br />

Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter<br />

Infrabel<br />

Engie<br />

Immob<br />

AG RE<br />

Bef<br />

U4N<br />

Sibelga<br />

TN<br />

SAU<br />

u.B<br />

Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion Pl<strong>at</strong>form Energy<br />

BMA<br />

CB Urban<br />

Planning<br />

p.B<br />

BE<br />

Renolution<br />

CB Urban<br />

Renov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

City Tools<br />

PlusOffice<br />

P of B<br />

M of SJ<br />

BUUR<br />

1010au<br />

M of S<br />

BE<br />

Energy<br />

FL<br />

CB E 3E<br />

CB SC <strong>AWB</strong><br />

CPAS<br />

CM(d)<br />

BRAT<br />

APERe<br />

Maison<br />

DQM<br />

Maison<br />

DQ<br />

Maison<br />

DQ<br />

CLT<br />

Proposal<br />

LEC<br />

CDQD<br />

CSJ<br />

K4<br />

Ferme<br />

DPM<br />

BRAVVO<br />

ZNK<br />

ABC<br />

110<br />


1.E Planned investments analysis<br />

There is no <strong>district</strong> where nothing is<br />

happening: whe<strong>the</strong>r investments in people or businesses, in<br />

constructing or in refurbishing buildings. Both public and priv<strong>at</strong>e<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions are constantly adding to <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood or<br />

renewing parts of it. If you can partner with those ongoing<br />

investments, your PED str<strong>at</strong>egy will be more closely embedded<br />

in ongoing dynamics ra<strong>the</strong>r than be (seen as) an oper<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

outside <strong>the</strong> real dynamic of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. For example, <strong>the</strong><br />

ideal time to install a he<strong>at</strong> network is when <strong>the</strong> road has been<br />

opened to replace a sewer or to implement clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

measures. When a school is being renov<strong>at</strong>ed, perhaps<br />

<strong>the</strong> square in front of it could also use a makeover and its<br />

connection to <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood’s soft cycling and walking<br />

network could be improved. Looking <strong>at</strong> interventions toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

will not only make <strong>the</strong>m better because <strong>the</strong>y serve multiple<br />

goals <strong>at</strong> once. Some costs, such as opening up <strong>the</strong> street or<br />

coordin<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong> construction team, can also be shared.<br />

This requires only one co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion process and residents will<br />

only be affected once by <strong>the</strong> construction works. By mapping<br />

out <strong>the</strong> investments already planned, opportunities to link<br />

different projects can be identified.<br />

A<br />

B<br />

C<br />

Sewerage<br />

N+60 years<br />

Roads concrete<br />

N+50 years<br />

Roads cobbles<br />

N+80 years<br />

0 years 50 years 100 years<br />

The municipality of Leiden (NL)<br />

has mapped all <strong>the</strong> neighbourhoods<br />

where <strong>the</strong> public space will be<br />

redone between 2020 and 2050.<br />

They did this based on <strong>the</strong> estim<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

lifespan of <strong>the</strong> city’s assets:<br />

sewers last on average sixty years,<br />

<strong>the</strong> concrete in roads needs to be<br />

replaced after about fifty years,<br />

lighting infrastructure goes out<br />

after forty years (Architecture<br />

Workroom Brussels, 2020). Much<br />

of <strong>the</strong> infrastructure in post-war<br />

neighbourhoods will soon reach <strong>the</strong><br />

end of <strong>the</strong>ir lifespan. By synchronizing<br />

<strong>the</strong> necessary investments in<br />

a certain <strong>district</strong> (implementing<br />

some earlier, o<strong>the</strong>rs a little l<strong>at</strong>er),<br />

<strong>the</strong> synergies between different<br />

interventions can be maximized<br />

and costs reduced. The City of<br />

Leiden has calcul<strong>at</strong>ed th<strong>at</strong>, for <strong>the</strong><br />

South-West <strong>district</strong>, combining <strong>the</strong><br />

sewer replacement with clim<strong>at</strong>e<br />

adapt<strong>at</strong>ion measures would save<br />

<strong>the</strong>m around 30% (Architecture<br />

Workroom Brussels, 2020). This<br />

way, <strong>the</strong> City of Leiden was able<br />

to draw up a complete neighbourhood<br />

transform<strong>at</strong>ion timeline for<br />

neighbourhoods from <strong>the</strong> 1950s,<br />

1960s and 1970s. The redesign<br />

will integr<strong>at</strong>e clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

<strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> and circularity.<br />

O<strong>the</strong>r actors, such as housing<br />

companies, are encouraged to<br />

take advantage of <strong>the</strong> momentum<br />

gener<strong>at</strong>ed by public investment<br />

to become part of an integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

neighbourhood renewal.<br />

© Based on City of Leiden,<br />

Leiden (NL)<br />

111<br />

D<br />

Lighting<br />

N+40 years<br />

Before installing our he<strong>at</strong> grid, we carried<br />

out an additional analysis of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood.<br />

We hired a bioengineer and a botanist to study<br />

<strong>the</strong> age and species of <strong>the</strong> trees. They found th<strong>at</strong><br />

some of <strong>the</strong> oaks in <strong>the</strong> main street are more than<br />

a hundred years old and <strong>the</strong>ir root systems, which<br />

are close to <strong>the</strong> surface, stretch very far. This led<br />

us to revise our original plan to put one of <strong>the</strong><br />

main pipes for <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> network <strong>the</strong>re. We also<br />

asked an urban planner with expertise in historical<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 1 – How to analyse <strong>the</strong> local context

112<br />

mapping to research <strong>the</strong> city’s sewerage system<br />

in <strong>the</strong> city archives. She drew up a new map of <strong>the</strong><br />

existing underground pipes, which was crucial<br />

in determining <strong>the</strong> <strong>final</strong> layout of <strong>the</strong> grid. The<br />

team’s anthropologist carried out <strong>the</strong> community<br />

consult<strong>at</strong>ion. Apparently, most people living in<br />

<strong>the</strong> area were interested in connecting to <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong><br />

network, but many weren’t aware of <strong>the</strong> incentives<br />

and subsidies available. The anthropologist helped<br />

us to set up a sociocultural programme about<br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion support tools and public subsidies.<br />

This in turn enabled us to convince many more<br />

people to consider connecting to <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> grid.<br />

In our meeting with <strong>the</strong> board next week, we’ll<br />

present <strong>the</strong> results of <strong>the</strong> extended study phase<br />

and <strong>the</strong> new proposal for <strong>the</strong> grid. Thanks to its<br />

success, we’ll recommend permanently integr<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

a multidisciplinary team within <strong>the</strong> company to<br />

carry out <strong>the</strong> necessary neighbourhood analysis<br />

in <strong>the</strong> next areas we’ll be working on.

KEY 2<br />

113<br />

How to empower<br />

local stakeholders

114<br />

Three months ago, <strong>at</strong> a neighbourhood<br />

meeting, I heard th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> municipality had plans<br />

to turn my neighbourhood into a PED. At first,<br />

I didn’t even know wh<strong>at</strong> a PED was. But after<br />

asking around, I understood th<strong>at</strong> it had to do<br />

with <strong>energy</strong> and reducing CO2 emissions. The<br />

represent<strong>at</strong>ive of <strong>the</strong> municipality told us th<strong>at</strong><br />

everyone has to start using less <strong>energy</strong> and th<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong>y’re going to launch a lot of <strong>energy</strong> projects in<br />

<strong>the</strong> area to produce <strong>energy</strong> locally. To be honest,<br />

I’m a bit frustr<strong>at</strong>ed with this PED. I really don’t<br />

know how much fur<strong>the</strong>r I can reduce my <strong>energy</strong><br />

consumption. I mean, I already do everything I<br />

can to save on my <strong>energy</strong> bill: I postpone turning<br />

<strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing on as much as possible, I always wear<br />

an extra jumper when <strong>at</strong> home and I unplug all<br />

electronic devices so <strong>the</strong>y don’t use <strong>energy</strong> when<br />

I’m out. Wh<strong>at</strong> else can I do? My landlord, on <strong>the</strong><br />

o<strong>the</strong>r hand, has said over and over th<strong>at</strong> he’s going<br />

to do something about <strong>the</strong> humidity problems in<br />

my fl<strong>at</strong>, which still has single-glazed windows.<br />

Th<strong>at</strong> would probably make a huge difference to<br />

how much <strong>energy</strong> I use! But so far nothing has<br />

been done. Why don’t <strong>the</strong>y get <strong>the</strong> landlords<br />

involved instead of asking me to do more? A lot<br />

of houses in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> are in <strong>the</strong> same condition<br />

as mine. They really need to get <strong>the</strong>ir priorities<br />

straight when it comes to this PED. I heard th<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong>re were many empty chairs <strong>at</strong> last week’s<br />

neighbourhood meeting, which <strong>the</strong> municipality<br />

set up monthly to keep us upd<strong>at</strong>ed on <strong>the</strong> PED,<br />

and I’m not surprised.

The development of a PED requires<br />

<strong>the</strong> active particip<strong>at</strong>ion and commitment of <strong>the</strong><br />

local community. The stronger <strong>the</strong> local sense<br />

of ownership and pride, <strong>the</strong> more inclusive and<br />

sustainable <strong>the</strong> PED will be.<br />

115<br />

A PED is not a technical device th<strong>at</strong> you buy, install and oper<strong>at</strong>e. A <strong>district</strong><br />

is a living ecosystem where people, <strong>the</strong>ir behaviour and social networks have<br />

a huge impact on <strong>the</strong> choice, implement<strong>at</strong>ion and ultim<strong>at</strong>ely performance of<br />

<strong>energy</strong> measures and systems. For example, support for a he<strong>at</strong>ing network<br />

may be far lower if it requires razing an old grove of trees cherished by <strong>the</strong><br />

local community. Or a high-tech passive house won’t perform as planned<br />

if <strong>the</strong> controlled ventil<strong>at</strong>ion is tampered with by its users. A <strong>district</strong> with a<br />

strong community organiz<strong>at</strong>ion will be a more fertile ground for setting up<br />

a local <strong>energy</strong> community. But this interrel<strong>at</strong>ion also works in <strong>the</strong> opposite<br />

direction: <strong>energy</strong> measures and systems come with logics and consequences<br />

th<strong>at</strong> condition <strong>the</strong> behavioural p<strong>at</strong>terns and social networks in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

For example, households will have to schedule <strong>energy</strong>-consuming activities<br />

when <strong>the</strong> sun is shining and get used to cooking on induction ra<strong>the</strong>r than gas.<br />

Or <strong>the</strong> geo<strong>the</strong>rmal he<strong>at</strong> install<strong>at</strong>ion under <strong>the</strong> gardens of a housing block can<br />

lead to a change in rel<strong>at</strong>ions between neighbours: from individual consumers<br />

paying a bill to an (inter)n<strong>at</strong>ional <strong>energy</strong> provider, <strong>the</strong>y become cooperants<br />

th<strong>at</strong> co-own and oper<strong>at</strong>e a local he<strong>at</strong> company.<br />

This reciprocal impact between behaviour and social networks,<br />

on <strong>the</strong> one hand, and between <strong>energy</strong> measures and systems, on <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r,<br />

is a core dimension of a PED process and str<strong>at</strong>egy. The more we succeed in<br />

establishing synergies between <strong>the</strong> social and technical dimensions, <strong>the</strong> more<br />

successful a PED will be. Adherence and enthusiasm will be much bigger when<br />

<strong>the</strong> investments in <strong>energy</strong> measures and systems are conceived, preferably<br />

via co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion, as a flywheel for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s social dynamism, inclusion<br />

and quality of life. The <strong>transition</strong> will be more profound when <strong>the</strong> changes<br />

in technical install<strong>at</strong>ions and in behaviour are aligned and are mutually<br />

reinforcing. This is more than a nice extra: we won’t reach <strong>the</strong> ambitious<br />

<strong>energy</strong> targets for our built environment [see also Key 3] if we don’t maximize<br />

those synergies, adherence to (and a sense of co-ownership over) <strong>the</strong> decisionmaking<br />

of <strong>the</strong> PED process.<br />

The importance of local empowerment is amplified by a dimension<br />

th<strong>at</strong> is as basic as it is crucial: money. To drastically increase <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

efficiency of our houses and neighbourhoods, to construct renewable <strong>energy</strong><br />

sources and systems, and to do this in each existing and new <strong>district</strong>, we need<br />

considerable and sustained investments. As Key 7 reveals, <strong>the</strong>se investments<br />

are significantly higher than <strong>the</strong> ones families, companies and public authorities<br />

are used to making for fossil <strong>energy</strong> systems and provisions. When asking<br />

residents to take part in a PED development, it will inevitably affect <strong>the</strong>ir financial<br />

means and situ<strong>at</strong>ion. It requires financial choices and commitments by<br />

homeowners, renters, organiz<strong>at</strong>ions and companies. For some, actively taking<br />

part in <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> will be an investment opportunity or a lever for<br />

social and personal growth. For o<strong>the</strong>rs, it risks turning out <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r way:<br />

people who miss <strong>the</strong> bo<strong>at</strong> will fall fur<strong>the</strong>r and fur<strong>the</strong>r behind in a widening<br />

social divide.<br />

The above illustr<strong>at</strong>es th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> only way to address <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong> as a truly systemic transform<strong>at</strong>ion is to seriously engage users,<br />

communities and social networks (early) in <strong>the</strong> process. While this is true for<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 2 – How to empower local stakeholders

oth existing and newly built <strong>district</strong>s, this will be of far gre<strong>at</strong>er importance<br />

when working with communities of residents in our already existing urban<br />

fabric. An inclusive approach is faster, allows interlinked social issues to<br />

be addressed, is both more effective and more democr<strong>at</strong>ic, and it leads to<br />

innov<strong>at</strong>ion (Energy Cities, 2020).<br />

In this Key, we <strong>the</strong>refore focus primarily on ‘local stakeholders’,<br />

a notion th<strong>at</strong> refers to <strong>the</strong> end users of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. These are <strong>the</strong><br />

residents, landlords, shopkeepers, local public services (such as schools, <strong>the</strong><br />

library or <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood manager), and people who work <strong>the</strong>re or come<br />

<strong>the</strong>re for leisure. In wh<strong>at</strong> follows, we sketch a perspective on an increased <strong>level</strong><br />

of stakeholder empowerment in which local actors move towards a sense of<br />

co-ownership over <strong>the</strong> decision-making and implement<strong>at</strong>ion process of <strong>the</strong><br />

PED. We <strong>the</strong>n collect several tactics and form<strong>at</strong>s for stakeholder engagement<br />

as altern<strong>at</strong>ives to <strong>the</strong> traditional ones we know well by now, each with <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

own objectives and methods. They are meant to inspire you and show th<strong>at</strong><br />

thinking out of <strong>the</strong> box about stakeholder engagement can lead to fun, cre<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

and more effective approaches.<br />

Increasing <strong>the</strong> <strong>level</strong> of empowerment<br />

Before diving into str<strong>at</strong>egies to empower stakeholders, we need to be aware<br />

of ‘who’ <strong>the</strong>y are and ‘how deeply’ <strong>the</strong>y can or want to engage. Nei<strong>the</strong>r is<br />

uniform: both <strong>the</strong> different types of stakeholder groups and <strong>the</strong> different <strong>level</strong>s<br />

of intensity of <strong>the</strong>ir engagement are important parameters when devising an<br />

empowering str<strong>at</strong>egy. A retired couple might be very interested in changes in<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir neighbourhood, but mightn’t always understand <strong>the</strong>m. They have a very<br />

different rel<strong>at</strong>ion with <strong>the</strong> PED than a young family th<strong>at</strong> plans to invest all <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

savings in a deep renov<strong>at</strong>ion and wants to know which investments are <strong>the</strong><br />

smartest and most cost-effective. A social housing tenant who doesn’t seem to<br />

have many options o<strong>the</strong>r than to choose <strong>the</strong> cheapest <strong>energy</strong> supplier again has<br />

ano<strong>the</strong>r position. There is a need for mapping this diversity [see Key 1, p. 106]<br />

and for a diversified approach tailored to <strong>the</strong> different constituencies in a specific<br />

<strong>district</strong>. While building th<strong>at</strong> approach, we should accept th<strong>at</strong> not all of <strong>the</strong>se<br />

local stakeholders can be involved with <strong>the</strong> same intensity. In neighbourhoods<br />

with hundreds of families, some people will want to stand up and co-lead, o<strong>the</strong>rs<br />

will want to contribute to <strong>the</strong> design, still o<strong>the</strong>rs will be actively involved in <strong>the</strong><br />

implement<strong>at</strong>ion of a sub-project, some will want to be consulted, and still o<strong>the</strong>rs<br />

will mainly want to receive regular and reliable inform<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong> is important is th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> opportunity is <strong>the</strong>re for each<br />

stakeholder group to get involved with <strong>the</strong> intensity <strong>the</strong>y desire or can handle.<br />

To discuss this ‘capacity to engage’ in a PED (or ‘agency’, as it’s referred to in<br />

sociology), we use <strong>the</strong> spectrum of <strong>level</strong>s of ownership over neighbourhood<br />

transform<strong>at</strong>ion, as developed by City Mine(d), a Brussels-based not-for-profit<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ion (City Mine(d), 2022). On <strong>the</strong> far left is <strong>the</strong> minimum <strong>level</strong> of<br />

engagement needed to get people on board: inform<strong>at</strong>ion. Via several intermedi<strong>at</strong>e<br />

<strong>level</strong>s of engagement, it builds up towards co-ownership <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> right. This<br />

implies gre<strong>at</strong>er inclusion, particip<strong>at</strong>ion and democr<strong>at</strong>ic control of different<br />

audiences and communities in <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> system. The spectrum is based<br />

on <strong>the</strong> conviction th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> gre<strong>at</strong>er <strong>the</strong> ownership of <strong>the</strong> objectives, <strong>the</strong> decision-making<br />

process and <strong>the</strong> sub-projects by <strong>the</strong> local communities, <strong>the</strong> gre<strong>at</strong>er<br />

<strong>the</strong> chances of success of <strong>the</strong> PED, and <strong>the</strong> gre<strong>at</strong>er <strong>the</strong> local added value. The<br />

‘capacity to engage’ doesn’t exist when only <strong>the</strong> first <strong>level</strong>s of <strong>the</strong> spectrum<br />

are addressed. It exists when those stakeholders th<strong>at</strong> want to can become real<br />

co-owners of <strong>the</strong> PED development.<br />

116<br />

The value of shared ownership can take many forms. If social<br />

tenants are involved in a solar panel project and <strong>the</strong>y reap <strong>the</strong> financial benefits,<br />

this directly cre<strong>at</strong>es socio-economic growth opportunities. But also, when<br />

newcomers with a migrant background are challenged to use <strong>the</strong>ir technical

skills to build a local wind turbine through <strong>energy</strong> workshops or an <strong>energy</strong><br />

training course, <strong>the</strong>ir pride and social network grow visibly. But it can also<br />

mean th<strong>at</strong> residents or local organiz<strong>at</strong>ions are part of <strong>the</strong> coordin<strong>at</strong>ion unit th<strong>at</strong><br />

plans and steers <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s development. Co-ownership is about capacit<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

local communities through educ<strong>at</strong>ion, inform<strong>at</strong>ion, exchange and cooper<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

so th<strong>at</strong> neighbourhood transform<strong>at</strong>ion becomes community-owned.<br />

117<br />

1 2 3 4 5<br />

6<br />

Inform<strong>at</strong>ion Understanding Represent<strong>at</strong>ion Discussion/<br />

Consult<strong>at</strong>ioni<br />

Co-definition<br />

of <strong>the</strong> problem<br />

Co-ownership<br />

For each of <strong>the</strong> increasing <strong>level</strong>s of empowerment leading to co-ownership, we<br />

sketch wh<strong>at</strong> it consists of and wh<strong>at</strong> its limit<strong>at</strong>ions are:<br />

1. Inform<strong>at</strong>ion: The minimum commitment of PED initi<strong>at</strong>ors is to<br />

dissemin<strong>at</strong>e inform<strong>at</strong>ion. This form of engagement requires <strong>the</strong><br />

least effort from local stakeholders. However, if <strong>the</strong> inform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

isn’t tailored to different stakeholder groups, <strong>the</strong> message will<br />

be difficult to understand: <strong>the</strong> complex story of a PED can’t<br />

be captured in short messages; language is often a barrier; <strong>the</strong><br />

inform<strong>at</strong>ion can be too technical for a non-expert audience.<br />

2. Understanding: The message is made accessible and targeted<br />

to <strong>the</strong> diverse audience. The intentions, analyses, ambitions<br />

and proposals are communic<strong>at</strong>ed in such a way th<strong>at</strong> different<br />

local stakeholders can understand. The audience is invited to<br />

react. But this often happens l<strong>at</strong>e in <strong>the</strong> process, when many<br />

things have already been decided. This leads to a situ<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

where <strong>the</strong>re is little margin for adapt<strong>at</strong>ion, as <strong>the</strong> hope is th<strong>at</strong><br />

everyone will simply agree with wh<strong>at</strong> has been communic<strong>at</strong>ed.<br />

3. Represent<strong>at</strong>ion: A selection of stakeholders is asked to represent<br />

<strong>the</strong> interests of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood in resolving a set of<br />

previously defined questions. They provide input th<strong>at</strong> is valuable<br />

to <strong>the</strong> project and th<strong>at</strong> ensures th<strong>at</strong> communic<strong>at</strong>ion around<br />

it reson<strong>at</strong>es better with <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. But it remains<br />

difficult to drastically change <strong>the</strong> course of <strong>the</strong> project <strong>at</strong> this<br />

point: <strong>the</strong> main steps in <strong>the</strong> process have already been defined.<br />

4. Discussion / Consult<strong>at</strong>ion: Stakeholders are given <strong>the</strong><br />

opportunity to influence <strong>the</strong> project within predetermined<br />

frameworks. Their opinions, ideas and reactions are harvest<br />

ed through consult<strong>at</strong>ion and discussion. Th<strong>at</strong> happens<br />

throughout <strong>the</strong> lifetime of <strong>the</strong> project so th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> inputs can<br />

be incorpor<strong>at</strong>ed in time. But <strong>the</strong>ir ideas compete with <strong>the</strong><br />

wishes and logics of those who have been sitting <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> decisionmaking<br />

table from <strong>the</strong> outset: <strong>the</strong> politicians, <strong>the</strong> developers<br />

involved, <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> company, etc. Input from stakeholders<br />

is taken into account as long as it doesn’t undermine <strong>the</strong><br />

ambitions and interests of those decision-makers.<br />

5. Co-definition of <strong>the</strong> problem: In <strong>the</strong> very early stages of<br />

PED development, stakeholders are invited to co-define wh<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> key challenges and opportunities are. This ensures th<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong>ir priorities are weighed in <strong>the</strong> same way as <strong>the</strong> interests of<br />

o<strong>the</strong>rs. The project takes <strong>the</strong>se needs and aspir<strong>at</strong>ions of local<br />

stakeholders as its starting point.<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 2 – How to empower local stakeholders

6. Co-ownership of <strong>the</strong> process: Local stakeholders can take<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ive and have <strong>the</strong>ir own rights and responsibilities within<br />

<strong>the</strong> project. They take on specific roles in different phases and<br />

parts of <strong>the</strong> project, from coordin<strong>at</strong>ion to implement<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

There is room for ideas along <strong>the</strong> way and effort is shared<br />

among <strong>the</strong> actors.<br />

Tactics for active empowerment<br />

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to particip<strong>at</strong>ion and co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion or to<br />

achieving a gre<strong>at</strong>er sense of co-ownership in urban transform<strong>at</strong>ion. But <strong>the</strong>re<br />

are lessons to be learned from a few decades of experiment<strong>at</strong>ion. Why do<br />

citizens fail to turn up for organized moments of particip<strong>at</strong>ion? Why do people<br />

react so strongly and neg<strong>at</strong>ively when a plan is proposed th<strong>at</strong> will ultim<strong>at</strong>ely<br />

improve <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood? In this section, we look <strong>at</strong> some tactics th<strong>at</strong> form<br />

<strong>the</strong> basis of more inclusive and open collabor<strong>at</strong>ion with local stakeholders<br />

(City Mine(d), 2022). The following tactics seek to increase <strong>the</strong> buy-in and active<br />

role of local communities in <strong>the</strong> urban <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>.<br />

a. Invest in active outreach. Being ‘open’ to particip<strong>at</strong>ion often<br />

isn’t enough. How do you avoid increasing only <strong>the</strong> particip<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of groups you’ve already reached? A first step is to tailor <strong>the</strong><br />

approach to reach specific groups: identify <strong>the</strong> right language,<br />

<strong>the</strong> right form<strong>at</strong>, <strong>the</strong> right channels. For example, tenants have<br />

different concerns than landlords, or language is often a barrier<br />

for people with a migrant background. Some groups may need<br />

special <strong>at</strong>tention. If <strong>the</strong> playing field isn’t <strong>level</strong>, don’t hesit<strong>at</strong>e<br />

to invest more in some groups than o<strong>the</strong>rs. Finally, simply<br />

listening is an important part of <strong>the</strong> outreach process.<br />

b. Build trust and proximity. Mutual trust is <strong>the</strong> found<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> process. Even if it takes (a lot of) time to build rel<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

of trust between different stakeholders, it helps to move<br />

things faster in <strong>the</strong> long run. Many neighbourhood workers<br />

observe th<strong>at</strong> taking <strong>the</strong> time to have a coffee with people<br />

is <strong>the</strong> most effective way to get to know <strong>the</strong> real issues and<br />

aspir<strong>at</strong>ions of inhabitants. To anticip<strong>at</strong>e growing conflicts and<br />

crises, it’s important to engage with <strong>the</strong> seemingly contrarian<br />

ways in which people particip<strong>at</strong>e, such as protests, petitions<br />

and campaigns. People who feel neglected need trusted<br />

intermediaries to express <strong>the</strong>ir views.<br />

c. Make <strong>the</strong> question less abstract and intimid<strong>at</strong>ing.<br />

It is common for people to believe th<strong>at</strong> <strong>energy</strong> issues are<br />

unrel<strong>at</strong>ed to <strong>the</strong>ir socio-economic needs, or th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y’re all<br />

about technical expertise. How do you avoid people feeling<br />

th<strong>at</strong> <strong>energy</strong> is not <strong>the</strong>ir business or th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y’re not skilled<br />

enough to get involved? Give everyone <strong>the</strong> confidence and<br />

legitimacy to particip<strong>at</strong>e by starting from elements th<strong>at</strong> are<br />

part of people’s daily lives: <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> bill, draughts, mould,<br />

local craftmanship, etc. There is a lot of social and technical<br />

expertise in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood th<strong>at</strong> can be built on.<br />

118<br />

d. Frame <strong>the</strong> problem and <strong>the</strong> story toge<strong>the</strong>r. It is far harder<br />

to get involved in a project th<strong>at</strong> is seemingly out of your<br />

wheelhouse than one th<strong>at</strong> is close to your daily concerns and<br />

interests, formul<strong>at</strong>ed in a tone and words you understand.<br />

While a PED undoubtedly pursues carbon neutrality, it could<br />

be mobilized as a lever for better quality of life for local<br />

residents. Genuinely asking everyone’s view on <strong>the</strong> problem<br />

is a motiv<strong>at</strong>or. Stories rel<strong>at</strong>ed to <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood’s history,

identity or values and interests can play a crucial role in this<br />

regard, as <strong>the</strong>y gener<strong>at</strong>e intrinsic motiv<strong>at</strong>ion. They build<br />

collective identity and pride.<br />

119<br />

e. Build capacity and empower. For people to have <strong>the</strong> capacity<br />

to act and particip<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong>y must have <strong>the</strong> resources, knowledge,<br />

networks, (safe) space, confidence and support. So instead of<br />

asking people straight out for <strong>the</strong>ir opinion, learn (toge<strong>the</strong>r)<br />

about pros and cons and about different types of solutions and<br />

scenarios. In this way, people are valued for <strong>the</strong>ir intelligence<br />

and equipped to give real answers, to weigh options and to<br />

truly particip<strong>at</strong>e in <strong>the</strong> project.<br />

Inspir<strong>at</strong>ional ways to empower<br />

local stakeholders<br />

But how do we transl<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong>se tactics to concrete actions? Often initi<strong>at</strong>ors of<br />

urban processes are convinced of <strong>the</strong> need for particip<strong>at</strong>ion and co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

but <strong>the</strong>y lack <strong>the</strong> time, support or skills to put this into practice in an inclusive,<br />

innov<strong>at</strong>ive way. In this section, we dive into some concrete form<strong>at</strong>s th<strong>at</strong> allow<br />

you to move up <strong>the</strong> above spectrum for empowerment. Sometimes it’s a m<strong>at</strong>ter<br />

of finding cre<strong>at</strong>ive and fun tools, sometimes it’s a m<strong>at</strong>ter of forming an alliance<br />

with actors who are better placed to build a certain <strong>level</strong> of trust.<br />

2.A Outreach campaign<br />

Some groups or residents are harder to reach.<br />

They’re often more financially vulnerable or don’t speak <strong>the</strong><br />

language. Or <strong>the</strong>y may be people with less leverage, such as<br />

tenants. In this case, it is particularly important to tailor<br />

communic<strong>at</strong>ions and to invest in outreach activities, both<br />

of which enable broad, diverse and democr<strong>at</strong>ic stakeholder<br />

particip<strong>at</strong>ion. The campaign is proactive: local stakeholders<br />

don’t have to show interest <strong>the</strong>mselves and come to an official’s<br />

desk. The inform<strong>at</strong>ion and support are brought to <strong>the</strong>m. In<br />

some cases, this means ringing every doorbell, but people can<br />

also be reached in places <strong>the</strong>y go to anyway (<strong>the</strong>ir children’s<br />

school, <strong>the</strong> local shop, <strong>the</strong> park).<br />

Buurzame Stroom in Ghent (BE)<br />

is an exemplary project in terms<br />

of inclusive mobiliz<strong>at</strong>ion and<br />

community work. The campaign,<br />

which aimed to increase local<br />

renewable <strong>energy</strong> production,<br />

targeted low-income homeowners<br />

and families whose first language<br />

isn’t Dutch. For more than a year,<br />

Buurzame Stroom was present <strong>at</strong> all<br />

kinds of neighbourhood activities<br />

and went door-to-door, making<br />

contact with more than 700 households.<br />

Much effort was put into<br />

cre<strong>at</strong>ing tailored communic<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erials th<strong>at</strong> everyone could read<br />

and understand. Social workers<br />

took <strong>the</strong> time to find solutions<br />

adapted to <strong>the</strong> needs and concerns<br />

of each family. For families with<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir own home and a well-insul<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

roof, <strong>the</strong> focus was on direct<br />

campaigns about <strong>the</strong> return on<br />

investment of <strong>the</strong> remaining<br />

interventions, allaying fears and<br />

promoting cheap, long-term loans.<br />

For very vulnerable homeowners,<br />

<strong>the</strong> campaign provided clear inform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

about <strong>the</strong> funds available to<br />

make <strong>the</strong> project possible (transl<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

when necessary). For people<br />

who questioned <strong>the</strong> project, social<br />

workers took <strong>the</strong> time to listen to<br />

specific needs th<strong>at</strong> needed to be<br />

met, even if <strong>the</strong>y weren’t <strong>energy</strong><br />

rel<strong>at</strong>ed. In total, Buurzame Stroom<br />

provided 2,535 additional solar<br />

panels (equivalent to 720 kWp) to<br />

↧<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 2 – How to empower local stakeholders

102 single-family homes, 2 apartment<br />

buildings, 8 rental properties,<br />

2 schools and 8 buildings owned by<br />

companies and organiz<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

(Baets et al., 2020).<br />

© City of Ghent, Ghent (BE)<br />

2.B Local ambassadors<br />

Formal communic<strong>at</strong>ion and tools don’t always<br />

get through to residents, who may feel as if <strong>the</strong> authorities<br />

‘want something from you’. People can also simply be afraid<br />

th<strong>at</strong> everything will become more expensive. Engaging local<br />

ambassadors lowers <strong>the</strong> threshold for an open, informal<br />

convers<strong>at</strong>ion. Often <strong>the</strong>re are already key people in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

who have built up an informal network on <strong>the</strong>ir own<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ive and who know many people. They live in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood,<br />

face <strong>the</strong> same challenges and are <strong>the</strong>refore seen as<br />

‘one of us’, as reliable.<br />

Since 2009, <strong>the</strong> Environment<br />

Centre Rotterdam (NL) has been<br />

training environmental coaches<br />

to provide inform<strong>at</strong>ion on <strong>energy</strong><br />

saving and sustainability <strong>at</strong><br />

home in <strong>the</strong>ir own network and<br />

circle. Around 800 residents<br />

are now environmental coaches<br />

(Rotterdams Milieucentrum, 2022).<br />

The course consists of four sessions<br />

and ends with a certific<strong>at</strong>e as an<br />

environmental coach. With <strong>the</strong> help<br />

of a ‘savings ruler’, a suitcase full of<br />

demonstr<strong>at</strong>ion m<strong>at</strong>erials and a quiz,<br />

<strong>the</strong> coaches go from door to door to<br />

tell <strong>the</strong>ir neighbours about <strong>energy</strong><br />

saving and sustainability <strong>at</strong> home.<br />

In Bospolder-Tussendijken, <strong>the</strong>re<br />

are currently fifteen environmental<br />

coaches (van Oost, 2021). The fact<br />

th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>se local ambassadors speak<br />

Berber or Arabic as well as Dutch<br />

is invaluable in a neighbourhood<br />

with people from many different<br />

backgrounds. In this project, <strong>energy</strong><br />

challenges, unemployment and<br />

social isol<strong>at</strong>ion are all considered<br />

and addressed simultaneously.<br />

© Stichting PAUW, Rotterdam (NL)<br />

120<br />

2.C Citizen <strong>energy</strong> workshops<br />

Hands-on workshops with citizens provide<br />

inform<strong>at</strong>ion on very concrete <strong>energy</strong> issues and on solutions<br />

or measures to remedy those. Topics tend to be very practical<br />

and rel<strong>at</strong>e to everyday actions th<strong>at</strong> can be taken by each<br />

participant. For example, DIY tips on how to place draught<br />

strips and radi<strong>at</strong>or foil to save <strong>energy</strong> and keep warm air inside,<br />

or inform<strong>at</strong>ion on low-tech solutions such as LED lighting.<br />

How existing grants and loans, or renov<strong>at</strong>ion in shared<br />

ownership, can help people’s personal situ<strong>at</strong>ion, can also be<br />

part of this. These sessions make <strong>the</strong> abstract concept of<br />

<strong>energy</strong> more tangible and applicable for those who feel th<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> is a remote issue.<br />

The non-profit organiz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Empreintes based in Namur (BE)<br />

gives citizens <strong>the</strong> keys to regain<br />

control over <strong>the</strong>ir electricity use.<br />

It has won several awards for its<br />

innov<strong>at</strong>ive approach to capacitybuilding<br />

and empowerment of lowincome<br />

households. The associ<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

runs weekly <strong>energy</strong> workshops for<br />

small groups called ‘Ecow<strong>at</strong>chers’<br />

(Empreintes, n.d.). These focus on<br />

simple interventions th<strong>at</strong> citizens<br />

can do in <strong>the</strong> house <strong>the</strong>y own or<br />

rent. Initially, <strong>the</strong> workshops were<br />

aimed <strong>at</strong> raising awareness of <strong>energy</strong><br />

use, but <strong>the</strong>y soon realized th<strong>at</strong><br />

people living in <strong>energy</strong> poverty were<br />

already living much more <strong>energy</strong>efficient<br />

lifestyles than <strong>the</strong> majority of <strong>the</strong> popul<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

Today, <strong>the</strong> focus is on informing people about <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

rights, for example towards <strong>the</strong>ir landlords, and giving<br />

<strong>the</strong>m concrete tools to become real actors in <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong>. The weekly sessions not only enable members<br />

to break out of social isol<strong>at</strong>ion, but also allow for gre<strong>at</strong>er<br />

empowerment as <strong>the</strong>y increase <strong>the</strong>ir knowledge of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> system through games, excursions and o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

kinds of cre<strong>at</strong>ive activities (City Mine(d), 2022).

2.D Open house<br />

By inviting people to visit a construction<br />

site, a finished renov<strong>at</strong>ion or a newly built home, potential<br />

residents can see for <strong>the</strong>mselves wh<strong>at</strong> living in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> is<br />

like. They can see how a he<strong>at</strong> pump or innov<strong>at</strong>ive ventil<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

system works, ask questions about insul<strong>at</strong>ion and construction<br />

techniques, or experience <strong>the</strong> quality of light th<strong>at</strong> comes in<br />

through new windows. Such tours or open days have a very<br />

demonstr<strong>at</strong>ive effect.<br />

In collabor<strong>at</strong>ion with <strong>the</strong> housing<br />

management company, <strong>the</strong> City of<br />

Stockholm organizes a yearly openhouse<br />

event for interested citizens.<br />

They showcase and illustr<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong><br />

innov<strong>at</strong>ive techniques used to build<br />

<strong>the</strong> new apartment buildings<br />

within <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal Sea<br />

Port (SE). This event <strong>at</strong>tracts all<br />

sorts of people: potential new<br />

residents, architects and <strong>energy</strong><br />

experts interested in <strong>the</strong> technical<br />

aspects, but also people living in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> who want to know more<br />

about <strong>the</strong> l<strong>at</strong>est changes and plans<br />

for <strong>the</strong> area. It’s a chance to meet<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r residents, and <strong>the</strong> day is seen<br />

as a neighbourhood festival. Several<br />

thousand people turn up every year<br />

(Stockholms Stad, 2022a).<br />

© City of Stockholm, Stockholm (SE)<br />

121<br />

2.E Local narr<strong>at</strong>ive and identity<br />

Narr<strong>at</strong>ives about <strong>the</strong> (re)development of a<br />

<strong>district</strong> are a crucial means to organize ownership and mobilize<br />

multiple stakeholders. They rel<strong>at</strong>e to <strong>the</strong> history, identity,<br />

values and aspir<strong>at</strong>ions of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. By doing so,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y cre<strong>at</strong>e intrinsic motiv<strong>at</strong>ion and help to streng<strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong><br />

collective identity. The recognition of <strong>the</strong> unique fe<strong>at</strong>ures of a<br />

<strong>district</strong>, or <strong>the</strong> shared future (for example, ‘Becoming <strong>the</strong> first<br />

gas-free <strong>district</strong> of <strong>the</strong> city’), can activ<strong>at</strong>e and empower people<br />

in meaningful change. Starting <strong>the</strong> narr<strong>at</strong>ive from capacities,<br />

strengths and elements to be proud of is more effective than<br />

stressing problems and shortcomings. As a result, listening<br />

and observing is a crucial first step. Wh<strong>at</strong> stories from <strong>the</strong><br />

past are still alive in <strong>the</strong> present? And how will <strong>the</strong>se stories<br />

be passed on within <strong>the</strong> community?<br />

The inhabitants of <strong>the</strong> Frisian<br />

village of Garyp (NL) managed<br />

to motiv<strong>at</strong>e each o<strong>the</strong>r to achieve<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir goal of making all 600 owneroccupied<br />

houses in <strong>the</strong> village<br />

gas-free within five years (City<br />

Mine(d), 2022). The high <strong>level</strong><br />

of community involvement in<br />

Garyp can largely be explained<br />

by <strong>the</strong> work <strong>the</strong> municipality put<br />

into cre<strong>at</strong>ing a shared narr<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

from <strong>the</strong> outset. Interestingly,<br />

it would initially focus on local<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>ives and needs which were<br />

not necessarily <strong>energy</strong>-rel<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

ra<strong>the</strong>r than pushing top-down<br />

objectives. Residents were asked to<br />

think along with decision-makers<br />

on a range of issues th<strong>at</strong> play a<br />

role in <strong>the</strong> municipality, including<br />

popul<strong>at</strong>ion decline, liveability and<br />

social sustainability. This led to<br />

an <strong>energy</strong> cooper<strong>at</strong>ive, Enerzjy<br />

Koöperaasje Garyp, working closely<br />

with <strong>the</strong> municipality and residents<br />

to switch <strong>the</strong> village’s households<br />

to sustainable <strong>energy</strong> sources<br />

(Enerzjy Koöperaasje Garyp, n.d.).<br />

Renewable <strong>energy</strong> development<br />

became part of a broader, citizensupported<br />

plan to make <strong>the</strong> village<br />

more resilient and future-proof<br />

ra<strong>the</strong>r than an end-goal in itself.<br />

Today, <strong>the</strong> village is proud to be<br />

<strong>the</strong> first gas-free village in <strong>the</strong><br />

Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands.<br />

© Kick Smeets, Garyp (NL)<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 2 – How to empower local stakeholders

2.F Local exhibition<br />

Models, photographs, historic and new maps<br />

as well as artworks capture people’s imagin<strong>at</strong>ion more than<br />

a description of a project. It is a way of telling a story and<br />

inviting people to dream. An exhibition can be used to inform<br />

residents and o<strong>the</strong>r local stakeholders about planned and<br />

ongoing activities, or even as part of <strong>the</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy development<br />

process. Because it has to be visited in person, it brings <strong>the</strong><br />

audience into direct contact with <strong>the</strong> initi<strong>at</strong>ors or o<strong>the</strong>r stakeholders,<br />

leading to informal convers<strong>at</strong>ions. The exhibition can<br />

take place in a recognizable place in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood itself<br />

(<strong>the</strong> community centre, <strong>the</strong> lobby of <strong>the</strong> sports hall, a central<br />

square), but it can also travel and end up in <strong>the</strong> city’s more<br />

prestigious cultural institutions.<br />

In <strong>the</strong> experiments studied in<br />

Chapter 1, we can see different<br />

entry points and stages when a<br />

local exhibition is used. In Lyon<br />

Confluence (FR), exhibitions were<br />

used throughout <strong>the</strong> process. The<br />

1998 exhibition Lyon Confluence,<br />

an Urban Project (FR) first presented<br />

<strong>the</strong> potential of <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

My City Tomorrow <strong>the</strong>n collected<br />

<strong>the</strong> contributions from stakeholders<br />

on <strong>the</strong> progress made. Finally, <strong>the</strong><br />

exhibition ended up in <strong>the</strong> Maison<br />

de la Confluences, a neighbourhood<br />

centre providing inform<strong>at</strong>ion and<br />

technical advice on <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of <strong>the</strong> area.<br />

© Laurence Danière, SPL Lyon<br />

Confluence, 2023, Lyon (FR)<br />

In Bospolder-Tussendijken in<br />

Rotterdam (NL), <strong>the</strong> partnership<br />

with <strong>the</strong> architecture biennial<br />

IABR was key to <strong>the</strong> development<br />

process itself: four years of<br />

research by a consortium made up<br />

of an Atelier coordin<strong>at</strong>or, a design<br />

studio, anthropologists and <strong>energy</strong>,<br />

financial and organiz<strong>at</strong>ional experts<br />

commissioned by <strong>the</strong> cultural<br />

institution contributed to a Local<br />

Energy Action Plan (LEAP) and<br />

<strong>the</strong> design of four pilot projects.<br />

The 2020 exhibition showcased <strong>the</strong><br />

results of this design-by-research<br />

Atelier and brought toge<strong>the</strong>r local<br />

stakeholders and an intern<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

audience. It is interesting to note<br />

how <strong>the</strong> faces and voices of local<br />

residents were placed <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> centre<br />

of <strong>the</strong> exhibition’s narr<strong>at</strong>ive.<br />

© Aad Hoogendoorn, IABR,<br />

Rotterdam (NL)<br />

Ano<strong>the</strong>r example comes from<br />

Brussels (BE), where Fleurs<br />

électriques (2022) showed a series<br />

of photographs of <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter from <strong>the</strong> 1970s th<strong>at</strong> could<br />

inspire a new local narr<strong>at</strong>ive about<br />

<strong>energy</strong> in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. The exhibition<br />

took place in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>’s<br />

sports hall, which is frequented<br />

by people who don’t usually visit<br />

cultural institutions, and provided<br />

a setting for low-threshold workshops<br />

and discussions.<br />

© Lachlan Mackenzie, Brussels (BE)<br />


2.G Games and prototypes<br />

The way electricity and he<strong>at</strong> actually work<br />

is often abstract to people. Simul<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong>se systems on a<br />

small scale and in an applied way is a powerful way of making<br />

technical concepts and decisions understandable. Gamific<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

and playful collective challenges can be ano<strong>the</strong>r way of<br />

bringing people toge<strong>the</strong>r and inviting <strong>the</strong>m to particip<strong>at</strong>e,<br />

without being norm<strong>at</strong>ive or prescriptive.<br />

City Mine(d) has developed several<br />

games and prototypes in recent<br />

years. In <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter of<br />

Brussels (BE), <strong>the</strong>y used electrically<br />

conductive paint to explain to<br />

children how an electrical circuit<br />

works. They showed th<strong>at</strong> electricity<br />

isn’t just for electricians and<br />

engineers, but something fun and<br />

surprising to experiment with<br />

(City Mine(d), 2020a). Ano<strong>the</strong>r<br />

game is ‘La Pile’. This explor<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

game challenges teams of eight playing against each<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r to find <strong>the</strong> best way to power a neighbourhood.<br />

Players consider <strong>the</strong> financial cost of <strong>the</strong>ir actions,<br />

<strong>the</strong> environmental impact and <strong>the</strong> time <strong>the</strong>y spend as<br />

residents and users of a neighbourhood (City Mine(d),<br />

2019). To maximize <strong>the</strong> amount of local power, players<br />

can encourage <strong>energy</strong>-saving measures in large<br />

buildings and invest in solar, wind, w<strong>at</strong>er or muscle<br />

power. There are four types of stakeholders <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

table, each represented by two people who don’t play<br />

this role in real life: local residents, civil society, <strong>the</strong><br />

local government and <strong>the</strong> bank. In <strong>the</strong> words of City<br />

Mine(d): ‘It’s basically Monopoly meets SimCity with<br />

a dash of <strong>the</strong> Settlers of C<strong>at</strong>an. The game is based on<br />

real-life <strong>energy</strong> issues, so winning is more important<br />

than particip<strong>at</strong>ing.’ (City Mine(d), 2019)<br />

© Emily Ane Smith, Brussels (BE)<br />

123<br />

2.H District lab<br />

Public authorities and local stakeholders can<br />

work toge<strong>the</strong>r on complex challenges in a labor<strong>at</strong>ory environment:<br />

ra<strong>the</strong>r than a meeting place, it is an open workplace th<strong>at</strong><br />

brea<strong>the</strong>s work-in-progress and co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion. The government<br />

literally steps out of its offices to work with schools, shopkeepers<br />

and residents on concrete projects. The aim is to increase<br />

mutual trust by cre<strong>at</strong>ing a <strong>level</strong> playing field for all stakeholders.<br />

This lab can be used <strong>at</strong> all stages of a PED development process:<br />

not only in <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion of effective measures, but also<br />

in <strong>the</strong> planning phase to get a broad group of stakeholders<br />

on board.<br />

In Bologna (IT), <strong>the</strong> municipality<br />

developed a new approach to<br />

citizen engagement. Since 2014,<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir ‘Labor<strong>at</strong>ori di Quartiere’<br />

(Neighbourhood Labor<strong>at</strong>ories) have<br />

been set up in each of Bologna’s<br />

six <strong>district</strong>s, acting as neighbourhood<br />

hubs for residents to develop<br />

and implement new ideas to<br />

improve public spaces and services<br />

(Observ<strong>at</strong>ory of Public Sector<br />

Innov<strong>at</strong>ion, 2017). A team of professionals,<br />

ranging from architects<br />

to social workers, is always present<br />

in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood to help citizens<br />

turn ideas into concrete action.<br />

It’s called <strong>the</strong> ‘proximity approach’:<br />

<strong>the</strong> city doesn’t need to be involved<br />

in every project, but mand<strong>at</strong>es <strong>the</strong><br />

various <strong>district</strong> labs to work with<br />

residents and find <strong>the</strong> best solutions<br />

(City Mine(d), 2022). This fosters<br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ion and mutual trust, and<br />

citizens feel empowered to propose<br />

ideas th<strong>at</strong> could improve <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

neighbourhoods. The tools used<br />

to involve residents range from an<br />

online ideas exchange pl<strong>at</strong>form to<br />

group discussions and events, and<br />

<strong>the</strong>y are constantly being developed<br />

and adapted to meet <strong>the</strong> needs of<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. This approach<br />

has resulted in more than 480 initi<strong>at</strong>ives,<br />

with thousands of citizens<br />

and o<strong>the</strong>r parties in Bologna working<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r to improve schools,<br />

public spaces, sports facilities and<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r public assets.<br />

© Margherita Caprilli, Fondazione<br />

Innovazione Urbana, Bologna (IT)<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 2 – How to empower local stakeholders

2.I Co-design challenge<br />

Making a physical object or install<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r has a magnet effect. Different from a convers<strong>at</strong>ion in<br />

which opinions are formul<strong>at</strong>ed, it allows for real collabor<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

between people with different interests, from different disciplines<br />

and even cultures, regardless of intellectual, financial<br />

or social skills. Through <strong>the</strong>ir jobs or hobbies, people have<br />

experience with certain m<strong>at</strong>erials, with technical aspects, with<br />

design or managing a project. By conceiving and building an<br />

object toge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong>y learn to appreci<strong>at</strong>e each o<strong>the</strong>r’s input and<br />

skills. Unexpected bridges are built in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. At<br />

<strong>the</strong> same time, it is a way of linking abstract <strong>energy</strong> concepts<br />

to real-life abilities and to concrete opportunities or needs in<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. In sociology, <strong>the</strong>se are called ‘boundary<br />

objects’: ‘entities th<strong>at</strong> enhance <strong>the</strong> capacity of an idea, <strong>the</strong>ory<br />

or practice to transl<strong>at</strong>e across culturally defined boundaries,<br />

for example, between communities of knowledge or practice’<br />

(Fox, 2011).<br />

In <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter of<br />

Brussels (BE), residents have<br />

collabor<strong>at</strong>ed to design a housesized<br />

hydraulic b<strong>at</strong>tery th<strong>at</strong> can be<br />

self-built. ‘La Pile mécanique’ was<br />

imagined as an artistic-functional<br />

install<strong>at</strong>ion in <strong>the</strong> public space,<br />

connected to a PV install<strong>at</strong>ion on<br />

<strong>the</strong> roof of a (public) building (City<br />

Mine(d), 2022). A system of w<strong>at</strong>er<br />

barrels and pumps allows <strong>the</strong> solar<br />

<strong>energy</strong> produced by <strong>the</strong> panels to<br />

be stored when not in use and to<br />

be made freely available in a small,<br />

user-friendly space <strong>at</strong> street <strong>level</strong><br />

(for example, to charge phones or<br />

power lights). Although it wasn’t<br />

actually built, it gener<strong>at</strong>ed a lot of<br />

local curiosity and laid <strong>the</strong> groundwork<br />

for <strong>the</strong> cre<strong>at</strong>ion of an <strong>energy</strong><br />

community in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood.<br />

© Fanny Monier, Brussels (BE)<br />

124<br />

A couple of weeks ago, my neighbour<br />

knocked on my door to tell me she had a new<br />

job in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood: she’s now an <strong>energy</strong><br />

coach. We had a coffee toge<strong>the</strong>r. We’re both<br />

from Spain, so I always feel <strong>at</strong> home when I’m<br />

with her. She explained my rights as regards

my landlord. I can ask him to show me <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

label for <strong>the</strong> fl<strong>at</strong>: if <strong>the</strong> label is E, F or G, I can<br />

force him to carry out insul<strong>at</strong>ion work in <strong>the</strong><br />

house. She also told me th<strong>at</strong> he can’t increase my<br />

rent if <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> label is so low. But wh<strong>at</strong> if he<br />

does renov<strong>at</strong>e and I can no longer afford <strong>the</strong> rent?<br />

Apparently <strong>the</strong>re are new regul<strong>at</strong>ions to keep<br />

rents affordable, to protect tenants and prevent<br />

<strong>the</strong>m from being kicked out. It’s quite simple.<br />

Much easier than I thought: all <strong>the</strong> inform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

is online and she helped me through <strong>the</strong> whole<br />

process. She also mentioned th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>re’s going<br />

to be an <strong>energy</strong> workshop next week about wall<br />

and window insul<strong>at</strong>ion organized by <strong>the</strong> city and<br />

several neighbourhood associ<strong>at</strong>ions. I’ll try to go,<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r with my landlord. We contacted him and<br />

he seems willing to come and listen. My neighbour<br />

promised me th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> workshop wouldn’t be<br />

as abstract as <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood meeting I<br />

<strong>at</strong>tended three months ago, which had a long<br />

present<strong>at</strong>ion and lecture about <strong>the</strong> municipality’s<br />

vision for our neighbourhood. She said <strong>the</strong>re<br />

would be space to listen to people’s opinions and<br />

ideas and th<strong>at</strong> we’d play an <strong>energy</strong> game. I’m not<br />

sure wh<strong>at</strong> th<strong>at</strong> means, but apparently <strong>the</strong> game<br />

will make it clearer wh<strong>at</strong> projects are coming to<br />

<strong>the</strong> area and how <strong>the</strong>y might be relevant to me.<br />

I’m getting curious.<br />

125<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 2 – How to empower local stakeholders


KEY 3<br />

127<br />

Which <strong>district</strong><br />

targets do we set

128<br />

Inspired by <strong>the</strong> European Clim<strong>at</strong>e Change<br />

Act, we set a huge ambition for our city: to make<br />

a first existing <strong>district</strong> carbon-neutral by 2030.<br />

Many local authorities like us are now defining<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir targets and developing str<strong>at</strong>egies to achieve<br />

such goals. But we found th<strong>at</strong>, although we were<br />

ambitious on paper, this didn’t set a lot in motion<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> itself. People didn’t seem to grasp<br />

how <strong>the</strong> broad concept of carbon neutrality could<br />

rel<strong>at</strong>e to <strong>the</strong>ir daily actions. We decided to specify<br />

<strong>the</strong> local targets to make <strong>the</strong> ambitious goal more<br />

tangible for actors in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. Toge<strong>the</strong>r with<br />

our colleagues from different departments of<br />

<strong>the</strong> municipality, three priorities were identified<br />

as <strong>the</strong> main needs of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>: improving <strong>the</strong><br />

quality of life, cre<strong>at</strong>ing new job opportunities and<br />

increasing biodiversity. But even <strong>the</strong>n, it still wasn’t<br />

clear how people could start setting up projects<br />

to reach those targets. To specify <strong>the</strong>se broad<br />

objectives, we involved organiz<strong>at</strong>ions already<br />

active in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood: a local citizens’<br />

group, an <strong>energy</strong> organiz<strong>at</strong>ion, a design practice,<br />

a non-profit associ<strong>at</strong>ion specializing in open space<br />

management and a social employment office.<br />

With this task force, we defined concrete targets<br />

ranging from a set amount of renewable <strong>energy</strong><br />

production to providing better equipped and safer<br />

public spaces to reducing <strong>the</strong> vacancy r<strong>at</strong>e of local<br />

shops and mitig<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong> local he<strong>at</strong>-island effect.<br />

Th<strong>at</strong> is how we provided a framework for new<br />

projects to be initi<strong>at</strong>ed.

Targets are <strong>the</strong> points on <strong>the</strong> horizon<br />

th<strong>at</strong> will mobilize stakeholders and initi<strong>at</strong>ives<br />

around a shared mission. These targets combine<br />

environmental, social, organiz<strong>at</strong>ional and<br />

economic aspects, reflecting <strong>the</strong> integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

ambition of PEDs.<br />

129<br />

Ambitious neighbourhood projects are often accompanied by a complex of<br />

impressive figures and terms: clim<strong>at</strong>e neutrality, self-sufficiency, drastic CO2<br />

emissions reduction or intensive local production. How are <strong>the</strong>se targets set?<br />

Are <strong>the</strong>y precise, realistic? Or are <strong>the</strong>y part of a political narr<strong>at</strong>ive? These<br />

questions can also be posed with regard to <strong>the</strong> central term of this public<strong>at</strong>ion:<br />

Positive Energy Districts (PEDs). This concept seems to imply a clear target:<br />

achieving a positive <strong>energy</strong> balance. In 2019 <strong>the</strong> following framework definition<br />

for PEDs was established by JPI Urban Europe (JPI Urban Europe / SET Plan<br />

Action 3.2, 2020):<br />

‘Positive Energy Districts are <strong>energy</strong>-efficient and <strong>energy</strong>-flexible<br />

urban areas or groups of connected buildings which produce net<br />

zero greenhouse gas emissions and actively manage an annual<br />

local or regional surplus production of renewable <strong>energy</strong>. They<br />

require integr<strong>at</strong>ion of different systems and infrastructures<br />

and interaction between buildings, <strong>the</strong> users and <strong>the</strong> regional<br />

<strong>energy</strong>, mobility and ICT systems, while securing <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

supply and a good life for all in line with social, economic and<br />

environmental sustainability.’<br />

We believe th<strong>at</strong> setting ambitious targets is essential. Concrete<br />

goals help to give a clear direction to long multi-stakeholder journeys like<br />

PEDs. They are points on <strong>the</strong> horizon th<strong>at</strong> invite stakeholders to come up<br />

with sufficiently ambitious steps and with <strong>the</strong>ir own p<strong>at</strong>hway to get <strong>the</strong>re.<br />

The targets should <strong>the</strong>refore not be interpreted as a blueprint for <strong>the</strong> coming<br />

decades, setting out every single action and project th<strong>at</strong> will be implemented<br />

in a certain order and by a certain year. Given <strong>the</strong> dur<strong>at</strong>ion of PEDs, <strong>the</strong>re will<br />

be an evolution over time in terms of stakeholders, dynamics and financing<br />

opportunities. This requires flexibility. By setting targets, we cre<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> timespace<br />

within which collabor<strong>at</strong>ions, projects and actions can be conceived<br />

in <strong>the</strong>ir own time and manner, in such a way th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y help to achieve <strong>the</strong><br />

objective: becoming a PED.<br />

In this Key, we first situ<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> broader discourse on setting<br />

targets for PEDs. Achieving a ‘positive <strong>energy</strong> balance’ with PEDs is not as<br />

easy as one might hope. This is due to contextual influences such as high<br />

building density or <strong>the</strong> heritage value of buildings. We introduce an approach<br />

to setting targets th<strong>at</strong> takes into account <strong>the</strong> specificities of <strong>the</strong> local context<br />

while ensuring th<strong>at</strong> each <strong>district</strong> contributes its ‘fair share’. In a second part, we<br />

explore which dimensions can or should be part of <strong>the</strong> targets we set. After all,<br />

a PED isn’t just an <strong>energy</strong> issue: social and economic objectives also play a role<br />

and are often <strong>the</strong> main reason for undertaking PEDs. Finally, we look <strong>at</strong> how<br />

you can begin to calcul<strong>at</strong>e your targets: from a quick estim<strong>at</strong>ion to a sound,<br />

multifaceted approach.<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 3 – Which <strong>district</strong> targets do we set

From an absolute to a rel<strong>at</strong>ive positive<br />

<strong>energy</strong> balance<br />

The analysis of realized and ongoing PED experiments teaches us th<strong>at</strong> it is<br />

only possible to achieve an absolute positive <strong>energy</strong> balance in exceptional<br />

neighbourhoods (JPI Urban Europe, 2020). These are often just a few buildings<br />

or blocks, homogeneous, newly built and/or exceptionally well loc<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

(Schneider, 2023). Even in those <strong>district</strong>s, however, many questions remain.<br />

Which <strong>energy</strong> is included: only th<strong>at</strong> of buildings, or also th<strong>at</strong> of mobility, or<br />

<strong>the</strong> embodied <strong>energy</strong> of building m<strong>at</strong>erials? How does <strong>the</strong> proximity of a large<br />

<strong>energy</strong> production plant affect your balance? Is <strong>the</strong> seasonal imbalance taken<br />

into account?<br />

In this public<strong>at</strong>ion, we argue th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> momentum, knowledge,<br />

policy instruments and budgets th<strong>at</strong> are being developed around PEDs can’t<br />

just benefit an elite selection of places th<strong>at</strong> happen to have a lot of space,<br />

are well loc<strong>at</strong>ed or consist entirely of new buildings and infrastructure. This<br />

guide interprets PEDs and <strong>the</strong>ir targets in such a way th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y encourage and<br />

help all types of neighbourhoods to make <strong>the</strong> necessary and maximum effort.<br />

PEDs are not seen as exceptional lighthouse projects, but as a standard for all<br />

neighbourhoods. Eventually, all neighbourhoods will have to come toge<strong>the</strong>r in<br />

a larger regional system th<strong>at</strong> will have to be entirely clim<strong>at</strong>e neutral by 2050,<br />

an ambition th<strong>at</strong> is <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> heart of <strong>the</strong> European Green Deal and in line with<br />

<strong>the</strong> global COP21 Paris Agreement (United N<strong>at</strong>ions, 2015).<br />

Electricity<br />

Gas<br />

District he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

PV yield<br />

160<br />

Specific <strong>final</strong> <strong>energy</strong> [kWh/m 2 GFA *a]<br />

140<br />

120<br />

100<br />

80<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

OUT<br />

IN<br />

0<br />

Baseline<br />

OUT<br />

IN<br />

1<br />

Generic<br />

policy<br />

OUT<br />

IN<br />

2<br />

AI Floor<br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

OUT<br />

IN<br />

3<br />

AI<br />

Radi<strong>at</strong>ors<br />

OUT<br />

4<br />

AC<br />

BC<br />

IN<br />

OUT<br />

IN<br />

5<br />

AC<br />

No BC<br />

OUT<br />

IN<br />

6<br />

Excellence<br />

130<br />

How <strong>the</strong>n do we measure whe<strong>the</strong>r each <strong>district</strong>’s contribution<br />

to <strong>the</strong> larger system is sufficient? At present, <strong>the</strong>re is no framework to define<br />

this threshold. It is not enough to set a ‘positive <strong>energy</strong> balance’ (more local<br />

<strong>energy</strong> production than consumption) as an objective. To understand why not,<br />

let’s have a look <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> most ambitious simul<strong>at</strong>ion for <strong>the</strong> Brussels Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter. This calcul<strong>at</strong>ion assumes a renov<strong>at</strong>ion r<strong>at</strong>e of 3.7% per year (<strong>the</strong><br />

current renov<strong>at</strong>ion r<strong>at</strong>e being only 1%), combined with <strong>the</strong> replacement of<br />

all individual gas boilers with low-temper<strong>at</strong>ure he<strong>at</strong> pumps and underfloor<br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing, combined with PV on 80% of roofs (taking into account heritage and<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r constraints), in combin<strong>at</strong>ion with lowering <strong>the</strong> desired interior <strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

comfort from 21° to 19° and reducing domestic hot w<strong>at</strong>er consumption by<br />

25% compared to today (3E, 2022). Based on common sense, we could argue<br />

th<strong>at</strong> this target is <strong>the</strong> most ambitious one possible for <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter.<br />

It would reduce <strong>the</strong> total <strong>energy</strong> consumption by a factor three to four and<br />

increase local electricity production from close to 0 to almost 20 kWh/m 2 /year.<br />

When we look <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> resulting <strong>energy</strong> balance, we see th<strong>at</strong> ‘only’ about half of<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> required can be produced locally. This excellence scenario doesn’t<br />

lead to a ‘positive <strong>energy</strong> balance’. And yet <strong>the</strong> realiz<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> proposed<br />

measures will require titanic efforts.

Is <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter in Brussels represent<strong>at</strong>ive of o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

<strong>district</strong>s? Yes and no. Yes because none of <strong>the</strong> six experiments in Chapter 1<br />

achieves a ‘positive <strong>energy</strong> balance’, not even in <strong>the</strong> most ambitious scenario.<br />

No because <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter is a particularly dense <strong>district</strong> with compar<strong>at</strong>ively<br />

little roof area and a very high <strong>energy</strong> demand. In general, it is more<br />

difficult, if not impossible, for high-density <strong>district</strong>s to achieve a positive <strong>energy</strong><br />

balance. But density isn’t <strong>the</strong> only factor. The presence of many buildings<br />

with heritage value implies th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> thorough insul<strong>at</strong>ion of façades is impossible.<br />

Buildings in existing neighbourhoods may also have a particular orient<strong>at</strong>ion or<br />

roof shape th<strong>at</strong> can’t be changed to accommod<strong>at</strong>e PV panels. In many existing<br />

<strong>district</strong>s or brownfields, <strong>the</strong> subsoil is already full of pipes and cables, meaning<br />

th<strong>at</strong> new <strong>energy</strong> infrastructure has to find a place for itself. Taking all <strong>the</strong>se<br />

specificities into account, we understand th<strong>at</strong> different neighbourhoods can’t<br />

produce <strong>the</strong> same amount of <strong>energy</strong>. Nor will every neighbourhood achieve <strong>the</strong><br />

same building performance. It <strong>the</strong>refore makes little sense to opt for a generic<br />

target th<strong>at</strong> fails to take <strong>the</strong>se specificities into account. In conclusion, different<br />

contextual reasons help to explain why none of <strong>the</strong> six <strong>district</strong>s achieves a<br />

positive <strong>energy</strong> balance.<br />

131<br />

And yet we want all <strong>the</strong>se <strong>district</strong>s to become PEDs: <strong>the</strong>y<br />

should do <strong>the</strong>ir maximum and fair share, so th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> target for <strong>the</strong> regional<br />

<strong>energy</strong> balance can be reached. But how are we to calcul<strong>at</strong>e th<strong>at</strong> share? A<br />

positive <strong>energy</strong> balance doesn’t work as an absolute and generic target for all<br />

<strong>district</strong>s. We <strong>the</strong>refore propose to aim for a ‘rel<strong>at</strong>ive positive <strong>energy</strong> balance’,<br />

one in which <strong>the</strong> specificities of each context are taken into account via a set<br />

of contextual parameters. These factors help to determine <strong>the</strong> specific ‘head<br />

start’ for a dense neighbourhood, compared to ano<strong>the</strong>r target in a greener<br />

neighbourhood, for example. Wh<strong>at</strong> context factors are considered, and how,<br />

is <strong>the</strong> subject of ongoing research. One way of accounting for <strong>the</strong>m is using a<br />

quantit<strong>at</strong>ive method of calcul<strong>at</strong>ion. Based on <strong>the</strong> first PED simul<strong>at</strong>ions and<br />

real-life results, researchers are identifying p<strong>at</strong>terns and transl<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong>m<br />

into a standard calcul<strong>at</strong>ion method for context factors. Concrete tests should<br />

show whe<strong>the</strong>r it suffices to capture <strong>the</strong> complex reality of each neighbourhood<br />

in numbers (alone). In addition to a fully quantit<strong>at</strong>ive calcul<strong>at</strong>ion method,<br />

qualit<strong>at</strong>ive assessment methods might have to be developed to determine <strong>the</strong><br />

contextual differences between neighbourhoods (and <strong>the</strong>ir impact on <strong>the</strong> share<br />

<strong>the</strong>se <strong>district</strong>s should do in <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>).<br />

In <strong>the</strong> paper ‘A Quantit<strong>at</strong>ive Positive Energy District<br />

Definition with Contextual Targets’, <strong>the</strong> Fachhochschule Technikum Wien<br />

(Vienna polytechnic university) tested two aspects of a quantit<strong>at</strong>ive calcul<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

model for <strong>the</strong> PED <strong>energy</strong> target (Schneider et al., 2023). On <strong>the</strong> one hand, it<br />

defines a context factor for density, based on test cases in Austria, Belgium and<br />

Sweden. The graph on <strong>the</strong> next page shows <strong>the</strong> curve representing <strong>the</strong> rel<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

positive <strong>energy</strong> balance when this context factor for neighbourhood density is<br />

taken into account. Low density neighbourhoods (

150<br />

<strong>Cities4PEDs</strong> <strong>district</strong>s<br />

Energy Balance [kWh/m 2 GFA *a]<br />

100<br />

50<br />

0<br />

-50<br />

Absolute Positive Balance<br />

Rel<strong>at</strong>ive Positive Balance<br />

O<strong>the</strong>r Austrian<br />

<strong>district</strong>s<br />

-100<br />

-150<br />

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9<br />

Floor Area R<strong>at</strong>io<br />

If a definition of PEDs were to be standardized <strong>at</strong> European<br />

<strong>level</strong>, it would be possible to compare <strong>the</strong> efforts of different neighbourhoods.<br />

It would also make it possible to alloc<strong>at</strong>e resources to <strong>the</strong> areas making <strong>the</strong><br />

gre<strong>at</strong>est efforts and to encourage those lagging behind. We could add up <strong>the</strong><br />

contributions of all neighbourhoods to <strong>the</strong> regional system and calcul<strong>at</strong>e how<br />

much renewable <strong>energy</strong> still needs to be produced <strong>at</strong> regional <strong>level</strong> to close<br />

<strong>the</strong> gaps. L<strong>at</strong>er in this Key, we will introduce three methods to define those<br />

targets. Strikingly, all three approaches still depend on human judgement:<br />

<strong>the</strong>re is always someone behind <strong>the</strong> buttons of <strong>the</strong> calcul<strong>at</strong>ion model or <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

drawing board who decides whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> targets are ‘ambitious enough’. In <strong>the</strong><br />

absence of a shared framework th<strong>at</strong> establishes a minimum standard for each<br />

neighbourhood, we have to rely on common sense and self-define <strong>the</strong> minima<br />

for our <strong>district</strong>s. These local targets need to be manually measured against a<br />

larger framework to ensure th<strong>at</strong>, altoge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong>y add up to a carbon-neutral<br />

Europe [in a Regional Energy Str<strong>at</strong>egy for example, see Key 11, p. 219].<br />

Towards integr<strong>at</strong>ed targets<br />

The broad European framework definition for PEDs given <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> beginning of<br />

this Key emphasizes not only <strong>energy</strong> objectives, but also social, economic and<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r environmental objectives. And yet <strong>the</strong> deb<strong>at</strong>e around PEDs often focuses<br />

on achieving (quantifiable) targets for <strong>energy</strong> production, <strong>energy</strong> efficiency<br />

and <strong>energy</strong> flexibility. This may be because it isn’t th<strong>at</strong> easy to transl<strong>at</strong>e into<br />

concrete targets affordability, safety and security, social and physical inclusion,<br />

social mix, sufficient green and open space, space for positive ga<strong>the</strong>ring and<br />

expression, holistic and environmental sustainability or <strong>the</strong> reduction of<br />

urban he<strong>at</strong> islands. Also, many people are convinced th<strong>at</strong> it is ‘hard enough to<br />

focus on one issue’. And yet an integr<strong>at</strong>ed approach increases <strong>the</strong> likelihood of<br />

rich combin<strong>at</strong>ions of problems and solutions. ‘If you get stuck, make it more<br />

complex’, as management and governance experts Hans Bil and Geert Teisman<br />

put it nicely (Bil and Teisman, 2017).<br />

132<br />

Looking <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> different PED experiments in this public<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

we see a broad range of such rich combin<strong>at</strong>ions between different objectives.<br />

In some areas, targets such as housing comfort or quality of public spaces<br />

are seen as important win-wins. The <strong>energy</strong> target is <strong>the</strong> main objective, but<br />

synergies with o<strong>the</strong>r policy domains and investments by o<strong>the</strong>r stakeholders<br />

are actively considered. For example, when a priv<strong>at</strong>e company builds a he<strong>at</strong><br />

network, clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion measures planned by <strong>the</strong> local authority are<br />

implemented simultaneously. Or <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> objectives are achieved through<br />

a more systemic <strong>transition</strong>: by designing cities and villages in such a way th<strong>at</strong><br />

residents can easily walk or cycle to <strong>the</strong> office, shops or a sports club, <strong>the</strong> need<br />

for motorized traffic is reduced. Or by focusing on greening and infiltr<strong>at</strong>ing

w<strong>at</strong>er into <strong>the</strong> ground, <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> island effect is reduced and so is <strong>the</strong> need<br />

for cooling <strong>energy</strong>. O<strong>the</strong>r experiments go a step fur<strong>the</strong>r: social inclusion and<br />

mobility are as important as CO2 reduction and are considered toge<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

The <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong> is <strong>the</strong> means, no longer <strong>the</strong> (sole) objective. These are<br />

neighbourhoods th<strong>at</strong> have very different headaches to begin with: high <strong>level</strong>s<br />

of vacancy and depriv<strong>at</strong>ion, as in <strong>the</strong> Georgian Quarter of Limerick (IE), or<br />

residents’ concerns about neighbourhood safety, poverty and unemployment,<br />

as in Bospolder-Tussendijken in Rotterdam (NL). The real goal is to improve<br />

<strong>the</strong> quality of housing, gener<strong>at</strong>e social dynamism and stimul<strong>at</strong>e employment<br />

opportunities through <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion. Whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>energy</strong> is<br />

considered <strong>the</strong> goal or <strong>the</strong> means [see Chapter 3, p. 235], we see th<strong>at</strong> social,<br />

economic and <strong>energy</strong> targets are interdependent.<br />

133<br />

A PED is a once-in-a-gener<strong>at</strong>ion opportunity: <strong>the</strong>re will be<br />

no second or third occasion in <strong>the</strong> next twenty to thirty years to collectively<br />

(re)think and gradually (re)develop <strong>the</strong> entire neighbourhood. Targeting an<br />

<strong>energy</strong> positive or clim<strong>at</strong>e-neutral <strong>district</strong> without reflecting on objectives<br />

rel<strong>at</strong>ing to inclusivity, liveability, safety, housing quality, mobility and/or<br />

local employment opportunities makes no sense. Besides leading to missed<br />

opportunities, it also risks alien<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong> stakeholders you need to gradually<br />

develop <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> [see Key 2]. Experts and practitioners indic<strong>at</strong>e th<strong>at</strong><br />

c<strong>at</strong>egories such as governance, incentives, process, market, technology,<br />

social and context are crucial to <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion of PEDs (Gohari et al.,<br />

2021). To ensure th<strong>at</strong> we can mobilize different stakeholders and activ<strong>at</strong>e<br />

synergies, targets need to m<strong>at</strong>ch <strong>the</strong> multidimensional n<strong>at</strong>ure of a PED project<br />

and process. So a PED will always need a set of targets and <strong>the</strong>ir respective<br />

indic<strong>at</strong>ors. To establish <strong>the</strong> specific combin<strong>at</strong>ion of indic<strong>at</strong>ors th<strong>at</strong> m<strong>at</strong>ches<br />

your <strong>district</strong>, you can start from <strong>the</strong> indic<strong>at</strong>ors for <strong>the</strong> monitoring of PED<br />

processes as developed in this public<strong>at</strong>ion [see Key 10, p. 207].<br />

The integr<strong>at</strong>ed target won’t be defined by one expert behind<br />

a desk. For each of <strong>the</strong> indic<strong>at</strong>ors, inform<strong>at</strong>ion will be ga<strong>the</strong>red (d<strong>at</strong>a, calcul<strong>at</strong>ions,<br />

interviews, scenarios). This will gradually lead to a package of potential<br />

targets, some of which will be purely quantit<strong>at</strong>ive (renov<strong>at</strong>ion r<strong>at</strong>e), o<strong>the</strong>rs<br />

purely qualit<strong>at</strong>ive (governance), and o<strong>the</strong>rs still a combin<strong>at</strong>ion of both (inclusivity).<br />

Based on this, <strong>the</strong> integr<strong>at</strong>ed target can be developed through co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

with different experts and stakeholders of your PED. Their involvement<br />

in setting <strong>the</strong> point on <strong>the</strong> horizon will streng<strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong>ir commitment to <strong>the</strong><br />

shared mission.<br />

Methods to determine PED targets<br />

Setting integr<strong>at</strong>ed targets for PEDs is an ongoing field of experiment<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

and research. For <strong>the</strong> quantit<strong>at</strong>ive dimensions, <strong>the</strong> calcul<strong>at</strong>ion methods have<br />

not (yet) been streamlined or standardized (by <strong>the</strong> EU, for example). Nor do<br />

we have a shared set of <strong>the</strong> quantit<strong>at</strong>ive and qualit<strong>at</strong>ive indic<strong>at</strong>ors th<strong>at</strong> an<br />

integr<strong>at</strong>ed target should involve. But this shouldn’t slow down experiment<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

Let’s continue to learn by doing, building on wh<strong>at</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs have already<br />

tried, and using our common sense and cre<strong>at</strong>ivity to continuously improve<br />

our understanding of how to set and achieve PED targets. These lessons will<br />

contribute to <strong>the</strong> development of a PED framework in <strong>the</strong> coming years.<br />

To help you do so, we list three ways of setting targets. They<br />

have been derived from ongoing experiments and applied research. The three<br />

methods are increasingly nuanced and multifaceted, more labour-intensive but<br />

also more integr<strong>at</strong>ed. While <strong>the</strong> first two focus on <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> balance, <strong>the</strong> third<br />

makes it possible to develop an integr<strong>at</strong>ed target. It would make sense to apply<br />

several of <strong>the</strong>se methods progressively: you may want to start with a quick<br />

benchmarking and <strong>the</strong>n take more time to set <strong>the</strong> goals more precisely.<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 3 – Which <strong>district</strong> targets do we set

3.A Benchmarking<br />

It is worth looking <strong>at</strong> similar neighbourhoods<br />

to establish a first tent<strong>at</strong>ive target or assess <strong>the</strong> outcome of<br />

simul<strong>at</strong>ions. Of course, <strong>energy</strong> potential varies from one area<br />

to <strong>the</strong> next, depending on factors such as available space,<br />

existing infrastructure, heritage value and building typologies.<br />

But with this in mind, it is useful to make a rough estim<strong>at</strong>e of<br />

which targets seem feasible without having to make <strong>the</strong> entire<br />

analysis and calcul<strong>at</strong>ion. As <strong>the</strong> d<strong>at</strong>abase of PED projects<br />

grows, an increasingly complete picture of neighbourhoods<br />

similar to yours can be sketched.<br />

Vienna aspern<br />

Seestadt (AT)<br />

Stockholm Royal<br />

Seaport (SE)<br />

Brussels Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter (BE)<br />

Rotterdam<br />

Bospolder-<br />

Tussendijken (NL)<br />

Maximum<br />

reduction in<br />

household<br />

<strong>energy</strong> demand<br />

Maximum<br />

local <strong>energy</strong><br />

production<br />

Maximum<br />

CO2<br />

reduction<br />

(new) 62% (new)<br />

(new) 57% (new)<br />

-74% 46% -90%<br />

-58% 46% -61%<br />

The table below shows <strong>the</strong><br />

quantit<strong>at</strong>ive targets of four example<br />

<strong>district</strong>s th<strong>at</strong> are described in<br />

more detail in Chapter 1. These<br />

targets are defined on <strong>the</strong> basis<br />

of a simul<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> most<br />

ambitious package of measures<br />

for <strong>the</strong>se <strong>district</strong>s. The first two<br />

are newly built neighbourhoods.<br />

Both are estim<strong>at</strong>ed to reach an<br />

<strong>energy</strong> balance of around 60%,<br />

in a scenario including 90 to<br />

105% of roof use for solar panels<br />

(including façade-mounted PV)<br />

and a <strong>the</strong>rmal flexibility of 0.5°C<br />

(when excess renewable <strong>energy</strong><br />

is available, <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing / cooling<br />

temper<strong>at</strong>ure is slightly increased<br />

or decreased to store <strong>energy</strong> in<br />

<strong>the</strong> building mass). The second<br />

two are existing neighbourhoods.<br />

They are both estim<strong>at</strong>ed to reach<br />

an <strong>energy</strong> balance of around 45%.<br />

The reduction in household <strong>energy</strong><br />

demand shows <strong>the</strong> <strong>level</strong> of ambition<br />

of <strong>the</strong>se two existing <strong>district</strong>s: <strong>the</strong>y<br />

aim to reduce <strong>the</strong>ir current <strong>energy</strong><br />

use by more than half or even by<br />

three quarters.<br />

© Fachhochshule Wien (1-3),<br />

see p. 21, 37, 50<br />

© OOZE (4), see p. 64<br />

3.B Quantit<strong>at</strong>ive simul<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

Simul<strong>at</strong>ions are based on complex ma<strong>the</strong> m-<br />

<strong>at</strong>ical models. They require input with regard to various<br />

characteristics of <strong>the</strong> environment and make it possible<br />

to explore scenarios through <strong>the</strong> adjustment of certain<br />

parameters. The maximum scenario from such a simul<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

can be considered <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> target for a PED (<strong>energy</strong><br />

efficiency, production and flexibility, combined into a<br />

rel<strong>at</strong>ive positive <strong>energy</strong> balance). The calcul<strong>at</strong>ion method<br />

of <strong>the</strong> simul<strong>at</strong>ion model determines <strong>the</strong> accuracy of <strong>the</strong><br />

result. Often <strong>the</strong> exact d<strong>at</strong>a is not available in its totality, so<br />

extrapol<strong>at</strong>ions and assumptions are made. For example, <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>level</strong> of insul<strong>at</strong>ion per dwelling is often not known, so an<br />

estim<strong>at</strong>e is made, based on <strong>the</strong> year of construction. The<br />

more this type of extrapol<strong>at</strong>ion is used, <strong>the</strong> more cautious we<br />

should be regarding <strong>the</strong> results of <strong>the</strong> simul<strong>at</strong>ion. The way<br />

<strong>the</strong> parameters are set is also crucial for <strong>the</strong> outcome of <strong>the</strong><br />

simul<strong>at</strong>ion. A simul<strong>at</strong>ion is full of assumptions. For example,<br />

whoever is turning <strong>the</strong> knobs on <strong>the</strong> model is estim<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

whe<strong>the</strong>r 70% or 90% of <strong>the</strong> roof area in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

can be used for solar panels. Simul<strong>at</strong>ions generally give a good<br />

picture of realistic targets, but it is important to realize th<strong>at</strong>,<br />

although <strong>the</strong>y are presented in hard numbers, <strong>the</strong>re are a lot<br />

of uncertainties and variables behind <strong>the</strong> model.<br />

The simul<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn<br />

Quarter in Brussels (BE) used <strong>the</strong><br />

City Energy Analyst software,<br />

an open-source urban building<br />

simul<strong>at</strong>ion pl<strong>at</strong>form th<strong>at</strong> focuses<br />

specifically on low-carbon, high-efficiency<br />

cities (3E, 2022). It allows<br />

<strong>the</strong> effects, trade-offs and synergies<br />

of urban design options and <strong>energy</strong><br />

infrastructure plans to be explored.<br />

As <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter is an existing<br />

<strong>district</strong>, <strong>the</strong> first step was to<br />

model <strong>the</strong> baseline, <strong>the</strong> current situ<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

A sub-area was chosen th<strong>at</strong><br />

was as represent<strong>at</strong>ive as possible of<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood, as modelling<br />

<strong>the</strong> whole neighbourhood would<br />

drastically overload <strong>the</strong> model.<br />

Seven scenarios were <strong>the</strong>n developed<br />

[<strong>the</strong> different combin<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

of parameters and results of each<br />

scenario can be found in Chapter 1,<br />

p. 21]. Each scenario is linked<br />

to specific policies or systems: for<br />

example, individual vs collective<br />

approaches to housing renov<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

or a central he<strong>at</strong>ing network vs<br />

individual he<strong>at</strong> pumps. The seventh<br />

or ‘Excellence’ scenario ultim<strong>at</strong>ely<br />

leads to a clear objective: to reduce<br />

<strong>energy</strong> consumption by 74%, so th<strong>at</strong><br />

46% of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> required can be<br />

produced locally.<br />

© Bob Van Mol, Brussels (BE)<br />


135<br />

3.C Integr<strong>at</strong>ed targets through research by design<br />

Research by design (or design research) is a<br />

term coined by urban planning and architecture professionals<br />

to explore development scenarios for an area by directly<br />

designing possible solutions. This results in a less studious and<br />

more applied, iter<strong>at</strong>ive process. Design-based research can<br />

be a way to consider both quantit<strong>at</strong>ive and qualit<strong>at</strong>ive aspects<br />

when setting objectives. Showing how intentions (words) will<br />

result in concrete actions and transform<strong>at</strong>ions in people’s<br />

actual living environment (drawings, maps, collages) can be a<br />

powerful tool in two ways: it lays bare <strong>the</strong> interdependencies<br />

and potential synergies and it makes it possible to integr<strong>at</strong>e<br />

several objectives in str<strong>at</strong>egies or proposals. By researching<br />

while designing, you consider not only wh<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> outcome is<br />

and where <strong>the</strong> targets could be realized. The design research<br />

will also touch on how to get <strong>the</strong>re, who could be involved,<br />

and wh<strong>at</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r issues or challenges need to be included. For<br />

example, you might want to explore <strong>the</strong> potential impact of <strong>the</strong><br />

collective renov<strong>at</strong>ion of twenty adjoining individual houses,<br />

connected to geo<strong>the</strong>rmal probes in a street. Drawing this collective<br />

renov<strong>at</strong>ion implies a hypo<strong>the</strong>sis (or several options) for<br />

how <strong>the</strong> residents of th<strong>at</strong> street will organize <strong>the</strong>mselves, how<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erials will be supplied in <strong>the</strong> street (circular economy), or<br />

where to drill <strong>the</strong> soil for geo<strong>the</strong>rmal he<strong>at</strong> (public space). The<br />

design work will allow you to interact more qualit<strong>at</strong>ively with<br />

citizens, <strong>energy</strong> providers and <strong>the</strong> public space department.<br />

In Bospolder-Tussendijken in<br />

Rotterdam (NL), neighbourhood<br />

targets were set through design<br />

research. The calcul<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>energy</strong><br />

potential, on <strong>the</strong> one hand, and<br />

a mapping of social needs and<br />

dynamics, on <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r, formed<br />

<strong>the</strong> basis for this explor<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

Through four types of projects in<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood, solutions were<br />

designed th<strong>at</strong> address objectives<br />

in an integr<strong>at</strong>ed way: for example,<br />

play, greening, clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

<strong>energy</strong> gener<strong>at</strong>ion and a collective<br />

project involving <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

are all taking place <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

same time in <strong>the</strong> school’s inner<br />

courtyard, which symbolizes <strong>the</strong><br />

squares, sports fields and o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

inner areas of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. The<br />

target for 2030 is formul<strong>at</strong>ed on<br />

three <strong>level</strong>s. In terms of coalitions:<br />

twenty coalitions with interconnected<br />

Combined He<strong>at</strong> and Power<br />

(CHP) systems and three <strong>energy</strong><br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ives. In terms of <strong>energy</strong>:<br />

46% local <strong>energy</strong> production.<br />

In terms of clim<strong>at</strong>e adapt<strong>at</strong>ion:<br />

60% of <strong>the</strong> territory is green. In<br />

total, this should lead to a 61% CO2<br />

reduction by 2030 (OOZE, 2020).<br />

The concrete measures th<strong>at</strong> make it<br />

possible to achieve <strong>the</strong>se goals were<br />

identified. Quantit<strong>at</strong>ive benefits<br />

include a 10°C reduction in ambient temper<strong>at</strong>ure as<br />

a result of urban greening, 390,000 m 3 of rainw<strong>at</strong>er<br />

collected and returned to <strong>the</strong> soil or reused to irrig<strong>at</strong>e<br />

green areas, 18 GWh of he<strong>at</strong> supply, a 58% reduction<br />

in household <strong>energy</strong> demand (while improving comfort),<br />

18 GWh of electricity supply, 46% of household<br />

electricity demand supplied by <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> grid with<br />

↧<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 3 – Which <strong>district</strong> targets do we set

PV cells, and 100% electrific<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> household<br />

<strong>energy</strong> supply system. Qualit<strong>at</strong>ively, it is about a<br />

sense of belonging, economic perspective, increased<br />

self-sufficiency, outdoor play areas for children,<br />

healthier lifestyles, home comfort and a more<br />

beautiful living environment.<br />

© Based on OOZE, IABR, Rotterdam (NL)<br />

2020 2023<br />

2025<br />

2030<br />

Many loose initi<strong>at</strong>ives,<br />

1 <strong>energy</strong> cooper<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

Many loose initi<strong>at</strong>ives,<br />

4 coalitions with TES,<br />

1 <strong>energy</strong> cooper<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

Many loose initi<strong>at</strong>ives,<br />

15 coalitions including 7 with TES,<br />

1 <strong>energy</strong> cooper<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

20 coalitions whose<br />

TESs are interconnected,<br />

3 <strong>energy</strong> cooper<strong>at</strong>ives<br />

0.02% local <strong>energy</strong> production<br />

10% local <strong>energy</strong> production<br />

20% local <strong>energy</strong> production<br />

40% local <strong>energy</strong> production<br />

14% of surface area is green<br />

17% of surface area is green<br />

27% of surface area is green<br />

50% of surface area is green<br />

Current CO2 emissions<br />

Fewer CO2 emissions<br />

Fewer CO2 emissions<br />

Fewer CO2 emissions<br />

136<br />

As a city administr<strong>at</strong>ion, we co-defined<br />

<strong>the</strong> targets for our first carbon-neutral <strong>district</strong>,<br />

but we wanted local coalitions to come up with<br />

ideas on how to achieve <strong>the</strong>m and to take action.<br />

We decided to launch an open call for proposals.<br />

It was inspiring to see how <strong>the</strong> proposals managed<br />

to address not just one but several of <strong>the</strong> targets<br />

we set. For example, a coalition involving <strong>the</strong> local

shopkeepers’ group, a beekeeper and <strong>the</strong> youth<br />

club proposed a partial redesign of <strong>the</strong> public<br />

square and some unused ground-floor spaces<br />

around it, former shops th<strong>at</strong> had closed over time.<br />

By desealing half of <strong>the</strong> square, room could be<br />

made for a pollin<strong>at</strong>or garden and a children’s play<br />

area. The o<strong>the</strong>r part would be covered by a large<br />

pavilion, fitted with solar panels, contributing to<br />

<strong>the</strong> target of 45% locally produced <strong>energy</strong> in five<br />

years’ time. A sk<strong>at</strong>e park could be built bene<strong>at</strong>h<br />

<strong>the</strong> pavilion, using <strong>the</strong> existing concrete surfaces.<br />

The shopkeepers want to reopen <strong>the</strong> shops around<br />

<strong>the</strong> square to benefit from <strong>the</strong> new community<br />

dynamic. We were quite surprised by <strong>the</strong> proposal.<br />

It’s amazing how <strong>the</strong> coalition has been able to<br />

build an integr<strong>at</strong>ed project based on our target<br />

framework. And above all, <strong>the</strong>se organiz<strong>at</strong>ions<br />

have brought toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> right people and skills<br />

to make it happen. As a city administr<strong>at</strong>ion, this<br />

allows us to play a supportive role in <strong>the</strong> carbonneutral<br />

<strong>district</strong>.<br />

137<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 3 – Which <strong>district</strong> targets do we set


KEY 4<br />

139<br />

How to co-design<br />

<strong>the</strong> step-by-step<br />


140<br />

I moved my architecture practice to <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood a few years ago. We work as sp<strong>at</strong>ial<br />

designers in <strong>the</strong> field of urban transform<strong>at</strong>ion and<br />

sustainable <strong>transition</strong>. So when <strong>the</strong> municipality<br />

announced its plan to implement a local he<strong>at</strong> network<br />

here, we wanted to be part of <strong>the</strong> process.<br />

Although we could see <strong>the</strong> potential for this public<br />

intervention to bring about a positive change,<br />

many residents seemed to think o<strong>the</strong>rwise. They’d<br />

hoped <strong>the</strong> municipality would first support <strong>the</strong><br />

project <strong>the</strong>y’d set up around <strong>the</strong> local school. With<br />

so little public space in <strong>the</strong> area safe enough for<br />

children to play, <strong>the</strong> residents managed to negoti<strong>at</strong>e<br />

an agreement with <strong>the</strong> school to open its courtyard<br />

to <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood in <strong>the</strong> evenings and <strong>at</strong><br />

weekends. But some infrastructural investment<br />

is needed to make <strong>the</strong> space suitable. So you can<br />

imagine th<strong>at</strong> when news of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

came out, people were angry. They saw <strong>the</strong> project<br />

as yet ano<strong>the</strong>r investment th<strong>at</strong> wasn’t in <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

interest. They felt as if <strong>the</strong> city was keeping <strong>the</strong>m<br />

in <strong>the</strong> dark about how <strong>the</strong>y were going to proceed.<br />

The city just kept saying to <strong>the</strong>m th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>y were<br />

working on a ‘PED str<strong>at</strong>egy’. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r hand,<br />

we could see how <strong>the</strong> community school project<br />

would fit perfectly in <strong>the</strong> city’s sustainability<br />

and <strong>energy</strong> objectives. Th<strong>at</strong>’s why we went to <strong>the</strong><br />

municipal administr<strong>at</strong>ion and asked how we could<br />

contribute. Which interventions were already<br />

planned and when? Who was working on wh<strong>at</strong>?<br />

And how could we play a role?

Plotting different roles, workstreams,<br />

sub-projects and phases on a timeline facilit<strong>at</strong>es<br />

collabor<strong>at</strong>ion within a complex process. A shared<br />

<strong>district</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy provides guidance, and can<br />

evolve flexibly along <strong>the</strong> way.<br />

141<br />

A development involving many stakeholders, a long dur<strong>at</strong>ion and several<br />

simultaneous objectives needs a plan. A step-by-step neighbourhood str<strong>at</strong>egy<br />

connects several aspects of PEDs: <strong>the</strong> findings of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood analysis<br />

[Key 1], <strong>the</strong> role of local stakeholders [Key 2], <strong>the</strong> objectives [Key 3] and subprojects<br />

[Key 6] used to achieve <strong>the</strong>m, <strong>the</strong>ir funding [Key 7], <strong>the</strong> coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood approach [Key 5], etc. Bringing <strong>the</strong> different dimensions<br />

of a PED toge<strong>the</strong>r – and doing so in a way th<strong>at</strong> motiv<strong>at</strong>es very different<br />

stakeholders (ra<strong>the</strong>r than scaring <strong>the</strong>m with <strong>the</strong> complexities involved) –<br />

is challenging. To take on this challenge and position different actions and<br />

projects in a logical whole and sequence, we propose a co-cre<strong>at</strong>ed timeline as<br />

a tool and method. Plotting different actions and outputs over time allows<br />

<strong>the</strong> long process to be broken down in manageable parts. It captures working<br />

tracks and milestones, as well as <strong>the</strong> role play between <strong>the</strong> stakeholders involved.<br />

A shared prospective timeline lets actors take ownership and autonomy within<br />

specific workstreams in <strong>the</strong> process: think of an <strong>energy</strong> expert mapping <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong> potential in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>, a citizens’ organiz<strong>at</strong>ion setting up a sociocultural<br />

programme, or priv<strong>at</strong>e and public stakeholders forming a Special Purpose<br />

Vehicle (SPV), or a coalition of property owners exploring a str<strong>at</strong>egy to renov<strong>at</strong>e<br />

collectively. The timeline allows <strong>the</strong>m not to work in isol<strong>at</strong>ion: <strong>the</strong>y can position<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir work in <strong>the</strong> overview of wh<strong>at</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rs are doing in parallel and <strong>the</strong>y know<br />

wh<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> direction and <strong>final</strong> goal are which <strong>the</strong>y’re contributing to.<br />

The str<strong>at</strong>egic order in which actions, projects and milestones<br />

should be positioned is one of <strong>the</strong> eleven Keys we explore in this chapter.<br />

But <strong>the</strong> timeline is also <strong>the</strong> centrepiece of this whole toolkit: it is <strong>the</strong> shared<br />

playing board for <strong>the</strong> co-cre<strong>at</strong>ion workshop described in <strong>the</strong> Instructions<br />

[Workshop B]. The workshop outlined <strong>the</strong>re is a moment of integr<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

<strong>the</strong> different working tracks with your stakeholders, which we call a ‘str<strong>at</strong>egic<br />

design session’. A group of stakeholders is responsible for bringing insights and<br />

proposals toge<strong>the</strong>r and for weighing and integr<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong>m into one coherent<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egy. Who is part of this team depends on <strong>the</strong> coordin<strong>at</strong>ing organiz<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

model th<strong>at</strong> is chosen [Key 5]. These design sessions may, for example, take<br />

place monthly in <strong>the</strong> early stages of a PED development. They can become less<br />

frequent as <strong>the</strong> direction is more clearly defined. And <strong>the</strong>y might become more<br />

important again <strong>at</strong> crucial moments in <strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy, for<br />

example around important milestones.<br />

Based on <strong>the</strong> learnings of <strong>the</strong> PED experiments in Chapter 1<br />

and on a test-run of <strong>the</strong> workshops, we observed th<strong>at</strong> refining your str<strong>at</strong>egy<br />

with your stakeholders will have to happen several times in <strong>the</strong> development<br />

of a <strong>district</strong> (re)development. Because a PED is an evolving, iter<strong>at</strong>ive process.<br />

It is impossible to predict entirely how <strong>the</strong> multitude of projects and actors are<br />

going to interact, wh<strong>at</strong> political and social dynamics will emerge, how markets<br />

will change, or which actions will have <strong>the</strong> desired impact (and which ones less<br />

so). The timeline provides a structure to <strong>the</strong> process, but is also open to <strong>the</strong><br />

lessons learned and adjustments th<strong>at</strong> will be needed along <strong>the</strong> way.<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 4 – How to co-design <strong>the</strong> step-by-step str<strong>at</strong>egy

In this Key, we first describe <strong>the</strong> different stages outlined in<br />

<strong>the</strong> timeline. In a second part, we discuss a spectrum of three very different<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egies th<strong>at</strong> can be adopted for developing a step-by-step process. The last<br />

part offers concrete examples of key milestones th<strong>at</strong> will help to streamline<br />

your str<strong>at</strong>egy development process. As with <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r Keys, <strong>the</strong>se sections<br />

give you <strong>the</strong> building blocks to cre<strong>at</strong>e your own str<strong>at</strong>egy and timeline. A more<br />

practical guide to setting up <strong>the</strong> workshops or ‘design sessions’ to build this<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egy in a collabor<strong>at</strong>ive way can <strong>the</strong>n be found in <strong>the</strong> Instructions.<br />

Recurring phases in PED development<br />

Every PED is different, so every str<strong>at</strong>egy will be different. Although many of<br />

<strong>the</strong> PEDs studied are far from complete, we can identify recurring phases. We<br />

present <strong>the</strong>m as a guiding structure to draw up (a first, second, third or tenth<br />

version of) a multi-year str<strong>at</strong>egy for your neighbourhood (re)development. The<br />

time needed for each of <strong>the</strong>se phases varies from <strong>district</strong> to <strong>district</strong>. Of course,<br />

<strong>the</strong> socio-economic and physical characteristics of a neighbourhood play a role.<br />

And in existing neighbourhoods <strong>the</strong> process is often more unpredictable,<br />

so explor<strong>at</strong>ion may take longer than in newly built neighbourhoods, for<br />

example. The PEDs examined in Chapter 1 of this book take up to thirty years<br />

to complete. We encourage you to make an estim<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> dur<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

each of <strong>the</strong> phases when drawing up your own process timeline. This will give<br />

partners an idea of when <strong>the</strong>ir input is expected or when <strong>the</strong>y have to deliver,<br />

and residents a perspective as to when <strong>the</strong>y will see things change. It will also<br />

allow you to assess whe<strong>the</strong>r things are moving faster or slower than expected,<br />

and why.<br />

1<br />

2<br />

3<br />


142<br />

1. Initi<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

The start-up of a PED is usually characterized by an explor<strong>at</strong>ory<br />

phase. The vision hasn’t yet been written down. The right<br />

approach and techniques th<strong>at</strong> suit <strong>the</strong> specific neighbourhood<br />

have yet to be determined. The actors and <strong>the</strong>ir roles aren’t<br />

yet completely clear. Residents don’t know yet wh<strong>at</strong> a PED is,<br />

let alone how to identify and engage with it. Time is needed<br />

to sort out which direction to go in. In existing <strong>district</strong>s, <strong>the</strong><br />

focus is especially on analysing <strong>the</strong> different dimensions of<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood, getting to know <strong>the</strong> actors, building<br />

trust, forming coalitions and developing scenarios. In newly<br />

built <strong>district</strong>s, it’s about master planning, setting targets,<br />

developing <strong>the</strong> central <strong>energy</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy, arranging land sales,<br />

and ga<strong>the</strong>ring funding and financing partners. It is also <strong>at</strong><br />

this stage th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> first pilot projects are set up, from which<br />

lessons are learned in subsequent phases. One or a few actors

often take <strong>the</strong> lead: <strong>the</strong> municipality or a deleg<strong>at</strong>ed partner,<br />

a (coalition of) priv<strong>at</strong>e actors, or a non-profit organiz<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

In many cases, this experimental work is still taking place on<br />

<strong>the</strong> fringes of regular frameworks: through exceptional trust<br />

from a regional or local government, through innov<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

budgets and/or innov<strong>at</strong>ion cells, or through sociocultural<br />

grants. Few cities have a framework for a structured approach<br />

to <strong>the</strong> start-up phase of a PED [see Key 11]. However, in <strong>the</strong><br />

course of this initi<strong>at</strong>ion phase, a more comprehensive and<br />

long-term governance model and str<strong>at</strong>egy is often established<br />

th<strong>at</strong> links with existing workflows, budgets and instruments.<br />

143<br />

2. Learning-by-doing<br />

At a certain point in <strong>the</strong> development of a PED, <strong>the</strong> direction<br />

for <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood becomes clearer: which <strong>energy</strong> system<br />

is optimal, which actors have which roles, which targets form<br />

<strong>the</strong> point on <strong>the</strong> horizon, how citizens and local actors can<br />

get involved, and which projects are needed. This is <strong>the</strong> phase<br />

in which <strong>the</strong> explor<strong>at</strong>ions and ad hoc experiments of phase 1<br />

are transl<strong>at</strong>ed into <strong>the</strong> first integr<strong>at</strong>ed projects and actions.<br />

These make it possible to learn about which approaches work<br />

and to set priorities for wh<strong>at</strong> follows: a particular target group<br />

th<strong>at</strong> is harder to reach, a particular type of project th<strong>at</strong> isn’t<br />

getting funded, or specific skills th<strong>at</strong> are lacking. For example,<br />

as we learn th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> orient<strong>at</strong>ion, shape and floor plan of new<br />

buildings make it possible to maximize <strong>the</strong> n<strong>at</strong>ural he<strong>at</strong>ing of<br />

<strong>the</strong> indoor spaces, we can redraw <strong>the</strong> next phases of <strong>the</strong> master<br />

plan accordingly. Or when we see th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> new apartments<br />

are only accessible to affluent families, we look <strong>at</strong> altern<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

development models to diversify <strong>the</strong> housing offer. In this<br />

phase, <strong>the</strong> first successful approaches and actions come to <strong>the</strong><br />

surface and missing links are identified; new str<strong>at</strong>egies are<br />

targeted and <strong>the</strong> action plan is adapted accordingly.<br />

3. Mainstreaming<br />

Once <strong>the</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egic direction has been established, <strong>the</strong> main<br />

stakeholders are on board and integr<strong>at</strong>ed projects have been<br />

tested and fine-tuned, a PED enters its mainstreaming phase.<br />

The main task now is to manage <strong>the</strong> roll-out of <strong>the</strong> various<br />

actions and keep <strong>the</strong>m on track. The projects move beyond<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir exceptional st<strong>at</strong>us and need to be embedded in regular<br />

practice. Although <strong>at</strong> this stage, <strong>the</strong>re is a certain <strong>level</strong> of<br />

stability established, <strong>the</strong>re are always new aspects to be<br />

developed and tested: which hiccup does <strong>the</strong> construction<br />

sector face when integr<strong>at</strong>ing new techniques into <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

daily work, or how do buildings and users perform when <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood is actually in use? At this point, <strong>the</strong> focus of<br />

PED development is mainly on monitoring, tracking, adjusting<br />

and adapting <strong>the</strong> regul<strong>at</strong>ory and policy framework to ensure<br />

th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> PED is effectively embedded in practice. In newly<br />

built neighbourhoods, this is <strong>the</strong> phase when more and more<br />

residents move in and start to play a more front-line role.<br />

The way <strong>the</strong>y he<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir homes, go to work or spend <strong>the</strong>ir free<br />

time has an impact on <strong>the</strong> ‘performance’ (in a broad sense) of<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. While in existing neighbourhoods <strong>the</strong>se<br />

effects can be monitored along <strong>the</strong> way, in new neighbourhoods<br />

this is part of <strong>the</strong> <strong>final</strong> stage. Empowering people<br />

to take ownership and providing <strong>the</strong> necessary support to<br />

cre<strong>at</strong>e a sustainable community are <strong>the</strong>refore actions th<strong>at</strong><br />

require increased <strong>at</strong>tention <strong>at</strong> this stage of PED development<br />

and will continue to do so even after <strong>the</strong> last building has<br />

been completed.<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 4 – How to co-design <strong>the</strong> step-by-step str<strong>at</strong>egy

Three diverging neighbourhood str<strong>at</strong>egies<br />

How projects and actions are concretely plotted throughout <strong>the</strong>se three phases<br />

may differ, but <strong>the</strong> intrinsic logic or constitution of a PED str<strong>at</strong>egy also varies.<br />

Even if <strong>the</strong> end goal is <strong>the</strong> same – say, a certain maximum amount of locally<br />

produced <strong>energy</strong> – <strong>the</strong>re are different ways to reach th<strong>at</strong> target. They differ<br />

in <strong>the</strong> extent to which actions are organized individually or collectively, in<br />

<strong>the</strong> roles played by government, <strong>the</strong> market and citizens, and in <strong>the</strong> degree to<br />

which systems are centralized or decentralized. In wh<strong>at</strong> follows, we explain<br />

three possible logics for a PED str<strong>at</strong>egy to show a diversity in entry points:<br />

<strong>the</strong>y project two extreme perspectives and one hybrid in-between (De Vuyst,<br />

2023). These three directions are potential frameworks (or <strong>the</strong>ories of change)<br />

on which a neighbourhood str<strong>at</strong>egy can be based. Think of <strong>the</strong>m as provoc<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

positions to start a convers<strong>at</strong>ion in your coalition on <strong>the</strong> orient<strong>at</strong>ion of your<br />

<strong>district</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy.<br />

4.A Multiplic<strong>at</strong>ion of individual,<br />

priv<strong>at</strong>e investments<br />

The neighbourhood str<strong>at</strong>egy assumes a<br />

multitude of individual solutions. Preferably, individual<br />

building owners take care of <strong>energy</strong> saving and <strong>energy</strong><br />

production on <strong>the</strong>ir own property (think of individual he<strong>at</strong><br />

pumps or solar panels). Legally and organiz<strong>at</strong>ionally, this<br />

seems <strong>the</strong> simplest situ<strong>at</strong>ion: developers or priv<strong>at</strong>e owners<br />

make <strong>the</strong> most of <strong>the</strong> investments <strong>the</strong>mselves on <strong>the</strong>ir own<br />

plot. They can do this <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir own pace and aren’t dependent<br />

on when <strong>the</strong>ir neighbours renov<strong>at</strong>e or when <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> network<br />

is built. Because it’s <strong>the</strong>ir own property, people or housing<br />

corpor<strong>at</strong>ions see a clear investment case and are more likely<br />

to commit <strong>the</strong>ir own capital. Th<strong>at</strong> is, of course, if <strong>the</strong>y have<br />

<strong>the</strong> financial resources available: families who own a place but<br />

can’t make additional investments are dependent on a public<br />

safety net to bring <strong>the</strong>ir property up to 2050 standards. In<br />

this scenario, <strong>the</strong> public sector has an important role to play in<br />

persuading, informing and even obliging priv<strong>at</strong>e homeowners<br />

to renov<strong>at</strong>e, in providing public infrastructure adapted to a<br />

variety of priv<strong>at</strong>e solutions (e.g. by reinforcing <strong>the</strong> electricity<br />

grid), and in providing <strong>the</strong> necessary support.<br />

Actual PV performance<br />

Target p<strong>at</strong>h<br />

The solar offensive of Vienna (AT)<br />

invites companies, property<br />

developers and citizens to become<br />

‘solar partners’. By multiplying<br />

solar panels on building roofs,<br />

canopies over car parks and even<br />

balconies, Vienna aims to cre<strong>at</strong>e<br />

an additional 100 football fields<br />

of photovoltaic surface per year,<br />

with a total of 800 MWp by 2030<br />

(Stadt Wien, n.d.a). Partners gain<br />

visibility and receive technical<br />

and procedural support. Services<br />

are being expanded, such as <strong>the</strong><br />

Competence Centre for Renewable<br />

Energy, a service provided by<br />

Urban Innov<strong>at</strong>ion Vienna, which<br />

helps you to assess <strong>the</strong> potential<br />

and costs of your own install<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

provides inform<strong>at</strong>ion on available<br />

subsidies and puts you in contact<br />

with consultants, manufacturers<br />

and installers. As a result, Vienna’s<br />

share of solar power has already<br />

increased from 51 MWp in 2020<br />

to 129 MWp in 2023, and <strong>the</strong> city<br />

plans to acceler<strong>at</strong>e this growth<br />

from 2025 onward.<br />

© Based on City of Vienna,<br />

Vienna (AT)<br />

800 MWp<br />

600 MWp<br />

400 MWp<br />

200 MWp<br />

0 MWp<br />

2020<br />

2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030<br />


4.B Collective projects as parts of a larger puzzle<br />

Ano<strong>the</strong>r logic we recognize is when a neighbourhood<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egy is broken down into smaller, manageable<br />

sub-projects, for example around a street, square, block or<br />

school. These are small-scale collabor<strong>at</strong>ions between residents,<br />

owners, shopkeepers, organiz<strong>at</strong>ions and/or public bodies.<br />

They seize a local opportunity, such as drilling boreholes to<br />

supply a number of buildings with sustainable he<strong>at</strong> in one go.<br />

Local, social dynamics and economic opportunities persuade<br />

residents to particip<strong>at</strong>e: enthusiastic neighbours convince each<br />

o<strong>the</strong>r and change is visible in people’s immedi<strong>at</strong>e surroundings.<br />

Altoge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong>se subsystems form a large mosaic. When<br />

choosing this approach, it’s important to realize th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong>re are<br />

places where <strong>the</strong>re are far fewer opportunities or where <strong>the</strong><br />

dynamics fail to m<strong>at</strong>erialize. The boundaries of each puzzle<br />

piece must be defined in such a way th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> whole neighbourhood<br />

is covered and no one is left behind.<br />

The block-by-block str<strong>at</strong>egy in<br />

Limerick (IE) aims to support<br />

and acceler<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong> regener<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

of its inner-city neighbourhoods.<br />

Within <strong>the</strong> historic Georgian<br />

Quarter, this transform<strong>at</strong>ion is<br />

being achieved by identifying a<br />

number of anchor buildings, such<br />

as <strong>the</strong> Post Office, <strong>the</strong> Arts Centre<br />

and <strong>the</strong> Chamber of Commerce<br />

(Limerick City and County<br />

Council, 2019). By investing in <strong>the</strong><br />

refurbishment of <strong>the</strong>se buildings,<br />

<strong>the</strong>y act as an entry point to<br />

start convers<strong>at</strong>ions and engage<br />

neighbouring owners within <strong>the</strong><br />

block to join in <strong>the</strong> refurbishment<br />

one <strong>at</strong> a time. The public investment<br />

is a c<strong>at</strong>alyst for individuals and<br />

priv<strong>at</strong>e companies to surf along<br />

on <strong>the</strong> value cre<strong>at</strong>ion. This is <strong>the</strong><br />

city’s way of tackling <strong>the</strong> whole<br />

neighbourhood, block by block.<br />

© Based on +CityxChange project,<br />

Limerick (IE)<br />

145<br />

DS02 Limerick Youth Services<br />

DS01 Gardens Intern<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

DS04 General Post Office<br />

DS05 Rooney Auctioneers<br />

DS03 Chamber of Commerce<br />

DS06 The Engine<br />

DS08 University of Limerick<br />

DS09 University Hospital<br />

Limerick<br />

DS10 Limerick Institute<br />

of Technology<br />

DS11 Narr<strong>at</strong>ive 4<br />

DS12 Belltable Arts Centre<br />

DS15 Limerick City Gallery of Art<br />

DS07 Colbert Railway St<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

DS14 Limerick Georgian<br />

House & Garden<br />

DS13 The Crescent<br />

4.C Centralized, cooper<strong>at</strong>ive approach<br />

At <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>r end of <strong>the</strong> spectrum, we<br />

see neighbourhood approaches th<strong>at</strong> take a more radical<br />

collective approach. The organiz<strong>at</strong>ional model and <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

approach are designed and set up <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> scale of <strong>the</strong> whole<br />

neighbourhood. This makes it possible to rethink <strong>energy</strong><br />

production and consumption, but also public space, mobility<br />

and social inclusion in an integral way. Imagine th<strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

entire PED development is driven by a neighbourhood <strong>energy</strong><br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ive in which both local residents and organiz<strong>at</strong>ions,<br />

public authorities and priv<strong>at</strong>e investors are shareholders. The<br />

available priv<strong>at</strong>e spaces (think of roof space to install solar<br />

panels) and public spaces (for example, to drill geo<strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

boreholes) are identified and managed by this cooper<strong>at</strong>ive,<br />

and <strong>the</strong> locally produced <strong>energy</strong> is redistributed evenly<br />

throughout <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. The <strong>energy</strong> system can thus<br />

be technically optimized and organized in an inclusive way.<br />

↧<br />

De Nieuwe Dokken in Ghent (BE)<br />

is a large, newly developed residential<br />

neighbourhood in <strong>the</strong><br />

city’s harbour area. A cooper<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

oper<strong>at</strong>es a he<strong>at</strong> and w<strong>at</strong>er network<br />

with closed loops for he<strong>at</strong>, w<strong>at</strong>er<br />

and waste. The technology is called<br />

Zawent (Zero Waste W<strong>at</strong>er with<br />

Energy and Nutrient Recovery).<br />

It is an innov<strong>at</strong>ive combin<strong>at</strong>ion of<br />

existing technologies. Waste w<strong>at</strong>er<br />

from vacuum toilets is collected<br />

separ<strong>at</strong>ely, along with ground<br />

kitchen waste, and converted<br />

into biogas in a digester. He<strong>at</strong> is<br />

recovered from <strong>the</strong> grey w<strong>at</strong>er on<br />

site. The w<strong>at</strong>er itself is purified and<br />

reused by <strong>the</strong> neighbouring soap<br />

company. Low-temper<strong>at</strong>ure waste<br />

he<strong>at</strong> from <strong>the</strong> factory returns to <strong>the</strong><br />

residential area. By buying a house<br />

in this new development, residents<br />

autom<strong>at</strong>ically become shareholders<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 4 – How to co-design <strong>the</strong> step-by-step str<strong>at</strong>egy

But this system only works if everyone particip<strong>at</strong>es, which is<br />

one of <strong>the</strong> biggest challenges for this scenario. In countries<br />

where collective solutions are not part of <strong>the</strong> general culture,<br />

a radically cooper<strong>at</strong>ive approach (which requires, for example,<br />

giving up <strong>the</strong> use of one’s own roof to <strong>the</strong> community) clashes<br />

with people’s traditions or initial willingness, or even with<br />

regul<strong>at</strong>ions and premiums.<br />

in <strong>the</strong> local <strong>energy</strong> infrastructure,<br />

which is breaking away from <strong>the</strong><br />

dominant culture in which each<br />

household has <strong>the</strong> freedom to<br />

choose <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>energy</strong> supplier. This<br />

helps to share <strong>the</strong> costs of centralized<br />

he<strong>at</strong> and waste infrastructure<br />

and benefits residents in <strong>the</strong> form<br />

of low <strong>energy</strong> prices.<br />

© Bas Bogaerts, Ghent (BE)<br />

Milestones for PED str<strong>at</strong>egies<br />

In this section we take a closer look <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> milestones th<strong>at</strong> can help to structure<br />

<strong>the</strong> str<strong>at</strong>egy development process. We look <strong>at</strong> three types of documents, each<br />

<strong>the</strong> outcome of a workstream in <strong>the</strong> co-design process. It helps to link <strong>the</strong>se<br />

outputs to a specific timing and to position <strong>the</strong>m as milestones on <strong>the</strong> timeline.<br />

By defining outputs and form<strong>at</strong>s, you force yourself to m<strong>at</strong>erialize a process<br />

th<strong>at</strong> is still moving (and will continue to do so). Writing out joint conclusions<br />

and engagements of stakeholders for subsequent actions, investments or<br />

decisions shows whe<strong>the</strong>r you have understood each o<strong>the</strong>r correctly. It ensures<br />

th<strong>at</strong> ‘str<strong>at</strong>egy building’ is not just talk. The milestones give you a deadline and<br />

reassure you th<strong>at</strong> you are effectively making progress. These documents allow<br />

new actors or stakeholders who aren’t present <strong>at</strong> every meeting to keep up to<br />

d<strong>at</strong>e. It also contains those aspects th<strong>at</strong> are still unfinished or even unclear.<br />

This isn’t a problem, as <strong>the</strong>se documents will evolve as insights are gained.<br />

146<br />

4.D Prospective neighbourhood <strong>at</strong>las<br />

A first output can be <strong>the</strong> result of an analysis<br />

of your neighbourhood [Key 1], first actions to empower local<br />

stakeholders [Key 2] or <strong>the</strong> explor<strong>at</strong>ion of fertile grounds for<br />

<strong>the</strong> first pilot projects in your <strong>district</strong> [Key 6]. These layers of<br />

analysis, interactions with stakeholders or local experiments<br />

allow you to draw some initial lessons. These different <strong>level</strong>s<br />

of learnings can be bundled in <strong>the</strong> form of a neighbourhood<br />

<strong>at</strong>las. This <strong>at</strong>las consists of maps, quot<strong>at</strong>ions, diagrams and<br />

sketches, descriptions. Toge<strong>the</strong>r, <strong>the</strong>y build a story about <strong>the</strong><br />

different dynamics in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> th<strong>at</strong> will eventually add up<br />

to <strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong> PED. On this basis, you can start<br />

confronting different layers, learnings and insights. Are <strong>the</strong>y<br />

in conflict or synergy, and where? For example, from an <strong>energy</strong><br />

point of view, a central he<strong>at</strong>ing network may be <strong>the</strong> most<br />

efficient solution, but if <strong>the</strong> inhabitants of a neighbourhood<br />

With <strong>the</strong> aim of defining<br />

priority areas for pilot projects,<br />

Architecture Workroom Brussels<br />

made an explor<strong>at</strong>ory cartography<br />

of <strong>the</strong> Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Quarter of<br />

Brussels (BE). By combining<br />

different map layers, an assumption<br />

of project opportunities is made.<br />

For example, <strong>the</strong> overlap is<br />

mapped of <strong>the</strong> loc<strong>at</strong>ions with high<br />

PV potential and <strong>the</strong> productive<br />

or manufacturing activities<br />

(e.g. garages, m<strong>at</strong>erial processing,<br />

craft workshops and recycling<br />

industries). Electricity could be<br />

produced on <strong>the</strong> large roofs of <strong>the</strong><br />

workshops and <strong>the</strong>n used according<br />

to different consumption p<strong>at</strong>terns:<br />

by busi nesses during <strong>the</strong> day and<br />

by households in <strong>the</strong> morning and

aren’t prepared to renov<strong>at</strong>e and connect <strong>the</strong>ir houses <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> same time, this solution won’t take off. The goal of <strong>the</strong><br />

<strong>at</strong>las is to identify possible chain reactions th<strong>at</strong> we need to<br />

get a PED started. You could look <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> places where local<br />

stakeholders are already actively involved, overlay <strong>the</strong>se with a<br />

map of <strong>the</strong> potential for collective production of electricity or<br />

he<strong>at</strong>, and with planned investments in public space. The places<br />

th<strong>at</strong> tick all three boxes could be interesting first integr<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

project areas.<br />

evening. This combin<strong>at</strong>ion could<br />

be an opportunity to set up local<br />

<strong>energy</strong> communities. The map<br />

serves as a convers<strong>at</strong>ion starter<br />

with local businesses, residents,<br />

local and supralocal authorities.<br />

© Architecture Workroom Brussels,<br />

Brussels (BE)<br />

147<br />

Sibelga<br />

PV potential<br />

PV Potential<br />

7.000 - 10.000(kWh/year)<br />

7.000 - 10.000(kWh/year)<br />

magasin de bricolage<br />

PV potential<br />

PV Potential<br />

> > 10.000(kWh/year)<br />

2<br />

large-scale<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erial trade<br />

car<br />

wash<br />

garage<br />

garage<br />

car wash<br />

garage<br />

1<br />

waste management<br />

garage<br />

garage<br />

Productive Productive activities activities & &<br />

manufactural/industrial manufacturing/industrial actors actors<br />

Cluster of productive activities<br />

Cluster and coalitions of productive of activities actors for <strong>energy</strong>sharing<br />

projects<br />

and coalitions of actors for<br />

<strong>energy</strong>-sharing projects<br />

large-scale recycling<br />

industry<br />

garage<br />

garage<br />

laundry<br />

garage m<strong>at</strong>erial<br />

trade<br />

3<br />

garage<br />

magasin de<br />

bricolage<br />

garage<br />

warehouse<br />

garage<br />

1<br />

2<br />

Bruxelles Propreté, Propreté, public actor actor as<br />

as potential initi<strong>at</strong>or of of <strong>energy</strong>-sharing<br />

projects<br />

projects<br />

Port environment, potential for<br />

Port recovery environment, of residual potential he<strong>at</strong>/share for<br />

recovery of residual he<strong>at</strong>/share <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>energy</strong><br />

garage<br />

of Villo!<br />

delivery<br />

car<br />

wash<br />

garage<br />

3<br />

Villo! Villo! mobility actor actor as as potential potential<br />

initi<strong>at</strong>or of of <strong>energy</strong>-sharing project<br />

garages<br />

4<br />

garage<br />

abandoned<br />

car dealer<br />

garage<br />

4<br />

Publicly owned buildings with with high PV<br />

high potential, PV-potential, as lever as for lever <strong>energy</strong>-sharing<br />

for <strong>energy</strong>-sharing<br />

garage<br />

large-scale<br />

m<strong>at</strong>erial trade<br />

wash<br />

car<br />

garage<br />

5<br />

garage<br />

garage<br />

garage<br />

petrol<br />

st<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

magasin de<br />

bricolage<br />

furniture<br />

store<br />

6<br />

5<br />

6<br />

Large productive actor,<br />

Large productive actor, with high<br />

PV-potential, with high PV as potential, lever for <strong>energy</strong>-sharing<br />

as lever for <strong>energy</strong>-sharing<br />

Local commercial actor, as potential<br />

Local commercial actor, as potential initi<strong>at</strong>or<br />

for initi<strong>at</strong>or <strong>energy</strong>-sharing of <strong>energy</strong>-sharing project project<br />

ouse<br />

storage<br />

4.E Illustr<strong>at</strong>ed hypo<strong>the</strong>ses and scenarios<br />

A next step in developing a PED str<strong>at</strong>egy is<br />

to construct, explore and weigh up different scenarios for<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. Often <strong>the</strong>se scenarios are based on a<br />

comprehensive neighbourhood analysis as described in <strong>the</strong><br />

previous building block (‘Prospective neighbourhood <strong>at</strong>las’).<br />

These scenarios calcul<strong>at</strong>e and assess <strong>the</strong> impact of a particular<br />

<strong>energy</strong> system, governance model and sub-projects. If 70%<br />

of <strong>the</strong> buildings is served by a he<strong>at</strong> network and 30% by<br />

individual he<strong>at</strong> pumps, wh<strong>at</strong> <strong>level</strong> of local <strong>energy</strong> production<br />

could <strong>the</strong>n be achieved? Or wh<strong>at</strong> if we were to fully commit<br />

to a collective renov<strong>at</strong>ion str<strong>at</strong>egy, which streets or blocks<br />

offer <strong>the</strong> best opportunities to start with, and wh<strong>at</strong> are <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

specific needs? To engage stakeholders in evalu<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong>se<br />

different futures, it is helpful to use imagin<strong>at</strong>ive and narr<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

techniques, such as drawings, illustr<strong>at</strong>ions and stories.<br />

These invite people to project <strong>the</strong>mselves into possible future<br />

versions of <strong>the</strong>ir neighbourhood and to rel<strong>at</strong>e to <strong>the</strong>ir pros<br />

and cons. A neighbourhood hypo<strong>the</strong>sis can be provoc<strong>at</strong>ive and<br />

bold; it is a c<strong>at</strong>alyst for discussion.<br />

For <strong>the</strong> Oostveld <strong>district</strong> in<br />

Eeklo (BE), architecture and<br />

urbanism firm Plusoffice and<br />

<strong>energy</strong> consultants Enprove developed<br />

a hypo<strong>the</strong>sis for a neighbourhood<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egy. Based on an analysis<br />

of building typology and <strong>energy</strong><br />

potential, four models for residential<br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing were distinguished<br />

(Verbakel et al., 2018). In <strong>the</strong><br />

denser part of <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

(red), densific<strong>at</strong>ion and a central<br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing network are proposed.<br />

The houses adjacent to <strong>the</strong> park<br />

(blue) can store surplus he<strong>at</strong> from<br />

<strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong> network and surplus<br />

electricity from solar panels via a<br />

seasonal buffer tank. In <strong>the</strong> low- to<br />

medium-density residential streets<br />

(orange), decentralized collective<br />

he<strong>at</strong> solutions such as a Borehole<br />

Thermal Energy Storage (BTES)<br />

system, are explored. Detached<br />

↧<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 4 – How to co-design <strong>the</strong> step-by-step str<strong>at</strong>egy

houses surrounded by n<strong>at</strong>ure<br />

(green) will rely on more individual<br />

or small-scale solutions. For each of<br />

<strong>the</strong>se he<strong>at</strong> typologies, <strong>the</strong> impact on<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> is imagined: how public<br />

space changes, how soft mobility<br />

can be given more space, where<br />

<strong>the</strong> best place is for slightly taller<br />

apartment buildings, or which new<br />

nodes can be coupled to <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

infrastructure. This design research<br />

reveals th<strong>at</strong> urban development<br />

(urbanism and planning departments),<br />

public and green space,<br />

and <strong>energy</strong> planning can reinforce<br />

each o<strong>the</strong>r. The visualiz<strong>at</strong>ions by<br />

Plusoffice show <strong>the</strong> leap in living<br />

quality th<strong>at</strong> is possible with <strong>energy</strong><br />

interventions as a lever.<br />

© Plusoffice, Enprove, Eeklo (BE)<br />

148<br />

4.F Local <strong>energy</strong> action plan<br />

A local <strong>energy</strong> action plan (LEAP) defines <strong>the</strong><br />

ambitions, <strong>the</strong> division of roles between actors, <strong>the</strong> expected<br />

outcomes and <strong>the</strong> projects and actions th<strong>at</strong> will be set up to<br />

realize <strong>the</strong> development of <strong>the</strong> PED. By setting out <strong>the</strong>se<br />

actions in different working tracks on a timeline, it becomes<br />

clear who needs to act when, where and how. The action plan<br />

stipul<strong>at</strong>es how <strong>the</strong> different sub-projects rel<strong>at</strong>e to each o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

and add-up to <strong>the</strong> integr<strong>at</strong>ed targets th<strong>at</strong> had been established.<br />

This document is <strong>the</strong> result of collabor<strong>at</strong>ion between <strong>the</strong><br />

various actors involved in <strong>the</strong> implement<strong>at</strong>ion of each action<br />

and <strong>the</strong> group of partners responsible for coordin<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong><br />

whole. An action plan can be very sketchy in <strong>the</strong> early phase<br />

of <strong>the</strong> PED development, to <strong>the</strong>n evolve into more precise<br />

For Muide Meulestede in<br />

Ghent (BE), Architecture<br />

Workroom Brussels, toge<strong>the</strong>r with<br />

<strong>the</strong> City of Ghent, 3E, W<strong>at</strong>tson,<br />

and Energent, developed <strong>the</strong><br />

partnership and timeline for a<br />

three-year Living Lab as a first<br />

step in <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion towards<br />

a fossil-free neighbourhood. The<br />

development of an action plan<br />

and <strong>the</strong> bringing toge<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong><br />

coalition and budgets are almost<br />

complete and took more than a<br />

year (2022-23). Over <strong>the</strong> next<br />

three years, three concrete pilot<br />

projects are going to be set up<br />

and implemented (Track A: Pilot

and detailed versions fur<strong>the</strong>r in <strong>the</strong> process. Each of <strong>the</strong>se<br />

can also be approved as an official document th<strong>at</strong> is politically<br />

endorsed, th<strong>at</strong> formalizes <strong>the</strong> commitments of different<br />

stakeholders, and th<strong>at</strong> is publicized broadly.<br />

projects). For example, a local<br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing network connected to <strong>the</strong><br />

geo<strong>the</strong>rmal probes underne<strong>at</strong>h<br />

<strong>the</strong> football field serves as an<br />

incentive to renov<strong>at</strong>e around<br />

fifty single-family houses in <strong>the</strong><br />

surrounding streets. The design<br />

of each pilot project will require<br />

experts from different disciplines,<br />

each of who will oversee a work<br />

track and ga<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>ir insights and<br />

experiences in bimonthly design<br />

sessions. Besides <strong>the</strong> pilot projects,<br />

an overarching neighbourhoodwide<br />

programme will be set up<br />

(Track B: District approach). This<br />

will involve fur<strong>the</strong>r mapping of <strong>the</strong><br />

neighbourhood, building on <strong>the</strong><br />

various studies already undertaken,<br />

and mobilizing <strong>the</strong> coalition of<br />

<strong>the</strong> willing in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood.<br />

The aim is to produce an <strong>energy</strong><br />

action plan for <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood<br />

in 2025, which will underpin <strong>the</strong><br />

new organiz<strong>at</strong>ional structure and<br />

phases. Finally, political valid<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

in <strong>the</strong> city of Ghent and exchange<br />

with o<strong>the</strong>r cities and scales will be<br />

shaped in a learning programme<br />

(Track C: Knowledge-sharing and<br />

capacity-building). Finally, after<br />

three years of experiment<strong>at</strong>ion,<br />

a blueprint for <strong>the</strong> launch of <strong>the</strong><br />

next series of pilot projects and<br />

programmes in Muide Meulestede<br />

should be on <strong>the</strong> table, which<br />

can <strong>the</strong>n be extended to o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

neighbourhoods.<br />

© Sis Pillen, Ghent (BE)<br />

149<br />

We were asked by <strong>the</strong> city to lead a working<br />

track in <strong>the</strong>ir PED str<strong>at</strong>egy for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

When we told <strong>the</strong>m about our idea to consider<br />

<strong>the</strong> community’s public space project around <strong>the</strong><br />

schoolyard as a first anchor point for <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong><br />

he<strong>at</strong>ing, <strong>the</strong>y were intrigued. As architects, we<br />

were able to bring toge<strong>the</strong>r different possibili<br />

ties and now we’re visualizing this potential for<br />

convers<strong>at</strong>ions with <strong>the</strong> residents <strong>the</strong>mselves. We<br />

made large collages using photos of <strong>the</strong> school’s<br />

surroundings, combined with drawings by local<br />

children and images of places elsewhere in <strong>the</strong> city<br />

where residents like to go. The school would be <strong>the</strong><br />

first public building in <strong>the</strong> area to be renov<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 4 – How to co-design <strong>the</strong> step-by-step str<strong>at</strong>egy

150<br />

so th<strong>at</strong> it could be connected to <strong>the</strong> he<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

network. Simultaneously, <strong>the</strong> courtyard would<br />

be redesigned and replanted. It would become a<br />

central public space for <strong>the</strong> area’s residents. The<br />

local Guerrilla Gardening Associ<strong>at</strong>ion, which<br />

employs people from <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood who<br />

want to do some extra work as gardeners, would<br />

manage <strong>the</strong> redevelopment of this community<br />

park. Solar panels would be installed on <strong>the</strong> roof<br />

of <strong>the</strong> school, and <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> produced would be<br />

shared with local households. We paid careful<br />

<strong>at</strong>tention to visualizing <strong>the</strong> project and how it<br />

could address several sustainability goals and<br />

local issues <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> same time. This helped <strong>the</strong><br />

residents to become more involved. They took<br />

part in <strong>the</strong> development of different scenarios<br />

and projects in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>. Toge<strong>the</strong>r we agreed<br />

on <strong>the</strong> first priority projects and on intermedi<strong>at</strong>e<br />

milestones, which we set out in a step-by-step<br />

action plan. This document is now being used as<br />

a framework for tracking and communic<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

about <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion.

KEY 5<br />

151<br />

Who coordin<strong>at</strong>es<br />

<strong>the</strong> multi-stakeholder<br />


152<br />

A year ago, we were organizing <strong>the</strong><br />

temporary reloc<strong>at</strong>ion of our football club to<br />

ano<strong>the</strong>r pitch while ours was being renov<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

and new changing rooms were being built. We<br />

wanted to install geo<strong>the</strong>rmal boreholes under <strong>the</strong><br />

pitch to provide <strong>energy</strong> for our own buildings: we<br />

have changing rooms, a kitchen and a dining hall<br />

where we hold community events. The project<br />

seemed ambitious in itself already. But when we<br />

spoke to <strong>the</strong> company th<strong>at</strong> was going to install<br />

<strong>the</strong> geo<strong>the</strong>rmal system, <strong>the</strong> idea of drilling more<br />

boreholes came up. They mentioned th<strong>at</strong> a football<br />

pitch would be an ideal place for a collective geo<strong>the</strong>rmal<br />

plant to supply he<strong>at</strong> to <strong>the</strong> surrounding<br />

buildings. We discussed <strong>the</strong> idea with <strong>the</strong> players<br />

and parents living nearby to see if <strong>the</strong>y’d be interested.<br />

Although <strong>the</strong>y were eager to join <strong>the</strong> project,<br />

a lot of unanswered questions made many of <strong>the</strong>m<br />

hesitant: How would <strong>the</strong> whole project be financed?<br />

Would <strong>the</strong> houses have to be renov<strong>at</strong>ed, and <strong>at</strong><br />

wh<strong>at</strong> cost? Toge<strong>the</strong>r with <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> company, we<br />

approached <strong>the</strong> municipality to present our project<br />

and ask for <strong>the</strong>ir support. The meeting went well,<br />

but opinions differed around <strong>the</strong> table: <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

department was enthusiastic about <strong>the</strong> extra kWh<br />

but <strong>the</strong> public works department was concerned<br />

about <strong>the</strong> public works needed, while <strong>the</strong> social<br />

department wanted to get all residents on board<br />

first. At th<strong>at</strong> point, although I fully believed in <strong>the</strong><br />

project, I couldn’t imagine how a process with so<br />

many stakeholders could be coordin<strong>at</strong>ed.

PEDs involve a multitude of actions,<br />

projects and stakeholders, each with <strong>the</strong>ir own<br />

agendas, timelines and languages. With <strong>the</strong> right<br />

form of organiz<strong>at</strong>ion <strong>at</strong> <strong>district</strong> <strong>level</strong>, <strong>the</strong>y can add<br />

up in terms of space, budget and time.<br />

153<br />

Local merchants, priv<strong>at</strong>e developers and building owners, financiers, resident<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions, municipal departments, knowledge institutions, interest groups,<br />

<strong>energy</strong> providers and distributors, regional and n<strong>at</strong>ional authorities, planners<br />

and consultants … They all have a contribution to make to, and a stake in,<br />

<strong>the</strong> development of a PED. They all speak <strong>the</strong>ir own lingo, have <strong>the</strong>ir own<br />

timelines and agendas. And yet <strong>the</strong>y need to coordin<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong>ir actions as part<br />

of an ambitious and integr<strong>at</strong>ed neighbourhood approach. There is need for<br />

a common, str<strong>at</strong>egic framework within which individual actors and projects<br />

can position <strong>the</strong>mselves, need for a common language and for continuity<br />

throughout <strong>the</strong> lengthy process. Who can take on this responsibility?<br />

In some cases, this role is already partly fulfilled. In<br />

<strong>district</strong>-based urban renewal programmes, for example, a coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

unit is temporarily set up (for a dur<strong>at</strong>ion of five or ten years, say) and has<br />

<strong>the</strong> mand<strong>at</strong>e to initi<strong>at</strong>e, support and connect different projects. Master<br />

planners play an integr<strong>at</strong>ive role in producing a development str<strong>at</strong>egy and<br />

are increasingly expected to involve and engage different stakeholders<br />

early in <strong>the</strong> process (possibly in a wider team th<strong>at</strong> includes particip<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

experts). But in a traditional development process, <strong>the</strong> role of a master<br />

planner or coordin<strong>at</strong>ion unit ceases once <strong>the</strong> buildings or infrastructure<br />

have been implemented. This isn’t <strong>the</strong> case in a PED process. Not only does<br />

its development extend over several actions, projects and a long period of<br />

time (fifteen, twenty or even more years), how <strong>the</strong> infrastructure of a PED is<br />

eventually used is also crucial and requires follow-up.<br />

Management of <strong>the</strong> community and stakeholders is also<br />

of gre<strong>at</strong>er intensity and complexity. Neighbourhood managers and social<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions th<strong>at</strong> are active today already have access to a wide network<br />

of residents and local stakeholders. They are used to building long-term<br />

rel<strong>at</strong>ions and a position in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. But <strong>the</strong>y are less familiar with<br />

coordin<strong>at</strong>ing integr<strong>at</strong>ed multi-stakeholder processes, let alone <strong>the</strong> technical<br />

dimensions of <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong> <strong>transition</strong>. A PED process needs a type of organiz<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

(unit, pl<strong>at</strong>form, partnership, company) th<strong>at</strong> acts transversally across different<br />

disciplines and sectors, with <strong>the</strong> capacity to coordin<strong>at</strong>e a long-term multistakeholder<br />

process.<br />

In this Key, we first look <strong>at</strong> bandwidth of approaches to<br />

<strong>the</strong> coordin<strong>at</strong>ion of a PED development, introducing three different models<br />

we recognize in <strong>the</strong> experiments in Chapter 1. In <strong>the</strong> second part, we zoom<br />

out to <strong>the</strong> larger governance ecosystem in which this coordin<strong>at</strong>ion unit will<br />

be positioned. This part provides concrete examples of how to involve in<br />

your str<strong>at</strong>egic decision-making process different departments within <strong>the</strong> city<br />

administr<strong>at</strong>ion, <strong>the</strong> political <strong>level</strong>, residents and o<strong>the</strong>r local stakeholders and<br />

<strong>the</strong> professional practice.<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 5 – Who coordin<strong>at</strong>es <strong>the</strong> multi-stakeholder process

Three different models<br />

The experiments in Chapter 1 and throughout this public<strong>at</strong>ion show th<strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong>re are several ways to approach <strong>the</strong> coordin<strong>at</strong>ion of PED developments.<br />

The governance structures are established step by step, with different degrees of<br />

represent<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> various stakeholders involved. We see th<strong>at</strong> public bodies,<br />

priv<strong>at</strong>e companies and civil society take up different roles. But who would<br />

you entrust with <strong>the</strong> mand<strong>at</strong>e to coordin<strong>at</strong>e your PED project? Should it be<br />

organized more centrally or more locally, more formally or more informally?<br />

And wh<strong>at</strong> competences should you make sure to have on board? From <strong>the</strong><br />

PED experiments we documented, we’ve derived three models th<strong>at</strong> jointly<br />

describe a range of possible approaches. This is meant as a starting point<br />

for a convers<strong>at</strong>ion about local ambitions, dynamics and existing actors in<br />

your neighbourhood. Which model will work best in a particular context will<br />

depend on cultural differences (top-down vs bottom-up tradition, for example),<br />

wh<strong>at</strong> systems and projects are needed or promising (it will be difficult to<br />

build a central he<strong>at</strong>ing network without a strong public partner on board),<br />

or which stakeholders are already active and networked (a cooper<strong>at</strong>ive or<br />

social organiz<strong>at</strong>ion with roots in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood can be a very strong<br />

broker in a PED development). It’s up to you to evalu<strong>at</strong>e <strong>the</strong>se models, tweak<br />

<strong>the</strong>m and combine <strong>the</strong>m until you have a coordin<strong>at</strong>ion model th<strong>at</strong> works for<br />

your neighbourhood.<br />

154<br />

5.A Development unit in <strong>the</strong> city administr<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

The development of a PED can be coordin<strong>at</strong>ed<br />

by a dedic<strong>at</strong>ed unit within <strong>the</strong> municipal administr<strong>at</strong>ion. This<br />

team of people has <strong>the</strong> capacity to work across and integr<strong>at</strong>e<br />

different policy domains and stakeholders. It may be housed<br />

within a single department but have a specific mission to work<br />

closely with o<strong>the</strong>r departments and outside stakeholders.<br />

It can also be a transversal unit with its own mission, cutting<br />

across departments. Or a collabor<strong>at</strong>ion between different<br />

municipal departments, bringing toge<strong>the</strong>r administr<strong>at</strong>ors in<br />

a joint team. The advantages of a municipal development unit<br />

are th<strong>at</strong> it oper<strong>at</strong>es directly from <strong>the</strong> city’s long-term sustainability<br />

targets and th<strong>at</strong> (o<strong>the</strong>r) policy departments with a stake<br />

in <strong>the</strong> PED process can easily be involved. It guarantees <strong>the</strong><br />

represent<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> public interest, <strong>the</strong> long-term and largescale<br />

vision, and <strong>the</strong> link with urban services such as <strong>energy</strong><br />

infrastructure, mobility or <strong>the</strong> design and maintenance of<br />

public spaces.<br />

Mobility<br />

department<br />

Energy<br />

department<br />

…<br />


Sustainability<br />

team<br />

Sustainability<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egists<br />

Project team<br />


The development unit for <strong>the</strong><br />

Stockholm Royal Seaport (SE) is<br />

a dedic<strong>at</strong>ed team within a single<br />

department of <strong>the</strong> City (<strong>the</strong><br />

Development Administr<strong>at</strong>ion). Its<br />

mission is to work across projects<br />

and departments via its sustainability<br />

str<strong>at</strong>egists. The municipal<br />

Development Administr<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

manages all of Stockholm’s 400 to<br />

500 urban development projects,<br />

including <strong>the</strong> Stockholm Royal<br />

Seaport. As one of <strong>the</strong> largest<br />

projects, <strong>the</strong> Royal Seaport has<br />

its own dedic<strong>at</strong>ed team of around<br />

fifteen people and can draw on a<br />

team of 100 consultants within and<br />

outside <strong>the</strong> municipality. The team<br />

is responsible for planning, land<br />

sales and leases, and <strong>the</strong> development<br />

of public open spaces. Next to<br />

<strong>the</strong> project teams, <strong>the</strong> Development<br />

Administr<strong>at</strong>ion has set up a general<br />

sustainability team to ensure knowledge<br />

transfer between projects<br />

and departments. The Stockholm<br />

Royal Seaport, as <strong>the</strong> flagship of<br />

sustainable urban development, is<br />

<strong>the</strong> only project within <strong>the</strong> department<br />

to have its own sustainability<br />

team. The sustainability str<strong>at</strong>egists<br />

in this team ensure th<strong>at</strong> sustainability<br />

requirements are included<br />

in development contracts and in<br />

<strong>the</strong> city’s own work. They monitor<br />

results, evalu<strong>at</strong>e targets and scale<br />

up to o<strong>the</strong>r projects in <strong>the</strong> city.<br />

Having this sustainability team<br />

within <strong>the</strong> project teams makes a<br />

big difference in terms of continuity<br />

and involvement.<br />

© Based on Stockholms Stad (SE)

5.B Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV)<br />

In o<strong>the</strong>r cases th<strong>at</strong> were studied, a publicpriv<strong>at</strong>e<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ion or public development company<br />

was established for <strong>the</strong> (re)development of a particular<br />

neighbourhood. The knowledge, levers and interests of public<br />

and priv<strong>at</strong>e actors are activ<strong>at</strong>ed and streamlined around a<br />

shared vision, through cooper<strong>at</strong>ion ra<strong>the</strong>r than negoti<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

Priv<strong>at</strong>e organiz<strong>at</strong>ions and public authorities bring toge<strong>the</strong>r<br />

innov<strong>at</strong>ion and competence <strong>at</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>level</strong> of management<br />

and specific <strong>energy</strong> or sustainability solutions. Financially<br />

and oper<strong>at</strong>ionally, <strong>the</strong> SPV works outside of <strong>the</strong> municipal<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ion and budgetary frameworks. By setting up and<br />

particip<strong>at</strong>ing in a separ<strong>at</strong>e company, a public authority can<br />

act as a shareholder and engage in real-est<strong>at</strong>e transactions<br />

th<strong>at</strong> it can’t carry out by itself.<br />

Building<br />

society of<br />

<strong>the</strong> Austrian<br />

savings bank<br />

group<br />

In <strong>the</strong> example of aspern Seestadt<br />

in Vienna (AT), a public-priv<strong>at</strong>e<br />

<strong>district</strong> development company<br />

named Wien 3420 aspern Development<br />

AG was founded in 2004,<br />

five years before <strong>the</strong> development<br />

of <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> started. This entity<br />

is responsible for coordin<strong>at</strong>ing<br />

all urban planning activities and<br />

infrastructures <strong>at</strong> Seestadt. Its role<br />

ranges from master planning to<br />

drawing up contracts with developers<br />

and following up on <strong>the</strong> actual<br />

oper<strong>at</strong>ion of <strong>the</strong> newly built <strong>district</strong>.<br />

For instance, this SPV has a Neighbourhood<br />

Management Team th<strong>at</strong><br />

helps new residents to settle in. It<br />

also facilit<strong>at</strong>es <strong>the</strong> development of a<br />

lively community, provides inform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

on <strong>the</strong> l<strong>at</strong>est developments<br />

in and around Seestadt, and supports initi<strong>at</strong>ives for<br />

active involvement in <strong>the</strong> neighbourhood. Through an<br />

agreement with local developers (formalized via land<br />

sale contracts), <strong>the</strong> SPV rents <strong>the</strong> commercial spaces<br />

in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> for <strong>the</strong> first twelve years, allowing it<br />

to actively guarantee a diversity of commercial and<br />

non-commercial functions.<br />

© Based on Wien 3420 AG, Vienna (AT)<br />

155<br />

Vienna<br />

Insurance<br />

Group<br />

WIEN 3420<br />

73.4%<br />

aspern Development AG<br />

26.6%<br />

Austrian<br />

federal<br />

property<br />

administr<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Vienna<br />

Business<br />

Agency, a fund<br />

of <strong>the</strong> City of<br />

Vienna<br />

Wien 3420<br />

Holding<br />

5.C Neighbourhood coordin<strong>at</strong>ion pl<strong>at</strong>form<br />

In neighbourhoods where residents or local<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions take <strong>the</strong> initi<strong>at</strong>ive or actively particip<strong>at</strong>e in<br />

<strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion, a coordin<strong>at</strong>ion pl<strong>at</strong>form makes<br />

it possible to formalize equivalent roles for public, priv<strong>at</strong>e<br />

and civil partners as well as citizens. It focuses on valorizing<br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ion and bundling forces. Ra<strong>the</strong>r than depending on<br />

centralized actions and planning, a pl<strong>at</strong>form makes it possible<br />

to value and support a multitude of initi<strong>at</strong>ives and projects. It<br />

pursues synergies and complementarities between <strong>the</strong> actions<br />

of different social actors and disciplines and ensures th<strong>at</strong><br />

each of <strong>the</strong>se contributes to an overarching str<strong>at</strong>egy th<strong>at</strong> has<br />

often been co-designed. Coordin<strong>at</strong>ion is less centralized than<br />

in <strong>the</strong> previous two models and allows for an accumul<strong>at</strong>ive<br />

development model (ra<strong>the</strong>r than master planning). Involving<br />

local organiz<strong>at</strong>ions and residents in coordin<strong>at</strong>ing organiz<strong>at</strong>ional<br />

structures streng<strong>the</strong>ns <strong>the</strong> feeling of co-ownership<br />

and agency.<br />

In Bospolder-Tussendijken in<br />

Rotterdam (NL), several civic<br />

organiz<strong>at</strong>ions are taking action<br />

with regard to <strong>energy</strong>, clim<strong>at</strong>e<br />

adapt<strong>at</strong>ion, health and governance.<br />

Women’s associ<strong>at</strong>ions, religious<br />

communities and informal networks<br />

are focusing on improving quality<br />

of life and welfare in <strong>the</strong> <strong>district</strong>.<br />

To pool <strong>the</strong> capacities and knowledge<br />

of <strong>the</strong> municipality, housing<br />

associ<strong>at</strong>ion, <strong>energy</strong> provider, design<br />

sector, research institution and<br />

<strong>the</strong>se common initi<strong>at</strong>ives, a series of<br />

actions were taken: a cooper<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

agreement was concluded, an urban<br />

renewal programme was set up<br />

(BoTu 2028), and a design research<br />

<strong>at</strong>elier was launched (IABR–Atelier<br />

Rotterdam). In this way, public,<br />

priv<strong>at</strong>e and civic partners in<br />

<strong>the</strong> neighbourhood are working<br />

toge<strong>the</strong>r in a non-hierarchical<br />

way. The primary target of <strong>the</strong><br />

local organiz<strong>at</strong>ions involved might<br />

↧<br />

CHAPTER 2. Keys for realizing PEDs<br />

KEY 5 – Who coordin<strong>at</strong>es <strong>the</strong> multi-stakeholder process

BOTU 2028<br />

be different and sometimes unrel<strong>at</strong>ed to <strong>the</strong> <strong>energy</strong><br />

<strong>transition</strong> (job opportunities or public safety), but <strong>the</strong>ir<br />

networks and methods contribute to <strong>the</strong> transform<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

into a gas-free <strong>district</strong>. And conversely: through<br />

<strong>the</strong>ir active particip<strong>at</strong>ion in making BoTu a gas-free<br />

neighbourhood, <strong>the</strong>se investments are turned into<br />

levers for <strong>the</strong>ir primary concerns and targets. Open<br />

and transparent agreements and working methods<br />

help to hold a multitude of actions, projects and<br />

investments toge<strong>the</strong>r.<br />

© Based on Delfshaven Coöper<strong>at</strong>ie, Rotterdam (NL)<br />




Architecture Biennale<br />

Design team<br />

Antropologists<br />

Research institute<br />

…<br />

Neighbourhood<br />

cooper<strong>at</strong>ive<br />




City of Rotterdam<br />

Housing corpor<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

Energy company<br />


…<br />

Environmental coach training<br />

Energy Agora<br />

Wh<strong>at</strong>sApp group<br />

for clean BoTu<br />

ENERGY<br />


…<br />

…<br />

House of <strong>the</strong> Future<br />

…<br />

Community for<br />

inclusive meeting spaces<br />




Energy portraits<br />

Particip<strong>at</strong>ory <strong>the</strong><strong>at</strong>re<br />



Integr<strong>at</strong>ion into a larger governance<br />

framework<br />

The organiz<strong>at</strong>ional unit or model you set up for your <strong>district</strong> won’t stand<br />

alone. PEDs depend on a broader ecosystem of public, priv<strong>at</strong>e and civic actors<br />

working toge<strong>the</strong>r in organized constell<strong>at</strong>ions. Next to coordin<strong>at</strong>ion, you might<br />

want to establish specific form<strong>at</strong>s th<strong>at</strong> allow <strong>the</strong>m to contribute. Learning from<br />

<strong>the</strong> PED experiments in Chapter 1, we have identified four types of actors for<br />

which specific exchange and collabor<strong>at</strong>ion form<strong>at</strong>s are designed:<br />

1. Involving different departments within <strong>the</strong> municipality.<br />

2. Getting <strong>the</strong> political <strong>level</strong> on board.<br />

3. Giving residents a voice.<br />

4. Forming an alliance with priv<strong>at</strong>e partners.<br />

156<br />

In wh<strong>at</strong> follows, we give one example of a concrete form<strong>at</strong> th<strong>at</strong> was designed to<br />

structurally involve each of <strong>the</strong>se four str<strong>at</strong>egic stakeholder groups.

5.D Interdepartmental working group<br />

Often, different departments are already<br />

somehow engaged in coordin<strong>at</strong>ing <strong>the</strong> PED, as we have seen<br />

in <strong>the</strong> above three models. But o<strong>the</strong>r people from specific<br />

departments will also need to be on board: think of <strong>the</strong> public<br />

procurement department, <strong>the</strong> people who make long-term<br />

<strong>energy</strong> policy, <strong>the</strong> team th<strong>at</strong> coordin<strong>at</strong>es public works, or <strong>the</strong><br />

finance department. PEDs touch upon <strong>energy</strong> and sustainability<br />

challenges but also public space, housing, mobility, health,<br />

social m<strong>at</strong>ters, w<strong>at</strong>er and greening. Different departments will<br />

thus have to be aligned on str<strong>at</strong>egy-building and project implement<strong>at</strong>ion.<br />

But not each of <strong>the</strong>se departments can or should<br />

do so in <strong>the</strong> same active way, as part of <strong>the</strong> core coordin<strong>at</strong>ion<br />

model. Therefore, a citywide, interdepartmental working<br />

group can be formed. They meet several times a year and, if<br />

applicable, can eventually discuss several neighbourhoods <strong>at</strong><br />

<strong>the</strong> same time.<br />

In Stockholm (SE), six interdepartmental<br />

working groups were set<br />

up in <strong>the</strong> context of <strong>the</strong> Stockholm<br />

Royal Seaport: Energy, Clim<strong>at</strong>e<br />

adapt<strong>at</strong>ion, W<strong>at</strong>er and waste,<br />

Sustainable transport, Sustainable<br />

buildings, Sustainable infrastructure<br />

and Living and working sustainably.<br />

They meet regularly to define<br />

requirements, analyse r