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EACVI Echo Handbook - sample

Discover the EACVI Echo Handbook

Index acute myocardial

Index acute myocardial infarction (Cont.) ejection fraction 189 left cavities diameter and volume 190 risk stratification 189–90 suggested reading 197 wall motion abnormalities 189 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 425 adenosine stress echo 529–30 adult congenital heart disease complex congenital lesions Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve 477–9, 552 segmental approach 471–2 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) 473–6, 550–1 obstructive lesions aortic coarctation 468–70, 550 aortic stenosis 467 LV outflow tract obstruction 465–6 pregnancy 549–52 shunt lesions see shunt lesions AIDS 572–3 alcohol septal ablation 369 aliasing 55, 222 amplification 4 amyloidosis 367, 377, 554–5 anticoagulation 484 antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) 560 aorta AAS see acute aortic syndromes annulus/root: dimensions 157–9 descending aorta flow 41 echocardiographic examination 494 traumatic injury 509–10 views of descending aorta and aortic arch 122 aortic aneurysm (AA) 113, 123–4 aetiology 505 echo assessment 506–8 follow-up and surgical timing 508 location 505 morphology 505 sinus of Valsalva aneurysm 512 aortic atherosclerosis 511 aortic coarctation 468–70 pregnancy 550 aortic dissection (AD) 113, 123–4, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499–500 complications 501 imaging approach 502 suggested reading 513 aortic regurgitation (AR) 30, 33–5, 213–14 aetiology 244–5 aortic stenosis and 318–19 aortic valve anatomy: imaging 246 assessment of severity 3 D vena contracta 254 aortic valve morphology 249 colour-flow imaging 249 degrees of AR 258 diastolic aortic flow reversal 255–6 Doppler quantitation from two valves flow 259 indices 261 LV adaptation 260 PISA method 252–4 pressure half-time (PHT) 257 proximal jet width to LVOT ratio 250 vena contracta width 251–2 chronic/acute: differential diagnosis 263 mechanism of dysfunction: Carpentier’s classification 247–8 mitral regurgitation and 316–17 mitral stenosis and 317 monitoring of asymptomatic patients 262 aortic stenosis 26–8, 32 3D volume assessment 211 aetiologies 201 aortic regurgitation and 213–14, 318–19 arrhythmia and 208 associated features aortic regurgitation 213–214, 318–19 mitral regurgitation 214, 315 consequences 212–13 continuity equation (CE) 211 dimensionless index 211 discordant AS grading dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) 217–18 low ejection fraction and low-gradient AS 216–17 preserved LVEF and paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient AS 218–19 discrepancy between echo and cath lab 209 exercise echocardiography 214–15 grades of severity 212 haemodynamic measurements 202 jet velocity 206–8 LVOT diameter 203–4 LVOT velocity 204–6 mitral regurgitation and 214, 315 576

mitral stenosis and 315 monitoring 215–16 obstructive lesions 467 subvalvular 465 supravalvular 466 valve area planimetry 210 role of indexing 208 valve replacement 216 velocity ratio 211 aortic valve: 3D imaging 126–7 aortic valve closure (AVC) 61 aortic valve prosthesis 336 aortitis, syphilitic 567 apical 2-chamber view (2CV) 21 apical 3-chamber view (3CV) 22 apical 4-chamber view (4CV) 21 apical 5-chamber view (5CV) 21 apical RV 4-chamber view 22 arrhythmia 208 arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (ARVC) 371–2, 542 arteritis giant cell arteritis (GCA) 564–5 Takayasu’s ateritis 565–7 athlete’s heart 536 differential diagnosis arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (ARVC) vs athlete’s heart 542 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy vs athlete’s heart 365–6, 540 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) vs athlete’s heart 541 LV diastolic function 539 LV systolic function 538 morphology 536–7 RV functional adaptation 539 suggested reading 543 atrial fibrillation (AF) 208, 369 source of embolism 483–4 atrial septal defect (ASD) 440 coronary sinus 445 echo post-ASD intervention 447 haemodynamic effects 447 ostium primum 444–5 ostium secundum 441–4 pregnancy 549 sinus venosus 446 atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) 457–60 B Bernoulli equation 27, 29, 205, 206, 221, 230, 241, 303, 314, 318, 324, 391, 469 biplane disc summation 142 ‘broken heart syndrome’ 375 C calcific stenosis 201 carcinoid syndrome 557 cardiac amyloidosis 367, 377 cardiac device-related infective endocarditis 350–1 cardiac masses artefacts 490 differential diagnosis of LV/RV masses 491 differential diagnosis of valvular masses 492 extracardiac structure 489 iatrogenic material 488 normal variants 489 suggested reading 492 thrombus 487 tumours 485–6 vegetation 338, 339, 340, 488 cardiac murmur 545 cardiac output (CO) 43, 147 cardiac tamponade definition 401 echocardiographic findings 404–5 obstructive shock 429, 431–2 physiology 402–3 cardiac transplants see heart transplantation cardiac tumours 485–6 cardiogenic shock 429, 430 cardiomyopathies aetiologies 354 arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (ARVC) 371–2 dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) associated findings 356 diagnostic findings 355 dyssynchrony 357 prognosis 357 hypertrophic see hypertrophic cardiomyopathy left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) 373 myocarditis 374 restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) 376–7, 408 suggested reading 378 Takotsubo cardiomyopathy 375 Index 577

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