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<strong>Ecotourism</strong><br />

Resource Person:<br />

Shreekanta S. Khatiwada<br />

Ramji Sharma<br />

&<br />

Baikuntha Prasad Acharya<br />

Compiled by: Laxmi Raj Joshi<br />

Roll No: 31<br />

Student of M.Sc. Forestry<br />

Batch: 2010-2012<br />

Office of the Dean, Pokhara<br />


Unit 1: Introduction to Eco-Tourism<br />

Even heaven can be boring after a while.<br />

Mark Taiwan<br />

We must well come the friendly visitors from abroad not only for economic reasons, but even more<br />

because this leads to greater understanding and mutual appreciation. Jawaharlal Nehru<br />

Tourists and Tourism Activities<br />

<br />

<br />

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A person who travels for pleasure in any other places rather his usual residence.<br />

Domestic & International tourists travel within their country & aboard.<br />

Beauty of Nature, Treasures of Culture & Seeking Adventure Activities.<br />


<br />

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Experience: New places, people for knowledge.<br />

Exploration: Places, resources.<br />

Relaxation: Escape from crowd.<br />

Interaction: People, community<br />

Adventure & thrill: Wilderness, adventures activities.<br />

Admiration: Pyramids, Taj mahal etc.<br />

Achievements & fame: Visiting places, Climbing Mountains.<br />

Physical fitness: Body/ soul<br />

Strengthen Social/Family ties: Visiting with them.<br />

Religious purpose: Chardham,Mecca, Jerusalam etc.<br />

Why Tourists visit our country?<br />

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Scenic beauty of Himalaya, Lake, River, Hills and Terraces etc.<br />

Mountaineering, Trekking, Rafting, Wildlife safari, Visiting cultural sites.<br />

Rural area & Village tour, Seminar, Workshop, Meeting, Festivals etc.<br />

Requirements of tourism products<br />

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Attraction<br />

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Accommodation<br />

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Access<br />

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Affinity ( Hospitality)<br />

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Activities<br />

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Actors ( Operators)<br />

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Amenities<br />

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Acts (rules & regulation)<br />


Tourism Products & Activities<br />

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Nature base: Himalaya, Mountains, Rivers, Lakes, Caves, Hills, Jungles, Wild lives, Birds and<br />

Butterflies, Plants etc.<br />

Culture Base: Temples, Monasteries, Old places & Monuments, Traditional dresses, Ornaments,<br />

Utensils, Households materials, Museum, Musical instrument, Folk Songs & Dance etc.<br />

Adventure: Mountaineering, Trekking, Rafting, Air sports, Jungle Safari etc.<br />

Evolution of tourism<br />

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Travelers were guided in Ancient time by:<br />

Interest: Political, commercial, resources etc.<br />

Curiosity: Places & people, discovery of India, USA, China, Australia etc.<br />

Religious sentiments: Lumbhini & KTM valley,Jerusalam,(E.kawaguchi<br />

Organized Olympic games in Greeks 776 BC to 393 AD<br />

Rome was famous for model city till 16 th<br />

London, Paris, Rome, Athens famous city art & culture till 17 th & 18 th .<br />

Britain was popular for pleasure travelling till 19 th .<br />

<br />

Thomas Cook organized tour from Europe since 1841 AD.<br />

The tour operator of USA since 1866.<br />

Organized tour in India since 1938.<br />

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Invention of photography, bicycle, traveler cheque, technology, motor car, steam engine etc.<br />

19 th and 20 th century.<br />

Increase in disposable income & leisure time, faster cheaper & safer Jet aircraft since 1950 AD<br />

What is <strong>Ecotourism</strong>?<br />

Costa Rica tour operator registered the word “<strong>Ecotourism</strong>” in 1983.<br />

<br />

David Western equates ecotourism with amalgam of envt., economics & social concern.<br />

Environmental movement of 70th & 80 th .<br />

Sustainable dev. Approach of Brundtland report of 1987.<br />

Ceballos Lascurain coined as definition in 1987<br />


<strong>Ecotourism</strong>: “Traveling to relatively undisturbed natural areas with specific objective of studying,<br />

admiring, and enjoying scenery & its wild animals & plants as well as existing cultural assets found in<br />

these areas” C. Lascurain (1987)<br />

“<strong>Ecotourism</strong> is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well<br />

being of local people.” The <strong>Ecotourism</strong> Society<br />

“Travel to enjoy the world‟s amazing diversity of natural life & human culture without causing<br />

damage to either” Encyclopedia of <strong>Ecotourism</strong><br />

“Environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas in order to<br />

enjoy, study and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features-both past and present) that<br />

promotes conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic<br />

involvement of local population.” IUCN<br />

General Meaning of Eco-Tourism<br />

• Visiting an area of special interest like natural products or cultural heritage undertaking ecoconsiderations.<br />

• Provide Eco-friendly services so as to maintain the status-quo in the environment of the host<br />

community.<br />

Characteristics of Eco-tourism<br />

• It is supply driven. Unlike traditional tourism which is largely demand driven<br />

• More concerned about the social impact, economic development and natural resource management<br />

• Controls and regulates tourism development thus making it 'Responsible Tourism"<br />

• Creates commitment among the local suppliers<br />

Four Pillars of Responsible Tourism<br />

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Minimizing environmental impacts.<br />

Respecting host culture.<br />

Maximizing the benefit of local people.<br />

Maximizing tourists satisfaction<br />


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Less and less effect on environment.<br />

Respect to local culture and people.<br />

Increase the level of satisfaction of the visitors.<br />

Economic benefit to the local and sharing for promotion & conservation.<br />


General Requirements for Eco tourism<br />

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Provides the first hand encounter with the natural environment.<br />

Actively involve local communities in the tourism process.<br />

Its travel of gratification is measured in terms of education or appreciation.<br />

It involves considerable preparation & in depth knowledge among the leaders & participants.<br />

An essential feature of ecotourism is sustainability.<br />

It does not degrade resources.<br />

Promotes positive environmental ethics & fosters preferred behaviors.<br />

Concentrates on intrinsic rather than extrinsic values.<br />

Oriented around the environment in question & not around man.<br />

It must benefit the wildlife and environment<br />

Rules for the promotion of ecotourism<br />

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Keep tourist all in one place for as long as possible during their visit to the destination.<br />

Do not displace any existing things from destinations.<br />

Take fewer tourists who will stay longer and spend more.<br />

Involve the local community for the process of tourism.<br />

Take the photographs and leave the footprint only.<br />

Be friendly with the visitors and help them to practice ecotourism codes.<br />

Make no open fires and discourage others from doing so.<br />

Give information to the guest about attractions, facilities, local customs & traditions,<br />

prohibitions & regulations.<br />

Ensure adequate opportunities to visitors for communication with nature & native culture etc.<br />

Suggestion for the promotion of ecotourism<br />

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Practice conservation of nature and culture as a way of life.<br />

Respect the natural cultural and local customs of the area.<br />

Respects history and holy places, do not touch or remove religious objects.<br />

Respect the local etiquettes, norms & values.<br />

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Leave the camp site clean after use.<br />


Manage the wastage & garbage; do not through them here and there.<br />

Conclusion<br />

• Eco-tourism is travel to natural areas that conserves the environment (natural and cultural)and<br />

sustains the well being of the people<br />

• Entails a type of use that minimizes negative impacts to the environment and to local people.<br />

• Increased the awareness and understanding of an area‟s natural and cultural systems and the<br />

subsequent involvement of visitors in issues affecting those systems.<br />

• Contributes to the conservation and management of legally protected and other natural areas.<br />

• The infrastructure must be ethnic(lodging), safe and modest(low impact means) and capable of<br />

generating income<br />

• It must have management of protected areas and parks by local people<br />

• It must create a common point for the conservationists, the development community and the<br />

private sector<br />

Issues to be addressed about eco-tourism<br />

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Host Vs Guest (Conflict of Interest)<br />

Role of Intermediaries<br />

Development Vs Sustainable Dev.<br />

Agenda Vs Action (Workshop Vs Work)<br />

Generalization Vs Specialization<br />

Quality Vs Mass Tourism<br />

Current status of World Tourism<br />

• 903 million visitors grew by 4.6%<br />

• Economic Activity of $5.9 trillion i.e. about 10% of global GDP<br />

• 6.5% of total global work force<br />

• Employing 238 million people<br />

• Europe – America – Asia Pacific<br />

• Switzerland- Nepal – New Zealand<br />

Tourism Industry in Nepal<br />

• Since 1950 from Mountaineering.<br />


• Annapurna in June 1950 & Mt. Everest in 1953.<br />

• About 5,76,000 visitors in 2009<br />

• About 4.2% GDP and 17% foreign exchange<br />

• Purpose of visit: Holiday pleasure, Mountaineering & trekking and others.<br />

• Kathmandu – Pokhara – Chitwan – Lumbhini<br />

• Annapurna – Khumbu – Langtang – Kanchajunga & Dolpo region.<br />

Tourism Development in Pokhara<br />

• Since 1950 after climbing Annapurna by Maurice Herzog<br />

• Tourism activities since 1970<br />

• Mass tourism effect 1980<br />

• Over 70% Tourism industries established after 1990.<br />

• 2, 07,000 visitors in 2008.<br />

• Over 60% visitors for adventure<br />

Mass tourism & Alternative tourism<br />

• Mass tourism is traditional form of tourism development, short term free market principles<br />

dominate to maximize the income.<br />

• Alternative tourism is a whole range of tourism strategies e.g., appropriate, eco, soft,<br />

responsible, people to people, controlled, small scale, cottage & green tourism.<br />

Economics of Tourism<br />

• Smokeless industry.<br />

• Medium of foreign exchange earnings in developing countries.<br />

• Increasing employment, GDP & tax revenue.<br />

• Distribution of wealth from north to south.<br />

• Multiplier effects.<br />

Tourism Business & Activities<br />

• Hotels & Lodges<br />

• Travel Agencies<br />

• Trekking Agencies<br />

• Restaurants & Bar<br />

• Handicrafts Centre<br />

• Books & Equipments shops etc.<br />


Major tourist destinations in Nepal<br />

• Kathmandu, Pokhara, Chitwan & Lumbini<br />

• Annapurna, Sagarmatha, Langtang, Kanchanjunga & Dolpo region<br />

• Pashupatinath, Muktinath, Devghat, Barah chhetra, Manakamana, Swargadwari & Khaptad.<br />

Importance of Tourism in Nepal<br />

• Source of foreign currency<br />

• Income & employment opportunities<br />

• Improvement in life standard<br />

• Awareness & exposure about life & culture.<br />

• Development of Infrastructure<br />

• Conservation of natural & cultural heritages.<br />

• Promotion of traditional skill & knowledge.<br />

Explain the roots of Conservation: Ecosystem mgt. and CAs<br />

Understanding inter-linkages of ecotourism and biodiversity conservation<br />

• The roots of conservationism -ecosystem management and protected areas. – 2 classes<br />

• <strong>Ecotourism</strong> and biodiversity - 1<br />

• Principles of eco-tourism - 1<br />

• Role of ethics in ecotourism. -1<br />

• <strong>Ecotourism</strong> typologies -1<br />

Philosophy, principle and theoretical background<br />

The roots of conservationism<br />

World views on Environment and resources<br />

• Western :<br />

Master of nature: live over the nature.<br />

• The Bible speaks of God creating Man in His own image and letting him "have dominion over<br />

the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle and over all the earth, and<br />

every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth" (Genesis 1:26).<br />

• Single view – human being separate from the rest.<br />

• „It is god will that man exploit nature for his proper ends‟<br />


• Man is only perceived as the user of Nature, not as an integral part of her.<br />

• By the ninth century „Man and nature are now two things, man is master‟ believe developed in<br />

Europe<br />

World views on Environment and resources<br />

• Eastern and indigenous<br />

Part of the nature: live with the nature<br />

• The world as manifestation of a basic oneness.<br />

• Basudaiva Kutumbakam.<br />

• Human as a part of the whole/natural system.<br />

• Importance of relationship of living and nonliving things.<br />

Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web,<br />

we do to ourselves. All things are bound together All things connect….” Chief Seattle<br />

Exploitation of nature resources<br />

• Western world views promote colonisation , conversion and exploitation<br />

• Wilderness areas are home to pagans. So needs conversion to bring religious order.<br />

• Wild areas are waste or lands not used by human beings are wastelands.<br />

• The 1870‟s saw the final decimation of the bison herds. In 1871 Col. R. I. Dodge reported one<br />

herd in Colorado being 50 miles wide and 20 miles long, estimated at 4 million head.<br />

• Over 8.5 million bison were shot dead in 1871-73. Boson population dropped form 60<br />

million to 150 within 30 yrs, (1869-1889) .<br />

• In 1806, Alexander Wilson, an ornithologist for whom the Wilson Society is named, recorded<br />

a flight a mile wide and 40 miles along, estimated to be over two billion birds.<br />

• 15 million passenger pigeon shipped to market in 1861.<br />

• The last passenger pigeon died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914.<br />

Root of conservatism<br />

• Realisation of the importance of nature as an economic, aesthetic, and spiritual resource, together<br />

with a newly urgent conviction that nature's resources were increasingly imperiled.<br />

• Inspired by Writers, Explorers, Photographers, Artists etc helped preserve American wilderness<br />

some of noted were Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, George Catlin, John Muir,<br />

Leopold, Pinchot etc<br />


Some reflections<br />

• “Civilization is a state of mutual and interdependent cooperation, between human animals, other<br />

animals, …. Which may disrupted at any moment by the failure of any of them” Aldo Leopold<br />

• „We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a<br />

community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect‟ – Aldo Leopold.<br />

• „It is not what we have that will make us a great nation, it is the way in which we use it‟.<br />

President Theodore Roosevelt<br />

• "A nation that destroys its soils destroys itself. Forests are the lungs of our land, purifying the air<br />

and giving fresh strength to our people.“ Franklin Delano Roosevelt<br />

• "Conservation means the greatest good to the greatest number for the longest time," Gifford<br />

Pinchot<br />

The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920 in USA<br />

• Scientific and technological concerns,<br />

• recognition of the human impact on the natural environment, and<br />

• faith in the human capacity to manage that impact actively and wisely for human benefit;<br />

• Philosophical, ethical, and spiritual values and symbolizations,<br />

• linked American "nature" to the construction of American national identity and character,<br />

and<br />

• redefined the natural world as a moral and spiritual resource for urban and industrial man;<br />

• Aesthetic considerations, including those which celebrated the perception and enjoyment of<br />

wildlife, wilderness, and natural beauty as legitimate and necessary recreational resources in<br />

American life.<br />

Peak of conservatism in the US<br />

• In 1901 Theodore Roosevelt becomes President of the United States and conservation becomes<br />

a cornerstone of his domestic policy<br />

• The most active President in the history of American conservation.<br />

• Roosevelt set aside 148 million acres during his presidency,<br />

• Over 50,000 acres for each day he was in office,<br />

• 16 national monuments, 51 wildlife refuges, and 5 national parks.<br />

Various philosophies<br />

• Preservation/deep ecology<br />

• Conservation/sustainable use<br />

10<br />

• Eco-feiminism<br />

• Environmentalism

• Harmony - Leopold,<br />

• Spirituality - John Muir<br />

• Wise use - Pinchot<br />

Eco-feminism<br />

• In 1974, the term "ecofeminism" was conceived by d'Eaubonne as a connection of the ecology<br />

and women<br />

• Movement that views the oppression of women and nature as interconnected.<br />

• It is now better understood as a movement working against the interconnected oppressions of<br />

gender, race, class and nature.<br />

• The eco-feminists feel that men dominate women and humans dominate nature. Naturally,<br />

then, women and the environmentalists should be united in their struggle.<br />

• Other eco-feminists claim that the degradation of nature contributes to the degradation of<br />

women<br />

Deep ecology<br />

• The phrase "deep ecology" was coined by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss in 1973<br />

• Proponents of deep ecology believe that the world does not exist as a resource to be freely<br />

exploited by humans.<br />

• The ethics of deep ecology hold that a whole system is superior to any of its parts.<br />

• The philosophy of deep ecology helped differentiate the modern ecology movement by<br />

pointing out the anthropocentric bias of the term “environment "and rejecting the idea of<br />

humans as authoritarian guardians of the environment.<br />

• Nature has own rights to exists irrespective to the value of human beings.<br />

Mainstream conservationism<br />

• Current conservation efforts represent a more balanced view than the extremes<br />

• Nature for tomorrow, conservation for development etc are still anthropocentric based on<br />

Judeo-Christian doctrine - anthropocentric environmentalism<br />

• The economics of biodiversity (TEB) study of the UNEP – valuing the biodiversity to human<br />

wellbeing<br />

• Millennium ecosystem Assessment (MEA)<br />

Moved by NGOs and foundations<br />

• WWF,<br />

• The Nature Conservancy (ITNC)<br />


• The wealthiest conservation organization in the US protecting 15 million acres in the U.S. and<br />

102 million acres worldwide.<br />

• The Conservation International (CI)<br />

• Sierra club,<br />

• The North American Wildlife Federation<br />

• The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)<br />

• Now there are 3,000 conservation organizations. over 1,600 private conservation organizations<br />

• Wildlife conservation is a political issue, with multiple stakeholders.<br />

• Multibillion dollar activities<br />

Conservationism gave birth to protected areas<br />

• Saving resources from use rather than saving them for use.<br />

• Harmony between human influence and the natural world could be achieved only through<br />

society‟s commitment to moral and social responsibility to future generation.<br />

• A cultural response to perceived threat to<br />

nature<br />

• First national park Yellow Stone<br />

established in 1887, second Yosemite in<br />

1890<br />

Protected areas and management approaches<br />

More than 120,000 PAs worldwide covering near<br />

14% of the Earth‟s terrestrial land surface<br />

Conservation paradigms are dynamic<br />

Integration<br />

Mainstreaming<br />

Isolation<br />

Conservation<br />

Sustainable<br />

development<br />

Recreation<br />


The evolving role of protected areas<br />

Shifting paradigms - from site to system to networks<br />

• Shift from national parks as signature areas for protection.<br />

• Human being as an important component<br />

• Activities and actors beyond PAs boundaries are crucial<br />

• Ecology and social-economic systems are interlinked<br />

• Effective human management of ecosystems will not occur without a clear understanding of the<br />

place of people in the context of the ecosystem.<br />

Human ecology<br />

• The study of the relationship between humans and their respective environment.<br />

• Ecosystem management and human ecology – different sides of the same coin<br />

• Four types of human relationships :( Peterson, 1996): Dominion, Stewardship, Participation and<br />

Abdication<br />

Relationship between conservation and ecotourism<br />


1.5 Role of Ethics in ecotourism<br />

Successful ecotourism<br />

• Conservationists should understand business<br />

• Tourism entrepreneurs should understand conservation<br />

• At the moment we are doing nature based tourism or tourism in natural areas.<br />

• It is an ideal component of a sustainable development strategy where natural resources can be<br />

utilized as tourism attractions without causing harm to the natural area.<br />

• Tourism to protected areas has continued to grow at a rapid rate.<br />

• To ensure that the increasing pressure from tourism does not threaten the long-term health of<br />

these precious areas, more than ever it is important that tourism development for protected areas<br />

occur within the context of conservation management.<br />

• The core elements of environmental problems such as man's relationship with his natural<br />

surroundings are largely of an ethical and emotional nature.<br />

Ethical issues in ecotourism<br />

• In many cases the non human members of our ecological community that are the hardest hit by<br />

tourism<br />

• Activities of the people are largely normative which collectively direct the actions of<br />

communities, cultures, societies and the planet.<br />

• Ethic – theoretical and applied<br />

• Applied – environmental ethic and tourism ethic<br />

• Not only Compassion to nature but there is compulsion also<br />

• Ethic and emotions – compassion and knowledge - Buddha‟s eye<br />

• Heart less head and head less heart<br />


• Key stakeholders: Government/protected area agencies, Tourism operators, Tourists and local<br />

communities<br />

• Human/anthropocentirc ethic vs bio-centric ethic.<br />

• Western world view based ethic – anthropocentric - nature can be perceived only on the<br />

perspective of human values<br />

• Eastern word view based ethic – bio centric/intrinsic – all living and non living being has their<br />

own rights to existence.<br />

• Bio centric – preservationist – practice of little interventions, placing high value on resources,<br />

responsible use and very small numbers of tourists.<br />

• The choices the people make with respect to tourism reflect the importance of environmental<br />

values in their lives (Philpsen, 1995).<br />

• Codes of ethics – philosophical and value based<br />

• Environmental commitment, responsibility, integrated planning, environmentally sound<br />

management, cooperation between decision-makers and public awareness<br />

• Codes of practice – practical and local specific<br />

• Deontology or right behavior is an ethical approach which suggests that an act is right or<br />

wrong on the basis of rules or principles of action or duties or rights or virtues – ex. illegal<br />

hunting is poaching.<br />

• Teteology or good behaviors are an ethical approach which suggests that an act is right or<br />

wrong solely on the basis of consequences of its performance.<br />

• Existentiausm - authentic behavior<br />

• Right behavior, good behavior, authentic behavior<br />

• Approx. 77% of the codes/guidelines based on Deontological in nature.<br />

Measurement of ethical consideration in ecotourism activities<br />

• New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale (Jurowski et al 1995)<br />

– Published in 1978, Riley Dunlup and Kent Van Liere<br />

• Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES) (Reidenbach and Robin, 1988/1990)<br />



• Conducts eco-tours with a non-invasive approach to viewing wildlife and wilderness<br />

exploration.<br />

• Act to minimize local cultural impact.<br />


• Enhance the quality of wildlife encounters, while minimizing our impact.<br />

• Protecting Wildlife:<br />

• Animals overtly respond to intrusive human behavior with defensive-aggressive posturing,<br />

vocalization, even flight. We use the following methods to avoid disturbing wildlife:<br />

1. All animals have escape distances, and when people intrude on this zone, animals move away.<br />

These distances vary among species, individuals and environmental circumstances.<br />

• Naturalists look for behavioral cues which might suggest disturbance and alert travelers<br />

accordingly<br />

2. Animals observe us as we watch them. Some of our behaviors may be interpreted by animals as<br />

threatening. We move slowly and quietly when near wildlife, and remain at the periphery of animal<br />

groups, allowing wildlife to maintain their social organization.<br />

3. We provide travelers with "buyer bewares" guidance on illegal wildlife products.<br />

• Preserving Habitat:<br />

1. Waste disposal: A "pack it back" ethic ensures that all trash created during nature walks, camping<br />

adventures and boat excursions is placed in appropriate disposal sites.<br />

2. Soil erosion: To preserve natural habitats our naturalists ensure that vehicles stay on the road except<br />

where otherwise permissible, in order to prevent damaging ecosystems and degrading wildlife<br />

habitats. We refrain from collecting plants, coral and other souvenirs.<br />

3. Coral reefs: Guidelines are provided for snorkeling to prevent breaking coral or stirring bottom<br />

sediment which could contribute to the destruction of delicate coral.<br />

4. Sand dunes: Some plants adapted to this habitat have a fragile hold on relatively unstable dunes.<br />

Naturalists guide travelers along the base of vulnerable dunes.<br />


Unit 2: <strong>Ecotourism</strong> Policy, Organizations and the <strong>Ecotourism</strong><br />

Strong Recovery in 2010 and growing trend in 2011<br />

World Outbound Tourism Slumped in 2009<br />

A strong comeback in 2010<br />

New record for international visitor numbers<br />

Global Tourism Status<br />

2009 2010<br />

All Trips -1% +5%<br />

Outbound Trips 4% +7%<br />

Outbound nights -7% +5%<br />

OutboundSpendingin -9% +7%<br />

InternationalArrival 4.2% +6to7%<br />

Int‟lSpendin -5.7 n/a<br />

Global Tourism Status<br />

Decline of 9% in Spending in 2009 is to increase by 7% (Euro 781 billion) in 2010<br />

Big Spenders (2010):<br />

China (+22%)<br />

Russia (+26%)<br />

Brazil (+54%)<br />

A Moderate growth Germany, USA, France, Italy & Japan<br />

More Hotel Guests but Rates still Under Pressure<br />

Improving World Economy in 2011 (4.2% growth)<br />

Int‟l Tourism Growth of 3-5% in 2011<br />

Asia Shakes off Recession with Dynamic Growth<br />

China to become world‟s largest outbound market and destination after 2015<br />

2.5 <strong>Ecotourism</strong> and biodiversity<br />

o Globally, the rate of growth of ecotourism is 5 percent where as conventional tourism has only<br />

4.1 percent.<br />

o Biodiversity a major attraction for eco-tourists<br />


o PAs are the main destination for eco-tourists.<br />

o PAs hold rare or endemic species of flora and fauna, abundant wildlife, high indices of species<br />

diversity, unusual or spectacular geomorphological formations/ landscape and unique historic or<br />

contemporary cultural manifestations in a natural context<br />

Wilderness protection, recreation and tourism<br />

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Natural wilderness areas are home to god and goddess, place of salvation, spiritual and<br />

religious places since time immemorial.<br />

Hunting, meditation, recreation – Shiva- Parvati, Radha – Krishna romance were in the forests<br />

with outstanding natural beauty.<br />

Emperor Ashok established first protected area in 252 BC.<br />

Since the first national park, Yellowstone, was established in 1872, national parks are, by<br />

definition, available for public visitation.<br />

People who visited Yellowstone and Yosemite a century ago were early eco-tourists<br />

Hunting was the prime past time activities of the Nepalese aristocracy.<br />

Since 1960s (before the establishment of National Park) commercial wildlife tourism was in<br />

operation in Chitwan. First wildlife lodge was established in 1965.<br />

o Many African Parks were established to expand wildlife tourism including trophy hunting.<br />

Tourism in and around protected areas<br />

Tourism in and around protected areas<br />

Eco Park<br />

Picnic Park<br />

PAs<br />

PAs<br />

Eco-tourism<br />

Tourism<br />

Tourism<br />

Tourism<br />


PAs – Tourism activities relationship<br />

PAs Categories: Ia VI<br />

Tourism Activities: Non Consumptive<br />

consumptive<br />

PAs category<br />

PAs category/level of protection<br />

Wildlife watching<br />

• Prime wildlife habitat and prime tourist attraction largely overlaps.<br />

• Watching animals is an inspiring experience. People are excited by seeing whales or turtles,<br />

spectacular bird life, elephants or gorillas.<br />

• The Big Five"-lion, leopard, buffalo, elephant and rhino are the main tourists attraction in east<br />

African countries<br />

• Madagascar –baobabs trees, lemurs etc<br />

• Galapagos island - lizards/birds<br />

• Chitwan – Rhino/tiger<br />

• Rwanda - gorilla<br />

• Whale watching tours more than doubled between 1991 and 1998, and spent over a billion US<br />

dollars a year on this activity, benefiting 495 communities around the world from remote<br />

destinations to major tourism resorts such as the Canary Islands.<br />

• Over 95% of the visitors come to the Serengeti to watch wildlife.<br />

• More than 50% of the tourists visit PAs. Almost 100% go for elephant safari to see wild<br />

animals.<br />

• Gross worth of a Lion in Amboseli National Park, Kenya – US$ 27, 000/year<br />

• A elephant heard is estimated as worth as US$ 610, 000/year<br />


Biodiversity and ecotourism in developing countries (source: Gossling, 1999)<br />

Hard reality<br />

• In terms of tourism benefits:<br />

developing countries – 20-40% of the total receipts<br />

Entrance fees amount to 0.01%–1% of the total travel costs.<br />

• In 1988 as much as 4–22% of these revenues were brought in by nature tourism<br />

• In case of Nepal major portion of the tourism receipt should come form natural areas.<br />

Useful devil<br />

• Many of the eco-tourists destinations are extremely sensitive to environmental impacts from<br />

human use.<br />

• The presence of people is seen to have an impact on the behavior of wildlife such as affecting<br />

reproductive success, feeding and social behaviors.<br />

• Tour boats are often used in iYucatan, Mexico have resulted in a decreased feeding time and<br />

increased alert behavior of flamingos.<br />

• Visitations to Megallanic penguins nesting sites are popular but result in changes in the<br />

penguin‟s behavior in both adults and chicks. causing lower hatching rates of eggs,<br />

increased abandonment of nests, and higher mortality rates .<br />

• When in the presence of tourists, animals abandon their nesting and feeding sites.<br />

• Habituation of the gorillas is fundamental to ecotourism so that they may be safely observed by<br />

tourists also may have loss of gorilla in poaching due to the losing the instinct to flee from<br />

poachers or soldiers. Losing their survival skills places these animals at risk for extinction.<br />

• One-homed Rhinoceros and sambar are becoming habituated to tourist activity in high tourist<br />

use areas.<br />


The median flush distance and the significance of the difference in flush distances (m) between Tiger<br />

Tops and Sauraha area<br />

Further increased disturbance may include increased aggression, emigration or pseudo-domestication.<br />

Just bank on not banish<br />

• The basis for ecotourism is the biodiversity in a given area.<br />

• Care must be taken to ensure that the existing biodiversity is maintained and enhanced over time<br />

for ecotourism to be sustainable.<br />

2.3 <strong>Ecotourism</strong> typologies<br />

Tourism under different names – thin line of separation<br />

Nature tourism, Green tourism, Wildlife tourism, Alternative tourism, Sustainable<br />

tourism, Eco-tourism, Rural/village tourism, Community based tourism<br />

<br />

Eco-tourism‟s root lies in nature and outdoor tourism.<br />

Wildlife tourism: Tourism that involves international travel by people from rich developed countries<br />

to wildlife areas in poorer developing countries.<br />

Tourism under different names – thin line of separation<br />

Eco-tourism:<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

„Any style and type of tourism that has the potential to bring benefits to the local economy<br />

whilst contributing to natural and cultural resource conservation‟ – National Eco tourism<br />

Strategy, Nepal, 2001.<br />

„A responsible travel to actual areas which conserve environment and improves the welfare of<br />

local people‟ – The Eco-tourism Society<br />

„Visits to national parks and other natural areas with the aim of viewing and enjoying the<br />

plants and animals as well as any indigenous culture‟ – Boo, 1990<br />


Definition/typology<br />

Alternative tourism:<br />

An umbrella term for indigenous tourism, soft tourism, green tourism, sensitized tourism<br />

responsible tourism appropriate tourism, cottage tourism and local tourism – means almost any thing<br />

to anyone!<br />

Alternative approach to tourism should be - community centred, employ local resource,<br />

relatively easy to manage, not destructive to nature and culture, benefit and guests both and even<br />

improve communication between them‟ (Jafari, 1990)<br />

Nature based tourism: It involves simply natural areas, where as ecotiurism demonstrates a clear<br />

commitment to conservation and development.<br />

Sustainable tourism: (Eber, 1992)<br />

<br />

Tourism and associated infrastructures that, both now and in the future<br />

operates within natural capacities for the regeneration and future productivity of resources;<br />

recognize the contribution that people and communities, costumes and life styles, make to the<br />

tourism experiences;<br />

accept these must have an equal share in the economic benefits of tourism;<br />

are guided by the wishes of local people and communities in the host areas<br />

Nature vs. Eco tourism (Paul, 1997)<br />

Nature based tourism: involves simply visiting natural areas or tourism activities in the natural areas,<br />

tourist driven or guest driven<br />

Eco-tourism: nature based activities which demonstrates a clear commitment to conservation and<br />

development, mutually benefited (host and guest),<br />

Typology of eco-tourists<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Do it you self eco-tourists<br />

Tourist eco-tourist<br />

School groups/scientific groups<br />

Dedication and time:<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Hard core nature tourists<br />

Dedicated nature tourists<br />

Mainstream nature tourists<br />

Casual nature tourists<br />


<strong>Ecotourism</strong> enthusiasts are mostly people from relatively high social brackets; high levels of<br />

education, over 35 and women slightly outnumber men.<br />

Golden triangle – eco-tourism as a tool for poverty alleviation<br />

Golden triangle – eco-tourism as a tool for poverty alleviation<br />

Eco-tourism<br />

Biodiversity<br />

conservation<br />

Sustainable<br />

development<br />

Therefore,<br />

o Conservation without fund is conversation only.<br />

o Tourism is more than being hospitable to tourists only<br />

o Tourism hospitable to tourist and hostile to nature will not go for longer.<br />

o Saving nature by selling is hardly new.<br />

o Conservation and tourism that denies the rights and concerns of local communities is self<br />

defeating, if not illegal.<br />


Unit 4: Economics of Tourism<br />

Total Quality Management<br />

• Total - made up of the whole<br />

• Quality - degree of excellence a product or service provides<br />

• Management – Getting things done with or by others through POSLC<br />

Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence.<br />

Total Quality Management means that the organization's culture is defined by and supports the<br />

constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and<br />

training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high<br />

quality products and services.<br />

“An organizational philosophy and long term strategy that makes continuous improvement in<br />

quality a responsibility of all employees”<br />

TQM objective<br />

• To build up quality commitments among the stakeholders for its long term, sustained and<br />

continuous improvement to meet customers‟ needs and expectations, which includes:<br />

1. Designing quality into products & services<br />

2. Preventing defects to a greatest extent feasible & correcting those that do appear<br />

3. Continuously improving the quality of goods and services as much as is economically and<br />

competitively feasible<br />

• To ….. commitments ………, which includes:<br />

1. To achieve TQM objective of sustained quality improvement, it emphasizes to increase<br />

workers‟ knowledge & skills through extensive training, provides relevant information to<br />

employees, pushes decision-making power downward in the organization and ties reward to<br />

employees‟ performance<br />

TQM Characteristics<br />

1. Focuses on satisfying both internal & external customers<br />

2. Develops a balanced & integrated system for satisfying internal and external customer needs<br />

3. Manages the system to continuously improve the satisfaction of internal and external customer<br />

needs<br />

4. Emphasizes on empowering people by providing decision making authority to individuals and<br />

groups at the different levels of organization<br />

5. Provides opportunities for employees to use various techniques and models to aid their<br />

decision making process<br />


6. Views human resource management as the main partner for quality<br />

7. Expects that managers at all levels, provides positive, dynamic leadership in order to foster an<br />

environment for quality management<br />

Value added<br />

analysis<br />

Bench<br />

marking<br />

Outsourcing<br />

Statistical<br />

quality<br />

control<br />

TQM<br />

Tools<br />

Speed<br />

ISO<br />

9000<br />

ISO 14000 for Environmental<br />

performance<br />

Just in<br />

Time (JIT)<br />

Training<br />

Why TQM?<br />

Ford Motor Company had operating losses of $3.3 billion between 1980 and 1982.<br />

Xerox market share dropped from 93% in 1971 to 40% in 1981.<br />

Attention to quality was seen as a way to combat the competition.<br />

Emergence of TQM / Continuous Improvement<br />

TQM & Prof. Edward Deming<br />

• William Edwards Deming was an American statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and<br />

consultant …perhaps best known for his work in Japan and with Ford Motor Co.<br />

• From 1950 onward, he taught top management how to improve design, product quality, testing<br />

and sales<br />

• Deming is regarded to have transformed Japan into an economic superpower in the post world<br />

war 2 nd by significantly improving their product quality.<br />

Deming’s Rolling Wheel / Ball<br />


Deming’s Cycle<br />

P (Planning): Emphasis on working out what is needed to reach a very specific target<br />

outcome…designed to improve procedures.<br />

(D0): Involves trying out the process that has been planned in a practical setting…done on as small a<br />

scale as possible<br />

C (Check)/Study: Assessing or measuring the results and then comparing them to the expected<br />

outcomes to detect any differences.<br />

A (Act): First analyzing the differences between the expected and actual outcome…idea is to assess<br />

what changes need to be made to rectify this and then carry out these changes<br />

Deming’s 14 Key Principles<br />

1. Create consistency of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to<br />

become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs.<br />

2. Adopting the philosophy of cooperation (win-win), helps everybody to win and put it into<br />

practice by teaching it to employees, customers and suppliers.<br />

3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a<br />

mass basis by building in-built inspection process for maintaining quality.<br />

4. Employers are suggested not just to look for short term cost advantages rather they should<br />

work to minimize costs in the long run.<br />

5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and<br />

productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.<br />

6. Institute training on the job regularly to update employees skills and knowledge in the changed<br />

situation.<br />

7. Institute leadership to adopt and manage skills, abilities, capabilities and aspiration of people.<br />

Leaders in the organization must concentrate on helping people for better job.<br />

8. Drive out fear and develop trust so that everyone may work effectively for the company<br />

9. Break down barriers between departments since people in research, design, sales, and<br />

production must work as a team to foresee problems of production and in use that may be<br />

encountered with the product or service.<br />

10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforce asking for zero defects and new<br />

levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of<br />

the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the<br />

power of the work force.<br />

11. Eliminate numerical since only numerical goals and quotas can not work. Concept of MBO is<br />

important to substitute leadership<br />


12. Remove barriers. It is the principle of removing all types of barriers that hinder joy of people at<br />

work. This will mean abolishing the annual rating or merit system that ranks people and creates<br />

competition and conflict.<br />

13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.<br />

14. The transformation is everybody's job. All involved in organization should work honestly for<br />

its transformation<br />

According to Deming: Poor Quality is due to Management: 85% and worker Problem: 15%<br />

Productivity and TQM<br />

Traditional view: Quality cannot be improved without significant losses in productivity.<br />

TQM view: Improved quality leads to improved productivity.<br />

Quality dimensions in Eco-tourism<br />

Quality dimensions in Eco-tourism<br />

Quality in Tourism<br />

Hardware<br />

Environment<br />

Software<br />

Facilities<br />

Landscape<br />

Service<br />

Functions<br />

Adverse Effects<br />

/ pollution<br />

Information<br />

Aesthetical<br />

Aspects<br />

Consumption of<br />

Resources<br />

Hospitality<br />

Service chain with critical incidents and good service<br />

Before On the spot After<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Journey<br />

home<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Information/<br />

Reservation<br />

Local<br />

Accommodatioport<br />

Trans-<br />

Journey information<br />

Food<br />

Activities<br />

Entertainment<br />

Post-vacation<br />

goodwill<br />

acivities<br />

<br />

<br />

= Critical incidents<br />

= Good service<br />


Total Quality Management and Continuous Improvement<br />

• TQM is the management process used to make continuous improvements to all functions.<br />

• TQM represents an ongoing, continuous commitment to improvement.<br />

<br />

The foundation of total quality is a management philosophy that supports meeting customer<br />

requirements through continuous improvement<br />

Continuous Improvement versus Traditional Approach<br />

Traditional Approach<br />

Continuous Improvement<br />

• Market-share focus Customer focus<br />

• Individuals Cross-functional teams<br />

• Focus on ‘who” and “why” Focus on “what” and “how”<br />

• Short-term focus Long-term focus<br />

• Status quo focus Continuous improvement<br />

• Product focus Process improvement focus<br />

• Innovation Incremental improvements<br />

• Fire fighting Problem solving<br />

The TQM System in Tourism<br />

Objective<br />

Continuous<br />

Improvement<br />

Principles<br />

Customer<br />

Focus<br />

Process<br />

Improvement<br />

Total<br />

Involvement<br />

Elements<br />

Leadership<br />

Education and Training Supportive structure<br />

Communications Reward and recognition<br />

Measurement<br />

Demand for Tourism<br />

• Tourists are demanding tourism product & the host community supplies the facilities.<br />

• Demand of tourism depends on:<br />

• Price of the product<br />

• Income of the tourists<br />

• Price of related goods & services<br />

• Tourists taste & preference<br />


• Leisure activities : goods, facilities<br />

Elasticity of Tourism demand<br />

Price elasticity of tourism demand<br />

E p = dQ/Q ÷ dP/P<br />

or<br />

% change in quantity demanded for tourism services<br />

%change in the price of the tourism services<br />

Where,<br />

Ep > 1 relatively elastic demand<br />

Ep = 1 unitary elastic demand<br />

Ep < 1 relatively inelastic demand<br />

Income elasticity of tourism demand<br />

Ey = dQ/Q ÷ dY/Y or<br />

% change in quantity demanded for tourism services<br />

%change in the tourist income<br />

Where,<br />

Ey > 0 in case of normal product<br />

Ep < 0 in case of inferior product<br />

Cross elasticity of tourism demand<br />

E XY= dQx/Qx ÷ dPy/Py<br />

or<br />

% change in quant. demanded for tourism services X<br />

%change in the price of the tourism services Y<br />

Where,<br />

Exy < 0 in case of complementary commodities & services. e, g,, Air fare and<br />

accommodation.<br />

Exy > 0 in case of substitute commodity & services. e.g., Resort & Hotel<br />

Supply side of tourism<br />

Three types of suppliers with different objectives: Commercial, Public & Voluntary.<br />

Elements of supply in tourism:<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

Attractions: Nature, culture & human efforts.<br />

Transport: bicycle, bus, trains, air service etc.<br />

Accommodation: Hotel, resorts, lodge, hostel etc.<br />

Infrastructure: Roadways, airport, parking, security, communication, electricity etc.<br />


Recreation & entertainment: Music, Museum, casino.<br />

Tourist Expenditure Pattern<br />

• Accommodation 25%<br />

• Food & beverage 32%<br />

• Entertainment 10%<br />

• Local transport 5%<br />

• Purchases 25%<br />

• Other expenses 3%<br />

Total 100%<br />

Tourism Multiplier<br />

• Chain reaction of spending triggered off by the injection of tourist money into the<br />

destination economy in the form of output, income, employment & government revenue.<br />

• Multiplier is the ratio of direct, indirect & induces changes within economy.<br />

• Direct casual change with expenditure by tourist visiting the region known as direct or<br />

primary expenditure.<br />

• Rise in wage & salaries increase consumption expenditures, may give further effect on the<br />

region as indirect or induced change are called secondary effects.<br />

TIM = [1 – TPI] ÷ [ MPS + MPI ]<br />

Where, TIM = Tourism income multiplier.<br />

1 = Tourist dollar.<br />

TPI = Tourist propensity to import.<br />

MPS = Marginal propensity to save by residents.<br />

MPI = Marginal propensity to invest by residents.<br />

Production & Cost of Tourism Product<br />

• Exploration<br />

• Development<br />

• Promotion/ Marketing<br />

• Conservation for sustainability<br />

• Short run cost<br />

• Long run cost<br />

• Opportunity cost<br />

Socio-cultural Impact of Tourism<br />

• Degradation of traditional cultural values, norms & life style.<br />

• Imitating problem among youths.<br />

• Damaged of historic and cultural sites<br />

• Increase in social crime e.g., Prostitution, drug abuse, robbery etc.<br />

• Changed in the socio-cultural structure of the host community.<br />

• Overcrowding, traffic congestion, and problems of transferable diseases.<br />


Socio-economic Impact of Tourism<br />

• Rise in price of land and housing.<br />

• Higher demand raises the prices of consumer goods.<br />

• Over expense of health & security by using local tax or receipts.<br />

• Inequitable distribution of economic benefits among the local people.<br />

• Temptation of easy and fast money.<br />

• Problems of traditional occupation & life style.<br />

Environmental Impact of Tourism<br />

• Pollution of land & water resources.<br />

• Deforestation & crisis for wildlife.<br />

• Soil erosion & landslides.<br />

• Depletion of bio diversity.<br />

• Rapid development & overcrowding.<br />

• Degradation of parks, reserves etc.<br />

Unit 5: Management and Marketing of <strong>Ecotourism</strong><br />

Tourism: Tourism is an activity of a person travelling to and staying in places outside their usual<br />

environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or any other purpose.<br />

WTO<br />

Nature of TOURISM products<br />

N<br />

A<br />

T<br />

U<br />

R<br />

E<br />

• Service as a product<br />

• Perishability<br />

• Variability<br />

• Inseparability<br />

• Intangibility<br />

Elements of Tourism<br />

Attractions, Accessibility Accommodation and Amenities<br />

Tourism Products of Nepal<br />

Mountaineering, Sightseeing, Trekking/hiking, White water Rafting, Paragliding, Rock climbing, Hot<br />

air ballooning, Bungee Jumping, Canoeing, Ultra light craft, Bird watching, Jungle safari, Mountain<br />

flight, Fishing, Mountain biking, Wave running, Cable car, Ridge walking, Hunting, Agro-tourism,<br />

Village tours, Special Interest tours.<br />


Cultural<br />

Tourism<br />

Mountain<br />

Tourism<br />

Naturebased<br />

Tourism<br />

Eco -<br />

tourism<br />

Mass<br />

Tourism<br />

Tourism<br />

Typology<br />

Adventure<br />

Tourism<br />

Sustainable<br />

Tourism<br />

Agro-<br />

Tourism<br />

Responsible<br />

Tourism<br />

Sports<br />

Tourism<br />

Village<br />

Tourism<br />

Green<br />

Tourism<br />

Rural<br />

Tourism<br />

Others ?????<br />

6<br />

Glossary:<br />

Eco-tourism: Perhaps the most over-used & mis-used word in travel industry. Travel to natural areas<br />

which conserve the environment and improve the welfare of the local people.<br />

Adventure Tourism: Soft adventure (lower risk, greater comfort) & Hard adventure (higher risk,<br />

greater physical challenge)<br />

Sustainable Tourism: Does not reduce the availability or resources and does not inhibit future travelers<br />

from enjoying the same experience.<br />

Responsible Tourism: Minimizes negative impacts on the environment<br />

Nature-Based Tourism: More generic term for any activity or travel experience with a focus on nature<br />

Green Tourism: Often used inter-changeably with eco-tourism & sustainable tourism.<br />

Any activity or facility operating in an environmentally friendly fashion<br />

Multi-sport Adventures: Focus on physical outdoor activities like rafting, mountain biking, climbing,<br />

surfing, diving etc. in a same package<br />

Cultural Tourism: Interacting with and observing unique cultures are the focus of this style of trip. All<br />

of these definitions are debatable; “Eco” for one might be “Sustainable” for other and so on.<br />

Distinction between these terms depends on motives and ethics<br />

• <strong>Ecotourism</strong>: Traveling to undisturbed natural areas with specific object of studying, admiring<br />

and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals as well as any existing cultural<br />

aspects found in those areas. -WTO<br />

• A purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the culture and natural history of the<br />

environment taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem while producing economic<br />

opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources beneficial to local people. -<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> Society<br />


• Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being<br />

of local people. - The International <strong>Ecotourism</strong> Society<br />

• A form of tourism inspired primarily by the natural history of an area, including its indigenous<br />

cultures. The ecotourist visits relatively underdeveloped areas in the spirit of appreciation,<br />

participation and sensitivity. Non-consumptive use of wildlife and natural resources . . . .<br />

directly benefiting the conservation issues in general and to the specific needs of the locals. -<br />

Pacific Asia Travel Association<br />

Principles of <strong>Ecotourism</strong><br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> is about uniting conservation, communities, and sustainable travel. This means that those<br />

who implement and participate in ecotourism activities should follow the following ecotourism<br />

principles:<br />

• Minimize impact.<br />

• Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect.<br />

• Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts.<br />

• Provide direct financial benefits for conservation.<br />

• Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people.<br />

• Raise sensitivity to host countries' political, environmental, and social climate.<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> Criteria<br />

• Rich natural attractions and conducive to travel<br />

• Unique features and education to visitors<br />

• Rich in flora and fauna, endemic/endangered species<br />

• Not frequented by commercial tourists<br />

• Native traditions of local people remain untouched<br />

<br />

Rich in biodiversity<br />

Eco-Tourism Products<br />

Natural or environmental, Community, Heritage or historic, Cultural, Outdoor recreation, Tourism<br />

services, Special events, Information/interpretive services<br />

Aspects of <strong>Ecotourism</strong><br />

1. Local Economics: More $ to the people<br />

2. Natural World Connection: Conservation & Protection, Outdoor Recreation<br />

3. Cultural Emergence: “Off the beaten track”<br />


4. Educational : Language, Food, Festivals, Sports, History<br />

Ecotourist Profile<br />

• Experienced travelers<br />

• Higher education<br />

• Higher Income Bracket<br />

• Age: middle to elderly<br />

<br />

Opinion leaders: Ask & tell friends about trip, Important source of travel information<br />

Marketing: Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need<br />

and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products and value with others.<br />

Marketing Management Philosophies<br />

Production Concept<br />

Product Concept<br />

Selling Concept<br />

Marketing Concept<br />

Societal Marketing Concept<br />

•Consumers favor products that are<br />

available and highly affordable.<br />

•Improve production and distribution.<br />

•Consumers favor products that offer<br />

the most quality, performance, and<br />

innovative features.<br />

•Consumers will buy products only if<br />

the company promotes/ sells these<br />

products.<br />

•Focuses on needs/ wants of target<br />

markets & delivering satisfaction<br />

better than competitors.<br />

•Focuses on needs/ wants of target<br />

markets & delivering superior value.<br />

Evolution of Marketing<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

4 Ps: Traditional marketing<br />

7 Ps : Adds the service component of marketing<br />

10 Ps: Adds tourism & hospitality components of marketing<br />

13 Cs: Incorporates the focus on customer loyalty<br />

Marketing Mix<br />

Marketing<br />

Mix<br />

4 Ps<br />

Product<br />

Place<br />

(Distribution)<br />

Price<br />

Promotion<br />

21<br />


Service Marketing Mix<br />

Marketing<br />

Mix<br />

7 Ps<br />

Physical<br />

Attributes<br />

Refer: Shoemaker, Lewis & Yesawich (2007). Marketing leadership in hospitality and tourism (4 th ed). NJ: Pearson Education<br />

Product<br />

Planning<br />

People<br />

Price<br />

Promotion<br />

10 Ps of<br />

Tourism<br />

Marketing<br />

Mix<br />

Positioning<br />

Programming<br />

Place<br />

Partnership<br />

Refer: Edgell, David C. (2002). Best practices for international tourism development for rural communities. IOWA Life Changing<br />

10 Ps<br />

• Successful marketing means putting the customer first<br />

• If you follow “The Ten „P‟s‟ of Tourism Marketing,” your customers will come first<br />

• Because you will be able to understand them better.<br />

• You will also make more effective use of your marketing dollars and, by doing so, increase<br />

your profits.<br />

13 Cs of Marketing<br />

<br />

Customer<br />

<br />

Capabilities of firm<br />

<br />

Categories of offerings<br />

<br />

Cost, profitability, and value<br />


Control of process<br />

<br />

Customer care<br />

<br />

Collaboration within firm<br />

<br />

Chain of relationships<br />

<br />

Customization<br />

<br />

Capacity control<br />

<br />

Communications<br />

<br />

Competition<br />

<br />

Customer measurement<br />


• Tourism is not tourism until it is sold<br />

• Marketing is not just selling & advertising<br />

• Its role is much broader as it is about matching the right product or service with the right<br />

market or audience<br />

• Marketing is indeed the management process that identifies, anticipates and satisfies customer<br />

requirements profitably<br />

• Marketing is the right product, in the right place, at the right time, at the right price.<br />


• Should respond to the definition of Eco-Tourism<br />

• Should respond to the development strategy<br />

• Should meet Important <strong>Ecotourism</strong> criteria<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> Management Strategy<br />

• Zoning for visitor use<br />

• Visitors site planning and design<br />

• Sustainable infrastructure design<br />

• Revenue generating mechanisms<br />

• Visitor monitoring and management<br />

• Naturalist guides – the heart of ecotourism<br />


<strong>Ecotourism</strong> Management and Development Planning Process<br />

Factors Influencing a Business Plan<br />


• Culture of Tourism<br />

• Tourism Awareness Seminar<br />

• Basic Tour Guiding Techniques<br />

• Waite ring and Bartending Seminar<br />

• Front Office Management<br />

• Tourism and E-Commerce<br />

• Home stay Program<br />

• Accreditation Program<br />

Eco branding<br />

<br />

Travel Agency Operation<br />

• Create positive impressions in the minds of your customers by expounding all<br />

environmentally-friendly aspects of your product or service.<br />


• Your eco-brand permeates your website, literature and even<br />

the labeling of your product.<br />

Eco-Branding: Beyond Green Washing<br />

• The growing environmental awareness amongst consumers is<br />

also affecting how brands are marketed.<br />

• Many are now rushing to promote themselves as<br />

environmentally responsible to appeal to today‟s eco<br />

conscious consumer<br />

• Great example of an eco brand is HOWIES clothing, which makes all of its clothes from eco<br />

textiles, such as organic cotton, Merino wool and recycled cotton<br />

• In recent years the eco movement has been joined by larger companies launching green<br />

offshoots to their main operations.<br />

• Currently the UK‟s green trend setters include Marks & Spencer‟s „Plan A‟, General Electric‟s<br />

„Ecomagination‟ and BSkyB‟s „Carbon Neutral‟<br />

• The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) issued a warning that some of the green claims<br />

being made by brands in their advertising might not be genuine<br />

• Came after it took action against a number of car manufacturers because of their shaky „clean<br />

technology‟ claims in their marketing.<br />

Eco-labeling<br />

• Eco-labels are affixed to products that pass eco-friendly criteria laid down by government,<br />

association or standards certification bodies.<br />

• The criteria utilize extensive research based on the product's life cycle impact on the environment.<br />

• Examples of eco-labels include the Japanese Eco Mark, International Energy Star, USA Green<br />

Seal and UK BREEAM.<br />

Eco-labeling: Background<br />

Eco-labeling entered mainstream environmental policy-making in 1977 through Germany‟s Blue<br />

Angel program. Since then, eco-labels have become one of the most high-profile market-based tools<br />

for achieving environmental objectives<br />

Main features:<br />

• Eco-labels differ from green symbols and environmental claims in that the latter are unverified and<br />

created by the manufacture or service provider.<br />

• Products awarded an eco-label have been assessed and verified by an independent third body and<br />

are guaranteed to meet certain environmental performance requirements<br />


• Eco-labels may focus on certain environmental aspects of the product. Eg: energy consumption,<br />

water use, source of timber etc.<br />

• Government backing for eco-labeling schemes is essential.<br />

• Almost all international eco-labeling schemes require government funding and support. They may<br />

encompass the multiple environmental aspects<br />

Eco-labeling Programs<br />

• The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC);<br />

• The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC);<br />

• Germany‟s Blue Angel program;<br />

• Fair-trade Labeling Organizations International (FLO); and<br />

• The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM).<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> On-line Resources<br />

www.ecotourism.org or www.ecotourism.cc or www.responsibletravel.com<br />


Unit 6: <strong>Ecotourism</strong> and the Environment<br />

6.1 Linking conservation and community<br />

Why linkage?<br />

• One of the principles of conservation biology is that human presence must be included in<br />

conservation planning. Any conservation efforts that do not account for humans (either as the<br />

cause of the problem or part of the solution) are doomed to fail. Humans are part of the<br />

problem, but we are also part of the solution (a better one for us)<br />

• CBD also recognises the need of conservation – community linkages.<br />

• The principle of contemporary conservation practices is based on at least „do no harm‟ to local<br />

people.<br />

• In a democratic society; it would be increasingly difficult to get political support if<br />

conservation cannot gain popular approval.<br />

• Moral, socio-political, economic, and environmental reasons.<br />

Need of C-C linkages<br />

• To utilise communities‟ conservation knowledge and traditions<br />

• To recognise legitimate traditional rights<br />

• To minimise/manage negative impacts<br />

• To expand conservation activities in the larger area.<br />

• To improve cooperation and reduce conflict<br />

• To share conservation benefits<br />

• To increase political/public support for conservation<br />

• To generate fund for conservation<br />

• To reduce conservation costs and increases conservation efficiency.<br />

Opportunities<br />

• Both in develop and developing world local constituencies are vital for sustainable<br />

conservation.<br />

• Studies suggest that people are not against park. They are only unhappy with the approach of<br />

park management.<br />

• There is a growing realization that the cost of protection has been largely skewed towards local<br />

communities and that such unfair distribution of cost and benefits should be minimized.<br />


• A strong consensus has developed that protected areas need to make a solid contribution to<br />

poverty alleviation and sustainable development.<br />

• Biodiversity hot spots and poverty hot spots largely overlaps. Making the linkage between<br />

nature conservation and poverty help contribute MDGs , CBD and other international<br />

commitments.<br />

• Politics of conservation can influence the politics of development<br />

• All over the world, conservation, sustainable use and equitable benefit sharing have been the<br />

main guiding principles of protected area management and inclusive, participatory and<br />

livelihood-based conservation paradigms have been gaining ground since the mid 80s.<br />

• The values and policies associated with protected areas are now very different from those that<br />

prevailed in the past<br />

• Mainstream conservation policy now favours socially just conservation.<br />

Challenges<br />

• It is quite difficult to understand and reconcile the interests, needs and expectations of a wide<br />

range of stakeholders as well as the complexity of their relationships with the resource and<br />

with one another<br />

• Broad conservation benefit is unlikely to provide a sufficient incentive to offset the wildlife<br />

costs incurred by an individual farmer. As multiple objectives pull in different directions , a<br />

good balance between public and private benefits is always difficult.<br />

• There are very few successful and convincing cases, which can show a positive relationship<br />

between local livelihood improvement and conservation of protected area resources.<br />

• Several studies reveal that conservation projects based on incentive and alternatives have many<br />

limitations and have largely failed to achieve both conservation and development objectives.<br />

• Linking conservation and communities runs the risk of misplaced priorities and confusion<br />

between means and ends.<br />

• Participation of people has been taken as a strategy rather than conservation principle<br />

• Alternative livelihoods and related social activities are primarily designed to compensate social<br />

costs – rather than to prevent them<br />

• C-C linkages have sometimes been implemented as little more than a token gesture and as a<br />

way to buy favour in order to maintain the old, strict management approach for the park<br />

Limitations<br />

• Conclusive results of such activities on biodiversity conservation have been debated .<br />

• The livelihood linkage is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to take the place of<br />

biodiversity conservation.<br />


• It has been cautioned not to idealize community based conservation as the panacea for the<br />

world‟s protected area challenges due to the difficulty in achieving win – win outcomes of<br />

poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation<br />

• Protected areas cannot solve the structural problems of society<br />

Understanding linkages<br />

• Linking conservation and poverty reduction means trying to achieve the best possible outcome,<br />

not necessarily a perfect outcome<br />

• The need for exploring complementarities and trade-offs rather than conflict between<br />

conservation and development<br />

• The question is not about promoting poverty reduction over conservation, but about<br />

acknowledging that both poverty reduction and conservation are important objectives and that<br />

it is often necessary to address both in order to achieve either.<br />

Linking is balancing the conservation<br />

• Reconciling the needs of people with conservation and long term<br />

objectives of conservation with immediate needs of the people<br />

• Sweet concept but hard to practice<br />

• In contrary to manage as an isolated protected zone in the past,<br />

protected areas are now seen as part of mosaic of land and natural resource uses and considered<br />

as interdependent with communities and economies.<br />

• The new paradigm of protected area management promotes building a wide range of<br />

constituencies that support protected areas, locating protected areas within the wider agenda of<br />

sustainable development, and giving greater recognition to the rights, needs and cultures of the<br />

indigenous and local communities<br />

• Conservation strategy should address the human and natural processes that influence the<br />

ecology of the wider areas.<br />

• “Ensuring benefits for people” is a principle that underlies the landscape and the ecosystem<br />

based conservation approaches<br />

Understanding linkages<br />

The major functions of protected areas deliver different benefits at different scales.<br />


Many stakeholders have interests in protected areas and important roles to play in their<br />

management.<br />

Level of engagement<br />

Macro level<br />

No state actors<br />

State actors<br />

Micro level<br />


Strategies and approaches<br />

• Meet, link, reconcile<br />

• More collaborative<br />

• Institutional restructuring -both management and governance, type and quality of governance<br />

• Address not only fairness in the present and future arrangements but also re-dressing past<br />

inequalities by sharing resource, rights and responsibilities.<br />

• Equal playing field to avoid elite capture<br />

• Empowering than employing<br />

• Adopt good governance principles - Participation, Rule of law, Transparency, Responsiveness,<br />

Consensus orientation, Equity, Accountability, Strategic vision.<br />

You may agree?<br />

• Protected areas must forge linkages with people based on equity, linked rights and<br />

responsibilities if they are to continue to be important for biodiversity conservation.<br />

• Conservation practices right to people will never be wrong to conservation.<br />

6.3 Alternative versus mass tourism<br />

Alternative tourism<br />

• An umbrella term for indigenous tourism, soft tourism, green tourism, sensitized tourism<br />

responsible tourism appropriate tourism, cottage tourism and local tourism – means almost<br />

anything to anyone!<br />

• Alternative approach to tourism should be: community centered, employ local resource,<br />

relatively easy to manage, not destructive to nature and culture, benefit both hosts and guests<br />

and even improve communication between them‟ (Jafari, 1990)<br />

Alternative not restrictive or regressive<br />

• Alternative tourism does not mean reducing tourism activities but diversifying tourism<br />

opportunities and doing them in responsible ways.<br />

• Promoting and sustaining tourism in opposite to „tourism kill tourism‟ approach of Mass<br />

Tourism.<br />

• There are more than sea, sand and sun<br />

• Amore benign alternative to conventional mass tourism<br />

• Tourism for forever<br />

Advantages of AT<br />

• Direct benefits to family or individual<br />


• Benefit to local community<br />

• Benefit to host country<br />

• Good for cost conscious but responsible travelers<br />

• Benefits for international by promoting international – interregional –intercultural<br />

understanding<br />

Mass tourism<br />

• Non local orientation,<br />

• Very little benefits stays at the local level<br />

• Generates little local income<br />

• Big hotels/structures – use of non local materials<br />

• Little requirements of local food products<br />

• Generally owned by outsiders<br />

• Commercialization of natural and cultural resources<br />

• Inauthentic : Not operated with the interest of local people and the resources base in mind<br />

• Enjoy, destroy and disappear<br />

Mass and alternative tourism<br />

Sustainable tourism practices<br />

Unsustainable tourism practices<br />

Mass tourism<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong><br />

Hard reality<br />

• Mass tourism does not go away due to economic and socio- philosophical reasons<br />

• Easy travel, comfort, less risk, time, language, food etc<br />

• One person‟s ecotourism dream may be another‟s touristic nightmare.<br />

• Creating alternatives and improving the mass tourism operations will be an realistic strategy to<br />

contribute to environment and local economy<br />

Principle of ecotourism<br />

• <strong>Ecotourism</strong> ecology and tourism tourism activities in ecologically sensitive areas.<br />


• „A responsible travel to actual areas which conserve environment and improves the welfare of<br />

local people‟ – The Eco-tourism Society.<br />

• <strong>Ecotourism</strong> more than responsible to nature but also responsible to the well being of local<br />

people and their culture<br />

• It is a responsible and purposeful travel based on mutual learning and respect.<br />

• Just an idea and promoted without an understanding of its basic principles in 1980s<br />

• International principles, guidelines etc developed throughout 1990s but still not single and<br />

globally accepted principals and standards available.<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> sustainability<br />

Requirements for ecotourism<br />

Nine characteristics.<br />

• It promotes positive environmental ethics and fosters "preferred" behaviour in its participants.<br />

• It does not degrade the resource. In other words, it does not involve consumptive erosion of<br />

the natural environment. (Hunting for sport, and fishing, may be classified as wildland (green)<br />

tourism, but they are most aptly classified as adventure tourism, rather than ecotourism.)<br />

• It concentrates on intrinsic rather than extrinsic values. Facilities and services may<br />

facilitate the encounter with the intrinsic resource, but never become attractions in their own<br />

right, and do not detract from the resource.<br />

• It is oriented around the environment in question and not around man. Ecotourists accept<br />

the environment as it is, neither expecting it to change or to be modified for their convenience.<br />

• It must benefit the wildlife and environment. The question of whether or not the<br />

environment (not just people) has received "benefits" can be measured socially, economically,<br />

scientifically, managerially, and politically. At the very least, the environment must attain a net<br />

benefit, contributing to its sustainability and ecological integrity.<br />


• It provides a first-hand encounter with the natural environment (and with any<br />

accompanying cultural elements found in undeveloped areas). Zoological parks do not<br />

constitute an ecotourism experience (although they may contribute to the development of a<br />

person's interest in ecotourism). Visitor centres and on-site interpretive slide shows can be<br />

considered to form part of an ecotourism activity only if they direct people to a first-hand<br />

experience.<br />

• It actively involves the local communities in the tourism process so that they may benefit<br />

from it, thereby contributing to a better valuation of the natural resources in that locality.<br />

• Its level of gratification is measured in terms of education and/or appreciation rather than<br />

in thrill-seeking or physical achievement; the latter is more characteristic of adventure tourism.<br />

• It involves considerable preparation and demands in-depth knowledge on the part of<br />

both leaders and participants. The satisfaction derived from the experience is felt and<br />

expressed strongly in emotional and inspirational ways<br />

TES’s seven basic principles of ecotourism:<br />

• It avoids negative impacts that can damage or destroy the character of the natural or cultural<br />

environments being visited.<br />

• It educates the traveller on the importance of conservation.<br />

• It directs revenues to the conservation of natural areas and the management of protected areas.<br />

• It brings economic benefits to local communities and directs revenues to local people living<br />

near the protected areas.<br />

• It emphasizes the need for planning and sustainable growth of the tourism industry and seeks<br />

to ensure that tourism development does not exceed the social and environmental “capacity.”<br />

• It retains a high percentage of revenues in the host country by stressing the use of locallyowned<br />

facilities and services.<br />

• Rely on infrastructures that are in harmony to local environment and use local resources<br />

• Conservation,community and sustainable travel<br />


Philosophy of sustainability and intergenerational equity<br />

• We do not inherit the earth from our parents; we borrow it from our children.‟ - an American<br />

Native<br />

• „The needs of the present generation are met without compromising the ability of future<br />

generations to meet their own needs.‟ - Bruntland Commission, 1987.<br />

• Now responsible/sustainable travel is also important in the context of climate change<br />

• Minimum ecological footprint at the local level is not enough minimum carbon foot print is<br />

equally required<br />

• Approx. 5% of the global emission. Approx. 40% from air travel.<br />

• By 2035, under a “business as usual” scenario, carbon dioxide emissions from global tourism<br />

are projected to increase by 130 per cent.<br />

The attributes of ecotourism that make it a valuable tool for conservation<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

give economic value to ecosystem services that protected areas provide;<br />

generate direct income for the conservation of protected areas;<br />

generate direct and indirect income for local stakeholders,<br />

creating incentives for conservation in local communities;<br />

build constituencies for conservation, locally, nationally and internationally;<br />

promote sustainable use of natural resources; and<br />

Reduce threats to biodiversity.<br />

Elements crucial to the ultimate success of an eecotourism initiative<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

have a low impact upon a protected area‟s natural resources;<br />

involve stakeholders (individuals, communities, eco-tourists, tour operators and<br />

government institutions) in the planning, development, implementation and monitoring<br />

phases;<br />

respect local cultures and traditions;<br />

generate sustainable and equitable income for local communities and for as many other<br />

stakeholders as possible, including private tour operators;<br />

generate income for protected area conservation; and<br />

Educate all stakeholders about their role in conservation.<br />


6.2 Sustainable tourism development<br />

• Like ecotourism, such terms as sustainable tourism and responsible tourism are rooted in the<br />

concept of sustainable development, or development that "meets the needs of the present<br />

without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs" (Bruntland<br />

Commission, 1987).<br />

• With this concept in mind, sustainable tourism was defined in the 1992 Agenda 21 for the<br />

Travel and Tourism Industry as tourism that "meets the needs of present tourists and host<br />

regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future."<br />

Three interfaces of sustainable tourism<br />

• Tourism has its limitations and must operate within certain constraints – environmental quality,<br />

inclusion of local people, and limit of growth<br />

• Improvement of quality of all involved<br />

• Recognization of interface of different stake groups.<br />

Approaches and strategies<br />

• Participatory planning<br />

• Efficiency<br />

• Environmental friendliness,<br />

• Slow development<br />

• High quality<br />

• Humanistic<br />

• Authenticity<br />

Stakeholders and tourism sustainability<br />

‣7- all win scenario<br />

‣4,5,6 – one or two win<br />

at the costs of other one<br />

‣All lose scenario<br />

1. Tourism<br />

2. Protected<br />

Areas<br />

5 4<br />

7<br />

6<br />

3. Local<br />

communities<br />

Requirements of sustainable nature tourism policy<br />

• Sustainable tourism is the product of partnership of different stakeholders – government,<br />

private sector, community.<br />

• National support and advance planning<br />

• Appropriate pricing and revenue policy<br />


• Local participation and benefits.<br />

• Sustainable tourism can only be sustainable when it is designed in the framework of<br />

sustainable development.<br />

Strategy<br />

• Tourism as a development tools must sensitive to fulfill the requirements of many stakeholder<br />

groups.<br />

• Relationship between ecotourism and indigenous people is necessary<br />

• Good partnership is necessary to ensure a high quality product is delivered and tourism<br />

experiences rely on aspects of communities.<br />

• Education at all levels in different aspects of ecotourism<br />

• Lack of capacity to link ecotourism directly with the market of developed country is the main<br />

reason of income leakage<br />

• Eco-lodge: a nature dependent tourist lodge that meets the philoshopy and principle of<br />

ecotourism<br />

Risks and limitations<br />

• Manage nature and cultural resources<br />

• Minimise energy and waste<br />

• Example of successes are few<br />

• Risk of turning ecotourism to mass tourism and local community to commercial control<br />

Core indicators of sustainable tourism<br />

• Site protection<br />

• Stress<br />

• Use intensity<br />

• Social impact<br />

• Development control<br />

• Waste management<br />

• Critical ecosystems<br />

• Consumer satisfaction<br />

• Local satisfaction<br />

• Contribution to local economy<br />

• Sustainable tourism is crucial to promote a positive park people relationship.<br />

• Sixty-one percent of Americans believe their experience is better when their destination<br />

preserves its unique natural, historic, and cultural sites<br />

• The rationale behind ecotourism is that local tourism businesses would not destroy natural<br />

resources but would instead support their protection.<br />


• Taking a stroll through a rainforest is not considered ecotourism unless that stroll benefits that<br />

environment and the people who live there.<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> and opportunities for PA management<br />

Potential ecotourism Opportunities<br />

Potential tourism threats<br />

A tourism business is a trap, it is a<br />

tainted honey<br />

Tourism: a key development<br />

• A key development tool since 1990s.<br />

• Tourism planning in regional scale<br />

• Community based tourism<br />

– Develop grassroots planning process<br />

– Inventory regional tourism resources<br />

– Set goal and objective in line with culture and natural resource sustainability<br />

– Establishment of management board<br />

Community based ecotourism<br />

• Community involvement<br />

• Community benefits<br />

• Community ownership<br />

• Local and community products – cultural, natural<br />

Sustainable tourism planning and management strategy<br />

• Be as culturally sensitive as possible<br />

• Work within existing institutional frameworks as opposed to creating new<br />

• Multi-sectoral planning to allow all affected stakeholders to participate in decision making<br />


Source: http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/highlights/UNWTO_Highlights10_en_HR.pdf<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> and its global contexts<br />

• In 2002, ecotourism became recognized around the world as a legitimate form of tourism.<br />

During this year the United Nations celebrated the“International Year of <strong>Ecotourism</strong>”<br />

• The primary focus of ecotourism should be on the conservation of the natural environment and<br />

the quality of life for the local community<br />

• Developing countries look to ecotourism as a way to earn revenue from foreign countries,<br />

especially those of the rich developed world.<br />

• Countries where ecotourism is a significant portion of gross domestic product are: CostaRica,<br />

Ecuador, Nepal, Kenya, Madagascar, Bolivia, Belize, Dominica, Mongolia, Vietnam,<br />

Cambodia, Fiji, Namibia, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.<br />

• Tourism and travel is a primary source of foreign exchange earnings in 46 out of 50 of the<br />

world‟s LDC.<br />

• The share in international tourist arrivals received by emerging and developing countries has<br />

steadily risen, from 32% in 1990 to 47% in 2009.<br />

• The contribution of tourism to economic activity worldwide is estimated at some 5%.<br />

Tourism‟s contribution to employment tends to be slightly higher relatively and is estimated in<br />

the order of 6-7% of the overall number of jobs worldwide (direct and indirect).<br />

Key Trend<br />

• Rich and educated tourists<br />

• Regional demand<br />

• Increasing wealth<br />

• Attitude to experience new and unique<br />

• Clean and green economy<br />

<strong>Ecotourism</strong> has opportunity and challenges.<br />

• National capacity and awareness • Regionalization (Asia)<br />


• Devolution and decentralization<br />

• Conservation of culture and nature<br />

• Link to other regional attractions<br />

• Eco and unique tourism products<br />

• Development of service<br />

lines/production<br />

• Education and training to enhance<br />

capacity<br />

• Infrastructure development<br />


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