CosBeauty Magazine #85


CosBeauty is the #BeautyAddict's guide to lifestyle, health and beauty in Australia.
In this issue:
- The Breast Report - your guide to augmentation
- Put an end to bad hair days
- 24 hour makeup, products that last
- Sex appeal - do you have it?


24 hour








put an

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bad hair


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Pigmentation is seen as the 3rd most

important skin problem after wrinkles

and sagging. Today, depigmenting

treatments represent over 20% of the

total cosmetic market.

Global leader in topical depigmentation,

mesoestetic continues an international campaign

to exclusively train and certify specialised centres

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8 Editor’s Letter

10 Beauty Insider

116 Ed’s Faves


22 Celebrity Bust Out

It’s hard to tell these days who

has real breasts and who has

implants. You be the judge.

36 Sex Appeal: Do You Have It?

Animal magnetism. That certain

je ne sais quoi. Whatever you

call it, sex appeal has some

serious scientific backing.

54 Boost your mental health

& well being

While the bulk of our wellness

focus typically involves working

out and losing weight, not

enough importance is placed

on improving our mental


98 The Breast Report

Everything you need to know

about breast augmentation.


26 24 Hour Makeup

Here are our picks of the long

lasting, smudge proof and water

resistant products that we can

rely on to have as much staying

power as we do.

42 Back To Base

Choosing the right foundation

can be a daunting beauty

aCtivity. here are our tips to

relieving your stress when

searching for the perfect

foundation fit.

68 Skincare Essentials

When it comes to beauty,

routine is key to having glowing

healthy skin.

90 Bad Hair Day Hacks

Everyone has a bad hair day,

so here are our tips for some

serious hair pampering to get

your mane back on track.

98 Nail It

With so many nail trend options

to try, there’s one to suit



60 When Harry Met Sally

No need to fake it. Gynaecologist

Dr Oseka Onuma talks orgasms

and sexual health for women.

84 Intermittent Fasting:

Benefits & Risks

Fasting is becoming an accepted

means of weight loss by both

the scientific community and the

general public.

102 Should We Quit Sugar?

Sugar. It’s been described as toxic,

poisonous and addictive, but

should we quit it completely? 7

From the


Being a beach lover, I’m a happy girl because finally the days are

getting shorter and there is light at the end of the tunnel…

warmer weather is on its way. While I welcome this, it usually

sends me into a spin about the extra few kilos I’ve added over

winter and I regret all those mornings I hit the snooze button

because it was just too chilly to get out of bed to train. So now

is the perfect time to start eating more healthily and starting those long walks to

get into shape for summer.

On page 110 we have a feature that outlines the benefits of decreasing sugar in

our diets – not just to look good but also for the accompanying health benefits.

Health benefits are not only physical, so turn to page 54 for some tips on how to

improve our mental health and wellbeing. We also have an article on intermittent

fasting (page 84), which has now been shown to be an effective way to both lose

weight and to keep it off. If we start now, we should be bikini-ready by summer.

Yeah, right...

We also have a special feature on breast enhancement surgery on page 98.

While this is a comprehensive guide to all the important things you need to know,

it is still imperative to do thorough research and to consult at least two surgeons

before making any decisions. We also have a fun article showcasing different

celebrities who may – or may not – have had breast augmentation. You decide!

Our article on 24 hour makeup on page 26 highlights some of the best products

for a long lasting finish, and the Back to Base story on page 42 explains the

different types of foundations and some of our faves from each group.

We have all suffered from a bad hair day, so our article on Bad Hair Day Hacks

(page 90) is a must-read – who knew there were so many fab products out there

to help us through? Our Born to be Wild article (page 32) features some products

that are not only effective but also have the looks – the jungle and animal print

wild theming we all love.

If you’ve ever wondered what ‘sex appeal’ actually is, turn to page 36 to read

our article that outlines the actual science behind physical attraction and ‘animal

magnetism’, with input from many experts including researchers, scientists and an

evolutionary anthropologist.

This issue gives us all plenty of impetus to start looking and feeling our best –

now we just have to stop making excuses and do it.

Michelle Kearney


Read the online edition

plus more great aRTicles @

Issue 85

August 2019 - October 2019


Michelle Kearney

Art Director

Debbie Pilarinos


Catherine Hale, David Hickie,

Maria Leahy, Aimée Rodrigues


Debbie Pilarinos, ShutterStock

Distribution &

Subscription Enquiries

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Phone 02 8095 6265 Mob 0410 528 582


Advertising Enquiries

Michelle Kearney

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Editorial Enquiries

Michelle Kearney

Phone 02 8095 6265 Mob 0419 624 246


Produced & Published by Bella Media

ABN 86 082 157 695

Managing Director

Michelle Kearney

Chief Operating Officer

Bill Dunk

Public Relations, Marketing

& Event Organisation

Phone 02 8095 6265

Office address

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101 Grafton St,

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Phone +61 2 8095 6265

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Reproduction in whole or in part is not permitted without the

written authorisation of the publisher. All reasonable efforts have

been made to trace copyright holders. All manuscripts and articles

submitted for publication remain the property of The Bella Media

Group. This magazine contains general information only and

does not purport to be a substitute for medical advice. All readers

are advised to seek medical advice from a doctor if considering

cosmetic surgery. The publisher and the authors do not accept

any liability whatsoever in respect of an action taken by readers in

reliance on the recommendations set out in this magazine. Except

where specified in captions, photographs depict models who have

not necessarily received treatments described in this magazine.

Any ‘before and after’ photographs in CosBeauty Magazine

articles are of genuine patients. It is important to understand

that they represent one person’s experience and there is

no guarantee that any other patient will experience similar results.

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Beauty insider


Lady Gaga’s New Electric Beauty Range

Lady Gaga has just announced her brand new beauty

partnership with major online retailer, Amazon. The name

of her new range is Haus Laboratories and it will be the

first ever major cosmetics brand exclusive to Amazon.

Expect Haus Laboratories to incorporate lip glosses,

liners and eye shadow pallets that embrace all things

bold, downtown and metallic.

The range is ready for drop in September – with presale

opening on July 15 – and will only be released in

nine countries around the world including, the UK, US,

Japan, France and Germany. Hopefully, it will expand to

Australia in the not-too-distant future.




Aus Medic Co is the newest

premium skincare range to launch in

Priceline. Promoted as being born

from a synergy between functionality

of science and creative execution,

the new dermatologically tested sixstage

range claims to offer botoxlike


Designed in collaboration

with neuroscientists, its peptide

Munapsys, together with an array

of active botanicals encourages

collagen growth, is said to improve

the visible signs of expression lines

and fine lines.

Aus Medic Co’s Manager

Director, Alanna Hinds, says “We

are excited to be producing the

next generation of skincare. We

knew that contemporary women

live busy complicated lives, and we

wanted a numbered skincare system

that aimed at creating simplicity in

the bathroom.”

Aus Medic Co has also signed

Australian sweetheart Sophie Monk

as the face of the brand.

Alanna says, “Right from the getgo,

we knew Sophie was the perfect

fit. She loves the product because

it fits easily into her routine. She

radiates beauty from inside and out,

but what we love most about her

is that she is real and authentic in

ugg boots or high heels. She’s never

been anyone but herself.”

Aus Medic Co’s commitment

to both the environment and your

skin is reflected in its recyclable

and environmentally-friendly

glass bottles.

The glass also ensures the

peptides and actives are being

kept stable and with no risk of

contamination from plastics.



The appointment of makeup artist Australian ‘beauty scape’. Michael’s

Michael Brown as their Southeast celebrity clients have included

Asia regional artistry ambassador Gisele Bundchen, Miranda Kerr,

has just been announced by Marc Sofia Richie, Jennifer Hawkins,

Jacobs Beauty. He brings to the role Jesinta Franklin and many more.

two decades of experience in the “I have always loved working with

beauty industry as a professional Marc Jacobs Beauty,” said Brown.

make-up artist, presenter, host, “The products are exceptional and

media personality and he is an consistently inspire me – they have

iconic and respected figure in the been a staple in my kit for years.” 11


Elizabeth ARden VITAMIN C



In 1990, Elizabeth Arden forever

changed the skincare industry

with the introduction of Ceramide

Capsules, a legacy continued

with the launch of Vitamin C

Ceramide Capsules Radiance

Renewal Serum. This dry oil

serum combines two powerhouse

ingredients in one capsule:

Vitamin C for its brightening

superpowers and Ceramides,

to prolong skin’s youthful glow.

Together, these complementary

ingredient technologies create

a fusion of results that help

visibly brighten, fight hyperpigmentation

and protect skin

from free radical damage.

Vitamin C Ceramide Capsules

offer maximum efficacy and

protection against external skin

aggressors, to instantly brighten the

appearance of th skin.

Sisley Paris launchES

LA Maison Sisley

Internationally renowned skin and

cosmetics brand Sisley Paris has

opened La Maison Sisley, a luxurious

Parisian house of beauty where care

and well-being reign supreme.

Located near the Arc de Triomphe

and the Champs-Élysées in the heart

of Paris, and inspired by the beauty

and authenticity of its Art Deco

building in which it lies, the 360m2

space is home to the brand’s first

Paris flagship boutique as well as a

spa, offering a unique experience

and an immersion into the heart

of beauty.

Designed to reflect the spirit

of the brand and the artistic and

cultural inspiration of the d’Ornano

family, Maison Sisley was decorated

by matriarch Madame d’Ornano,

boasting modern, elegant and

refined interiors, divided into four

areas to appear like a private house.

Treatments begin with a

consultation in the spa’s lounge,

decorated with a mirrored

sideboard, stylised leaves and

lamps, complemented by the


perfect ‘jet-lag’ sofa crafted by India

Mahdavi specifically for the space.

Rich with various influences, a moon

light fixture hangs from the ceiling,

highlighting walls proudly adorned

with international coverage.

Sculpted by Polish artist, Bronislaw

Krzysztof, the door’s handle leading

to the treatment room, is shaped

like the silhouette of a woman.

A haven of calm and relaxation,

the spa offers the full Sisley

experience featuring five treatment

rooms each with suspended lit

ceilings depicting Ginkgo biloba

leaves, an emblematic ingredient

used in many cult products, walls

covered with wallpaper created in

1874 by Atelier d’Offard in Tours,

chosen for its cell-like silky silver

tone and pastel Italian mosaics.

Combining artistic creativity with

first class savoir-faire, the luxury

spa offers high-quality products

and bespoke treatments designed

for maximum effectiveness and

pleasure with a range of indulgent

facials, massages and full-scale body

experiences to awaken the senses

and rejuvenate. Devoted to wellness

and beauty, with a treatment for

every age and skin type, both

men and women can address

specific needs including hydration,

nutrition, anti-ageing, repair, vitality,

relaxation, serenity and slimming.

In homage to the true Parisienne,

Sisley has crafted an antidote to

city life with four treatments, ‘The

Paris Exclusives’ formulated to

address the needs of the elegant

and effervescent; stress, fatigue,

pollution and heavy legs.

Treatments are finished in the

intimate cosy secret café, reserved

exclusively for Sisley clients.

Opening onto a small terrace,

the café offers simple and fresh

healthy meal options. Mimicking the

brand’s makeup cases, each table

is adorned with chequers and the

famous black-and-white zebra motif.

Furnishings echo a mural painted

by children from South Sudan and

botanical wallpaper inspired by the

tropics. Light fixtures by Spanish

artist Alvaro Catalán de Ocón, made

from recycled plastic bottles woven

by Colombian women, hang from

the ceiling in a variety of designs,

shapes, and colours.

Home to the first Sisley boutique

in Paris, traditional and modern

accents are complemented by

animated and luminous wall

displays, eccentric furnishings and

an exclusive fragrance bar. The

flagship boutique will house limited

edition accessories and objects

as well as inspired ephemeral

collections chosen specifically by the

d’Ornano family.


for more information. 13



‘We all have our

imperfections. But I’m

human and you know,

it’s important to

concentrate on other

qualities besides

outer beauty.’




‘Imperfection is

beauty, madness

is genius and it’s

better to be

absolutely ridiculous

than absolutely


‘I don’t like



There is no

beauty without


Karl Lagerfeld









More and more customers globally are demanding

transparency as they take an increasing interest

in the ethical practices of the companies they buy

from. ‘Conscious consumption’ is the new buzzword.

It is a movement of people who seek out ways to

make positive decisions about what to buy as they

look for solutions to the negative environmental

impact consumerism could have on our world.

Environmental welfare is a cause close to Medik8’s

heart and it is a company committed to reducing its

environmental footprint at every opportunity. The

management philosophy is based on ethical practices

and behaviour, so leaders within the company can

direct employees by example and guide them in

making decisions that are not only benefi cial to them

as individuals, but also to the company as a whole.

Sustainability is absolutely key in the beauty

industry and Medik8 strives to fi nd a balance. For

example, in 2018 it removed all plastic inserts from

its cartons and replaced them with 100% recycled

card, making its cartons completely recyclable and

saving over 3 tonnes of plastic every year. Plus, all of

Medik8’s serum bottles and pipettes are made from

glass and, since 2018, its glass bottles have contained

40% recycled glass, a fi gure it is looking to increase in

the near future. Medik8 has also pledged to be 100%

vegan by the end of 2019 and it is very much on track

to meet this goal.

Medik8 uses only the highest quality ingredients and

if there is a scientifi c ingredient that provides effective

results and is backed by clinical data then Medik8 will

use it; but if there is a natural alternative that has the

same effects, it will always choose the latter.


Medik8 is a British company, which manufactures in the UK, yet complies with

European standards. It is a brand rooted in science and nature and follows a combination

of eight core principles.



For stockists call 1800 242 011

or visit


Medik8 is on a mission to demystify antiageing

skincare. The company believes

looking 40 when you’re 50 is as simple as

following its anti-ageing philosophy ‘vitamin

C plus sunscreen by day, vitamin A by night’.


While anti-ageing is at its core, Medik8 also

provides solution specifi c skincare for a range

of skin concerns. It understands customers

often want their skincare to do more than one

job for them. That’s why its products can help

clear blemishes or pigmentation while also

helping to prevent premature skin ageing.


Formulations are important and Medik8

knows what to add in and what to keep out.

No fads or fashions. No parabens, phthalates

or sulphates, no microbeads. It may sound

contradictory, but some ingredients get

weaker when more concentrated so Medik8

researchers work tirelessly to fi nd the sweet

spot in every formulation - the concentration

that delivers the best results with minimal

irritation. Sometimes that means less is more.

Medik8 uses clinically proven ingredients with

original research behind them.


Many active ingredients in professional

skincare are incredibly unstable and diffi cult

to work with. Medik8 promises to deliver

professional strength products to the market as

freshly as possible. Its serums are handmade in

small batches by the master blender at its own

UK-based ISO certifi ed labs. This helps ensure

the products are still powerful and effective

when they reach its clients.


Medik8 is an independent company and

this allows it to be totally free in product

development with fresh ideas and swift

new product creation. Medik8 develops all

its ideas and products in-house in its own

state-of-the-art labs.


You’ll only fi nd Medik8 in professionally

trained clinics, spas and specialist

websites. This ensures clients will receive

the attention, care and tailored skincare

advice they deserve.


It is important that active ingredients can

reach the correct location within the skin

to provide results. Medik8 uses liposome

and micro-emulsion technologies that

work like protective ‘bubbles’ around

the molecules to ensure ingredients can

reach the right place; avoiding being

stuck in the upper layers of the skin

and causing irritation. The company

develops and frequently patents its own

original research, often collaborating with

universities and academics.


Of course, Medik8 products are 100%

animal cruelty-free. The company is

dedicated to minimising its impact on

the environment whenever possible.

The manufacturing processes are energy

effi cient, without interfering with results.

Medik8 uses recycled paper for all of its

packaging and 40% recycled glass in its

serum bottles. Even its buildings are run

from 100% renewable energy sources.





With fashion tape, push-up bras and

Photoshop, it’s hard to tell these

days who has real breasts and who

has implants. Even if implants are

the case, with breast augmentation

such a commonly performed

procedure, most enlargements

can look and feel as natural

as real breasts. And with more

women choosing conservative,

more natural looking implants, it

becomes even harder to tell.

who isn’t a voyeur deep down and

we all love conjecture. so here’s

a selection of celebrities whose

breasts size and shape seem to have

changed over the years. We will

leave the final say up to you!

Blake Lively

Niki Minaj

Cameron Diaz

Rita Ora

have they

or haven’t

they? 23

have they or

haven’t they?


Cardi B

Giselle Bundchen

Agelina Jolie

Salma Hayek

Kate Hudson 25























AKE 27

MAC Studio Fix 24 Hour

Smooth Wear, $38



1. Beauty Blender Bouce Liquid Long

Wear Foundation 30ml, $60, 2. Skinstitut

High Definition Foundation, $59, 3. Nude

by Nature Flawless Liquid Foundation,

$39.95, 4. Sisley Sisleya Le Teint 30ml,

$190, 5. beautyblender RE-DEW Set &

Refresh Spray 50ml, $45, 6. Skindinavia

Makeup Finishing Spray 118ml, $39.95,

7. MAC Pro Longwear Nourishing

Waterproof Foundation, $58.

1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

6. 7.



False Eyelashes, $29.95






12. 13.


8. Marc Jacobs O!mega Shadow Gel Powder Eyeshadow,

$42, 9. Sisley So Volume Mascara, $80, 10. Jane Iredale

Mystikol® Powdered Eyeliner, $52, 11. Kat Von D Tattoo

Liner in Trooper, $28, 12. MODELROCK Rock Chic Wings

Out Loud Brush Tip Eyeliner, $19.95, 13. Bobbi Brown

Long Wear Cream Shadow Stick in Violet Plum, $47, 14.

MODELROCK Rock Chic Eye Shadow Palette Vol 1, $89. 29






1. Marc Jacobs (P)outliner Longwear Lip

Liner Pencil, $36, 2. Kat Von D lipliner in

Vampira, $29, 3. Kat Von D liquid lipstick in

Miss Argentina, $28, 4. Bobbi Brown Luxe

Liquid Lip Color in Uber Pink, $56, 5. MAC

Retro Matte Lipstick in Ruby Woo, $36, 6.

Sisley Paris Le Phyto in 41 rouge miami, $68,

7. Bite Beauty Outburst Longwear Lip Stain in

Strawberry, $37, 8. Model Rock ROCK CHIC

Liquid Lipstick in Atomic Blonde, $28, 9. Nude

by Nature Creamy Matte Lipstick in 07 Red

Blossom, $22.95.

4. 5. 6.



9. 31

Born to be


We have to

agree with Diana

Vreeland when

she said ‘I’ve never

met a leopard

print I didn’t like.’

We all have a

touch of the wild

in us, so appease

your inner

seductress with

these amazingly

styled products.

Christian Siriano Spring Summer 2019



Sephora Collection

Feline Instinct

Eyeshadow Palette in

Gold Edition, $33

DIOR Diorshow 5

Couleurs Eye Palette

in Expose, $107


leopard print

cross body bag,


Tory Burch

Penelope snakeprint

pumps, $630




leopard print

sunglasses, $289


Rouge G


Series Case

in Exotic

Safari, $33

Cartier La

Panthere EDP

50ml, $140

Marc Jacobs

Beauty Le Marc

Lip Frost Lipstick

in Diva 502, $45

Marc Jacobs

Beauty Eye-Conic

Frost Eyeshadow

Palette - Flam(boy)

ant (Limited

Edition) $68 33




Twist in

Passion, $80






Sisley Phyto-Poudre

Compact, $125

Yves Saint Laurent

Mascara Vinyl Couture

in Green, $57



Safari All Matte


Palette, $201

Versace Pre-Fall 2019 Collection

Bvlgari Serpenti

Rings, $26.200,00

Tarte Tartelette

Amazonian Clay Matte

Eyeshadow Palette, $55


Armani Eyes

To Kill Eye Tint

in Shade 4, $53

Tadashi Shoji Spring Summer 2019

Sephora Collection

Outrageous Eyeshadow

in fearless khaki, $15

Tom Ford Spring Summer 2019




Coral Blush,




iQ OneGlide, $299 35




do you

have it?

Animal magnetism. That certain je ne sais

quoi. Whatever you call it, sex appeal

has some serious scientific backing.

words by Aimeé rodrigues

No matter which branch of science you

subscribe to, we have it on good authority

that sexual attraction comes down to a

primal human quest: to reproduce and nurture healthy

offspring. Levels of attractiveness, and what both men

and women consider attractive in each other, appear

to be a function of both evolution and psychology.

Of course, every man and woman has their unique

taste, but an overwhelming number of studies show

that our biological need to procreate leads most of

us to pick mates who have certain physical traits

over those who don’t. These physical characteristics

stimulate the brain’s hypothalamus, leading to elevated

heart rate, perspiration and feelings of sexual arousal.

It is also a chemical state, with six or seven

hormones at play. ‘Being on drugs is like falling in

love (or vice versa),’ says Prof Rob Brooks, Professor

of Evolutionary Biology at the University of NSW

and author of Sex, Genes and Rock ‘n’ Roll: How

Evolution Has Shaped The Modern World.

Perhaps the most obvious physical trait that arouses 37


attraction is a youthful appearance,

which is linked to reproductive

capacity. In humans, mate ‘value’

therefore declines with age, beginning

in early adulthood. It follows, then,

that we are naturally inclined to

enhance our appearance.

But what attracts a man to a

woman fundamentally differs

from what women seek in a male

partner. ‘In virtually all of the

human populations sampled, males

rated physical attractiveness

(usually associated with youth)

significantly more important in

mate choice than females did,’

says Australian evolutionary

anthropologist Sean McBride.

‘Females, by contrast, mostly rated

earning potential and ambition-cumindustriousness

as more important

factors when choosing a mate.’ In

other words, the attractiveness of the

man is directly linked to his skills and

prowess rather than his looks.

‘An evolutionary perspective

on human behaviour suggests that

human beings, like members of other

animal species, are likely to have

adaptations for assessing the “value”

of potential sexual partners, using

visual and other cues, and that our

standards of physical attractiveness

arise from these adaptations,’

McBride continues.

Regardless of culture or country

of origin, men find similar female

traits attractive. Their preferences

are biologically and evolutionarily

programmed to find signs of youth

and health attractive, so as to seek

females that are best suited to carry

on their genes.

Studies have found that female

figures with slender bodies, a low

waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and

large breasts are rated as the most

attractive, healthy, feminine-looking

and desirable for both casual and

long-term romantic relationships.

‘Large breasts consistently enhance

the attractiveness rating of both

slender and heavy figures, so long as

they have a low WHR,’ says McBride.

‘Polish research has shown that

women with large breasts and a small

waist had larger amounts of female

hormones than women with a broad

waist and large hips; narrow waist

and small breasts; or broad waist and

small breasts.’

The significance of the WHR is

directly linked to fertility, as a low

WHR is believed to correspond to

the optimal fat distribution for high

fertility. If a woman is seen to be

more fertile, she is also seen to be

more attractive.

‘Women with a low WHR may also

be healthier, given that a high WHR

resulting from a bloated abdomen

can be a sign of parasite infection.

A high WHR in a female can also

predict menstrual irregularity,

hirsutism (excess hairiness), elevated

plasma triglycerides, diabetes,

hypertension, cardiovascular disease,

gall bladder disease and cancer of the

endometrium, ovaries and breast,’

McBride explains.

But large breasts and a small waist

aren’t the only physical assets men are

drawn to. Other characteristics said

to be prized by our male ancestors in

Scents appeal

Scientists have also discovered

that scent plays an important role

in the sexual attraction of males

to females. At certain points

during the menstrual cycle, women

produce more or less oestrogen and,

accordingly, their scent becomes more

or less appealing to men. Research

indicates that oestrogen triggers blood

flow to the hypothalamus in the male,

but not the female, brain.

In fact, research into our sense of

smell has determined that a simple

kiss has evolved in the Western world

from the universal human greeting of

smelling one another’s hands or faces.

Although such smells are not blatant,

and may not register in the conscious

mind, such smells influence mood and

sexual mating preferences.

Unlike pheromones, which are

long-distance chemical messengers

in the Animal Kingdom, these are

subtle protein secretions detected

at close quarters. ‘They enable

humans to determine whether they

are genetically similar or different,’

says Prof Rob Brooks. ‘Opposites do

attract,’ he says. ‘It’s like an internal

communications system.’

their potential mates were full

red lips, clear and smooth skin, clear

eyes, lustrous hair and good muscle

tone; all indications of a healthy,

youthful woman.

‘These in-built preferences seem

to be aimed at ensuring males find

suitably fertile females who are

healthy enough to reproduce and,

in turn, produce healthy children,’

says McBride. ‘These mechanisms

are instinctual and generally

subconscious. Men don’t think to

themselves: “I must find a woman

with a WHR of 0.7 and smooth skin”.

We just find these characteristics

appealing and they are almost

universally sought after,’ he adds. 39




Could being attractive be less in the eye

of the beholder and more to do with a

mathematical equation involving our

waist and hip measurements?

It’s human nature to want to

know whether we’re attractive and

how we can make ourselves more

appealing. But a new study suggests

that to sum our real assets all we need

to do is an easy sum.

So perhaps beauty isn’t in the eye of

the beholder, it comes down the far less

subjective mathematical equation.

It has been found a woman’s

attractiveness relates to the size of

her waist compared with her hips.

Scientists have discovered the ratio

they say makes for the perfect fi gure.

A waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 0.7,

or a waist measurement at 70 per

cent of the hip circumference, is the

magic number.

New Zealand anthropologist

Barnaby Dixson set out to fi nd what

makes a woman attractive to men. A

group of volunteers were presented

with various pictures of a woman in

which her bust, waist and hips had

been digitally altered and asked to rate

the image for attractiveness. Infra-red

cameras tracked their eyes as they

looked at the photos.

Although most were initially drawn

to the woman’s cleavage, her hips and

waist were key to attraction.

Perennially curvy beauties like

Marilyn Monroe, Sophia Loren, Jessica

Alba and Victoria’s Secret model

Alessandra Ambrosio are all examples

of the perfect ratio. Interestingly

though, it isn’t a ratio dependent on

curves or lack there of, it’s all simply

proportion of the waist to hips. (So

interestingly waif-like Kate Moss also

matches up to the ideal WHR of 0.7.

The concept and signifi cance of

WHR as an indicator of attractiveness

was fi rst theorised by psychologist

Devendra Singh in 1993, who argued

that the WHR was a consistent

oestrogen marker.

Some researchers have found that

the waist-hip ratio is a signifi cant

measure of female attractiveness,

although this has been found to be

dependent on cultural values. Women

with a 0.7 WHR are usually rated as

more attractive by men from European

cultures, while China favours a WHR

of 0.6 which rose to 0.8 or 0.9 in parts

of South America and Africa.

However, the attractiveness of

the hourglass fi gure holds true across

countries and cultures. Research shows.

Men across the world can all agree –

from the UK, Cameroon, Germany

and China, to New Zealand. German

research released last year indicated an

hourglass fi gure to be more attractive

than even athletic types or long-legged,

big-chested ‘Barbies’.

It is thought that a small waist-to-hip

ratio is equated in the mind with good

health and high fertility. ‘It is likely

that perfect 0.7 ratio sends a biological

signal to men that this woman is most

fertile and most likely to produce a

healthy offspring, no matter what size

that woman is,’ says Dr Dixson. ‘It is all

about the distribution of fat which is

directly linked to fertility.’

In fact, it looks like we’re all

encouraged to celebrate our curvy

bits according to the research data.

Dr Dixson says men were wasting

their time pumping iron in the gym

because women have indicated they

invariably prefer a leaner, less

muscle-bound physique.

‘On a biological level, women

are more likely to pick a leaner,

even slightly more effeminate man as

they equate those physical traits with

being more caring and gentle and

therefore a better prospect as a partner,’

he explains. ‘Humans simply do not

mate randomly.’

Blonde vs brunette

It’s an age-old debate that had even Charles

Darwin stumped – he couldn’t find any

acceptable reason men might prefer blondes.

Since Darwin’s time, however, there have

been a few advancements in the science behind

hair preference.

Blonde hair is thought to be an indicator of

youth and sexual vitality, but a recent study,

which attempted to determine the most beautiful

woman in the world, picked a brunette, and

a 2011 study in the Scandinavian Journal

of Psychology found brunettes are generally

considered more attractive.

Makeup &


Women who wear makeup appear

more trustworthy, likeable and

competent – not to mention

attractive – to those around them, or

so a relatively recent study tells us.

‘As we have evolved, the brain has

become capable of making complex

social judgments on some very basic

visual cues,’ says Dr Arnaud Aubert,

an experimental psychologist and

associate professor in the department

of neurosciences at the Universitè

François-Rabelais, France.

These visual cues typically revolve

around the idea of attractiveness and

trustworthiness, elements that the

right style of makeup can certainly

assist with. ‘First you see the face and

then, after a quick visual decoding,

a signal is relayed to the limbic area

of the brain where an emotional

level is assigned to what you have

seen – either pleasant or unpleasant,’

Dr Aubert says. ‘This information

is then translated to the forebrain

where it’s decided whether the face

is trustworthy or untrustworthy.

The whole process is carried out

almost instantaneously.’

By minimising flaws and enhancing

our best features, makeup – when

applied effectively – can make for a

more “pleasant” translation process.

Highlighter and illuminator, for

instance, can detract from a larger

nose, while the right shade of lip

colour can go a long way in boosting

that first impression.

‘All the social information is in

the centre of the face,’ Dr Aubert

explains. ‘If the brain is distracted by

imperfections, it processes less and so

has a weaker social assessment of the

person it is looking at.’

A study conducted by Harvard

University with Proctor and

Gamble supports Aubert’s findings.

Participants of the study were asked

to rate how likeable, trustworthy and

competent particular women were,

based on their makeup. They were

presented with images of women

with no makeup, and then the same

women made up in different ways –

natural, professional and glamorous.

One participant group was shown

the images for a couple of seconds

and the other group could inspect the

images for as long as they liked.

Lead author and assistant clinical

professor of psychology at Harvard

University, Nancy Etcoff explains

the effects of makeup were the same,

regardless of length of exposure.

‘When flashed quickly, every

cosmetic look significantly increased

how attractive, competent, likeable

and trustworthy the faces appeared to

the same faces without makeup,’ she

says. ‘When people could look at the

faces as long as they wanted to, all

makeup looks increased competence

and attractiveness once again.’ CBM 41





Choosing the

right foundation

can be a daunting

beauty aCtivity.

here are our tips to

relieving your stress

when searching

for the perfect

foundation fit.

It’s the canvas of every beauty look

and the go-to confidence booster

when our skin has decided to go

haywire: foundation. But, as with all

other beauty products, there are a million

and one different foundation options on

the market and it can get just a wee bit

confusing for a gal.

Besides finding a foundation that

matches your skin colour, you need to

find one that is best for your skin type.

Knowing your skin type and your desired

level of coverage will be the key to

finding your perfect match.

Foundation comes in a variety of

forms, with the four main types being

liquid, cream, stick and powder. The

right foundation can even out your skin

tone, give you a healthy complexion and

conceal flaws and pigmentation. With

each type comes a different finish and

level of coverage.

The correct shade of foundation

will mesh well with your skin and

complement your complexion. If there’s

an obvious un-blendable line between

your foundation and your natural colour,

you know you have chosen the wrong

shade (#floatingwhiteface, anyone?). 43



One of the most popular types of foundation due to its ability to

provide sheer coverage and an au natural look, a liquid foundation is

easy to apply and fits like a ‘second skin’.

The coverage has different levels and can vary from light to

heavy. Liquid foundation is also usually suited for both dry skin and

combination skin. If you have oily skin, look for the oil-free options.

Liquid foundation can be applied with a sponge, brush or can even

be dabbed on with your fingertips and worked in a circular motion.



Lycogel Breathable

Camouflage in Beige

20ml, $108



Bobbi Brown Skin Long-Wear Weightless

Foundation SPF15, $70, Burberry Beauty

Fresh Glow Luminous Fluid Foundation in

34 Warm Nude, $86


A heavier base, cream is renowned for providing good coverage

and is the number-one choice for makeup artists (it must be doing

something right!). Due to its thick texture, which provides a creamy

and flawless finish, it’s great to wear on a night out.

There are many specialised versions on the market for different

skin types, including oil-based and 24-hour long-wearing coverage.

It works great on dry skin; however it’s best to avoid cream if you

have oily skin – no one has time for high-shine!

Cream foundation usually comes in a compact case and can be

applied with a sponge.


A duo gem, stick foundation can also be used as a

concealer. The coverage tends to be heavier, making

stick foundations perfect for covering up those niggling

blemishes and imperfections! As well as wearing the hero

cape for bad skin, the heavier coverage can also cover up

scars, redness and dark under-eye circles. Bonus!

Stick foundation is usually small and portable,

meaning no risk of a messy purse. Because of the heavier

consistency, stick foundations may not be suitable for

everyday use if you’re prone to blemishes.

This formula is best for normal to oily skin. However if

you have dry skin, make sure to apply a bit of moisturiser

first to avoid that ‘cakey’ look.



Marc Jacobs

Beauty accomplice

Concealer &

Touch-Up Stick, $44

Nude by Nature Touch of Glow

Highlight Stick, $24.95


A great on-the-go foundation,

powder truly is a touchup hero.

Lightweight and non-clogging,

powder applies evenly and

blends easily to achieve a radiant,

natural looking complexion.

Mineral powder is becoming

a very popular alternative and

is a great bet for people with

sensitive skin or allergies. Powder

is suitable for those with oily skin;

however be cautious not to apply

it too frequently, to avoid drying

out your skin.

Powder comes in compact

form (usually with a handy little

mirror) and is best applied using

a big ol’ fluffy brush. 45


Fenty Beauty

Pro Filt’r Instant

Retouch Primer

15ml, $23,

Bobbi Brown

Vitamin Enriched

Face Base, $85




Primer is one of the most powerful tools for filling in fine lines

as well as smoothing out complexions to create a flawless face.

We’re talking prime time! .

Beauty Blender Opal

Essence Serum

Primer 30ml, $32


Daytime makeup should look soft and natural, but as the light fades

you want your face to glow in its place. Steal the limelight from the

candles in restaurants and bars with an illuminating product. This can

be a dusting of highlighting loose powder, an illuminiser stick or even

an illuminating concealer. Applied to the brow bones under the brows,

top of the cheekbones, bridge of the nose, inner corners of the eyes

and on the lip contour for added fullness; it will both smooth and

highlight. Don’t forget to blend, blend, blend.

Zoeva Heritage Highlighter

(Limited Edition), $26


While a highlighted and natural radiance is the

way to go for daytime, after the sun goes down

it’s prime time to show some sun-kissed skin and

get your glow on.

To get that tanned radiant look, apply bronzer or

shimmer powder on key areas — the brow bone,

cheekbones, and décolletage. Remember to

adjust your application to the darkness of your

surroundings, but be careful not to overdo it!

BECCA x Chrissy Teigen

Endless Bronze & Glow

(Limited Edition), $58











Sisley Phyto-

Blanc Cushion

Foundation, $150


Marc Jacobs


Blurring Coconut

Face Primer

30ml, $53




1. asap pure skin perfecting mineral foundation 30ml, $65, 2. Sisley Instant Eclat 30ml, $105, 3. Ole Henriksen

Banana Bright Primer, $48, 4. Bobbi Brown Highlighting Powder in Sunkissed Glow, $80, 5. Charlotte Tilbury

Lightgasm Face Palette, $120, 6. Skinstitut Loose Mineral Powder, $59, 7. Iconic London Illuminator 13ml, $68,

8. MAC Strobe Cream, $54, 9. La Mer The Hydrating Illuminator 40ml, $100, 10. Jane Iredale Sunbeam Bronzer

& Compact, $130, 11. Clarins Skin Illusion SPF 15 in Cashew 30ml, $52, 12. Dior Diorskin Forever Skin Glow

Foundation $89, 13. Marc Jacobs Dew Drops Coconut Gel Highlighter 24ml, $64, 14. MAC Studio Fix Fluid

Foundation, $54, 15. Peter Thomas Roth Skin To Die For Mineral-Matte CC Cream 30ml, $59, 16. Skindinavia

Makeup Primer Spray 118ml, $49.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 49


for your skin

Gaia Retreat & Spa has a global reputation

as the world’s best luxury spa and wellness

retreat. It was only natural it launched its own

skincare. we chat to Retreatment Botanics brand

developer Trudi Jaye about the luxe line.

For most skincare brands, winning a swag of prestigious

international awards six months after release is unheard

of, but that is exactly what Retreatment Botanics, the

new skincare range released by superstar Olivia Newton-John

and her experts at Gaia Retreat & Spa in Byron Bay, has done.

It recently won seven awards at The Beauty Shortlist

Best Loved 2019 Mama and Baby Awards, including Best

International Natural/Organic Brand. Not only that, since its

release in February this year, the range of 10 natural, Certified

Cruelty-Free and Vegan and Certified Palm Oil Free products

has been warmly embraced by beauty media, influencers, and

consumers alike.

Little wonder, really. The look and feel of the beautiful

recyclable packaging, the all-natural aromas, the feel of the

products when they first touch the skin and the almostimmediate

results make Retreatment Botanics a stand-out,

Aussie-made skincare line-up. 51


Leading Olivia’s expert skincare

team is General Manager and

Brand Developer of Retreatment

Botanics, Trudi Jaye, who

worked alongside Olivia, the

Gaia Directors, Gaia therapists

and green skincare scientists to

perfect the finished product.

Here, we speak with her about

the brand’s journey.




We have these amazing treatments

and incredibly skilled therapists at

Gaia. When the Retreat fi rst opened,

we would externally source skincare

to use in our treatments. At times,

the therapists would even source

organic ingredients themselves, often

from our own garden!

As Gaia grew and became this

amazing destination for health,

wellness and natural beauty

treatments, Olivia said, “you know,

we have this extraordinary wealth of

knowledge in our team, why don’t we

create our own skincare, where we

have control over the ingredients and

the integrity of the products.”

We wanted to create and use a

skincare brand that refl ects Gaia and

all we stand for. We believe we have

achieved this.

Retreatment Botanics is a way

for people to take the rituals and

experience of Gaia home with

them, to continue their self-care and

soul-care journey with the beautiful

herbs and essentials oils, which

evoke the feeling of Gaia, as well as

being really effective. This was so

important for us. Olivia is passionate

that something really works as well as

being lovely to use.

Trudi Jaye












Absolutely! These were nonnegotiables.

Olivia, myself and the

entire team at Gaia believe that

there is no need to harm an animal

or Mother Earth to create effective

skincare. We are really proud of these

certifi cations and believe they are a

truly unique aspect of our brand.






It’s a super-advanced extraction

method that captures the powerful

phyto-compounds within the

Australian plants we use as they

exist in nature.

To survive in the harshest places

on earth, these Australian native

plants intelligently store high

concentrations of antioxidants

and vitamins. This new Cellular

Extraction allows for delivery of

their molecular profi le to help target

skincare concerns and deliver visible

results from the very fi rst application.






We wanted the entire experience

of Retreatment Botanics to refl ect a

Gaia treatment, including the aromas

we use in the spa itself, natural scents

of the beautiful land that Gaia sits

on, and the trees, bushes and shrubs

that grow from it.

Each product has its own unique

scent made from pure essential

oils that evokes the experience of

being at Gaia. For example, our

Calm Essential Oil Blend – with

sandalwood, ylang ylang, lemon

myrtle, mandarin and lime, is the

signature scent of Gaia Spa. Our

therapists use it to guide you into

deep relaxation at the beginning of

every treatment.

Wild Kakadu Hand and Body

Cream is scented with rose,

geranium, citrus, rosemary leaf and

lavender to deliver an uplifting but

calming hand and body massage at

home. A third example is Radiance

Cream Cleanser, which uses a

refreshing blend of citrus oils with

bergamot and rose. This is a beautiful

way to begin and end the day –

cleansing the skin as you inhale the

exquisite blend!

And of course, Olivia just loves

the stunning yet delicate aromas

in our serums – they smell so good,

lifting the spirit as you apply them

to your skin.



It was important to Olivia, the Gaia

Directors, me and the entire team

that we create a pure performance

range that delivers results from the

very fi rst application. So, what you

will see is softer, calmer and more

radiant skin from your fi rst use.

These results will only improve with

continued use. The skin renews itself

around every four weeks or so. After

four to six weeks, you will notice

really incredible results. CBM 53






& well


While the bulk of our wellness focus

typically involves working out and

losing weight, not enough importance is

placed on improving our mental health.

you have nothing if you don’t have your health.

According to the World Health Organisation

(WHO): ‘Mental health is an integral part to health;

indeed, there is no health without mental health.’

But when was the last time you thought of

improving your mental health?

Mental health refers to the state of our cognitive

and/or emotional wellbeing – it’s all about how you

think, feel and behave. Mental health not only

enables you to cope with the stresses of everyday life

but it can also mean an absence of a mental disorder.

Your mental health can affect your daily life,

relationships and even your physical health. A

study from 2012 published in The BMJ found that

individuals with poor mental health are at increased

risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Other research has recently linked mental illness to a

higher risk of heart disease and stroke.

Boost your wellbeing and stay mentally healthy by

following a few steps, so you can be prepared to take

on any challenges life may throw at you. 55


Eat healthy

A healthy, balanced diet is not only

beneficial for physical health but it

also has benefits for mental wellbeing.

While it can stave off a range of illnesses

including heart disease, diabetes and

cancer, a healthy diet assists in providing

a range of nutrients for your brain to stay

healthy and function well.

Following a Mediterranean-style diet,

which incorporates high consumption of

beans, nuts, cereals, seeds, plant-based

foods and fruits has, in a 2012 study, been

proven to be beneficial for mental wellbeing.

The diet is also low in saturated

fat and includes moderate consumption

of fish, poultry and dairy and low

consumption of meats and sugary foods.

Furthermore, a 2013 study of

almost 11,000 middle-aged women

found that those who followed a

Mediterranean diet not only lived

longer than control participants, but

they also exhibited better cognitive

function and mental health.

In September 2014 a UK study was

published in The BMJ Open suggesting

that eating five portions of fruits and

vegetables a day is good for mental

wellbeing. The research found that

out of 14,000 adults, 35.5 percent of

participants who ate five or more portions

of fruits and vegetables a day had good

mental wellbeing, compared with 6.8

percent of participants who ate less than

one portion a day.

The study was led by Dr Saverio

Stranges of the University of Warwick

Medical School, who said, ‘These

novel findings suggest that fruit and

vegetable intake may play a potential

role as a driver, not just of physical,

but also of mental wellbeing in the

general population.’

There are a number of foods and

drinks that have been associated with

poor mental health. The high intake of

alcohol has been linked to anxiety and

depression, with mental health experts

recommending limiting alcohol intake.

Get more sleep

A lack of sleep can affect

metabolism, reducing the rate at

which we burn kilojoules. Chronic

sleep deprivation has been linked

to increased rates of obesity and

diabetes, according to research

at the UK’s University of

Warwick, which found that adults

who get less than seven hours of

sleep a night are twice as likely

to become obese.

A 2014 study by researchers from

the George Institute on Global

Health in Australia, found that

people who have less than 5 hours

sleep a night might be at higher

risk of mental illness. According

to a study at the University of

Michigan in the US, depression

rates are 40 times higher for

patients with insomnia and an

extra hour of sleep does more for

our happiness than a pay rise.

There are lots of things you

can do to improve your chances

of getting a good night’s sleep.

Going to bed and waking up at the

same time every day (even at the

weekends and during the holidays)

as a routine can boost the body’s

sleep-wake cycle, promoting a

better night’s sleep.

Television, computers, tablets

and phones all stimulate your

brain, making it hard to relax, so

it’s recommended to switch them

off in advance. It’s also suggested to

limit the intake of alcohol, caffeine

and sugary foods in the evening.

A warm bath before bed or

reading a book may help you fall

into a bedtime ritual, which will

tell the body that it’s time to

wind down.



Regular physical activity is an

important key to help decrease

depression and anxiety.

The Australian Department of

Health recommends 150 to 300

minutes (2.5 to 5 hours) of moderate

to intense physical activity or 75 to

150 minutes (1¼ to 2½ hours) of

vigorous intensity physical activity

each week (for adults 18-64 years).

However, exercise doesn’t mean

you have to spend hours in the

gym or engage in long sessions on

the treadmill to reap the mental

health benefits of exercise. Research

has found that joining an outdoor

walking group may not only improve

your daily positive emotions

but may also contribute a nonpharmacological

approach to serious

conditions such as depression. 57




Stress seems to be an inevitable part

of adulthood that most of us will

experience at some point in our lives.

It’s been proven that whether it’s

through work, relationships or money

problems, stress can make the brain

more susceptible to mental illness.

However, there are ways in which

we can reduce or manage stress to

promote a sense of mindfulness and

relaxation. Yoga and meditation are

known to have many stress-reducing

benefits and have been found to

reduce the risk of anxiety and

depression in expectant mothers.

Above all, retaining a positive

outlook during difficult times may

also reduce stress. It could be as

simple as smiling. The journal of

Psychological Science published

a study in 2012, which found that

smiling during stressful periods could

lower the body’s stress response,

regardless of whether a person is

feeling happy or sad.

Find a hobby

While employment may cause stress, unemployment is linked with poor

physical and mental health.

Being employed brings more than a way of earning a living; it provides

a sense of identity and belonging, as well as offering structure to your life

as you strive to meet goals.

According to the Mental Health Foundation, finding a hobby or

taking up voluntary work may promote good mental health. Building

relationships and having interaction with other people is rewarding and

can significantly improve mental wellbeing.

spend time in


It seems 120 minutes a week in

nature is associated with benefits to

our health and wellbeing, according

to new research.

The authors of this new study,

published in Scientific Reports in 2019,

said theirs is the first large-scale research

to quantify how much time is needed to

feel the effects. The study used survey

data from more than 19,000 participants

in the United Kingdom, who were

quizzed about their contact with nature.

‘This applies to old and young, males

and females and the rich and the poor,’

said lead researcher Dr White from the

University of Exeter.

Nature, as defined by the study, did

not have to be pristine wilderness or

spectacular national parks - beaches, city

parks or farmland were all included as

natural environments.

So going for a surf or cycle might be

a great way to pair outdoor time with

getting active, but physical activity

wasn’t necessary to feel the benefits of

being in nature – just being out there

was enough.

Improving your mental health is a

rewarding experience and changes can

be made at any time. They help you

handle life’s challenges and recover

from setbacks, boosting your mood and

building your resilience.

It’s important to remember that

seeking help is a sign of strength, not a

weakness. Receiving appropriate care

from a professional can help encourage

us to do things we may not be able to do

on our own. cbm






Each year around one in

five Australians will experience

a mental illness

One in seven Australians

will experience depression

in their lifetime

About 4% of people will

experience a major depressive

episode in a 12-month period,

with 5% of women and 3% of

men affected

Approximately 14% of

Australians will be affected

by an anxiety disorder in any

12-month period

Women are more likely than

men to seek help for anxiety

disorders (18% compared with

11%) and mood disorders

(7.1% compared with 5.3%)

*Mindframe and Blackdog

statistics 59


When Harry

met Sally

No need to fake it. gynaecologist Dr Oseka Onuma

talks orgasms and sexual health for women.


n the famous scene from ‘When Harry Met Sally’, at

least half the female population could relate. This

is the percentage of women who experience some

sort of problem with their sex life and, while faking an

orgasm may be more common than you think, lack of

sexual gratification shouldn’t be hidden under the covers.

It’s widely accepted these days for a woman to have

anti-wrinkle injections to erase wrinkles, or surgery to

refine her nose or enlarge her breasts. Likewise, more

women than ever are concerned with the appearance of

their genitals or lack of sexual gratification.

Despite this, there continues to be a lot of negative

talk in mainstream media about the rising popularity of

the so-called ‘designer vagina’. Indeed, the vast majority

of vaginal rejuvenation patients are motivated by painful

intercourse, discomfort doing everyday activities and

sexual dysfunction.

‘Whilst there are significant advances taking place in

the understanding and treatment of female pelvic floor

and sexual dysfunction, discrimination of women, by

both men and women, lay people and medical, remains

a significant issue,’ says Adelaide gynaecologist and

pelvic reconstructive surgeon Dr Oseka Onuma. ‘This

continues to surprise me every working day when I

listen to patients and medical colleagues, but I cannot

understand why changes in attitude are so slow.’ 61





Orgasms can relieve pain

Up to 30% of women have trouble

reaching orgasm

Condom use doesn’t affect

orgasm quality

Orgasm gets better with age

A woman’s sexual self-esteem

can affect the quality of

her orgasms

There is such a thing as an

orgasm ‘gap’ – women orgasm

less than men

In rare cases, orgasm can happen

without genital stimulation

For most women, it takes

at least 20 minutes of sexual

activity to climax

Am I normal?

If you’ve ever had trouble climaxing, you’re not alone.

It’s been reported that a whopping 43% of women have

some sort of problem with their sex lives. Female sexual

dysfunction (anything that interferes with a woman’s

sexual satisfaction) is so common that the very idea that

it is a medical disorder has come under attack.

Many women never have orgasms during intercourse

and some also cannot have them through masturbation.

‘Women, much more than men, are answerable to

their hormonal, emotional and social circumstances in

the achievement of orgasm. That means that for many

women to achieve orgasm, their hormonal and emotional

health must be optimal, their social circumstance allows

them to be relaxed and there needs to be appropriate

stimulation of the organ(s) that facilitate orgasm,’

says Dr Onuma.

‘Women can enhance their orgasms by making sure

that they are healthy, physically fit, emotionally wellbalanced

with a hormonal status that is in equilibrium.

They also need the right social circumstances when

attempting to achieve orgasm with or without a partner.’

However, Dr Onuma says that some women will

never be able to achieve orgasm even if all the parameters

above appear to be ‘normal’ and optimised. There is no

clear reason.

‘Anorgasmia is the medical term used to describe this

and it is defined as a psychiatric disorder. Unfortunately,

there is no psychiatric treatment that appears to

consistently benefit women in this group, although some

women may respond to psychological counselling,’

says Dr Onuma.

‘It may be that these women simply represent a group

of ‘normal’ women. Within this group, there will be some

who obtain no pleasure at all through sexual activity and

those who do achieve great pleasure without achieving

orgasm. Should these women really be considered to be

‘abnormal’? I think not.’

Why can’t I orgasm?

With the effects of childbirth and age, many women can

suffer from problems with their genitalia that can make

them feel very self-conscious and unhappy, often affecting

relationships with sexual partners.

The kinds of problems are as varied as the women

who suffer from them. ‘Female sexual dysfunction is

complex and can be a result of hormonal, psychological,

psychiatric, physical, neurological, environmental and

social causes,’ says Dr Onuma.

‘Often, some of these causes co-exist. One factor

can result in another; for example, painful intercourse

(dyspareunia) may result in a fear of intercourse

The Australian Centre for Female

Pelvic & Vaginal Rejuvenation


resulting in psychological sequelae. Hormonal changes

of menopause can result in loss of libido or physical

alterations that can result in difficult or painful

intercourse,’ he says.

Other causes can relate to scar tissue or tears at the

entrance of the vagina, prolapse of the walls of the vagina,

prolapse of the uterus, endometriosis or elongated labia

minora tissues (which can cause irritation and discomfort).

In addition, loose or weak vaginal muscles, mainly caused

through the muscles stretching during childbirth, can

cause problems for some women and their sexual partners

during intercourse.

Another problem may be female stress urinary

incontinence, caused predominantly by an improperly

functioning urethra.

But for many women with sexual dysfunction, the issue

is psychological, not physical. Although we all know

there is no ‘perfect’ way for a vagina to look, being shy or

embarrassed by your genital appearance can often result

in the avoidance of intimacy or lack of orgasm. ‘Most

commonly this is the woman’s own perception resulting

from a perceived change or long-standing issue. Much less

commonly, this results from adverse comments from an

intimate partner,’ says Dr Onuma.

What are the options?

Because female sexual dysfunction has many possible

symptoms and causes, treatment varies. It’s important for

women to communicate their concerns and understand

their body and its normal sexual response. Also, a woman’s

goals for her sex life are important in determining

treatment and evaluating progress.

‘Surgery for female sexual dysfunction should only be

contemplated when a physical cause for that dysfunction

has been clearly identified,’ stresses Dr Onuma.

There is a range of surgical and non-surgical options

available that can address and hopefully resolve these

problems. For example both surgical or laser reduction

labioplasty can sculpt the elongated or unequal labial

minora as desired. The vulvar structures (including

the labia minora, labia majora, mons pubis, perineum,

entrance to the vagina and hymen) can be surgically

enhanced, both functionally and aesthetically.

Non-surgical laser vaginal rejuvenation can effectively

enhance vaginal muscle tone, strength and control. For

example a non-surgical treatment can be used to treat

prolapse and/or relaxation of the vaginal walls, which

results in dyspareunia or reduced sensation.

‘Female sexual dysfunction is complex and does not

always imply abnormality. Affected women should seek

help – women should never accept that it’s ‘just part of

being a woman’,’ Dr Onuma concludes. CBM





Gynaecologist and Pelvic

Reconstructive Surgeon

BSc. (Hons), MJur., CCST,


4 Robe Terrace,

Medindie SA 5081

08 8344 6085 63






of pale




It might surprise you that

hyperpigmentation is perceived

as the third most important skin

problem after wrinkles and sagging. It

is a common skin condition in which

patches of skin are darker in colour

than the surrounding skin tissue and

can be very upsetting for those who

suffer from it. It includes freckles,

sun spots, melasma, and other spots

caused mainly by sun exposure or skin

ageing. These occur where there is an

excess of melanin, the body’s pigment

that produces natural skin colouring.

It is such a widespread condition

that today, depigmenting treatments

represent over 20% of the total

cosmetic market, with over 90%

of caucasians experiencing skin

blemishes at some stage.

If you are considering having such

a treatment, mesoestetic ® has 30

years experience developing effective

solutions to treat skin pigmentation

and is recognised as a global leader

in topical depigmentation. Its 65

Hyperpigmentation is perceived as

the third most important skin problem

after wrinkles and sagging.


pigmentation treatments, notably

cosmelan ® and dermamelan ® ,

are world-renowned for their

effectiveness. However, it’s not only

the quality of the treatment that’s

important, it’s also the experience

and expertise of the professional

administering it.

The mesoestetic ® Pharma Group

recently held its third in a series

of Specialised Depigmentation

seminars in Australia as part of a

global initiative. This worldwide

program is for clinics seeking a

cutting-edge advantage, by becoming

a mesoestetic ® Certified Specialised

Depigmentation Centre.

What does that mean for you?

Well, the comprehensive course,

which was lectured by mesoestetic ®

International Trainer, Sabine Wallez,

resulted in a total of 51 Specialised

Depigmentation Centres certified

across Australia. Therefore you can

be confident that the staff members

at these clinics are trained to ensure

you will attain the best possible

results with your procedure and for

your condition.

The topics covered in the

course included the importance

of the diagnostic component in

hyperpigmentation treatments such

as melasma, PIH, solar and senile

lentigos and ephelides, as well as antiageing

solutions and the importance

of sun protection.

According to Catherine

Biedermann, Managing Director

of Advanced Cosmeceuticals, the

course was an incredible opportunity

for Australian skin professionals to

learn first-hand about depigmentation

from Sabine Wallez and to hone

their specific skills for treating

hyperpigmentation. CBM

cosmelan: what is it?

Cosmelan is a one-time, professional skin

brightening treatment developed by mesoestetic ® to

help reduce the appearance of pigmentation spots

and even out skin tone in a matter of weeks with

minimal side effects. The clinically proven results

are truly impressive, achieving up to 95 per cent

improvement in the majority of cases. Treatments

with the cosmelan topical solution are tailored to

each individual and the results are long lasting.

What to expect

The cosmelan treatment consists of two

phases and it is imperative that you follow the

directions given by the treating professional to

achieve complete success.

Phase 1 – in the clinic

The cosmelan 1 Mask is applied in the clinic

and left on the skin for a period of time which

is determined by the medical professional

according to your skin colour and type. This is

usually around 8 hours.

Phase 2 – at home maintenance

The mask is removed at home with mesoestetic ®

hydra milk cleanser and followed by an application

of hydra-vital factor k cream. Cosmelan 2

maintenance cream is applied at home according

to the recommended protocol of the medical

professional. The objective of this highly effective

maintenance cream is to ensure the continued

brightening of the complexion and fading of skin

discolourations while restoring luminosity.

After applying the cosmelan 2, follow daily with

hydra-vital factor k and hydrating moisturiser

with sun protection.

Peeling of the treated skin begins in

approximately 48-72 hours and lasts about

three days; hydra-vital factor k is provided for

multiple applications during the day and evening.

Follow-up is in 7-10 days at which point a marked

reduction in major discolouration will be evident.

Pigment reduction continues with the at-home

application of the cosmelan 2 product over the

next six months.



For stockists, visit

or call 1800 242 011


Hyperpigmentation affects more than 80% of

women over the age of 25 and dermamelan ® signifies

an accessible, effective and minimally invasive

solution provided by medical professionals only. The

treatment combines in-clinc treatments and home

care prodcuts to target the mechanisms responsible

for skin pigmentation, thereby helping to lighten

unsightly blemishes and spots. It has a dual corrective

and controlling action, achieving short and long-term

results by keeping hyperpigmentation under control. 67



When it comes

to beauty,

routine is key to

having glowing

healthy skin.

The essentials for a simplified

yet effective skincare routine

include a gentle cleanser to

prep skin for penetration of

active ingredients, a good

exfoliator to buff away dead

skin cells and an SPF moisturiser

to protect your skin from those

harsh UV rays.

Understanding skincare

products and how to use them

is the first step in implementing

an effective skincare regimen.

With the myriad of products

on the market, it’s helpful to

get the basics right first, and

then venture to more targeted

skincare solutions.

essentials 69



Cleansers are an essential part of a

basic skincare routine. They wash off

makeup, dirt and oil and leave the

skin feeling clean, smooth and oil

free. Your skin should be cleansed

preferably twice a day – in the

morning and in the evening. There

are cleansers for every skin type:

if you’re prone to blocked pores,

use gel formulations; for delicate

skin, use milky products. Both gels

and milky products usually can be

washed off. For dry skin, use cream

products, which generally are wiped

off. If using a cream cleanser, you

probably will need to use a toner







1. Ella Baché Botanical Cleansing

Oil 200ml, $69, 2. Neutrogena

Deep Clean Cleansing Oil Normal

and Hydrating, $18.99, 3. Synergie

BioCleanse, $72, 4. Skinstitut

Gentle Cleanser, $49, 5. Alpha-H

Clear Skin Daily Face and Body

Wash 185ml, $45, 6. The Ordinary

Squalane Cleanser, $13.90.



Exfoliation removes the dead

surface cells which contribute both

to dryness and oiliness and can

cause blocked pores and problems

like acne. Exfoliation also stimulates

the circulation.

Scrubs treat the surface of the

skin and help unclog pores, while

exfoliants remove surface cell debris

and leave skin fresher and looking

brighter. Common types contain

alpha hydroxy acids and glycolic

acids, found in plant extracts.

It is essential to exfoliate regularly

at home, but nothing beats a

professional treatment which will

leave your skin glowing and fresh -

well worth the expense.

7. endota spa organics Atmica

& Menthol Recovery Scrub 250g,

$40, 8. endota spa organics Daily

Renewal Exfoliant 90ml, $45, 9. PCA

Skin ® Daily Exfoliant, $79.20, 10.

Synergie Mediscrub, $79.




10. 71



Moisturise morning and night to help retain your skin’s

natural moisture and to provide a physical barrier

against environmental pollutants.

While you can use a single product, it is advisable

to use a richer moisturiser at night as the skin

absorbs products more effectively while you sleep,

undisturbed by environmental factors such as the sun

and wind. During the day, it is recommended to use a

moisturiser with a sun protection factor.

Which type of moisturiser suits you is personal – it’s

worth getting samples to try them out. Your clinician

can help you establish if you have dry, normal,

combination or oily skin. If skin is dry, you want

humectants and ingredients such as plumping lipids.

For sensitive skin, look for anti-inflammatories.

For combination or oily skin, you also want antiinflammatories

as well as ingredients that prevent

oil slicks from breaking out. There are also firming

moisturisers to help with sagging tissues.

Formulations vary from emulsions (water-based and

better for oily skin) to dense creams (oil-based, better

for dry skin).

Make sure to protect your skin all year round and

opt for moisturisers that include SPF.




1. Sisley Ecological Compound 125ml, $295, 2.

Medik8 Advanced Day Total 50ml, $119, 3. Aspect Sun

Hydrating Face SPF50+ 75ml, $59, 4. Skeyndor Power

Retinol Intensive Repairing Retinol Cream, 50ml, $98, 5.

Dermalogica Redness Relief Essence 150ml, $64, 6. La

Roche-Posay Toleriane Ultra 40ml, $41.95,

7. Olehenriksen Phat Glow Facial, $68, 8. Jergens

NEW Oil Infused Skin Firming Moisturiser 496ml, $11.99,

9. Mavala Anti Age Pro Day Serum for Face and Eyes

30ml, $64.95, 10. Bioderma Sebium Mat Control | 30mL,

$30.99, 11. CeraVe Moisturising Cream 170g, $12.99,

12. Bangn Body Firming Body Lotion, 150ml, $48,

13. Medik8 Nourishing Body Cream 250ml, $66, 14.

Retreatment Botanics Ultra Rich Moisturiser 100ml, $89,

15. Medik8 r-Retinoate ® Youth Activating Cream 50ml,

$298, 16. Arbonne RE9 Advanced Prepwork Overnight

Face Jelly, RRP $59, 17. Babor Ampoule Concentrates,

Glow Addict: 4 x Hydra Plus, 3 x Perfect Glow, $57, 18.

Vida Glow Cosmetics Emollient Moisturiser, $64.95, 19.

Clinique Take the Day Off Cleansing Balm 125ml, $56,

20. Guinot Lift Summum Cream 50ml, $223, 21. Jurlique

Moisture Plus Rare Rose Cream 50mL, $59, 22. Ella Baché

Spirulines Firming Day Cream 50ml, $125, 23. Ella Baché

Spirulines Firming Night Cream 50ml, $125, 24. Peter

Thomas Roth Potent-C Bright & Plump Moisturizer $106.

4. 5.

6. 7.

8. 9.

10. 11.













16. 73



Using a facial mask can soothe and nourish skin,

oxygenate, improve the circulation, help clear up

blemishes and even reduce the appearance of fine

lines and wrinkles. Tightening masks help firm and tone

sagging skin, and moisturising masks add moisture to

dehydrated skin. For oily or acne-prone skin, a purifying

mask can deep-cleanse skin and absorb excess oil. The

benefits of masks are often underestimated but they can

give the complexion a real boost. Generally, they should

be used weekly after exfoliating.

Alpha-H Clear Skin Blemish Control Mask 100ml, $39.95,

Antipodes Aura Manuka Honey Mask 75ml, $54, La

Roche-Posay Effaclar Sebo-controlling mask 100ml,

$27.95, Sisley Black Rose Cream Mask 60ml, $180,

Société Eye Peptide Gel Mask 10 pairs per box 12g each,

$165, DNA Restoring Mask 60ml, $89, Naturally Serious

Maskimum Revival Hydra-Plumping Mask 100ml, $42,

Peter Thomas Roth 24k Gold Mask 150ml, $124,

Vida Glow Cosmetics Antioxidant Rich Hydration Mask,

$64.95, Image Skincare Mask Purifying Masque, $89.95.

1. 2. 3.



8. 9.


6. 7. 75







Serums are lightweight moisturisers

that penetrate deep into the skin to

deliver a concentrated dose of antiageing

goodness. Depending on the

product being used, serums can be

applied in the morning, at night or

both. They are typically worn beneath

cream moisturisers. Because serums are

designed to be highly concentrated, a

little goes a long way.

Traditional serums are water-based, but

many now come in oil form. Anti-ageing

serums deal primarily with fine lines,

wrinkles and dehydration, but also tone,

texture and dark spots. The ingredients

to look out for in a serum are similar to

those of day and night creams (vitamin

C, retinol and hyaluronic acid to name a

few); but, as with any skincare product,

choose those which best align with your

individual needs.


1. mesoestetic aox ferulic 30ml,

$199, 2. mesoestetic stemCell

Nanofiller Lip Contour 15ml, $121.40,

3. mesoestetic collagen 360 essence

30ml, $129, 4. asap radiance serum

30ml, $89, asap super A+ serum

30ml, $89, asap super B Complex

30ml, $95, asap super C serum 30ml,

$89, 5. Prevage Progressive Renewal

Treatment including Polyhydroxy

Acid (PHA), Alpha Hydroxy Acid

(AHA), Idebenone, and a pH Buffer,

$205, 6. Dermalogica AGE Bright

Clearing Serum 30ml, $98, 7. Alpha-H

Hyaluronic 8 with Primalhyal Ultrafiller

25ml, $69.95, 8. Priori Q+SOD fx220

Brightening Serum 30ml, $165, 9.

SALT By Hendrix Mermaid Facial Oil

30ml, $39.95, 10. Maaemo Vitalize

Face Elixir, $59.95,11. Vida Glow

Cosmetics Active Vitamin C Serum,

$69.95, 12. Cosmedix ® Clarity Skinclarifying

Serum, $76.50.










18. Ella Baché Daily

Hydration Mist 100ml,

$130, 19.endotaspa

organics Hydrate Me Mist,

120ml, $30, 20. Jurlique

Sweet Violet & Grapefruit

Hydrating Mist, 50ml, $37




Bite Beauty

Agave+ Nighttime

Lip Therapy, $30


Dermalogica AGE

Bright Spot Fader,

15ml, $68



13. Peter Thomas Roth 24K Gold Pure

Luxury Lift & Firm Hydra-Gel Eye Patches,

$98, 14. Medik8 r-Retinoate ® Eye Serum

Day & Night 15ml, $198, 15. Biologi

Rejuvenation Eye Serum, $79.95, 16.

Alpha-H Liquid Gold Firming Eye Cream,

$99, 17 Retreatment Botanics Firming

Eye Contour Cream 15ml, $65.


15. 77



nail it

With so many nail

trend options to

try, there’s one

to suit everybody.

Whether you prefer

the understated

look or the


look, short and

neat or almond

shape, metallic

or embellished,

the choices are

endless. Here

are some of our

fave 2019 fashion

forward nail trend

statement picks!

Grey Is the

New Black

Perfect for every occasion. Grey

can be calming and subtle or it

can be exhilarating and edgy. 79


seeing red

Exude confidence

and style with this bold

and slick classic.

Nail the


Works whether off to work

or out to play! Add some

glitter and stripes for a little

bit of oomph!

shape up

Anything goes! Short and natural,

oval, stilletto or square. Almond

shaped nails are big right now –

for a ‘point’ of difference!


in Pink

Always a fave

Top tips for

strong nails

Never seesaw with a file on the

natural nail. This will encourage

splitting and chipping of the nail

plate, upsetting the nail-plate layers.

It’s also important to file your nails

when they are dry, not after you have

just had a shower or washed your


Try not to use nail polish remover

too often.



Gems & metallic

pattern to glam up, or

matt and wax look for

a touch of elegance.

We love

the new



Dark polishes can discolour nails,

so you should always wear a base

coat under them and never leave the

colour on for more than a week.

Avoid household cleaners and

put gloves on when dealing with

harsh chemicals.

Hand lotion is your friend! Keep

hands and cuticles moisturised to

restore damaged nails and increase

blood circulation.

In rare cases, brittle nails can

be caused by protein or vitamin

deficiencies. Hair, skin and nail

vitamins are good for strengthening

brittle nails and reducing breaking

or splitting. 81

our picks


1. Dior Rouge Dior VernisRouge Dior

Vernis, Tra la la, $41, 2. Mavala Mini

Nail Polish in 97 Wichita, $8.50, 3. Tom

Ford Nail Lacquer, Scarlet Chinois,

$52, 4. Givenchy Le Vernis Nail Polish

No5, $37, 5. Giorgio Armani Nail

Lacquer, 105 Taupe Greige, $40, 6.

Sephora Collection Color Hit Nail

Polish in L192 Winter Spirit and L62

Full Moon Party, $7 each, 7. Dior

Diorific Top Coat Midnight Wish -

Limited Edition $43, 8. Smith & Cult

Nailed Lacquer Nail Polish in Glass

Souls, $32, 9. Nails Inc. Nail Lacquer

- Leather Effects, $11, 10. Opi Infinite

Shine Grease Collection, $12.86, 11.

Bobbi Brown Nail Polish KhakiNail

Polish Khaki, $25.


Dua Lipa






Cardi B

6. 7.

Jennifer Lopez



Rita Ora


10. 83




& Risks

fasting is becoming

an accepted means

of weight loss by

both the scientific

community and the

general public.

In recent years, various intermittent

fasting plans have become popular

with people seeking to lose weight or

improve their health.

The most popular regimens generally

involve very low or no calorie intake

on certain days per week, then eating

normally on non-fasting days.

Fasting 85


Alternate Day


Professor Krista Varady created the

Every-Other-Day Diet, based on

her groundbreaking research into

‘alternate-day modified fasting’ at

the University of Illinois in Chicago.

Proponents describe it as ‘the diet

that lets you eat all you want (half

the time) and keep the weight off!’

The plan involves alternate

‘fast’ and ‘feast’ days. Fasting days

consist of a single 500 calorie meal

at lunchtime. But then there is no

restriction on what, when or how

much is eaten on feasting days.

The two key attractions are:

• The promise that ‘you’ll lose

weight and improve your health

– while eating anything you want

and all you want, every other day’;

• Where most diets include a

daunting set of rules to be obeyed

– what you can eat and can’t eat,

how much you can and can’t eat,

when you can and can’t eat – here

there is only one rule: eat no more

than 500 calories on Diet Day,

eat anything you want and as

much as you want on Feast Day.

That’s it. No counting calories,

carbs, fat or protein. No avoiding

any particular food; all foods

are allowed. No complex meal

preparations and plans.

Two Days Per

Week Fasting

Developed by popular UK TV

medico Dr Michael Mosley, the Fast

Diet involves fasting for two days

per week. People maintain their

usual eating routines for the other

five days. Dr Mosley sums up: ‘If we

were to distil the Fast Diet into a

single soundbite, it would all come

down to 5:2. That’s five days of

normal eating, with little thought

to calorie control and a slice of pie

for pudding if that’s what you

want. Then, on the other two days,

you reduce your calorie intake to

500 calories for women and 600

calories for men.’

Proponents claim that since you

are only fasting for two days of your

choice each week – and eating

normally on the other five days –

there is always something new and

tasty on the horizon. In short, it’s

easy to comply with a regime that

only asks you to restrict your calorie

intake occasionally. It ‘recalibrates

the diet equation, and stacks the

odds in your favour’.

Importantly, the plan is designed

as a ‘well-signposted path towards a

longer, healthier life’; weight

loss is ‘simply a happy adjunct to

all of that’.

Hence, according to Dr Mosley,

this eating plan can not only help

people lose weight, but offers an

array of other health benefits:

‘Studies of intermittent fasting

show that not only do people see

improvements in blood pressure and

their cholesterol levels, but also in

their insulin sensitivity.’

And how did he come up with

the recommendation that women

have 500 calories and men have

600 calories on a Fast Day?

Dr Mosley explains: ‘We used

the rule of thumb that women need

2,000 calories and men need 2,400

calories per day and on a Fast Day

you should eat a quarter of a normal

day’s recommended calories.’


Medical News Today assessed the

most common FAQs for beginners

to fasting routines.

Can I still exercise?

In an interview with US magazine The

Atlantic, Professor Krista Varady (creator

of the Every-Other-Day Diet) noted

that for people beginning her regimen,

after the first 10 days ‘their activity

levels were similar to people following a

traditional diet or an unrestricted eating

plan’. It may also be most beneficial

for exercise sessions to end one hour

before mealtime.

Daily Intermittent


Daily intermittent fasting limits

eating to a certain number of hours

each day. The 16:8 Diet is an

increasingly popular method, which

involves fasting for 16 hours per

day, leaving an eight-hour window

for eating.

There are various forms of

this plan, with the most popular

advocating that the ‘fasting’ phase

should last through the night and

during the morning hours. Ideally the

‘fast’ should then be broken around

midday, with the last food for the

evening being consumed around

7pm or 8pm.

Alternately for those with a

personal preference for later daily

routines, the food window may be

between 2pm and 10pm.

Periodic Fasting

Medical News Today has reported

on a study suggesting periodic fasting

– defined as ‘one day of water-only

fasting a week’ – may reduce the risk

of diabetes among people at high risk

for the condition.

Another study, conducted by Dr

Valter Longo at the University of

Southern California found longer

periods of fasting (two to four days)

may even ‘reboot’ the immune

system, clearing out old immune

cells and regenerating new ones – a

process they say could protect against

cell damage caused by factors such as

ageing and chemotherapy.

Won’t I eat too much on feast days?

According to Professor Varady, people

do eat more than their estimated

calorie needs on ‘feast’ days. However

they do not eat enough to make up

the deficit from fast days. And other UK

researchers (at University Hospital in

Manchester) have reported that people

unintentionally eat less on non-fasting

days as well.

Will I be hungry on fasting days?

Professor Varady reports that the first

10 days on the Every-Other-Day Diet

are the most challenging. Calorie-free

beverages, such as unsweetened tea,

may help offset hunger.

Do I still fast once I’m ready

to maintain my weight?

Some plans, such as the Every-Other-

Day Diet, also include a weight

maintenance phase, which involves

increasing the number of calories

consumed on fasting days from 500

to 1,000. Other plans recommend

decreasing the number of fasting days

each week. 87


Potential health


A comprehensive survey by US

newsletter Medical News Today

found advocates of intermittent

fasting ‘say the following benefits can

be achieved’:

Weight loss

Since the body is unable to draw

its energy from food during fasting,

it dips into glucose that is stored in

the liver and muscles. This begins

around eight hours after the last

meal is consumed. When the stored

glucose has been used up, the body

then begins to burn fat as a source

of energy, which can result in

weight loss.

Reduce cholesterol

As well as aiding weight loss, Dr

Razeen Mahroof at the University of

Oxford in the UK explains the use

of fat for energy can help preserve

muscle and reduce cholesterol levels.


immune cells

The study by Dr Longo noted above

suggests prolonged fasting may

also be effective for regenerating

immune cells.

‘When you starve, the system tries

to save energy, and one of the things

it can do to save energy is to recycle

a lot of the immune cells that are not

needed, especially those that may be

damaged,’ he explains.

In the study, published in the

journal Stem Cell, his team found

repeated cycles of two-to-four days

without food over a six month period

destroyed the old and damaged

immune cells in mice and generated

new ones.

What is more, the team found

cancer patients who fasted for three

days prior to chemotherapy were

protected against immune system

damage that can be caused by the

treatment, which they attribute to

immune cell regeneration.

‘The good news is that the body

got rid of the parts of the system

that might be damaged or old, the

inefficient parts, during the fasting,’

says Dr Longo. ‘Now, if you start

with a system heavily damaged by

chemotherapy or ageing, fasting

cycles can generate, literally, a new

immune system.’


Some researchers report years of

animal studies have shown a link

between restriction of calories,

fewer diseases and longer life.

Scientists have studied the

mechanisms behind those benefits

and their translation to humans.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-

1) is a hormone linked to certain

diseases that affect lifespan, such as

cancer and type 2 diabetes. Some

experts report eating increases IGF-1

production. Fasting may be a way to

decrease IGF-1 levels, which could

potentially lower the risk of chronic

diseases and extend lifespan.


Studies have reported that restricting

calories decreases IGF-1 levels, which

results in slower tumour development.

A very small study in people with

cancer found that fasting reduced

some of the side effects of

chemotherapy, including fatigue,

nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.

Due to potential negative effects,

long-term calorie restriction is not

recommended for people with cancer.

Short-term calorie restriction, such

as intermittent fasting, may be an

option for this group of people.



Intermittent fasting may also impact

cognition. In a study of mice with

genes for Alzheimer’s disease,

intermittent fasting improved

performance on measures of cognitive

decline associated with ageing.

Blood sugar

Some studies have shown that

intermittent fasting improves insulin

sensitivity more than traditional

diets, but others have not found the

same advantage. Researchers have

also reported intermittent fasting and

traditional diets lead to comparable

decreases in haemoglobin A1c.

Potential health


According to the UK’s National

Health Service, there are numerous

health risks associated with

intermittent fasting.

People who fast commonly

experience dehydration, largely

because their body is not getting any

fluid from food. If you are used to

having breakfast, lunch, dinner

and snacks in between, fasting periods

can be a major challenge. As such,

fasting can increase stress levels and

disrupt sleep. Dehydration, hunger or

lack of sleep during a fasting period

can also lead to headaches.

Fasting can also cause heartburn;

lack of food leads to a reduction in

Fasting ‘easier than

traditional dieting’

stomach acid, which digests food and

destroys bacteria. But smelling food or

even thinking about it during fasting

periods can trigger the brain into

telling the stomach to produce more

acid, leading to heartburn.

According to 5:2 Diet advocate

Dr Michael Mosley, intermittent

fasting is not recommended for people

with the following conditions:

• Being underweight

• Eating disorders

• Type 1 diabetes

• Type 2 diabetes that is controlled

by medication

• Pregnancy (or women


• Recent surgery

• Mental heath conditions

• Fever or illness

• Conditions where Warfarin

is prescribed

Negative feelings and behaviours

reported by Dr John Berardi in his

book Experiments with Intermittent

Fasting include:

• Changes in mood

• Extreme hunger

• Low energy

• Obsessive thoughts about food

• Binge eating behaviour

And Medical News Today

noted people interested in trying

intermittent fasting ‘should consider

whether or not it will work with their

lifestyle. Fasting stresses the body, so

it may not be beneficial for people

already dealing with significant

stressors’. CBM

US nutritionist Dr John Berardi

tried six different intermittent

fasting plans over six months

and published his results in

the book Experiments with

Intermittent Fasting.

Over those six months he:

• Dropped 20 pounds of weight

(from 190 pounds to 170 pounds);

• Reduced his body fat from 10

per cent to four per cent (while

maintaining most of his lean

muscle mass).

Importantly, he noted:

‘I accomplished the goals

I set for myself in a way that was

easier and less time consuming than

“traditional” dieting.’

Berardi summed up his four

key findings:

1. Trial fasting is a great way to

practice managing hunger. ‘This

is an essential skill for anyone who

wants to get in shape and stay

healthy and fit.’

2. More regular fasting isn’t

objectively better for losing body

fat. ‘While my IF experiments

worked quite well, the

intermittent fasting approach

(bigger meals, less frequently)

didn’t produce better fat loss

than a more conventional diet

approach (smaller meals, more

frequently) might have.’

3. More regular fasting did make it

easier to maintain a lower body

fat percentage. ‘Intermittent

fasting isn’t easy. However, I did

find that using this approach

made it easier for me to maintain

a low body weight and a very

low body fat percentage vs more

conventional diets.’

4. Intermittent fasting can work, but

it’s not for everyone, nor does

it need to be. ‘In the end, IF is

just one approach, among many

effective ones, for improving

health, performance, and body


Berardi says his results found

that ‘intermittent fasting can

be helpful for in-shape people

who want to really get lean

without following conventional

bodybuilding diets, or for

anyone who needs to learn the

difference between body hunger

and mental hunger.’

However he also explains that

successful nutrition plans,

‘whether they use smaller, more

frequent meals or larger, less

frequent meals all share a few


These include:

• Controlling calories. When

calories are controlled, progress is

made. ‘Whether you control them

by eating frequent small meals or

infrequent larger meals is

up to you.’

• Focusing on food quality. Fresh,

unprocessed, nutrient-dense food

is a must, regardless of which

eating style you adopt.

• Regular exercise. Exercise is a

critical part of the equation.

Berardi concludes: ‘Once those

three have been taken care of, it’s a

matter of personal preference and

lifestyle considerations.’ 89






Everyone has a

bad hair day, so

here are our tips

for some serious

hair pampering

to get your mane

back on track.

From salon-only brands to

organic, sulphate-free, siliconefree,

oil-free, there are hundreds

of haircare products out there.

Everyone’s hair is different, whether

it’s frizz city or thin lizzy – we’re all

just trying to snaffle a good hair day!

Rest assured, we have done all

the hard work to bring you the best

options to suit your hair type, so

you can get your mane looking and

smelling ah-mazing.

Thankfully, hair responds well to

a little TLC and it’s not too late to

restore your crowning glory to its best

condition. So, let’s begin! 91



Often some shampoos can be too heavy

for certain types of hair, and contain

ingredients designed to nourish dry

hair, tame curls or get rid of frizz. Oils

are often to blame, but silicones can

sometimes also be a culprit in weighing

your hair down.

It’s good to switch up your hair routine

every once in a while – don’t be afraid

to do a little cross training for hair (even

if you revert back to your old favourite).

So sud up and reap the benefi ts of more

volume, hydration and strength with the

hottest shampoos around town.

The other half of the dynamic duo

is here to ensure you get soft, shiny,

manageable hair. Whether your hair is

dry, frizzy or curly, the top conditioners

are guaranteed to nourish, repair and

volumise even the neediest hair.

Keep in mind that the same

conditioner won’t work for everyone –

choosing the right one can be diffi cult,

but the best way to decide is to consider

the texture of your hair. If you have

thin hair, try a volumising conditioner

and if you have thick, greasy hair,

choose a conditioner formulated with

less oil. Picking the perfect formula can

drastically change your hair.



1. ECOCOCO Shampoo &

Conditioner, $35.95 each, 2. TIGI

copyright Custom Care Moisture

Shampoo and Conditioner, $32

each, 3. Stockholm Sweden REF

Ultimate Repair Shampoo 285ml and

Conditioner 245ml, $33.50 each, 4.

e-smooth Shampoo and Conditioner

250ml, $39.95 each, 5. Aveda damage

remedy restructuring shampoo

250ml and Conditoner 200ml, $50

each, 6. Aveda Cherry Almond

Softening Leave-in Conditioner 200ml,

$30, 7. Schwarzkopf Blonde Purple

Shampoo amd Conditioner, $13

each, 8. Schwarzkopf Q10+ Time

Restore Micellar Shampoo, $27.95,

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Conditioner, $31.95








9. 93


Extra Care












1. Jo Malone London Hair Mists

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Frieda Frizz Ease Dream Curls

Curl Defining Crème, $16.99, 3.

Hair Rituel by Sisley Volumizing

Spray 150ml, $120, 4. Hair

Rituel by Sisley Precious Hair

Care Oil 100ml, $130, 5. Aveda

Rinseless Refresh Micellar Hair

& Scalp Refresher 200ml, $32,

6. Frank Body Caffeinated Hair

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Straight and Shine Spray

200ml,$40, 9. White Sands

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10. White Sands Liquid Texture

Firm Hold Extreme Hairspray,

$39.95, 11. TIGI copyright

Custom Care Volume Finishing

Spray, $27, 12. Pure Elements

Lavender Softening Mask

250ml, $33.50, 13. KhairPep

Transforme Treatment Masque

50ml, $85, 14. Olaplex No.6

Bond Smoother 100ml, $49.95,

15. Davines Oi Oil Hair Butter

250ml, $49.95, 16. Daily

Naturals Detangler 200ml,

$15.95, 17. Apotecari Mane

Event, 60 capsules, $54.95






16. 95




With any task, it pays to have the right tools for the job.

To create an individual style quickly and precisely, without

damaging your hair, it pays to invest in quality. Always go

for the top of the range (or the top of your budget!)when

buying hairdryers, curling wands or styling irons – and the

new devices are feats of precise engineering, combining

advanced plates, fusion tecnology and mineral infusion,

just to name a few.


Leave-in conditioners and masks can sometimes be like

those second cousins you don’t know very well. But trust

me, you all can be such good friends! So, damaged hair,

meet leave-in conditioner.

Supplementing your hair care regime with regular

intensive treatments will help to keep hair in good shape.

Leave-in conditioner locks in moisture and as a result,

your hair not only becomes stronger, but more fl exible.

Investing in a weekly hair repair treatment leads to less

breakage and more shine, helping to keep those nasty split

ends in tow. Hurrah!



Dryer, $210, 2. VS SASSOON Digital

Sensor Hot Air Styler, RRP $99.95,


$299, 4. True Me Original, ceramic

plate hair stylers, $179.




3 extra






Fine, limp hair can look even more fine and

limp if you have too many layers in your hair.

Instead opt for a blunt cut to create a more

voluminous look to your hair.


For an instant root booster on the run,

simply switch sides of where you naturally

part your hair. To build the most height, try a

deep side part on the opposite side on dry

hair, and fix with a light hairspray.


Lightening hair can make locks look thicker

as it “roughs up” the hair cuticle, plumping

the individual hair shafts. Be careful though;

bleaching your hair too much can make it

prone to breakage and split ends, which

makes hair look thinner. Strategically placed

lowlights and highlights are really effective

in adding dimension and texture to hair,

making it look thicker, fuller and healthier.

We’re all about creating a style that needs to last for as

long as possible and Dry Shampoo does an awesome

job of making dirty hair look clean! Great for in-between

washes, especially if you have a fringe, these beauties

remove excess oil and can be a reassuring option if

you’re anxious about breaking the once-a-day washing

habit. It’s also a fave styling product for adding a surefire

volume boost!

Batiste Dry Shampoo Limited Edition Tempt, $12.95 97




Everything you need to know

about breast augmentation.

Words by Aimée Rodrigues

eport 99



reasts have been cultural, political and fashion icons, helped launch social

movements and started showbiz careers. They come in all sorts of shapes

and sizes, and thanks to the marvels of modern cosmetic surgery, breast

implant surgery can give you the breasts Mother Nature did not.

Breast implants are available to suit the needs and preferences of

just about every patient. Some women seek implant surgery to correct

congenital or developmental anatomical abnormalities, while others are

striving to repair the toll of age or breastfeeding by restoring their breasts to

a more youthful and upright position. Other women simply want to have a

larger size bust, which is more proportionate to their overall body size.

Implants may also be required to reconstruct a damaged or missing

breast, which has sustained injury, illness or mastectomy. There are

countless reasons women undergo breast augmentation and each one has

unique importance to the individual.

Careful discussion of your expectations and concerns with your chosen

surgeon, along with planning and assessment, can help to achieve a

successful outcome and natural-looking results. You should thoroughly

discuss your goals and motivations with a surgeon you trust and with whom

you feel comfortable.

Listening to your surgeon’s feedback and advice will go a long way in

ensuring expectations and motivations are realistic. Satisfaction with

breast augmentation results ultimately depends on your understanding of

the capabilities and limitations of the procedure.


The assessment of physical beauty varies

enormously across both time and cultures.

What one person considers sexy or beautiful

might be far removed from what another

perceives as attractive. However, there

remain widely held standards of physical

attractiveness, and achieving a positive

aesthetic outcome is crucial to the success of

cosmetic procedures.

When it comes to assessing the breasts,

you may be forgiven for thinking it’s all about

size. Indeed, breast augmentation involves

adding volume to the bust, but a satisfactory

augmentation is about a whole lot more than

just adding volume.

‘There is no such thing as the ‘perfect’

breast,’ says British plastic surgeon Dr Paul

Banwell. ‘However, there are four aesthetic

guidelines that can help surgeons deliver a

beautiful-looking breast.’

These guidelines, which refer to the

proportions of the upper and lower breast,

their slope as well as the position of the

nipple were investigated by a group of London

Plastic Surgeons at the University College

and Royal Free Hospitals. In a study entitled

‘Concepts in Aesthetic Breast Dimensions:

Analysis of the Ideal Breast’, Mallucci et al

used computer measurements to examine

the dimensions and proportions of 100 pairs

of natural (non-enhanced) breasts deemed

attractive, and identifi ed four features

common to all.

‘The study revealed that in all cases the

level of the nipple lay at a point 20 degrees

above the horizontal where, on average, the

proportion of the breast below it represented

55 per cent of overall volume of the breast and

above it 45 per cent,’ explains Dr Banwell.

‘In most cases, the upper pole was either

concave or straight, and the lower pole of the

breast was convex, creating a full curve.’

The UK group also analysed images of the

breasts of ordinary women both before and

after implant surgery to establish whether, if

a breast deviates from these measurements,

it becomes less attractive. The answer, they

found, was that it does, regardless of size.

However, Dr Banwell is keen to reinforce the

importance of tailoring breast shape and size to

the individual proportions and circumstances

of each patient.

‘A one-size-fi ts all approach is not

appropriate,’ he says. ‘We have a way of

assessing the aesthetics we’re trying to achieve

with a breast augmentation, but it’s important

to do that via a tailor-made approach.’

This involves detailed measurement, careful

discussion with each patient and judicious

selection of the optimal implant shape, texture

and method of placement.

‘Every breast is different in terms of its shape

and size and in terms of its characteristics,’

says Dr Banwell. ‘The surgeon has to assess

that and then needs to make a judgement

based upon the patient’s wishes in terms of

what they want to achieve versus what can

actually be achieved.’

With so many media infl uences, today it is

even more important to marry your wishes,

as the patient, with what is both realistic

and achievable. ‘It’s all about having realistic

expectations of improvement,’ he says.

‘Communication with the patient is therefore

so important. The patient needs to fully

understand what’s involved, and if there is any

discrepancy between what they want and what

can actually be achieved, it’s the responsibility

of the surgeon to point that out.’

The education and knowledge of patients

has changed in the past decade or so, and they

are becoming increasingly discerning about

the shape and type of implants they want.

However, the most common request remains:

for breasts to be ‘natural-looking’.

With an experienced and skilled surgeon

and the right expectations, you can look

forward to the most natural-looking,

aesthetically pleasing breast augmentations

for your individual requirements. 101

east implant


1. Implant shape

Choosing the right implant

is dependent on your existing

breast size, shape, symmetry and

projection, body type, and your

personal preferences.

There is no one breast implant

shape that is best for everyone.

Your surgeon is the best resource

for determining what breast

implant is best for you and your

body type.

Round implants

Round implants are circular with

an even projection of volume.

They are a good choice for those

who want more fullness in the

upper part of the breast and

tend to give greater cleavage.

Many surgeons agree that round

implants are typically the best

choice for those patients with

well-shaped natural breasts who

desire a straightforward breast


Teardrop implants

Teardrop, or anatomical, implants

more closely resemble the natural

shape of a breast, gradually

sloping downwards to produce an

attractive straight line from the

collarbone to the nipple. Teardrop

implants tend not to be as full as

round implants but because they

are fuller in the lower half they can

also provide greater projection in

proportion to the size of the base,

making them particularly suitable

for women with little natural

breast tissue. Mild elevation of the

breast and the nipple can also be

achieved, making them particularly

suitable for women who have mild

droopy or tuberous breasts.

2. Implant size

Breast implant sizes are designated by

their volume, typically ranging from

90 to 900 cubic centimetres (cc), or

by their weight. One gram of silicone

is equivalent to slightly less than 1ml

(1cc). The higher the number, the

larger the implant.

They are also made with different

diameter bases to suit different widths of

chest wall and with low to high profiles

(amount of forward projection). For this

reason, each manufacturer produces a

number of ‘styles’.

It’s important to take your natural

breast width into consideration. Your

surgeon will measure the base diameter

of your chest to determine the ideal

width of implant. If the implant is

too wide for your chest, you may

get ‘webbing’ between your breasts

(symmastia) or too much ‘side boob’. If

the implant is too narrow, it will not fill

the chest appropriately and be difficult

to create a shapely cleavage.

The choice of implant projection is to

a large extent a personal one. A woman

with adequate breast tissue and a shape

she is happy with may opt for a lowprofile

implant that will simply increase

the size of her breasts. Another patient

seeking to create cleavage, or a patient

with some degree of sag, may prefer

a high-profile implant that can help

achieve these results.

Your surgeon will take into

consideration the width of your chest

and breast tissue and advise you on the

most suitable implant size and style for

your individual anatomy.


3. Implant material

This next crucial factor looks at the

type of fill (saline or silicone) as

well as the shell of the implant wall

(smooth or textured).

Silicone vs saline

Saline and silicone breast implants

both have an outer silicone shell;

however they differ in material,

consistency and techniques used for

placement. Both types of implants

have their own advantages and risks.

Silicone gel-filled implants are

used more commonly in Australia.

Silicone implants contain a cohesive

gel, designed to mimic real breast

tissue. It has a slightly firm, nonrunny

consistency, which can give

a more natural feel. As the gel is

not liquid, the risk of dispersal if the

implant ruptures is minimised. It also

typically maintains its shape better

than a saline implant, especially in

the upper part of the implant.

Saline-filled implants use a

medical-grade saltwater solution,

which makes the implant feel like a

water-bed. This can be controlled to

an extent by the volume of fill in the

implant. If implant rupture occurs,

the saline is absorbed by the body.

However, saline implants feel firmer

than silicone implants and have a

higher risk of visible folds and ripples.

Unlike silicone gel implants,

saline implants can be filled

through a valve during surgery.

Because of this, the insertion of the

implants generally requires a smaller

incision than that associated with

silicone gel implants. The amount

of fill can also be adjusted after

surgery, which is not possible with

fixed silicone gel implants.

Smooth vs textured

Implant shells can be smooth or

textured. Smooth-shelled implants

are easy to insert and may make the

breast move and feel more natural

than a textured shell in certain

patients. However, they have

increased risk of capsular contracture

(hardening of the breast), which is a

common reason for re-operation.

Textured implants have a thicker

shell and the very nature of their

surface means they can grab onto

and adhere to the surrounding

tissue, causing less friction between

the implant and breast pocket and

therefore helping to reduce the risk

of capsular contracture. Many 103


surgeons also believe it offers them

greater control over the ultimate shape

of the breast.

Round implants come in smooth and

textured shells, but anatomical implants

have textured surfaces only to allow for

better integration with the surrounding

breast tissue. The implant may still flip

or move and distort the appearance

of the breast, so the surgeon must be

experienced with this type of implant.

The polyurethane foam coated

implant provides a texture specifically

designed to reduce rates of capsular

contracture. The foam coating means

the collagen fibres around the implant

do not line up, and are less likely to

slide over each other and contract.

Instead, the fibres assemble in a circular

pattern around the foam and are unable

to form a hardened capsule. There are

some differences in the surgical plan of

foam-coated implants; for example the

pocket size generally needs to be bigger

than usual.

Regardless of the type of implant

women choose, the shape, texture and

size can be customised to reflect her

individual body type and aesthetic goals.

4. Incision site

The three main incision options are the

inframammary crease (under the breast

where it meets the chest), periareolar

(around the nipple) and transaxillary

(inside the armpit).


The inframammary incision is by far

the most common breast augmentation

incision used today, made in the

crease under the breast close to the

inframammary fold. The surgeon creates

a pocket for the breast implant, which

is slid up through the incision, then

positioned behind the nipple.

This incision offers the best exposure

for visualisation and allows the implant

to be placed over, partially under or

completely under the chest wall muscle.

The scar is hidden in the crease under

the breast.


For the periareolar incision, an incision

is made just beyond the areola, which

is the darker area of skin surrounding

the nipple. The incision should be

made at the very edge of the areola

where the dark tissue meets the lighter

breast tissue, which makes the scar

least visible.

Similar to the inframammary incision,

the periareolar incision allows the

surgeon to work close to the breast.

It is possible for the surgeon to easily

and precisely place the breast implants

in various positions in relation to the

chest muscle. However, this is the only

incision that involves cutting through

breast tissue and ducts, and sensitivity

in the nipple may be reduced.


The transaxillary incision is made

in the natural crease of the armpit

and a channel is created down to the

breast. This may be performed with an

endoscope (a small tube with a surgical

light and camera in the end) to provide

visibility. The implant is inserted and

moved through the channel into a

prepared pocket.

The greatest advantage of an

underarm breast augmentation incision

is that no scar is left on the breasts. The

scar is virtually invisible in the armpit

fold and lack of tension generally makes

for straightforward healing.

The transaxillary site is relatively

far from the breast, where the surgeon

needs to create a pocket for the implant,

so visibility is limited. There is also a

higher incidence of the implant being

positioned too high and a greater risk of

breast asymmetry after surgery.

5. Implant placement

The placement of breast implants has a

significant impact on the final outcome

of breast augmentation and therefore it

requires individual consideration.

Experienced surgeons base their

implant placement decisions on factors

such as the patient’s quantity of breast

tissue, natural breast size and symmetry,

dimension and shape of the chest wall,

amount of subcutaneous fat and quality

of breast skin.

Generally, there are three placement

options: subglandular (in front of the

muscle), submuscular (behind the muscle)

and dual plane (partially under the

muscle). There are pros and cons for

each position.


The subglandular pocket is created

between the breast tissue and the pectoral

muscle. This position resembles the

plane of normal breast tissue and the

implant is placed in front of the muscle.

Sometimes the implant is covered by a

thin membrane, the fascia, which lies

on top of the muscle. This is called

subfascial placement.

This position is suited to patients

who have sufficient breast tissue to

cover the top of the implant. This

procedure is typically faster and may be

more comfortable for the patient than

submuscular placement. There is generally

less post-operative pain and a shorter

recovery period because the chest muscles

have not been disturbed during surgery.

The implant also tends to move more

naturally in this position.

However, subglandular breast implants

may be more visible, especially if the

patient has little breast tissue, little body

fat and thin skin.

With subglandular implants, there

tends to be more of a pronounced

‘roundness’ to the breasts, which may

look less natural than those placed

under the muscle, but this is a matter

of personal preference.


The implant is placed under the pectoralis

major muscle after some release of the

inferior muscular attachments. Most of the

implant is positioned under the muscle.

This position can create a natural-looking

contour at the top of the breast in thin

patients and those with very little breast

tissue. The implant is fully covered, which

helps to camouflage the edges of the implant,

as well as rippling. With this placement, data

has shown there is less chance of capsular

contracture occurring.

There may be more post-operative

discomfort and a longer recovery period. The

implants may appear high at first and take

longer to ‘drop’.

Dual plane

This is where the implant is placed partially

beneath the pectoral muscle in the upper

pole, where the implant edges tend to be

most visible, while the lower half of the

implant is in the subglandular plane. This

placement is best suited to patients who

have insufficient tissue to cover the implant

at the top of the breast but who need the

bottom of the implant to fully expand the

lower half of the breast due to sag or a tight

crease under the breast.

This position minimises the rippling and

edge effect in thin patients while avoiding

abnormal contours in the lower half of the

breast. Generally, this placement is able to

achieve a more natural shape to the upper

portion of the breast instead of the ‘upper

roundness’ that can be more common

with subglandular implants. However, it

involves more complex surgery, which if

not performed correctly may result in

visible deformities when the pectoral

muscles are contracted. 105

what are the risks?


While breast augmentation is

typically a predictable procedure,

all surgery carries some level of

risk. Complications arising from

breast augmentation can include

the following.



Capsular contracture, or hardening

of the breast, is thought to be the

most common complication of breast

implant surgery. It can occur at any

time but more commonly in the

months immediately after surgery.

During surgery, a pocket is made

for the implant in the breast tissue.

After the implant has been inserted,

the body naturally forms a capsule

of fibrous tissue around the implant.

This lining, or capsule, is formed by

the body’s living tissue, and is the

body’s natural response. The capsule

allows the implant to look and feel

quite natural. In some cases, however,

the capsule begins to tighten, causing

a shrink-wrap effect and squeezing the

implant that it surrounds. Depending

on the severity, the breast can feel

firm or hard, become distorted and

cause pain.

It is not actually the implant that

has hardened – the shrinking of

the capsule compresses the implant

and causes it to feel hard, but if the

implant is removed it is still in its

original soft state.

Though the exact causes of

capsular contracture are unknown,

there are factors that may lead to

this complication, including seroma

(the development of extra fluid

around the implant), haematoma,

infection and smoking. Another

contributing factor is the placement

of the implant above the chest

muscle. When the implant is

placed below the muscle, capsular

contracture is said to be typically less

likely to occur.

To treat capsular contracture, there

are both surgical and non-surgical

options, although generally most

cases of capsular contracture will

require secondary surgery to remove

the implant. If the implants are

replaced, to prevent reoccurrence a

new pocket should be made as fresh

tissue needs to be in contact with

the implant.


It’s important to understand that

breast implants have a limited life

span and, before going ahead with

breast augmentation, patients must

accept that more surgery may be

required initially or in the future to

address complications, remove or

replace the implants.

Additionally, the size of the original

implants may become less suited to

a woman’s body over time, due to

hormones, pregnancies, weight gain

and menopause.


Infection is a serious risk of any

surgery and occurs when wounds

become contaminated with

microorganisms, such as bacteria

or fungi. When infection occurs, it

generally appears within six weeks

of the procedure. Most infections

can be treated with antibiotics,

but in the worst cases the implant

may need to be removed and the

infection eliminated before the

implant is replaced.

It’s important to keep an eye out for

signs of infection, which may include

redness at the site, fatigue and fever.

Increased pain and swelling are also

typical signs of infection but, because

these symptoms are typical of all

breast surgeries, they can be difficult

to detect.


Rippling occurs when the filling

inside the breast implant moves,

creating a winkle or fold on the outer

shell of the implant which then

can be felt by the patient, or which

becomes outwardly visible. Rippling

can also occur when adhesion to the

envelope restricts its movement.

Various factors govern the

likelihood of rippling, including the

implant type, texture and position.

It occurs less with silicone gel-filled

implants, smooth-surfaced implants

and those that are positioned under

the chest muscle.

If it occurs, the appearance of

rippling is dependent on the patient

– their physique and the thickness

and quality of their skin. If there is

little muscle or fatty tissue to cover

the implant, any rippling that results

will be more noticeable. Rippling

generally appears on the outer and

bottom sides of the breast and in

the cleavage.



Displacement refers to the implants

moving out of their desired position,

and is more prone in women who

have teardrop-shaped or very

high-profile implants. Displacement

may occur due to the implant being

misplaced in the tissue pocket, or

from excessively stretched tissue,

or trauma. Displacement can occur

at any time after the procedure,

and will generally need to be

surgically corrected.



Depending on where the implant

is placed, breast augmentation may

interfere with the ability of an x-ray

to ‘see’ all the breast tissue, and

therefore can hinder the success

of a mammogram. Women with

breast implants should therefore

choose a facility that has technicians

experienced in obtaining reliable

mammograms from those who have

had breast augmentation.

Repeated studies have shown

there is no delay in the diagnosis

of breast cancer in women with

breast implants compared to women

without implants.

Women should inform technicians

of the age of their implants before

mammography, as the age of the

implant increases the risk of rupture

during mammography.

Recently, there have been media

reports about a rare type of cancer

linked to breast implants: anaplastic

large cell carcinoma (ALCL).

Breast-implant associated ALCL

is not the same as breast cancer;

it is a rare type of lymphoma that

develops in the fluid surrounding

breast implants, not in the breast

tissue itself.

Current expert opinion is that the

risk of contracting breast-implant

associated ALCL is about one in

5,000 women with implants. By

comparison, the risk of breast cancer

is one in eight.

The majority of cases are cured

with the removal of implants and

the fibrous capsule around them from

both breasts.

If there are changes in your breasts

associated with breast implants, and

especially if there is general swelling

or a lump, contact your specialist for

further investigation. 107


is breast implant

surgery right for you

The psychology behind the decision to have breast implants

is one of the most important aspects of the procedure. A

good candidate for breast augmentation is mentally and

physically stable and understands the reality of what this

surgery can achieve.

Often women seek cosmetic surgery as a means of fulfilling

emotional needs or resolving problematic body image issues. Any

cosmetic procedure affects the patient on a psychological level

just as much as on a physical one and it is important to remember

that if a woman with low self-esteem elects to undergo surgery

in the hope she will feel better about herself, she is likely to feel

disappointed with her surgery. While breast augmentation can

help boost a woman’s confidence, she will not benefit from surgery

if she thinks it is the cure-all for every aspect of her life.

Many women view their breasts as a vital component of their

gender identity, as the female breast is one of the prime symbols

of femininity, motherhood and sensuality. However, women are

notoriously critical of their bodies and some may be especially so

of their breasts. When contemplating breast augmentation, ensure

it’s for the right reasons. CBM




Breast augmentation has increased by more than 200% since

1997, according to stats from the American Society for

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.

Possibly the earliest representation of breasts in art is the Venus

of Willendorf, a tiny 11.1cm limestone statuette thought to date

from 24,000-22,000 BC. She was found in 1908 by archaeologist

Josef Szombathy at a Paleolithic site near Willendorf.

Human breasts function differently to those of other primates.

In other primates, the breasts grow only when the female is

producing milk. When the non-human primate has weaned her

young, her breasts flatten back down. In humans, the breasts

develop during a female’s adolescence, usually well before

pregnancy, and stay enlarged throughout her life.

Legend says that Hercules became immortal after he drank the

milk of the divine goddess Hera while she was sleeping. When

she woke, and realised he was not her own child, she drew her

breast away with such force that the milk spurted into the heavens

and created the Milky Way.

A fourth century prostitute was said to have been spared the

death penalty by baring her breasts. When it seemed the verdict

of her trial would be unfavourable, she removed her clothing. The

judges were so impressed by their beauty that they acquitted her.

It is believed the word ‘Amazon’ was derived from the Greek

‘a-mazos’, which means ‘without breast’. In Greek mythology, it

is said that the Amazons had their right breast removed so they

would be able to use a bow and arrow more freely and throw

spears without the physical limitation and obstruction.

No two breasts are exactly the same size; usually the left is larger.

From infancy to just before puberty, there is no difference

between the female and male breasts.

Although unusual, extra or ‘supernumerary’ nipples are not really

that rare, occurring in one out of 18 people. Pop stars Carrie

Underwood and Lily Allen and actor Mark Wahlberg all have a

third nipple. Anne Boleyn, the wife of King Henry VIII, is said to

have had a third nipple or even a third breast.

When it comes to milk production, size doesn’t matter. The milkproducing

structures are the same in all women. Just because one

woman’s breasts are bigger doesn’t necessarily mean she would

have or make more milk.


Questions to

ask yourself

before surgery

By answering these questions honestly

and reviewing them with your doctor,

you will become much clearer about

whether breast surgery is a good choice

for you psychologically and emotionally.

Why do you want to have

breast augmentation surgery?

How do you feel about your

body image right now?

Is anyone prompting you to

have the surgery?

Do you suffer from an emotional

or psychological disorder?

Did you recently experience a

stressful event or crisis, like a

divorce or the loss of a loved one?

Are you a perfectionist, and do you

find minor flaws with many parts of

your body and with your life?

Would you be prepared to handle

a complication if something goes

wrong after surgery? 109












Sugar is the villain of the day in the health

and wellness sector. Slowly but surely fats

are shedding their bad-boy status, and

sugar is taking over as the most detrimental

dietary ingredient to our waistlines, health and

general wellbeing.

We outline the bad rap sugar has been

attracting and look into the question on

everybody’s taste buds – should we banish it

from our diet once and for all?

The book Sweet Poison: Why Sugar is

Making Us Fat by David Gillespie, published

in 2008, marked a turning point in the way

we consider sugar consumption. In the book,

Gillespie investigated the relationship between

sugar, the ever-increasing obesity rates of the

Western world and the most prevalent diseases

in the 21st century.

It was Gillespie’s personal story, however, 111


that set people on the path of quitting

sugar. From being 40kg overweight,

he immediately started losing weight,

and kept it off, by cutting sugar

(specifically fructose) from his diet.

He claims sugar is addictive – a fact

exploited by food manufacturers –

and a rare resource to which we don’t

have an in-built ‘off switch’, meaning

we can keep eating it without feeling

full, leading to weight gain and a

myriad of health effects.

One study by Nicole Avena,

Pedro Rada and Bartley Hoebel

(2008) looked into the addictive

properties of sugar. It examined the

physiological response to sugar intake

in rats, and how the rats behaved

when ‘on’ and ‘off’ sugar.

‘Food addiction seems plausible

because brain pathways that evolved

to respond to natural rewards are also

activated by addictive drugs,’ the

report states. ‘Sugar is noteworthy as

a substance that releases opioids and

dopamine and thus might be expected

to have addictive potential.’

After a month ‘on’ sugar, the

animals showed a series of behaviours

similar to the signs of drug abuse.

‘These are categorised as ‘bingeing’,

meaning unusually large bouts of

intake, opiate-like ‘withdrawal’

indicated by signs of anxiety and

behavioural depression and ‘craving’

measured during sugar abstinence as

enhanced responding for sugar.’

Is it really

that bad?

Sugar has been linked to high

blood sugar, cardiovascular

disease mortality, diabetes and

cellular ageing.

An article published in the

online journal Open Heart

found sugars are probably more

instrumental in increasing the

risk of hypertension (high blood

pressure) and cardiovascular

disease (CVD), as compared to

dietary sodium (salt).

‘Compelling evidence from basic

science, population studies, and

clinical trials implicate sugars, and

particularly the monosaccharide

fructose, as playing a major role in

the development of hypertension,’

the researchers state. ‘Moreover,

evidence suggests that sugars in

general and fructose in particular

may contribute to overall

cardiovascular risk through a

variety of mechanisms.’

Furthermore, a study published

in the JAMA Internal Medicine

journal, conducted by researchers

at the Division for Heart Disease

and Stroke Prevention at the

Centers for Disease Control

and Prevention, associated a

high added sugar intake with a

heightened risk of CVD.

The study found that people

who consumed between 17 and 21

per cent of their daily calories from

added sugar exhibited a 38 percent

higher risk of CVD mortality,

compared to those whose added

sugar intake was maintained at

around eight percent. For those

whose daily intake of added sugar

was more than 21 percent of their

daily calories, they had double

the risk of CVD mortality. And,

in participants who consumed 25

percent of their daily calories from

added sugar, their risk of CVD

mortality was tripled.

Cellular ageing

The anti-ageing world is full of

talk about telomeres – or the

protective DNA that caps the end

of cell chromosomes. The common

consensus is the longer the telomeres,

the longer the quality of life. The

trick? Telomeres continuously shorten

as our cells replicate, getting shorter

and shorter as we age.

Ongoing research is furiously

exploring the possibilities in

lengthening telomeres to reduce the

rate of ageing or ways to prevent

their ever-persistent shortening. But

sugar, according to scientists from

the University of California-San

Francisco, is one sure-fire way to

shorten your telomeres before their

time. The research, led by Prof. Elissa

Epel, assessed 5,309 participants

and found those who drank larger

amounts of sugary soda tended to

have shorter telomeres in their white

blood cells, making them susceptible

to inflammation and chronic disease.

‘Regular consumption of sugarsweetened

sodas might influence

disease development,’ says Epel. ‘Not

only by straining the body’s metabolic

control of sugars but also through

accelerated cellular ageing of tissues.’


is sugar?

At a molecular level, sugar is a

crystalline carbohydrate. There are

many different types of sugar –

glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose

and sucrose (sucrose is your typical

table sugar, and is composed of

glucose and fructose).

Some of these sugars occur

naturally in fruits, vegetables and

other food groups. However, it’s

the added sugars, used to enhance

flavour and add sweetness, that

have been blamed as a culprit in

a myriad of health issues. These

sugars are usually delivered in the

form of sucrose or fructose corn

syrup, and it is fructose, more than

glucose, that is receiving the most

negative attention.

The highest quantities of added

sugars are found in soft drinks,

fruit juices, cakes, chocolate and

desserts. According to Medical

News Today, just a single can

of cola can contain up to seven

teaspoons of added sugar, while

an average-sized chocolate bar can

contain up to six teaspoons.

At present, the World

Health Organisation’s (WHO)

recommended daily dose of sugar

is less than 10 percent of your

daily total energy intake. WHO

suggests a further reduction to

less than five percent for beneficial

health outcomes.

Many nutritionists recommend

against consuming more than 13

teaspoons a day. 113


So, are we all junkies?

According to the Harvard School of Public Health, the average American

consumes 22 teaspoons of added sugar a day, equating to an extra 350

calories. Scarily, these 22 mouthfuls of sweetness are easily consumed –

added sugar is difficult to avoid.

Gillespie claims food manufacturers are taking advantage of our

collective sugar addiction and are ‘lacing’ non-sweet products – such

as bread, sauces, soups and cereals – with the poison to ensure we stay

hooked. And he’s not alone in this thinking.

Dr Robert Lustig, a paediatric endocrinologist at the University of

California-San Francisco and author of the book Fat Chance: The Hidden

Truth About Sugar, says the food industry is purposefully sweetening up

our diets.

‘The food industry has made sugar into a diet staple because they know

when they do, you buy more,’ he told The Guardian in 2013. ‘This is their

hook. If some unscrupulous cereal manufacturer went out and laced your

breakfast cereal with morphine to get you to buy more, what would you

think of that? They do it with sugar instead.’


we quit


Myth busting:

raw vs white vs brown sugars

Hopeful sugar lovers have ventured the suggestion that brown sugar or

raw sugar might indeed by healthier than the super-refined white sugar

seen on most coffee-shop tables. Unfortunately, their hopes are dashed.

Although they go through slightly different processes, raw, white and

brown sugar are derived from the same source and hold very little

nutritional difference – ie, all are equally bad for you.

Sugar crystals are made from the juice of sugar cane or sugar beet.

The juice is filtered, evaporated, boiled – which produces molasses

– centrifuged and dried to yield raw sugar. White, or refined sugar,

undergoes further washing, bleaching, filtering, processing and drying.

Brown sugar is created through the addition of molasses to refined

white sugar.

Certainly, the myriad of health

problems associated with

high sugar intake is enough to

quieten anyone’s sugar cravings,

but is it healthy to eliminate

sugar from our diet completely?

Sugar is found naturally in fruits,

vegetables and dairy products,

which means that to eradicate it

completely from our diet would

leave us with little other than

meat and fats.

‘I am quite comfortable with

dietary sugars if they come from

whole foods such as fresh fruits

and vegetables, as the sugar

is diluted with water, fibre and

other nutrients,’ health expert

Professor Kerin O’Dea from

the Sansom Institute for Health

Research told the ABC.

As for added sugar, the

alternative options – in the form

of artificial sweeteners – are not

necessarily any better for you.

A recent study published in the

journal Nature found artificial

sweeteners interfere with gut

bacteria, increasing the chances

of obesity and diabetes.

‘Our findings suggest that

artificial sweeteners may

have directly contributed

to enhancing the exact

epidemic that they themselves

were intended to fight,’

the researchers from the

Department of Immunology

at the Weizmann Institute of

Science in Israel state. 115

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mobile 0410 627 767

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Shop 8, 401 - 407 New South Head Rd,

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Double Bay NSW 2028

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