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Chapter 14: Development

Chapter 14: Development Many psychoanalytic development theories concentrate on development of the ego and gender identification. The mother plays a critically important role in these theories. The first five years represent critical periods for healthy personality development. The way in which needs are satisfied during the psycho-sexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital) will determine later behaviours. Fixation takes place when needs in the different psychosexual stages are not fulfilled. This may result in later behavioural problems. Social psychological theorists like Adler, Horney and Fromm also describe the development of certain styles of behaviour, depending on how childhood needs are satisfied. Jung emphasises the development of structures called archetypes. Here the self-archetype is most important because of cultural and ancestral influences. Jung's concept of individuation also denotes the growth process, during which people develop certain attitudes and functions. Combinations of these are known as introversion and extroversion personality types. These concepts are still used in measuring and classifying human behaviours. Chapter 14: Motivation Instructions: The instincts are considered the basic motivating force of all human behaviour, especially in terms of unconscious behaviours. The aim of human motivation is to achieve homeostasis and pleasure and to reduce pain. Unconscious motivation is caused by libidinal energy, especially sexual and aggressive drives, conflicts between id, ego and superego, traumatic past experiences and defence mechanisms, for example suppression, sublimation, repression, projection, rationalisation and others. Jung regards these things in more positive light and stresses alignment with the future and self- actualisation in his teleological principles. Social psychological theorists like Adler and Fromm describe peoples' basic biological and emotional needs, for which they must compensate in order to develop fully. Horney's concepts are valuable in that they describe behaviours towards, against and away from people. 18

IOP1601/001 Chapter 14 Psychological adjustment The key to health is homeostasis, that is, balance between the energies of the psychic structures in order to avoid anxiety and ensure non-threatening child development and non- defensive behaviours. Measurement by projective techniques (Rorschach, TAT) is based on the rationale of defence, especially projection. Chapter 14: Summary Instructions: This summary is an overview of the chapter and should NOT be studied as a complete summary. Freud is the main exponent of psychoanalytic theory. Psychoanalytical theories are described in terms of a conflict model in which each person is caught in a lifelong clash between two great forces. The ideal lifestyle involves a balancing of these two opposing forces. Defence mechanisms areused to cope with anxieties brought about by conflicting forces. Jung and other neo-Freudians had a more optimistic view of human nature, and they emphasised future directedness, potential growth and the influence of social and interpersonal factors. Psychoanalytical thinking is accurate with reference to the notions that: • Much mental activity is unconscious and this has an impact on emotion and motivational processes. • Patterns of attachment developed early in life may be expressed in later relationships and form the basis for behaviour in later relationships. • Multiple unconscious mental processes may produce behaviour. • Individuals are able to regulate their impulses and feelings in socially acceptable ways. 19