SLSNZ NATIONAL Beach & Coastal Safety Report

SurfLifeSavingNZ1910

New Zealand has one of the highest fatal drowning rates in the OECD1. This report is our way of drawing a line in the sand. We, Surf Life Saving New Zealand, are saying “enough is enough”. No more unnecessary deaths from drowning on our beaches and along our coastline.

NATIONAL BEACH &

COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 & 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19


KEY FINDINGS

KEY FINDINGS

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

10 YEA R O V E RVI E W | 2 0 0 9 - 1 9

We call on those who have the authority, the legal or the moral responsibility,

to work with us and our drowning prevention partners to stop the death toll from

getting worse, and to reduce it to a level where we can be proud as an island nation

to say ‘we have no preventable drownings on our beach and coastal areas’.

1

Fatal Drownings in New Zealand

Have INCREASED.

There has been a 37% increase in Beach and

Coastal Fatal Drownings over the last 5 years, when

compared to the previous 5 years.

2

Our Fatal Drownings are 70%

HIGHER Than Australia.

New Zealand has a 70% higher Beach and Coastal

Fatal Drowning rate per capita than Australia.

3

1:15

For Every Child or Young

Adolescent That Fatally Drowned,

15 Were Hospitalised for

Non-Fatal Drowning Injuries.

Children are grossly over-represented in the

non-fatal drowning statistics. For every child or

young adolescent that fatally drowns,there are15

that are hospitalised having suffered from

non-fatal drowning .

4

Males are Fatally Drowning

MORE Than Females.

89%

MALE

11%

FEMALE

Of those who died from drowning over the last 10

years, males represent 89% and females only 11%.

Men are fatally drowning more on our beaches and

coastline than females.

5

2.0

Pasifika had the HIGHEST Fatal

Drowning Rate Over the Last

10 years.

6

Almost 50% of Fatal Drownings

Occured in Summer.

7

Northland has New Zealand’s

HIGHEST Fatal Drowning Rate

3.91

8

Adults are Fatally Drowning

MORE Than Children and Young

Adolescents.

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

All Others Maori Pacific Peoples

Over the last 10 years Pacific Peoples had the

highest Fatal Drowning rate (1.69 per 100,000 pop)

of any ethnicity, closely followed by Maori

(1.27 pero 100,000 pop).

Over the last 10 years, there were 144 Fatal

Beach and Coastal Drownings during the

Summer months of December, January and

February. This figure represents nearly half of

the total annual fatal drownings recorded,

highlighting the increased risk associated with

the busy Summer season.

The rate of fatal drownings per 100,000pop in

Northland is 3.91, whereas Auckland (with a much

larger population), has a fatal drowning rate of only

0.63. Therefore the risk of drowning on the beach

and coastline of Northland is more than 6 times

greater than Auckland.

Adults over the age of 15 have a higher probability

of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning, than children

and young adolescents. 35-44 being the category

with the most Fatal Drownings recorded.

9

Surf Beaches Pose the HIGHEST

Risk for Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drowning in New Zealand.

10

Over the Last 10 Years, the

HIGHEST RISK Activities on a

Beach and Coastal Environment

Have Been:

However...

Last Year the HIGHEST RISK

Activities Were:

Over the last 10 years, 39% of beach and coastal

fatal drownings occured at a surf beach in

New Zealand.

Swimming/Wading Falls (trips/slips) Boating Rock Fishing Watercraft Swimming/Wading

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND KEY FINDINGS INFOGRAPHICS

02 03


DROWNING SNAPSHOT

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

CONTENTS

LOCATION

39%

SURF BEACH

ACTIVITY

22%

SWIMMING/WADING

320 89%

MALE

BEACH &

COASTAL FATAL

DROWNINGS

15%

ROCKY

FORESHORE

20%

FALLS

11%

FEMALE

14%

HARBOUR

15%

BOATING

Key Findings Infographics 02

Synopsis 06

Key Findings 07

Northland 38

SECTION ONE:

09

Auckland 40

CAPABILITY

Waikato 42

Bay of Plenty 44

Capability 10 Gisborne 46

Surf Life Saving Patrol

Locations 12

Hawke's Bay

Taranaki

48

50

Surf Lifeguard Capability 13 Manawatu-Wanganui 52

Rescues Per Region 14 Wellington 54

Assists Per Region 15 Tasman 56

Major First Aid Incidents 16 Marlborough 58

Minor First Aid Incidents 17 West Coast 60

Searches Per Region 18 Canterbury 62

Preventative Actions 19 Otago 64

Southland 66

SECTION T WO:

21

FATAL DROWNING

SECTION SIX:

69

10 YEAR ACTIVITY

10 Year National Overview 22 OVERVIEW 2009-19

SECTION THREE:

FATAL DROWNING

ANALYSIS - 2018/19

29

1 Year National Overview 30

SECTION FOUR:

NON-FATAL

DROWNING

33

Non-Fatal Drownings Overview 34

Comparison of Fatal and

Non-Fatal Drownings on Beaches 35

SECTION FIVE:

REGIONAL OVERVIEWS

37

Snapshot: Swimming/Wading 70

Snapshot: Falls 71

Snapshot: Boating 72

Snapshot: Watercraft 73

Snapshot: Snorkelling 74

Key Terms 76

References 78


SYNOPSIS

KEY FINDINGS

New Zealand has one of the highest fatal

drowning rates in the OECD 1 .

Each one leaves families and communities devastated. Our

drowning toll is something every New Zealander should see

as a national tragedy and one we all have a responsibility to

address (Water Safety New Zealand, 2019b).

Drowning is not just a tragedy for those involved, but

each drowning has a considerable economic impact too.

The social cost to New Zealand of one water drowning

fatality has been estimated at $4.729 million and this can

be expected to be higher for children under 5 years-old who

live longer (Water Safety New Zealand, 2019a).

Each year, more than three million people visit beaches

and 1.5 million go boating (Water Safety New Zealand,

2015). These people are exposed to a risk of drowning,

that Surf Life Saving New Zealand (SLSNZ) is committed to

reducing. SLSNZ is the leading beach and coastal safety,

drowning prevention and rescue authority in New Zealand.

The purpose of the organisation is to enable everyone to

enjoy New Zealand’s beaches safely with a vision of zero

preventable drownings.

The New Zealand coastline varies dramatically. The west

coast is exposed to the energetic Tasman Sea whereas the

east coast faces the South Pacific Ocean, which at times

can be just as dangerous. The coastline of New Zealand

is approximately 15,000km in length, the ninth longest

coastline of any nation in the world. New Zealand beaches

and coastal areas are known to be some of the most

beautiful. However, our nation has a shocking annual beach

and coastal drowning toll.

During the last 10 years, there has been an average of 32

fatal drownings per year, which is a 70% higher beach and

coastal drowning rate per capita, compared to Australia.

Despite some drowning trends in New Zealand being on

the decline (Water Safety New Zealand, 2019b), beach and

coastal drownings are on the increase.

In order to help understand the problem in more detail,

SLSNZ has produced this report, which although based on

a similar report that our sister organisation Surf Life Saving

Australia has been producing for some time, is the first of its

kind here in New Zealand. It is designed to complement the

National Drowning Report produced by Water Safety New

Zealand and to contribute to the New Zealand Water Safety

Sector Strategy. The report provides an analysis of fatal and

non-fatal drownings and rescues where a fatal or non-fatal

drowning has been averted. It compares data from 2018-

19 with the 10-year average from July 2009 - June 2019.

It also provides both a national and regional overview with

a breakdown of who is drowning, where they are drowning

and what they are doing when they drown.

The report in itself does not provide answers, it simply

provides the data in such a way that highlights the problem

and will aid further analysis to help provide potential

solutions. SLSNZ will continue to undertake a comprehensive

Coastal Risk Assessment process using information gained

from more in-depth studies of each fatal and non-fatal

drowning as well as rescues. Using this information,

SLSNZ will work with Central and Local Government, key

landowners and stakeholders to clarify the responsibility

for beach and coastal safety and then, using an evidencebased,

collaborative and partnership approach, provide

targeted safety interventions at local, regional and national

levels that lead towards a safer future for all those that visit

and recreate on beaches along New Zealand’s coastline.

This report is our way of drawing a line in the sand.

We, Surf Life Saving New Zealand, are saying “enough

is enough”. No more unnecessary deaths from

drowning on our beaches and along our coastline.

We call on those who have the authority, the legal or the

moral responsibility, to work with us and our drowning

prevention partners to stop the death toll from getting

worse, and to reduce it to a level where we can be proud as

an island nation to say ‘we have no preventable drownings

on our beach and coastal areas’.

The National Beach and Coastal Safety Report only documents

incidents that have occurred within the coastal zone. The coastal

zone is defined as “Tidal waters (estuary, harbour, marina and

river/harbour bar); ocean up to 1km offshore; or inland up to five

times the width of the inlet/river”.

“Boating” is defined as either a powered vessel or a sailing boat.

“Watercraft” is defined as a piece of non-powered recreational

equipment used in water, e.g. surfboards, stand-up paddleboards,

body boards, windsurfers or kayaks.

Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings are increasing. In

the last five years, there has been a 37% rise compared to

the previous five years (27 to 37 per year). Even allowing

for population growth, the fatal drowning rate has still risen

by 21% (0.70 to 0.85 per 100,000 pop).

• New Zealand now has a 70% higher beach and

coastal drowning rate per capita, compared to Australia.

• It is adults over the age of 15, not children who are

significantly more likely to die from beach and coastal

drowning. Although marginally more than the other age

categories, those from 35-44 are the most ‘at risk’.

• Children and adolescents (0-14 years old) are grossly

over-represented in the fatal to non-fatal drowning

statistics. For every child and adolescent that fatally drowns,

there are 15 that are hospitalised having suffered from nonfatal

drowning.

• Of those who do die from drowning, males represent

89% and females only 11%. In 2018-19 the percentage of

men dropped slightly, but in general, men are still much

more likely to drown on our beaches and the coastline than

women. This is also true of non-fatal drownings.

• Over the last 10 years, Pacific Peoples had the highest

drowning rate (1.69 per 100,000pop) of any ethnicity,

closely followed by Maori (1.27 per 100,000pop).

• Over the last 10 years, there were 144 beach and

coastal drowning fatalities during the three summer

months of December, January and February. This figure

represents nearly half of the total annual beach and coastal

drowning fatalities recorded, highlighting the increased risk

associated with the busy summer season.

• Over the last 10 years, swimming/wading, falling

(trips/slips) and boating have been the highest risk

activities on the coast. Last year rock fishing and watercraft

recreation were the joint highest risk activities, followed by

swimming/wading.

• With an average number of six fatal drownings per

year, Northland is statistically the region which poses

the greatest risk to beach visitors. While Auckland has a

higher average number of fatal drownings per year (n =

10), the rate of drownings per 100,000 in Northland is 3.91,

whereas Auckland (with a much larger population), has a

drowning rate of only 0.63. Therefore, the risk of drowning

on the beach or coast in Northland is more than six times

greater than Auckland 2 .

• Over the last 10 years, Surf Lifeguards have carried

out more than 11,000 rescues. That is a huge number of

fatal drownings that have been potentially averted because

of the vital role that SLSNZ performs.

SLSNZ also saves lives on the beaches as well as

in the sea. All Surf Lifeguards are first aid trained and

many are trained as First Responders. Over the last 10

years, Surf Lifeguards have treated nearly 20,000 people

who have required both minor and major first aid. SLSNZ is

currently partnering with St John Ambulance to increase the

level of care it provides the New Zealand public.

• As part of the ‘National Search and Rescue

Framework’, Volunteer SLSNZ Clubs are regularly called

upon by the Police to respond to incidents out of hours.

These call outs have significantly increased in recent years

as more and more people require our services.

New Zealand has one of the

highest Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drowning Rate in the OECD 1 . Our

Fatal Drowning Toll is something

every New Zealander should see as

a national tragedy and we all have a

responsibility to address.

1 The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a

group of 34 member countries that discuss and develop economic and social

policy. OECD members are democratic countries that support free-market

economies.

2 The population figures are based on those residing in the region, and do not

include visitors. To gain a true picture of the ‘drowning risk’ in any area, future

reports will attempt to allow for the seasonal influx of visitors.

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND SYNOPSIS & KEY FINDINGS

06 07


CAPABILITY

SECTION ONE

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

948,130

PREVENTATIVE

ACTIONS

11,065

RESCUES

5002

ASSISTS

INVOLVING

3,649,523

MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC

40

EMERGENCY

CALLOUT SQUADS

2,910

SEARCHES

19,614

FIRST AID

TREATMENTS


CAPABILITY

CAPABILITY

Surf Life Saving New Zealand has provided a Surf Lifeguard

service to the NZ public for 109 years. The service consists

of 74 volunteer Surf Life Saving Clubs and Contract Surf

Lifeguard Service. When combined, these services patrol a

total of 89 locations country-wide. Between 2018-19 there

were 4903 qualified Surf Lifeguards, with 982 gaining their

Surf Lifeguard Award during the season. Beyond the red and

yellow flags, SLSNZ provides surveillance at many remote

beaches and coastlines through a fleet of Inflatable Rescue

Boats (IRB), Rescue Water Craft (RWC), All-Terrain Vehicles

(ATV) and 4x4’s, and delivers an invaluable Search and

Rescue service, through a network of club-based volunteer

Emergency Callout Squads.

VOLUNTEER SURF LIFEGUARDS

Seasonal patrols are provided by 74 volunteer Surf Life

Saving Clubs, with patrols typically occurring between

Labour weekend (October) and Easter (April). Over the past

few years, SLSNZ clubs have strategically adapted season

lengths and daily patrol timings to meet the ever-changing

demands of the communities they serve. The recommended

Surf Lifeguard service requirements are evidence-based

and derived from coastal risk assessments, which have

been tailored towards existing patrol locations nationally.

The coastal risk assessments also recommend new patrol

locations, based upon risk-adjusted water use values for

each site. SLSNZ works with SLS clubs, communities and

stakeholders to deliver services to areas with the greatest

need.

Volunteer clubs use standardised equipment that includes

Rescue Tubes, Rescue Boards, IRB and RWC to perform

rescues and preventative actions, that stop the public getting

into dangerous situations. The organisation also provides a

number of surveillance patrols to increase service coverage.

All Terrain Vehicles and 4x4 vehicles equipped with first aid

and rescue equipment, ensure coverage is extended across

larger stretches of coastline and remote beaches. Beyond

the surf zone, a number of RWC provide rapid response to

remote areas and rocky foreshores and participate in both

surveillance and Search and Rescue activities.

CONTRACT SURF LIFEGUARD SERVICE

The Contract Surf Lifeguard Service is funded by Regional

Councils and Local Territorial Authorities. Patrols primarily

run on weekdays (Monday-Friday) through the summer

school holidays (December-February). An evidence-based

delivery model for the Contract Surf Lifeguard Service is

also being used to expand services to meet community

need. In some areas, surveillance-based patrolling methods

have been used to extend patrolling hours into the evening,

an approach that has been effective for preventing Surf

Lifeguard fatigue. On-call based services have also been

successfully trialled in the Bay of Plenty, to extend patrols

in response to periods of prolonged settled weather and

dangerous swimming conditions, as well as providing

additional safety services to the public.

SEARCH AND RESCUE

Emergency Callout Squads are used to assist Search and

Rescue agencies or sometimes Maritime New Zealand, in

NZ Police tasked incidents. There are currently 40 active

Emergency Callout Squads nationally. In 2018-19 there

were a total of 57 Category 1 Search and Rescue operations,

which saved a combined total of 36 lives.

SURF LIFEGUARD INTERVENTIONS 2009-2019

The interventions performed whilst Surf Lifeguards have

been protecting our beaches in the last decade have

saved countless lives. This exact figure at present cannot

be quantified, however through these actions SLSNZ and

it’s Volunteer Surf Lifeguards have likely saved more than

11,000 lives.

Table 1

Surf Lifeguard Interventions 2009-19 (last 10yrs)

SURF LIFEGUARD

INTERVENTION

TOTALS

(2009-19)

Rescues / Lives Saved 11,065

Assists (new category since 2016/17) 5,002

Preventative Actions

Number of Public in Preventatives: 3,649,523

948,130

Searches 2,910

Major First Aid Incidents 12,962

Minor First Aid Incidents 6,652

TOTAL INTERVENTIONS 986,721

Figure 01

2018–19: Qualifications Held by Surf Lifeguards

There were a total of 4,903 proficient Surf Lifeguards in 2018-19, of which 982 were new recipients of the Surf Lifeguard

Award. SLSNZ Surf Lifeguards currently hold a total of 9,655 awards, with 2,397 first aid awards and 1,591 craft

qualifications (IRB and RWC).

Figure 02

2018-19: Patrolling Surf Lifeguards per Region

Lifeguards (n)

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

FIRST AID

2,397

Male Lifeguards

Female Lifeguards

BOARD

RESCUE

MODULE

540

PATROL

SUPPORT

50

ADVANCED

LIFEGUARD

AWARD

320

SURF LIFEGUARD

AWARD

4,903

RADIO

OPERATOR

CERTIFICATE

338

IRB

CREWSPERSONS

MODULE

536

AUK BOP CAN GIS HKB MWT MBH NSN NTL OTA STL TKI WKO WGN WTC

Region

SENIOR

LIFEGUARD

AWARD

PATROL

CAPTAIN

117

SENIOR

LIFEGUARD

AWARD

IRB DRIVER

1,025

RESCUE

WATER

CRAFT

OPERATORS

AWARD

30

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

10

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION ONE

11

CAPABILITY


SURF LIFE SAVING PATROL LOCATIONS

SURF LIFEGUARD CAPABILITY

Figure 03

2018–19: Surf Life Saving Patrol Locations per Region

There are a total of 74 Surf Life Saving Clubs in New Zealand who provide voluntary patrols, during varying season lengths

between Labour and Easter weekends.

SAVING PATROL LOCATIONS PER REGION

Northland

6

Figure 04

2018-19: Total Volunteer Surf Life Saving Patrols and Contract Surf Lifeguard Service per Region

There are a total of 74 Surf Life Saving Clubs in New Zealand which provide voluntary patrols, up to a maximum season

length between Labour and Easter weekends. The Contract Surf Lifeguard Service (Monday-Friday) provides 80 Lifeguard

Patrols nationally.

13

Auckland

Bay of Plenty

14

15

12

Volunteer Surf Life Saving Patrols

Contract Surf Lifeguard Service

5

10

Taranaki

Waikato

Gisborne

5

Patrols (n)

9

6

Hawke’s Bay

5

3

4 Manawatu-Wanganui

1 Nelson

ND Tasman

0

NTL AUK WKO BOP GIS TKI MWT HKB WGN NSN MBH WTC CAN OTA STL

Region

Wellington

8

Marlborough

1

2

West Coast

Canterbury

10

Figure 05

2018-19: Equipment Used in a Rescue

Figure 06

2018-19: Patrolling Surf Lifeguards

6%

3%

1

Southland

Otago

6

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

16%

38%

Rescue

Tube

38%

38%

IRB

38%

Rescue Tube

IRB

Rescue Board

RWC

No Gear

57%

MALE

43%

FEMALE

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

12

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION ONE

13

CAPABILITY


RESCUES PER REGION

ASSISTS PER REGION

“Rescue - Where a person requires immediate help to return to shore (or place of safety)

and who without intervention would have suffered distress, injury or drowning”

“Assist - Where a person requires assistance to return to shore but would most likely be

able to get themselves out of danger if unaided”

Figure 07

ESCUES 2018–19: PER Rescues REGION

per Region

Figure 08

2018–19: People Assisted to Safety per Region

ASSISTS PER REGION

Northland

39

Northland

92

186

Auckland

Bay of Plenty

55

311

Auckland

Bay of Plenty

160

182

Waikato

Gisborne

19

243

Waikato

Gisborne

70

17

Taranaki

28

Taranaki

Hawke’s Bay

29

Hawke’s Bay

48

20 Manawatu-Wanganui

10 Nelson

ND Tasman

9 Manawatu-Wanganui

36 Nelson

ND Tasman

Wellington

11

Wellington

114

Marlborough

0

Marlborough

0

0

West Coast

Canterbury

76

Key to Rescues per Region

1 - 15 Rescues

0

West Coast

Canterbury

371

Key to Assists per Region

1 - 50 Assists

16 - 25 Rescues

51 - 100 Assists

26 - 50 Rescues

101 - 200 Assists

51 - 100 Rescues

201 - 300 Assists

> 101 Rescues

> 301 Assists

Otago

58

ND

No Data

Otago

79

ND

No Data

0

Southland

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

0

Southland

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

14

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION ONE

15

CAPABILITY


MAJOR FIRST AID INCIDENTS PER REGION

MINOR FIRST AID INCIDENTS PER REGION

“Major First Aid - Any incident where a patient is administered some form of advanced

medical treatment, or requires hospitalization”

“Minor First Aid - Where a patient is administered some form of

minor medical treatment”

Figure 09

R FIRST 2018–19: Major AID First INCIDENTS Aid Incidents per RegionPER REGION

Figure 10

MINOR FIRST

2018–19:

AID

Minor First

INCIDENTS

Aid Incidents per Region

PER REGION

Northland

15

Northland

142

96

Auckland

Bay of Plenty

55

468

Auckland

Bay of Plenty

388

96

Waikato

Gisborne

3

821

Waikato

Gisborne

30

7

Taranaki

32

Taranaki

Hawke’s Bay

8

Hawke’s Bay

49

4 Manawatu-Wanganui

3 Nelson

ND Tasman

18 Manawatu-Wanganui

20 Nelson

ND Tasman

Wellington

19

Wellington

132

Marlborough

0

Marlborough

27

0

West Coast

Canterbury 13

Key to Major First Aid Incidents

1 - 5 Incidents

0

West Coast

Canterbury

135

Key to Minor First Aid Incidents

1 - 20 Incidents

6 - 10 Incidents

21 - 50 Incidents

11 - 20 Incidents

51 - 150 Incidents

21 - 60 Incidents

151 - 500 Incidents

> 61 Incidents

> 501 Incidents

Otago

7

ND

No Data

Otago

34

ND

No Data

1

Southland

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

3

Southland

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

16

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION ONE

17

CAPABILITY


SEARCHES PER REGION

PREVENTATIVE ACTIONS PER REGION

“Search - Any organised search for a missing person or group either at sea or on land.

Searches include body recoveries”

“Preventative Action - Direct action taken to reduce or eliminate the probability of a

specific rescue, first aid or other reportable incident occuring”

Figure 11

EARCHES

2018–19: Patrol

PER

Searches

REGION

per Region

Figure 12

PREVENTATIVE

2018–19:

ACTIONS

Preventative Actions

PER

per

REGION

Region

Northland

12

Northland 3,787

158

Auckland

Bay of Plenty

57

20,117 Auckland

Bay of Plenty 13,888

88

Waikato

Gisborne

2

34,388 Waikato

Gisborne 2,728

1

Taranaki

12,183

Taranaki

Hawke’s Bay

7

Hawke’s Bay 3,450

9 Manawatu-Wanganui

6 Nelson

ND Tasman

1,140 Manawatu-Wanganui

58 Nelson

ND Tasman

Wellington

19

Wellington 3,088

Marlborough

0

Marlborough

128

0

West Coast

Canterbury 16

Key to Searches per Region

1 - 5 Searches

0

West Coast

Canterbury 18,134

Key to Preventative Actions per Region

1 - 1,000 Actions

6 - 10 Searches

1,001 - 5,000 Actions

11 - 20 Searches

5,001 - 15,000 Actions

21 - 60 Searches

15,001 - 25,000 Actions

> 61 Searches

> 25,000 Actions

Otago

5

ND

No Data

Otago 5,197

ND

No Data

0

Southland

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

21

Southland

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

18

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION ONE

19

CAPABILITY


FATA L D R O W N I N G

ANALYSIS

SECTION TWO

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

320 89%

MALE

BEACH &

COASTAL FATAL

DROWNINGS

11%

FEMALE

LOCATION

39%

SURF BEACH

15%

ROCKY

FORESHORE

14%

HARBOUR

ACTIVITY

22%

SWIMMING/WADING

20%

FALLS

15%

BOATING


NATIONAL OVERVIEW

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

NATIONAL OVERVIEW

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

Each fatal drowning is a tragedy in its own right; it affects

not only close family and friends but the wider community.

The research presented here aims to report and categorise

fatal drownings, to better inform strategic decision making

for preventative educational programmes and community

engagement initiatives. The following section focuses on

fatal drownings that have occured between 2009-19.

Between 2009-19 there were 320 fatal drownings.

Auckland has the highest number of fatal drownings

(n=96), followed by Northland (n=55) and Waikato (n=31).

Surf beaches were the most dangerous environment with

125 fatalities, followed by fatalities that occurred 0-1 km

from shore (n=51) and within harbours (n=46) respectively.

The majority of beach and coastal fatal drownings occurred

while swimming/wading (n=71) followed by incidents due to

falls (n=65) and boating (n=47).

Figure 13

2009-19: Total Number of New Zealand Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings per Year (n=320); Comparison of New

Zealand vs Australian Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per 100,000 pop.

Fatal Drownings (n)

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Fatal Drownings

NZ Fatal Drowning Rate

AUS Fatal Drowning Rate

2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Year

Figure 14

2009-14 and 2014-19 Five-Year Average Beach and

Coastal Fatal Drownings and Average Fatal Drowning

Rate per 100,000 pop.

2009-14

AVERAGE

DROWNING RATE

0.70

PER 100,000 POPULATION

AVERAGE FATAL

DROWNINGS

27

PER YEAR

2014-19

AVERAGE

DROWNING RATE

0.85

PER 100,000 POPULATION

AVERAGE FATAL

DROWNINGS

37

PER YEAR

The New Zealand beach and coastal fatal drowning

numbers and fatal drowning rates per 100,000 pop. for

2009-19 are shown above. The 2018-19 fatal drowning

rate per 100,000 population in NZ is 0.70, which is below

the 10-year average (0.78 per 100,000 pop.). The New

Zealand 10-year average beach and coastal fatal drowning

rate per 100,000 pop. is 70% higher than the Australian 10-

year average fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop. When

comparing the first half of the decade (2009-14) to the latter

(2014-2019), nationally there has been an increase from 27

(2009-14) fatal drownings on average to 37 per year (2014-

19).

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

The New Zealand 10-year

average beach and coastal fatal

drowning rate is 70% higher than

the Australian 10-year average,

and is on the increase.

Figure 15

2009-19: Total Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings and Fatal Drowning Rate per 100,000 Population for the 16

Regions (n=320)

Between 2009-19 there were 320 fatal drownings. Auckland (n=96) experiences the highest fatal drowning number

per region, followed by Northland (n=55). However, Northland had the highest average fatal drowning rate per

region (3.29 per 100,000 pop.).

Fatal Drownings (n)

100

80

65

40

20

0

AUK

NTL

WKO

Fatal Drownings

Average Fatal Drowning Rate

WGN

Figure 16

2009-19: Age Groups and Gender Represented in

Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings (n=320)

Age groups above 15 years old have a fatal drowning

toll over 44. The 35-44 age group has the highest fatal

drowning number (n=58). The fatal drowning rate for

males is greater than females across all age groups. The

35-44 and 45-54 age groups have the highest Female fatal

drowning rates. The 15-24 and 35-44 age groups have the

highest Male fatal drowning rate.

Fatal Drownings (n)

60

50

40

30

20

10

Male

Female

BOP

CAN

HKB

OTA

STL

Region

89%

MALE

0

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+

Age

More adults are fatally 11%

11%

drowning than children FEMALE

TKI

WTC

MWT

TAS

More males are fatally

drowning than females

89%

MBH

MALE

GIS

NSN

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

MALE

11%

89%

FEMALE

FEMALE

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

22

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION TWO FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / 10 YEAR OVERVIEW 2009-19

23


NATIONAL OVERVIEW

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

NATIONAL OVERVIEW

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

Figure 17

2009-19 (10-Year Average) and 2018-19: Total Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by Ethnicity

When analysing total fatal drownings per ethnicity, NZ Europeans represented the highest number (n=11) of total fatal

drownings on average per year (2009-19), followed by Maori (n=9) and Pacific People (n=5). In 2018-19, the Asian fatal

drowning total (n=6) was the only total that exceeded the 10-year average. NZ European (n=9), Maori (n=7) and Pacific

Peoples (n=3) all had fatal drowning totals that dropped below their 10-year averages.

Fatal Drownings (n)

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

2.0

1.5

1.04

0.5

0

Average Fatal Drownings per Year (2009-19)

Total Fatal Drownings (2018-19)

ASIAN MAORI NZ EUROPEAN PACIFIC PEOPLES OTHER*

Fatal Drowning Rate (2009-19)

Fatal Drowning Rate (2018-19)

Ethnicity

Figure 18

2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates by Ethnicity

Between 2009-19, Pacific Peoples recorded the highest fatal drowning rate (1.69 per 100,000 pop.) of any ethnicity,

followed by Maori (1.27 per 100,000 pop.) and Asian ethnicities (0.92 per 100,000 pop.). In 2018/19, Maori represented

the highest fatal drowning rate of any ethnicity (0.92 per 100,000 pop.), closely followed by Asian (0.85 per 100,000 pop.)

and Pacific Peoples (0.79 per 100,000 pop.). However, in 2018-19 all ethnicities recorded a drop in their fatal drowning

rates when compared to the 10-year average.

ASIAN MAORI NZ EUROPEAN PACIFIC PEOPLES OTHER*

Ethnicity

Between 2009-19, Pacific Peoples recorded the highest fatal

drowning rate (1.69 per 100,000 pop.) of any ethnicity

(*represents all other ethnicities)

(*represents all other ethnicities)

Figure 19

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by Month (n=320)

The highest percentage of beach and coastal fatal drownings occurred in January (n=56), followed by December (n=44)

and February (n=44). Between 2009-19, 55% of drownings occurred outside of the summer months.

Fatal Drownings (n)

20

15

10

5

0

Fatal Drownings

Summer Season

JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN

Figure 20

2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-199 Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings per Activity

The listed activities below represent the top eight causes of fatal drowning on beach and coastal areas (2009-19) and inform

our national coastal safety priorities. In 2018-19, the number of drowning deaths while snorkelling, rock fishing, shell/net

fishing, attempting a rescue and using watercraft were above the 10-year average. Swimming/wading, boating and fallrelated

incidents were below the 10-year average.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

2009-19

7

2009-19

7

2009-19

5

2009-19

3

2018-19

6

2018-19

3

2018-19

0

2018-19

7

Year

SNORKELLING

2009-19

3

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

3

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

2

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

2

2018-19

5

2018-19

7

2018-19

1

2018-19

2

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION TWO FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / 10 YEAR OVERVIEW 2009-19

24 25


2009-19 NZ FATAL DROWNINGS PER REGION

10 YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

Fatal Drownings Per Region

Northland

55

96

Auckland

Bay of Plenty

23

34

Waikato

Gisborne

2

8

Taranaki

Hawke’s Bay

16

4

4

Manawatu-Wanganui

Tasman

ND

Nelson

Wellington

27

Marlborough

3

7

West Coast

Canterbury

18

Key to 2009-19 Fatal Drownings

1 - 5 Fatal Drownings

6 - 15 Fatal Drownings

16 - 25 Fatal Drownings

26 - 50 Fatal Drownings

> 51 Fatal Drownings

Otago

13

ND

No Data

10

Southland

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT SECTION TWO FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / 10 YEAR OVERVIEW 2009-19

26 27


FATA L D R O W N I N G

ANALYSIS

SECTION THREE

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

33

82%

MALE

BEACH &

COASTAL FATAL

DROWNINGS

18%

FEMALE

LOCATION

49%

SURF BEACH

18%

ROCKY

FORESHORE

9%

HARBOUR

ACTIVITY

21%

ROCK FISHING

21%

WATERCRAFT

18%

SWIMMING/WADING


NATIONAL OVERVIEW

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

NATIONAL OVERVIEW

1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

In 2018-19 there were 33 fatal drownings on beach and coastal areas. Auckland had the highest fatalities

per region (n=9), followed by Northland (n=7) and Waikato (n=5).

The majority of fatalities occurred while rock fishing (n=7) and using a watercraft (n=7), followed by

swimming/wading (n=6).

Surf beaches were the most dangerous environment with nearly half (n=16) of all fatalities occurring here.

Figure 22

2018-19: Total Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings per Region (n=33)

8-19 FATAL DROWNINGS PER REGION

LOCATION

49%

SURF BEACH

ACTIVITY

2 Southland

21%

ROCK FISHING

33

9 Auckland 82%

MALE

5 Waikato

18%

BEACH &

COASTAL FATAL

DROWNINGS

0

18%

ROCKY

FORESHORE

West Coast

0

21%

WATERCRAFT

0

Otago 4

Taranaki

Northland

FEMALE

0 Manawatu-Wanganui

ND Nelson

Tasman

9%

HARBOUR

18%

SWIMMING/WADING

0 40 80 160 Kilometers

7

Marlborough 1

Canterbury 0

Key to 2018-19 Fatal Drownings

ND

Bay of Plenty

Wellington

3

1 - 2 Fatalities

3 - 4 Fatalities

5 - 7 Fatalities

8 - 9 Fatalities

> 10 Fatalities

No Data

1

Hawke’s Bay

Gisborne

1

0

Figure 23

2018-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by Age

and Gender (n=33)

The age group representing the highest rate of fatal

drownings is the 45-54 age group (0.18 rate per

100,000 pop.). Within this age group (45-54) females made

up almost half (44%) of the fatal drownings (n=4). Between

2018-19, 82% of fatal drownings were male (n=27).

Fatal Drownings (n)

10

8

6

4

2

0

Male

Female

0-4 5-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+

9%

15%

6%

Rock Fishing

Watercraft

Swimming/Wading

6%

Age Groups

3%

22%

Rock

Fishing

18%

Snorkelling

Fall

Scuba Diving

22%

21%

0.2

0.16

0.12

0.08

0.04

0.0

Attempting a Rescue

Net/Shell Fishing

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Figure 24

2018-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=33)

The majority of beach and coastal fatal drownings

occurred while rock fishing (n=7) and using watercraft

(n=7), followed by swimming/wading (n=6).

Figure 25

2018-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by Month

(n=33)

Of the 33 fatal drownings, the majority (42%) occurred

in January (n=8) and February (n=6). The yellow line

indicates the 10-year average fatal drownings per month.

June recorded 15% of all fatal drownings (n=5), with more

than double the amount of fatal drownings when compared

to the 10-year average (n=2).

Fatal Drownings (n)

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Fatal Drownings (2018-19)

Average Fatal Drownings (2009-19)

0

JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN

Month

Figure 26

2018-19: Location of Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings (n=33)

The majority of fatal drownings occurred at a surf

beach (n=16), on rocky foreshores (n=6) or in

harbours (n=3).

9%

6%

3%

3%

3%

9%

49%

Surf

Beach

18%

Surf Beach

Rocky Foreshore

0-1km from Shore

Harbour

Estuary

Calm Water Beach

49%

Marinas

Rivers

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION THREE FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / 1 YEAR OVERVIEW 2018-19

30 31


N O N - FATA L

DROWNING ANALYSIS

SECTION FOUR

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

NON-FATAL DROWNING

A subset of drowning, the process of experiencing

respiratory impairment from submersion/

immersion in liquid, where the outcome is

classified as morbidity and no morbidity.

253

NON-FATAL

DROWNING

INCIDENTS

AVERAGE NON-FATAL

DROWNINGS

PER YEAR

25

37%

UNDER THE AGE OF

25

1:1.86

RATIO FATAL : NON-FATAL

DROWNING INCIDENTS

(all ages)

1:15

0-14 YEARS OLD RATIO

FATAL : NON-FATAL

DROWNING INCIDENTS


NON-FATAL DROWNING OVERVIEW

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

COMPARISON OF NON-FATAL AND

FATAL DROWNINGS ON NEW ZEALAND

BEACHES BETWEEN 2009-19

The focus of drowning prevention research has long

been on fatal drowning. However, this is only part of the

total drowning toll. Non-fatal drowning incidents are more

difficult to quantify but are still significant and can often

result in life-changing injuries and illnesses. The social cost

to New Zealand of one severe water-related injury resulting

in hospitalisation has been estimated at $472,900 (WSNZ,

2019).

Between 2009 and 2019, there were 253 cases of nonfatal

drownings recorded on beaches, representing an

average of 25 non-fatal beach drowning cases per year.

For this report, we have assumed beach specific non-fatal

data includes both surf and calm water beach types.

*The non-fatal drowning data used in this report is based

on hospital stays of at least 24 hours and has been provided

by WSNZ’s as recorded in DrownBase. A large amount of

environmental coding is set to ‘large body of water’ which

does not allow for more specific data breakdown. There

are likely more non-fatal cases that have occurred within

the coastal environment; however, due to the hospital

coding limitations highlighted above, many cases are

indeterminable at this stage.

To calculate the ratio of fatal to non-fatal drowning

incidents, the total number (n=136*) of fatal beach drowning

incidents (surf beach and calm water beach) was compared

with the total number of non-fatal beach incidents (n=253).

The average ratio of fatal to non-fatal drowning incidents

from 2009-19 is 1:1.86. This figure indicates that for every

fatal beach drowning, there are 1.86 non-fatal beach

TOTAL FATAL

DROWNINGS

drowning incidents. The rate is highly variable across age

groups – children and young adolescences (0-14) show the

highest ratio (1:15), which indicates that for every fatal beach

drowning, there are 15 non-fatal drowning incidents. On the

other end of the spectrum, the 55 – 64 age group represents

the lowest ratio (1.28), indicating that for every fatal beach

drowning death, there are 1.28 non-fatal drownings.

TOTAL NON-FATAL

DROWNINGS

NON-FATAL

DROWNING INCIDENTS

253

BETWEEN 2009-19

37%

AVERAGE NON-FATAL

DROWNING INCIDENTS

25

PER YEAR

UNDER THE AGE OF

25

70%

MALE

30%

FEMALE

136 * 253

RATIO FATAL : NON-FATAL

1 : 1.86

0-14 YEARS OLD RATIO

FATAL : NON-FATAL 1 : 15

55-64 YEARS OLD RATIO

FATAL : NON-FATAL 1 : 1.28

Figure 27

2009-19: Non-Fatal Drowning Incidents on Beaches by Year and Gender (n=253)

Figure 28

2009-19: Fatal and Non-Fatal Drowning Incidents on Beaches by Year (n=389)

Non-Fatal Drownings (n)

50

40

30

20

10

0

Female

Male

2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Year

Drownings (n)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Non-Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drownings

2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Year

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SECTION FOUR NON-FATAL DROWNING ANALYSIS / 10 YEAR OVERVIEW 2009-19

34 35


REGIONAL OVERVIEWS

NZ Regions

SECTION FIVE

Northland

Auckland

Bay of Plenty

Waikato

Gisborne

Taranaki

Hawke’s Bay

Manawatu-Wanganui

Tasman

Nelson

Wellington

Marlborough

West Coast

Canterbury

Otago

Southland


NORTHLAND

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 29

2009-19: Northland Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings (n=55)

In 2018-19, there were seven fatal drownings in Northland.

This figure was above the 10-year average of six. The 2018-

19 fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was 3.91, which is

above the average 10-year rate (3.29); and higher than the

rest of the country.

Fatal Drownings (n)

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

2009-10

2010-11

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Swimming/Wading

Watercraft

Net/Shell Fishing

Fall

Boating

Snorkelling

Rock Fishing

Attempting a Rescue

Figure 31

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19 fatal drownings per 100,000 pop. were lower than the 10-year average (2009-19) in swimming/wading,

snorkelling, net/shell fishing and attempting a rescue activities. However, annual drowning rates per 100,000 pop. (2018-19)

were up in falls, boating, watercraft and rock fishing activities when compared to the 10-year average.

SWIMMING / WADING

SNORKELLING

FALL

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

2009-19

0.85

2009-19

0.29

2009-19

0.23

2009-19

0.25

2018-19

0.56

2018-19

0.56

2018-19

0.56

2018-19

2.23

Figure 30

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=55)

Within the Northland region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred when swimming/wading (n=14),

watercraft (n=12) and net/shell fishing (n=9).

7%

7%

9%

7%

7%

16%

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

0.54

2009-19

0.24

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.24

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.72

25%

22%

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.56

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

55

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 55

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

6

PER YEAR

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

YEAR OLD MALE

SWIMMERS/WADERS

87%

MALE

13%

FEMALE

AVERAGE FATALITY

3.29

PER 100,000 POPULATION

45+ 45+

YEAR OLD

MALE BOATERS

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

7 3.91

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

14%

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

14%

15%

15%

14%

Surf Beach

0-1 Km from Shore

14%

Watercraft

Fall

57%

Surf Beach

57%

Watercraft

PER 100,000 POPULATION

Estuary

Rivers

Swimming/Wading

Net/Shell Fishing

57%

57%

38

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


AUCKLAND

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 32

2009–19: Auckland Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings (n=96)

In 2018-19, there were nine fatal drownings in Auckland.

This was just under the 10-year average of 10. The 2018-19

fatal drowning rate per 100,000 was 0.53, this is below the

average 10-year rate (0.63).

Fatal Drownings (n)

20

15

10

5

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Figure 33

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=96)

Within the Auckland region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred when swimming/wading (n=26),

boating (n=24) and through falls (n=21).

8%

23%

6%

4%

3% 2%

26%

28%

Swimming/Wading

Boating

Fall

Watercraft

Rock Fishing

Attempting a Rescue

Snorkelling

Net/Shell Fishing

Figure 34

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

Fatal drownings per 100,000 population in 2018-19 were lower than the 10 year average in swimming/wading, falls,

boating and net/shell fishing. However annual drowning rates (2018-19) were up in watercraft, snorkelling, rock fishing and

attempting a rescue activities when compared to the 10-year average.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

2009-19

0.17

2009-19

0.14

2009-19

0.16

2009-19

0.04

2018-19

0.12

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.06

SNORKELLING

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

0.02

2009-19

0.03

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.02

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.05

2018-19

0.06

2018-19

0.18

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.06

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

96

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

93%

MALE

7%

FEMALE

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 96

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

10

PER YEAR

AVERAGE FATALITY

0.63

PER 100,000 POPULATION

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

15-34 45+

YEAR OLD MALE YEAR OLD

SWIMMERS/WADERS MALE BOATERS

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

9 0.53

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

11%

11%

11%

11%

11%

11%

Rock Fishing

Swimming/Wading

Scuba Diving

78%

Surf Beach

34%

PER 100,000 POPULATION

78%

Surf Beach Harbour Estuary

22%

34%

Snorkelling

Watercraft

Attempting a Rescue

40

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


WAIKATO

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 35

2009-19: Waikato Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings

In 2018-19, there were five fatal drownings in Waikato. This

figure was above the 10-year average (2009-19) of three.

The 2018-19 fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was

1.07, which is higher than the 10-year average drowning

rate (0.78).

Fatal Drownings (n)

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

Figure 36

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=34)

Within the Waikato region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred when swimming/wading (n=8)

and due to falls (n=5).

Swimming/Wading

Fall

Boating

Net/Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Snorkelling

Attempting a Rescue

Watercraft

Figure 37

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19 fatal drownings per 100,000 pop. were lower than the 10-year average (2009-19) in the following activities;

boating, watercraft, snorkelling, net/shell fishing and falls. However, annual drowning rates per 100,000 pop. (2018-19)

were up in swimming/wading, rock fishing and attempting a rescue activities when compared to the 10-year average.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

2011-12

BOATING

2012-13

WATERCRAFT

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2009-19

0.18

2009-19

0.12

2009-19

0.09

2009-19

0.02

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

0.43

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

13%

13%

13%

4% 3% 13%

SNORKELLING

ROCK FISHING

25%

Swimming/

Wading

2009-19

0.10

2009-19

0.09

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.11

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.02

25%

16%

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.43

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.21

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

34

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

3

PER YEAR

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

91%

MALE

9%

FEMALE

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 34

AVERAGE FATALITY

0.78

PER 100,000 POPULATION

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

15-34 15-44

YEAR OLD MALE YEAR OLD

SWIMMERS/WADERS NET/SHELL FISHERMEN

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

5 1.07

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

40%

20%

20%

80%

Surf Beach

Surf Beach

40% 40%

Swimming/

Wading

PER 100,000 POPULATION

80%

Rocky Foreshore

40%

Rock Fishing Swimming/Wading Attempting a Rescue

42

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


BAY OF PLENTY

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 38

2009-19: Bay of Plenty Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings

In 2018-19, beach and coastal drownings in the Bay of

Plenty dropped below the 10-year average (2009-19). The

2018-19 fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was 0.33,

which was lower than the 10-year average rate (0.80).

Fatal Drownings (n)

5

4

3

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

2010-11

Figure 39

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=23)

Within the Bay of Plenty region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred due to falls (n=8), boating (n=5)

and swimming/wading (n=3).

Fall

Boating

Swimming/Wading

Snorkelling

Rock Fishing

Watercraft

Attempting a Rescue

Figure 40

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19 fatal drownings per 100,000 pop. were lower than the 10-year average in most activities, watercraft related

activities were the exception.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

2011-12

BOATING

2012-13

WATERCRAFT

2013-14

Fatal Drowning Rate

2014-15

Year

2009-19

0.10

2009-19

0.80

2009-19

0.18

2015-16

2009-19

0.07

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.33

2018-19

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

9%

9%

13%

8%

4%

SNORKELLING

ROCK FISHING

35%

Fall

22%

2009-19

0.07

2009-19

0.07

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.00

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.04

35%

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

23

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

2

PER YEAR

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

45+

YEAR OLD MALES

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

86%

MALE

14%

FEMALE

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 23

AVERAGE FATALITY

0.80

PER 100,000 POPULATION

FALLS

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

1 0.33

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

100%

Harbour

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

100%

Watercraft

PER 100,000 POPULATION

44

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


GISBORNE

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 41

2009-19: Gisborne Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings

There were a total of two fatal drownings in the Gisborne

region between 2009-19. These drownings occurred in back

to back years (2013-14, 2014-15).

Fatal Drownings (n)

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Figure 42

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=2)

Within the Gisborne region, one fatal drowning was related

to snorkelling, and one was attributed to diving/jumping.

Snorkelling

Diving/Jumping

Figure 43

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in all activities.

50%

50%

Diving/

Jumping

50%

Snorkelling

50%

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

2

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

0 0.00

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

ZERO

Fatal

Drownings

PER 100,000 POPULATION

SNORKELLING

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

0.00

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

0.21

2009-19

0.00

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.00

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

2018-19 0.00

JUMPING/DIVING

2009-19

0.21

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 2

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS AVERAGE FATALITY


HAWKE’S BAY

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 44

2009-19: Hawke’s Bay Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings

In 2018-19, there was a single fatal drowning in Hawke’s

Bay, which is below the 10-year average of (n=2). The 2018-

19 fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was one, which is

lower than the average 10-year rate (1.0).

Fatal Drownings (n)

5

4

3

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

Figure 45

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=16)

Within the Hawke’s Bay region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred when attempting a rescue (n=4),

due to falls (n=4) and swimming/wading (n=3).

Attempting a Rescue

Fall

Swimming/Wading

Boating

Rock Fishing

Figure 46

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in all activities. However, scuba

diving, had a rate of 0.60, which was higher than the average 10-year fatal drowning rate (0.19).

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

2011-12

BOATING

2012-13

WATERCRAFT

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2009-19

0.18

2009-19

0.25

2009-19

0.13

2015-16

2009-19

0.00

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

21%

14%

7%

SNORKELLING

29%

Attempting

a Rescue

ROCK FISHING

NET / SHELL FISHING

29%

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.06

2009-19

0.00

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.25

29%

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

2

PER YEAR

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

35-54

YEAR OLD MALES

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

81%

MALE

19%

FEMALE

16

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 16

AVERAGE FATALITY

1.00

PER 100,000 POPULATION

SCUBA DIVERS

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

1 0.60

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

100%

Surf Beach

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

100%

Scuba Diving

PER 100,000 POPULATION

48

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


TARANAKI

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 47

2009-19: Taranaki Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings

In 2018-19, there were no fatal drownings in Taranaki,

which is below the 10-year average (n=1). The 2009-19

fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was 0.71.

Fatal Drownings (n)

4

3

2

1

0

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2014-15

Year

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Figure 48

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=8)

Within the Taranaki region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred due to falls (n=3).

Figure 49

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in all activities.

13%

13%

13%

38%

Fall

13%

38%

Fall

Swimming/Wading

Boating

Rock Fishing

Attempting a Rescue

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

8

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 8

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

0 0.00

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

ZERO

Fatal

Drownings

PER 100,000 POPULATION

SWIMMING / WADING

SNORKELLING

FALL

2009-19

0.09

2018-19

0.00

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

1

PER YEAR

AVERAGE FATALITY

0.71

PER 100,000 POPULATION

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

2009-19

0.27

2009-19

0.09

2009-19

0.09

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2009-19

0.09

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.00

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.09

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

88%

MALE

12%

FEMALE

ZERO

Fatal

Drownings

50

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


MANAWATU-WANGANUI

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 50

2009-19: Manawatu-Wanganui Beach and Coastal

Fatal Drownings

In 2018-19, there were no fatal drownings in Manawatu-

Wanganui. The 2009-19 fatal drowning rate per 100,000

pop. was 0.17.

Fatal Drownings (n)

3

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

Figure 51

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=4)

Within the Manawatu-Wanganui region, three fatal

drownings occurred when swimming/wading, one was

related to snorkelling.

Figure 52

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in all activities.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

2011-12

BOATING

2012-13

WATERCRAFT

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2009-19

0.13

2015-16

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.00

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

25%

SNORKELLING

ROCK FISHING

75%

2009-19

0.04

2009-19

0.00

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.00

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.00

75%

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

Swimming/Wading

Snorkelling

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS


WELLINGTON

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 53

2009-19: Wellington Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings

In 2018-19, there were three fatal drownings in Wellington,

which is equal to the 10-year average (2009-19). The 2018-

19 fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was lower than the

average 10-year rate (0.68).

Fatal Drownings (n)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

2010-11

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2011-12

Figure 54

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=27)

Within the Wellington region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred when swimming/wading (n=7),

watercraft (n=5) and caused by falls (n=5).

Swimming/Wading

Fall

Watercraft

Snorkelling

Boating

Attempting a Rescue

Net/Shell Fishing

Figure 55

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drownings per 100,000 pop. were lower than the 10-year average (2009-19) in boating, snorkelling, net/

shell fishing and attempting a rescue activities. However, annual drowning rates (2018-19) were up in swimming/wading,

watercraft activities and falls when compared to the 10-year average.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

2012-13

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2015-16

2009-19

0.18

2009-19

0.13

2009-19

0.08

2009-19

0.12

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

0.19

2018-19

0.19

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.19

2018-19

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

12%

11%

8%

19%

4%

SNORKELLING

ROCK FISHING

27%

Swimming/

Wading

2009-19

0.07

2009-19

0.00

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.03

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.05

27%

19%

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

3

PER YEAR

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

25-34

YEAR OLD MALES

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

87%

MALE

13%

FEMALE

27

FATAL

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 27

AVERAGE FATALITY

0.68

PER 100,000 POPULATION

SWIMMERS/WADERS

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

3 0.58

DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

33%

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

33%

34%

Calm Water

Beach

33%

PER 100,000 POPULATION

34%

Fall

33%

34%

Calm Water Beach Harbour Rocky Foreshore

34%

Fall Swimming/Wading Watercraft

54

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


TASMAN

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 56

2009-19: Tasman Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings

In 2018-19, there were no fatal drownings in Tasman. The

2009-19 fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was 0.82.

2

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2.5

Figure 57

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=4)

Within the Tasman region, fatal drownings occurred when

swimming/wading (n=2), rock fishing (n=1) and shell/net

fishing (n=1).

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

0 0.00

PER 100,000 POPULATION

Fatal Drownings (n)

1

0

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Year

2014-15

Figure 58

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in all activities.

SWIMMING / WADING

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

25%

25%

SNORKELLING

75%

50%

Swimming/Wading

Rock Fishing

Net/Shell Fishing

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

4

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 4

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

ZERO

Fatal

Drownings

FALL

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

2009-19

0.42

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.23

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.20

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS


MARLBOROUGH

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 59

2009-19: Marlborough Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings

In 2018-19, there was one fatal drowning in Marlborough.

The 2018-19 fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop was

2.15, which is higher than the 10-year average (0.65).

Fatal Drownings (n)

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Figure 60

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=3)

Within the Marlborough region, two fatal drownings were

related to falls, and 1 was attributed to scuba diving.

Figure 61

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19 fatal drowing rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in all activities, with the exception of

falls, which had a higher rate (2.15) when compared to the 10-year average (0.43).

34%

66%

Fall

66%

Fall

Scuba diving

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

3

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 3

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

1 2.15

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

100%

Marina

PER 100,000 POPULATION

SWIMMING / WADING

SNORKELLING

FALL

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS


WEST COAST

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 62

2009-19: West Coast Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings

In 2018-19, there were no fatal drownings. The 2009-19

fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop was 2.13.

Fatal Drownings (n)

3

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Figure 63

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=7)

Within the West Coast region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred due to snorkelling (n=3).

Figure 64

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in all activities.

17%

16%

17%

50%

Fall

50%

Fall

Net/Shell Fishing

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

7

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 7

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

0 0.00

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

ZERO

Fatal

Drownings

PER 100,000 POPULATION

SWIMMING / WADING

SNORKELLING

FALL

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

1

PER YEAR

AVERAGE FATALITY

2.13

PER 100,000 POPULATION

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

2009-19

0.91

2009-19

0.31

2009-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2009-19

0.00

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.34

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.30

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

86%

MALE

14%

FEMALE

ZERO

Fatal

Drownings

60

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


CANTERBURY

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 65

2009-19: Canterbury Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings

In 2018-19, there were no fatal drownings in Canterbury.

The average 10-year fatal drowning rate per 100,000 pop.

is 0.31

Fatal Drownings (n)

5

4

3

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

Figure 66

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=18)

Within the Canterbury region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred due to falls (n=5), swimming/

wading (n=3) and snorkelling (n=3).

Fall

Snorkelling

Swimming/Wading

Boating

Rock Fishing

Net/Shell Fishing

Figure 67

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in all activities.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

2011-12

BOATING

2012-13

WATERCRAFT

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2015-16

2009-19

0.05

2009-19

0.09

2009-19

0.03

2009-19

0.00

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

14%

13%

19%

6%

SNORKELLING

ROCK FISHING

31%

Fall

NET / SHELL FISHING

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

29%

2009-19

0.05

2009-19

0.03

2009-19

0.02

2009-19

0.00

31%

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

2

PER YEAR

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

45-64

YEAR OLD MALES

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

89%

MALE

11%

FEMALE

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 18

AVERAGE FATALITY

0.31

PER 100,000 POPULATION

FALLS

18

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

0 0.00

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

ZERO

Fatal

Drownings

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

ZERO

Fatal

Drownings

PER 100,000 POPULATION

62

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


OTAGO

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 68

2009-19: Otago Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings

In 2018-19, there were four fatal drownings in Otago, which

is above the 10-year average of one. The 2018-19 fatal

drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was 1.75, which is higher

than the average 10-year rate (0.61).

Fatal Drownings (n)

5

4

3

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

Figure 69

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=13)

Within the Otago region, the majority of beach and coastal

fatalities occurred due to snorkelling (n=5) and falls (n=4).

Snorkelling

Fall

Boating

Watercraft

Rock Fishing

Figure 70

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19 fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in most activities. Snorkelling

related incidents were the exception.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

2011-12

BOATING

2012-13

WATERCRAFT

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.19

2009-19

0.10

2015-16

2009-19

0.05

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

15%

8%

8%

38%

Snorkelling

31%

SNORKELLING

ROCK FISHING

2009-19

0.22

2009-19

0.05

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.00

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.25

38%

2018-19

1.75

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

1

PER YEAR

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

15-54

YEAR OLD MALES

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

81%

MALE

19%

FEMALE

13

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 13

AVERAGE FATALITY

0.61

PER 100,000 POPULATION

SNORKELLERS

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

4 1.75

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

50%

50%

0-1Km

from Shore

0-1Km from Shore

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

100%

Snorkelling

PER 100,000 POPULATION

50%

Rocky

Foreshore

Rocky Foreshore

50%

64

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


SOUTHLAND

FATAL DROWNING SNAPSHOT

Figure 71

2009-19: Southland Beach and Coastal Fatal

Drownings

In 2018-19, there were two fatal drownings in Southland,

just above the 10-year average of one. The 2018-19 fatal

drowning rate per 100,000 pop. was 2.02, which is above

the average 10-year rate (1.02).

Fatal Drownings (n)

4

3

2

1

0

2009-10

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

2010-11

Figure 72

2009-19: Beach and Coastal Fatal Drownings by

Activity (n=10)

Within the Southland region, the majority of beach and

coastal fatalities occurred when rock fishing (n=3).

Figure 73

Comparison of Beach and Coastal Fatal Drowning Rates per Activity: 2009-19 (10-year average) and 2018-19

In 2018-19, fatal drowning rates (per 100,000 pop.) were lower than the 10-year average in most activities, rock fishing

incidents were the exception.

SWIMMING / WADING

FALL

2011-12

BOATING

2012-13

WATERCRAFT

2013-14

2014-15

Year

2009-19

0.10

2009-19

0.10

2009-19

0.00

2009-19

0.10

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

12%

12%

12%

13%

SNORKELLING

ROCK FISHING

38%

Rock

Fishing

13%

2009-19

0.10

2009-19

0.30

NET / SHELL FISHING

2009-19

0.11

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

2009-19

0.25

38%

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

2.20

2018-19

0.00

2018-19

0.00

Rock Fishing

Net/Shell Fishing

Snorkelling

Watercraft

Fall

Swimming/Wading

10-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19 1-YEAR OVERVIEW | 2018-19

10

Attempting a Rescue

Boating

Diving / Jumping

Fall

AVERAGE FATAL DROWNINGS

1

PER YEAR

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

15-34

YEAR OLD MALES

Net / Shell Fishing

Rock Fishing

Scuba Diving

Snorkeling

100%

MALE

0%

FEMALE

Swimming / Wading

Watercraft

TOTAL FATAL DROWNINGS: 10

AVERAGE FATALITY

1.02

PER 100,000 POPULATION

ROCK FISHING

FATAL DROWNINGS

AVERAGE FATALITY

2 2.02

FATAL DROWNINGS BY LOCATION

100%

Rocky

Foreshore

FATAL DROWNINGS BY ACTIVITY

100%

Rock

Fishing

PER 100,000 POPULATION

66

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT


10 YEAR ACTIVITY

OVERVIEW 2009-19

SECTION SIX

71

65

SWIMMING/

WADING

FALLS

(TRIPS/SLIPS)

47

30

27

BOATING

WATERCRAFT

SNORKELLING


SNAPSHOT: SWIMMING/WADING

10 YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

2009-2019

SNAPSHOT: FALLS

10 YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

2009-2019

AVERAGE FATAL

DROWNINGS PER YEAR

FATAL DROWNINGS

71

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

PER 100,000 POPULATION

14

26

8

AVERAGE FATAL

DROWNINGS PER YEAR

FATAL DROWNINGS

65

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

PER 100,000 POPULATION

5

21

5

7

0.16

1

3

0

7

0.14

3

8

0

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

15-34

YEAR OLD MALES (NZ EUROPEAN)

0

2

0

3

7

3

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

55+

YEAR OLD MALES (NZ EUROPEAN)

3

0

2

0 3

5

86%

MALE

14%

FEMALE

1

0

3

78%

MALE

12%

FEMALE

1

4

5

SWIMMING & WADING FATAL DROWNINGS 2009-19

FALLS FATAL DROWNINGS 2009-19

Fatal Drownings (n)

12

10

8

6

4

2

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

0.30

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Fatal Drownings (n)

12

10

8

6

4

2

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

0

2009-10

2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Year

0.00

0

2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Year

0.00

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT SECTION SIX 10 YEAR ACTIVITY OVERVIEW 2009-19

70 71


SNAPSHOT: BOATING

10 YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

2009-2019

SNAPSHOT: WATERCRAFT

10 YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

2009-2019

AVERAGE FATAL

DROWNINGS PER YEAR

FATAL DROWNINGS

47

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

PER 100,000 POPULATION

3

24

4

AVERAGE FATAL

DROWNINGS PER YEAR

FATAL DROWNINGS

30

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

PER 100,000 POPULATION

12

7

1

5

0.10

1

5

0

3

0.07

1

2

0

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

55+

YEAR OLD MALES (PACIFIC PEOPLES)

1

0

0

0

3

2

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

45-54

YEAR OLD MALES (NZ EUROPEAN)

0

0

0

0 0

5

97%

MALE

3%

FEMALE

0

2

2

90%

MALE

10%

FEMALE

1

1

0

BOATING FATAL DROWNINGS 2009-19

WATERCRAFT FATAL DROWNINGS 2009-19

14

12

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

0.30

0.25

8

7

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

0.20

Fatal Drownings (n)

10

8

6

4

0.20

0.15

0.10

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

Fatal Drownings (n)

6

5

4

3

2

0.15

0.10

0.05

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

2

0.05

1

0

2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Year

0.00

0

2009-10

2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Year

0.00

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT SECTION SIX 10 YEAR ACTIVITY OVERVIEW 2009-19

72 73


SNAPSHOT: SNORKELLING

10 YEAR OVERVIEW | 2009-19

2009-2019

This report is our way of drawing a

line in the sand. We, Surf Life Saving

New Zealand, are saying “Enough is

Enough”. No more unnecessary deaths

from drowning on our beaches and

along our coastline.

FATAL DROWNINGS

27

4

AVERAGE FATAL

DROWNINGS PER YEAR

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

PER 100,000 POPULATION

3

4

3

0.06

0

2

1

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

30-54

YEAR OLD MALES (MAORI)

0

0

0

1

3

0

96%

MALE

4%

FEMALE

1

5

3

SNORKELLING FATAL DROWNINGS 2009-19

Fatal Drownings (n)

5

4

3

2

1

Fatal Drownings

Fatal Drowning Rate

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

Fatal Drowning Rate

(per 100,000 pop.)

0

2009-10

2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Year

0.00

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT SECTION SIX 10 YEAR ACTIVITY OVERVIEW 2009-19

74 75


KEY TERMS

Adult – For this report, adults refer to a person 15 years of

age and over, which aligns with the Stats NZ Tatauranga

Aotearoa classification.

Assist – Where a person requires assistance to return to shore

but would most likely be able to get themselves out of danger

if unaided.

Attempting a Rescue – Trying to retrieve a person in distress

and deliver them to a place of safety.

Beach – A wave-deposited accumulation of sediment – usually

sand, but ranging in size up to boulders – deposited between

the upper tidal limit and the offshore area where waves first

start breaking.

Beach Fatal Drowning – Where the location of the fatality

occurs on a surf beach, calm water beach or rocky foreshore

and the cause of death involves drowning or immersion.

Boating – Using either a powered vessel or sailing boat for

pleasure and/or fishing.

Bystander – A person who is present at an incident but not

part of it initially.

Calm Water Beach – An area of estuarine coastline with sand,

gravel or pebbles that contains a sheltered foreshore, with no

surf zone – e.g. harbour beach.

Coastal – Tidal waters (estuary, harbour, marina and river/

harbour bar); ocean up to 1km offshore; or inland up to five

times the width of the inlet/river.

Category 1 Search and Rescue Operations – Search and

Rescue coordinated at a local level by the New Zealand Police;

including land operations, river, lake and inland waterway

operations and close-to-shore marine operations.

Coastal Fatal Drowning – Where the location of the fatality

is in tidal waters (estuary, harbour, marina and river/harbour

bar), in the ocean up to 1km offshore or inland up to five

times the width of the inlet/river and the cause of death

includes drowning or immersion.

Coastal Risk Assessment - A report that recommends levels

of service provision at a location.

Contract Surf Lifeguard Service – Surf Lifeguard services

that are funded by regional councils and local territorial

authorities, and managed by Surf Life Saving New Zealand

or Surf Life Saving Northern Region

Drowning – The process of experiencing respiratory

impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid; outcomes

are classified as death, morbidity and no morbidity.

DrownBase – Database run by Water Safety New Zealand that

collates all of the deaths from drowning in New Zealand. The

dataset also includes information on non-fatal drownings.

Emergency Callout Squads (ECOS) – These are made up

of several combined clubs and volunteer surf lifeguards

attached to external local rescue/emergency services. Squad

members are qualified and equipped to respond to any

incident within the beach and coastal environment.

Emergency Response – An action taken by an SLS entity

in response to a call for assistance from an emergency

management organisation.

Estuary - A partially enclosed coastal body of water that is

either permanently or periodically open to the sea

Falls (trips/slips) – An event that results in a person tripping/

slipping so they end up accidentally immersed in water.

Fatal Drowning Rate – A comparative rate of drowning (as

the cause of death) to the size of the population in a given

area.

First Aid – First aid is the first and immediate assistance given

to any person suffering from either a minor or serious illness

or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the

condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.

Harbour – Large inner body of water surrounded on several

sides by prominences of land

Hazard – A source of potential harm.

Incident – Any unplanned event requiring lifesaving services

intervention.

Intervention – An action performed by a Surf Lifeguard to

prevent a situation from deteriorating, which includes injury

or drowning. Interventions include preventative actions,

assists, rescues, searches, major first aids and minor first

aids.

IRB – Inflatable rescue boat.

Major First Aid – Any incident where a victim is administered

some form of advanced medical treatment or requires

hospitalization.

Marina – A boat basin offering dockage and other service for

small craft.

Minor First Aid - Where a victim is administered some form of

minor medical treatment – minor cut, bluebottle sting, sand

in the eye, minor strain or sprains.

Morbidity – Any physical or psychological state considered

to be outside the realm of normal well-being. The term

morbidity is often used to describe illness, impairment, or

degradation of health.

Net Fishing – Using a net to trawl the shallows of a beach/

estuary for fish.

Non-fatal Drowning – A subset of drowning, the process

of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/

immersion in liquid, where the outcome is classified as

morbidity and no morbidity.

Patrol – Surf Lifeguard service to monitor activities in/around

an aquatic environment and respond accordingly through

either preventative actions or rescue operations. A patrol

will use the red and yellow patrol flags to assign a safer

swimming area.

Patrol Flags – Red/yellow horizontally divided flags which

are set after performing a risk assessment to determine the

most suitable area for swimming. The flags identify a zone

for swimming and bodyboarding within a patrolled location.

Patrolled Location – A location supervised by a Surf Lifeguard

service.

Preventative Action – Direct action taken to reduce or

eliminate the probability of a specific rescue, first aid or other

reportable incident from occuring.

Rescue – Where a person requires immediate help to return to

shore (or place of safety) and who without intervention would

have suffered distress, injury or drowning.

Risk-Adjusted Water Use Values – Dictates how many

lifeguards are required at patrol location at any given time.

Rock/Cliff – A rock platform that may or may not have a high

steep face.

Rock Fishing – Attempting to catch fish from a coastal rock

platform or off a groyne.

Rocky Foreshore - The area of coastline with shoreline rocks,

including steep rocky cliffs that is exposed by low tides and

submerged by high tides.

RWC – Rescue water craft or JetSki.

Scuba Diving – Swimming underwater with the aid of scuba

equipment for recreational or commercial purposes.

Searches - Any organised search for a missing person or group

either at sea or on land. Searches include body recoveries.

Search and Rescue – The search for and provision of aid to

people who are in distress or imminent danger.

Season – For the context of this report, the 2018/19 season is

for the period of July 2018 to June 2019.

Shell Fishing – Collecting shellfish while onshore or wading/

swimming in water.

Snorkelling – Swimming with a snorkel and face mask.

Surf Beach – An area of land with sand, gravel or pebbles that

contains a foreshore and surf zone. Surf beaches include low

energy and exposed coasts.

Surf Lifeguard – An individual who undertakes patrols at a

beach. As a minimum requirement they are qualified in surf

rescue and basic lifeguard support.

Surf Lifeguard Service – A coordinated group that exists to

provide aquatic safety services to the public. This includes

Volunteer Surf Life Saving Clubs, Contract Surf Lifeguards,

RWCs, IRB’s, ATV’s and 4WD units.

Surf Life Saving Club – An affiliated not-for-profit organisation

that has volunteer members who provide patrols and coastal

safety services to the community.

Surf Life Saving New Zealand – The leading beach and

coastal safety, drowning prevention and rescue authority in

New Zealand. The purpose of the organisation is to reduce

injury and drowning on our beaches with a vision of zero

preventable drownings.

Surveillance Patrols – Surf Lifeguard services that monitor

beach and water users without designating a red and yellow

flagged area. This approach is effective for extending

patrolling hours or season length, where resources are

limited.

Swimming – Moving through water by moving the body or

parts of the body.

Wading – Walking through water while partially immersed.

Water Safety New Zealand – Water Safety New Zealand

works with water safety sector organisations, individuals and

the public to reduce the incidence of drowning and injury in

New Zealand. The purpose is to lead a step change in New

Zealand so people don’t drown with a vision that by 2025

more people in New Zealand respect the water and have the

skills, knowledge and awareness to enjoy it safely.

Watercraft – A piece of non-powered recreational equipment

used in water. Examples include surfboards, stand-up

paddleboards, body boards, windsurfers or kayaks.

SYMBOL KEY

Male and

Female

Female

and Male

Lifeguards

Fall

Boating

Surf Beach

Fatal

Drownings

Rescue

Rock Fishing

Snorkelling

Calm Water

Beach

Attempting

a Rescue

Rescue

Tube

Emergency

Callout Squad

Net/Shell

Fishing

Dive

Preventative

Action

IRB

Scuba Diving

0-1Km

Off Shore

Assist

Swimming /

Wading

Watercraft

Rocky

Foreshore

Harbour Estuary Marina River/

Harbour

Bar

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

NATIONAL BEACH & COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND KEY TERMS

76 77


REFERENCES

METHODOLOGY

The National Beach and Coastal Safety Report 2019

contains information on SLS capability and membership

capacity; rescues and emergency response; and fatal and

non-fatal drownings for the period of 1 July 2009 to 30 June

2019. This information is correct as of 2 September 2019.

All care has been taken to ensure the statistical information

included within this report is correct. However, pending the

outcome of ongoing coronial investigations, this data may

be amended. Data in figures may not always add up to

100% due to rounding.

The National Beach and Coastal Safety Report only

documents incidents that have occurred within the

coastal zone. The coastal zone is defined as “Tidal waters

(estuary, harbour, marina and river/harbour bar); ocean

up to 1km offshore; or inland up to five times the width

of the inlet/river”.

LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE

RESEARCH

The regional fatal drowning rates per 100,000 population

use regional population estimates obtained from Stats NZ.

However, these regional estimates do not include visitors

from elsewhere in New Zealand or visitors from overseas.

Further research is recommended to adjust these figures to

account for the seasonal influx of vistors to each respective

region.

Regional fatal drowning data is currently unavailable

for Nelson City Council. However, Nelson City Council’s

respective fatal drowning data is included within the Tasman

Region statistics.

Further research is required to enable Surf Life Saving New

Zealand and water safety stakeholders to gain a greater

understanding of how and why people are recreating on our

coastlines. Additional research is also required to understand

how residents and international tourists use beach and

coastal areas for recreation. Whilst applied psychological

research is also recommended to assess public behaviour

and perception of risk on our beaches. These findings will

be used to inform community engagement and education

strategies nationally.

CAPABILITY ANALYSIS

The Patrols and Memberships (PAM) database is a central

repository for all Surf Life Saving clubs in New Zealand. It

is used to log details of members (contact details, awards,

memberships), patrols and incidents. PAM holds this

information securely, and the data gives us an understanding

of trends across the whole organisation. The database

includes the Customer Relationship Management System

(CRM) which includes operational data such as rescues, first

aids, membership statistics and awards. Information was

extracted from the CRM to identify how many interventions

were performed by volunteers, lifeguards and lifesaving

services during 2018-19; and how many active Surf

Lifeguards and award holders there were during this period.

FATAL DROWNING DATA ANALYSIS

Fatal drownings statistics was recorded in DrownBase

and shared for this report by Water Safety New Zealand

(2019a). WSNZ gives no warranty as to the correctness of

the information or the data provided as it is supplied to

WSNZ by third parties, not under its control. While WSNZ

is satisfied as to its accuracy for the purposes for which it

is supplied to it, WSNZ shall not be liable for any loss or

damage arising directly or indirectly from the use of any

data supplied. All reported statistics are provisional.

The non-fatal drowning data used in this report is based

on hospital stays of at least 24 hours and has been provided

by WSNZ’s as recorded in DrownBase. The data is sorted

by the ICD-10-AM/ACHI/ACS international coding system.

SUGGESTED CITATION: Surf Life Saving New Zealand.

(2019). National Beach and Coastal Safety Report 2019.

Wellington: Surf Life Saving New Zealand.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Surf Life Saving New Zealand would like to thank the

following people and organisations for their assistance in

the production of the inaugural National Beach & Coastal

Safety Report. Felicity Fozard, at Water Safety New Zealand;

Shane Daw, Jaz Lawes and Nicole Cooney, at Surf Life

Saving Australia; Statistics New Zealand; Naveen Kumar at

the University of Canterbury; SLSNZ regions and Volunteer

Surf Life Saving clubs; SLSNZ would also like to thank our

sponsors for their continued support and regional councils

and local territorial authorities for their funding towards the

cost of providing the Contract Lifeguard Service.

The report was compiled by Dan Lee (Coastal Safety

Officer), Mick Kearney (National Community Education

Manager), Adam Wooler (Chief Operations Officer) and

Rajal Middleton (Head of Commercial and Marketing).

© 2019 SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided

in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment Act

2006, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in

any retrieval systems or transmitted by any means (including

electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying,

recording or otherwise) without prior permission from Surf

Life Saving New Zealand. Every attempt has been made to

trace and acknowledge copyright, but in some cases, this

may not have been possible. Surf Life Saving New Zealand

apologises for any accidental infringements and would

welcome any information to redress the situation.

REFERENCES

Statistics New Zealand. (2018). Estimated Resident

Population for Regional Council Areas, at 30 June (1996+)

(Annual-Jun). Subnational population estimates tables.

Retrieved 10th October 2019 from: http://archive.stats.

govt.nz/browse_for_stats/population/estimates_and_

projections/subnational-pop-estimates-tables.aspx

Water Safety New Zealand. (2015). New Zealand Water

Safety Sector Strategy 2020. https://cdnflightdec.userfirst.

co.nz/uploads/sites/watersafety/files/PDFs/Official_

Documents/Sector-Strategy-Published-Version-Aug-2015.

pdf

Water Safety New Zealand. (2019a). Coastal drowning

deaths 2009-2018 [Figures / Table / Graph]. Retrieved from

DrownBase database.

Water Safety New Zealand. (2019b). The drowning report

2018. https://drowningreport.watersafety.org.nz/

PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIAL

Cover, pages 8-9, and 75, by Cody Keepa - Keepa Digital.

Pages 20-21, 28-29, 36-37, by Tim Marshal on Unsplash.

Pages 32-33, by Douglas Bagg on Unsplash.

Pages 68-69, by Grace Caadiang on Unslpash.

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

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NATIONAL BEACH AND COASTAL SAFETY REPORT

SURF LIFE SAVING NEW ZEALAND

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REFERENCES


CONTACT INFORMATION

Surf Life Saving New Zealand

Phone: +64 4 560 0383

E-Mail: communications@surflifesaving.org.nz

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