ISSUE 85 AUG-OCT 2019
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Using the latest technologies, our team of experts
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results in a relaxed and friendly setting.
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Our comprehensive treatment menu includes:
world-class wrinkle reduction and
laser skin rejuvenation
CoolSculpting non-surgical fat reduction
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Call us to book a complimentary consultation
02 9555 9506
16B Beattie St, Balmain, Sydney
Pigmentation is seen as the 3rd most
important skin problem after wrinkles
and sagging. Today, depigmenting
treatments represent over 20% of the
total cosmetic market.
Global leader in topical depigmentation,
mesoestetic continues an international campaign
to exclusively train and certify specialised centres
as pigmentation experts.
are now exclusively
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1800 242 011 | www.advancedcosmeceuticals.com.au
8 Editor’s Letter
10 Beauty Insider
116 Ed’s Faves
22 Celebrity Bust Out
It’s hard to tell these days who
has real breasts and who has
implants. You be the judge.
36 Sex Appeal: Do You Have It?
Animal magnetism. That certain
je ne sais quoi. Whatever you
call it, sex appeal has some
serious scientific backing.
54 Boost your mental health
& well being
While the bulk of our wellness
focus typically involves working
out and losing weight, not
enough importance is placed
on improving our mental
98 The Breast Report
Everything you need to know
about breast augmentation.
26 24 Hour Makeup
Here are our picks of the long
lasting, smudge proof and water
resistant products that we can
rely on to have as much staying
power as we do.
42 Back To Base
Choosing the right foundation
can be a daunting beauty
aCtivity. here are our tips to
relieving your stress when
searching for the perfect
68 Skincare Essentials
When it comes to beauty,
routine is key to having glowing
90 Bad Hair Day Hacks
Everyone has a bad hair day,
so here are our tips for some
serious hair pampering to get
your mane back on track.
98 Nail It
With so many nail trend options
to try, there’s one to suit
WELLNESS & LIFESTYLE
60 When Harry Met Sally
No need to fake it. Gynaecologist
Dr Oseka Onuma talks orgasms
and sexual health for women.
84 Intermittent Fasting:
Benefits & Risks
Fasting is becoming an accepted
means of weight loss by both
the scientific community and the
102 Should We Quit Sugar?
Sugar. It’s been described as toxic,
poisonous and addictive, but
should we quit it completely?
Being a beach lover, I’m a happy girl because finally the days are
getting shorter and there is light at the end of the tunnel…
warmer weather is on its way. While I welcome this, it usually
sends me into a spin about the extra few kilos I’ve added over
winter and I regret all those mornings I hit the snooze button
because it was just too chilly to get out of bed to train. So now
is the perfect time to start eating more healthily and starting those long walks to
get into shape for summer.
On page 110 we have a feature that outlines the benefits of decreasing sugar in
our diets – not just to look good but also for the accompanying health benefits.
Health benefits are not only physical, so turn to page 54 for some tips on how to
improve our mental health and wellbeing. We also have an article on intermittent
fasting (page 84), which has now been shown to be an effective way to both lose
weight and to keep it off. If we start now, we should be bikini-ready by summer.
We also have a special feature on breast enhancement surgery on page 98.
While this is a comprehensive guide to all the important things you need to know,
it is still imperative to do thorough research and to consult at least two surgeons
before making any decisions. We also have a fun article showcasing different
celebrities who may – or may not – have had breast augmentation. You decide!
Our article on 24 hour makeup on page 26 highlights some of the best products
for a long lasting finish, and the Back to Base story on page 42 explains the
different types of foundations and some of our faves from each group.
We have all suffered from a bad hair day, so our article on Bad Hair Day Hacks
(page 90) is a must-read – who knew there were so many fab products out there
to help us through? Our Born to be Wild article (page 32) features some products
that are not only effective but also have the looks – the jungle and animal print
wild theming we all love.
If you’ve ever wondered what ‘sex appeal’ actually is, turn to page 36 to read
our article that outlines the actual science behind physical attraction and ‘animal
magnetism’, with input from many experts including researchers, scientists and an
This issue gives us all plenty of impetus to start looking and feeling our best –
now we just have to stop making excuses and do it.
Read the online edition
plus more great aRTicles @
August 2019 - October 2019
Catherine Hale, David Hickie,
Maria Leahy, Aimée Rodrigues
Debbie Pilarinos, ShutterStock
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been made to trace copyright holders. All manuscripts and articles
submitted for publication remain the property of The Bella Media
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are advised to seek medical advice from a doctor if considering
cosmetic surgery. The publisher and the authors do not accept
any liability whatsoever in respect of an action taken by readers in
reliance on the recommendations set out in this magazine. Except
where specified in captions, photographs depict models who have
not necessarily received treatments described in this magazine.
Any ‘before and after’ photographs in CosBeauty Magazine
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world’s leading professional
global anti-ageing solution by
treating a range of skin
accelerated and controlled skin
SEE WHAT MESOESTETIC CAN DO FOR YOU
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THE WHO’S WHO AND WHAT’S NEW IN BEAUTY.
Lady Gaga’s New Electric Beauty Range
Lady Gaga has just announced her brand new beauty
partnership with major online retailer, Amazon. The name
of her new range is Haus Laboratories and it will be the
first ever major cosmetics brand exclusive to Amazon.
Expect Haus Laboratories to incorporate lip glosses,
liners and eye shadow pallets that embrace all things
bold, downtown and metallic.
The range is ready for drop in September – with presale
opening on July 15 – and will only be released in
nine countries around the world including, the UK, US,
Japan, France and Germany. Hopefully, it will expand to
Australia in the not-too-distant future.
SOPHIE MONK IS THE FACE OF
AUS MEDIC CO
Aus Medic Co is the newest
premium skincare range to launch in
Priceline. Promoted as being born
from a synergy between functionality
of science and creative execution,
the new dermatologically tested sixstage
range claims to offer botoxlike
Designed in collaboration
with neuroscientists, its peptide
Munapsys, together with an array
of active botanicals encourages
collagen growth, is said to improve
the visible signs of expression lines
and fine lines.
Aus Medic Co’s Manager
Director, Alanna Hinds, says “We
are excited to be producing the
next generation of skincare. We
knew that contemporary women
live busy complicated lives, and we
wanted a numbered skincare system
that aimed at creating simplicity in
Aus Medic Co has also signed
Australian sweetheart Sophie Monk
as the face of the brand.
Alanna says, “Right from the getgo,
we knew Sophie was the perfect
fit. She loves the product because
it fits easily into her routine. She
radiates beauty from inside and out,
but what we love most about her
is that she is real and authentic in
ugg boots or high heels. She’s never
been anyone but herself.”
Aus Medic Co’s commitment
to both the environment and your
skin is reflected in its recyclable
The glass also ensures the
peptides and actives are being
kept stable and with no risk of
contamination from plastics.
MARC JACOBS BEAUTY APPOINTS MICHAEL BROWN
AS SOUTHEAST ASIA REGIONAL ARTISTRY AMBASSADOR
The appointment of makeup artist Australian ‘beauty scape’. Michael’s
Michael Brown as their Southeast celebrity clients have included
Asia regional artistry ambassador Gisele Bundchen, Miranda Kerr,
has just been announced by Marc Sofia Richie, Jennifer Hawkins,
Jacobs Beauty. He brings to the role Jesinta Franklin and many more.
two decades of experience in the “I have always loved working with
beauty industry as a professional Marc Jacobs Beauty,” said Brown.
make-up artist, presenter, host, “The products are exceptional and
media personality and he is an consistently inspire me – they have
iconic and respected figure in the been a staple in my kit for years.”
Elizabeth ARden VITAMIN C
CERAMIDE CAPSULES RADIANCE
In 1990, Elizabeth Arden forever
changed the skincare industry
with the introduction of Ceramide
Capsules, a legacy continued
with the launch of Vitamin C
Ceramide Capsules Radiance
Renewal Serum. This dry oil
serum combines two powerhouse
ingredients in one capsule:
Vitamin C for its brightening
superpowers and Ceramides,
to prolong skin’s youthful glow.
Together, these complementary
ingredient technologies create
a fusion of results that help
visibly brighten, fight hyperpigmentation
and protect skin
from free radical damage.
Vitamin C Ceramide Capsules
offer maximum efficacy and
protection against external skin
aggressors, to instantly brighten the
appearance of th skin.
Sisley Paris launchES
LA Maison Sisley
Internationally renowned skin and
cosmetics brand Sisley Paris has
opened La Maison Sisley, a luxurious
Parisian house of beauty where care
and well-being reign supreme.
Located near the Arc de Triomphe
and the Champs-Élysées in the heart
of Paris, and inspired by the beauty
and authenticity of its Art Deco
building in which it lies, the 360m2
space is home to the brand’s first
Paris flagship boutique as well as a
spa, offering a unique experience
and an immersion into the heart
Designed to reflect the spirit
of the brand and the artistic and
cultural inspiration of the d’Ornano
family, Maison Sisley was decorated
by matriarch Madame d’Ornano,
boasting modern, elegant and
refined interiors, divided into four
areas to appear like a private house.
Treatments begin with a
consultation in the spa’s lounge,
decorated with a mirrored
sideboard, stylised leaves and
lamps, complemented by the
perfect ‘jet-lag’ sofa crafted by India
Mahdavi specifically for the space.
Rich with various influences, a moon
light fixture hangs from the ceiling,
highlighting walls proudly adorned
with international coverage.
Sculpted by Polish artist, Bronislaw
Krzysztof, the door’s handle leading
to the treatment room, is shaped
like the silhouette of a woman.
A haven of calm and relaxation,
the spa offers the full Sisley
experience featuring five treatment
rooms each with suspended lit
ceilings depicting Ginkgo biloba
leaves, an emblematic ingredient
used in many cult products, walls
covered with wallpaper created in
1874 by Atelier d’Offard in Tours,
chosen for its cell-like silky silver
tone and pastel Italian mosaics.
Combining artistic creativity with
first class savoir-faire, the luxury
spa offers high-quality products
and bespoke treatments designed
for maximum effectiveness and
pleasure with a range of indulgent
facials, massages and full-scale body
experiences to awaken the senses
and rejuvenate. Devoted to wellness
and beauty, with a treatment for
every age and skin type, both
men and women can address
specific needs including hydration,
nutrition, anti-ageing, repair, vitality,
relaxation, serenity and slimming.
In homage to the true Parisienne,
Sisley has crafted an antidote to
city life with four treatments, ‘The
Paris Exclusives’ formulated to
address the needs of the elegant
and effervescent; stress, fatigue,
pollution and heavy legs.
Treatments are finished in the
intimate cosy secret café, reserved
exclusively for Sisley clients.
Opening onto a small terrace,
the café offers simple and fresh
healthy meal options. Mimicking the
brand’s makeup cases, each table
is adorned with chequers and the
famous black-and-white zebra motif.
Furnishings echo a mural painted
by children from South Sudan and
botanical wallpaper inspired by the
tropics. Light fixtures by Spanish
artist Alvaro Catalán de Ocón, made
from recycled plastic bottles woven
by Colombian women, hang from
the ceiling in a variety of designs,
shapes, and colours.
Home to the first Sisley boutique
in Paris, traditional and modern
accents are complemented by
animated and luminous wall
displays, eccentric furnishings and
an exclusive fragrance bar. The
flagship boutique will house limited
edition accessories and objects
as well as inspired ephemeral
collections chosen specifically by the
for more information.
‘We all have our
imperfections. But I’m
human and you know,
it’s important to
concentrate on other
is genius and it’s
better to be
‘I don’t like
There is no
HIGH PERFORMANCE ETHICS ARE CRUCIAL TO LEADERSHIP
AND MEDIK8 IS A SHINING EXAMPLE OF HOW ETHICAL
BEHAVIOUR AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CAN
BRING SIGNIFICANT BENEFITS TO A BUSINESS.
More and more customers globally are demanding
transparency as they take an increasing interest
in the ethical practices of the companies they buy
from. ‘Conscious consumption’ is the new buzzword.
It is a movement of people who seek out ways to
make positive decisions about what to buy as they
look for solutions to the negative environmental
impact consumerism could have on our world.
Environmental welfare is a cause close to Medik8’s
heart and it is a company committed to reducing its
environmental footprint at every opportunity. The
management philosophy is based on ethical practices
and behaviour, so leaders within the company can
direct employees by example and guide them in
making decisions that are not only benefi cial to them
as individuals, but also to the company as a whole.
Sustainability is absolutely key in the beauty
industry and Medik8 strives to fi nd a balance. For
example, in 2018 it removed all plastic inserts from
its cartons and replaced them with 100% recycled
card, making its cartons completely recyclable and
saving over 3 tonnes of plastic every year. Plus, all of
Medik8’s serum bottles and pipettes are made from
glass and, since 2018, its glass bottles have contained
40% recycled glass, a fi gure it is looking to increase in
the near future. Medik8 has also pledged to be 100%
vegan by the end of 2019 and it is very much on track
to meet this goal.
Medik8 uses only the highest quality ingredients and
if there is a scientifi c ingredient that provides effective
results and is backed by clinical data then Medik8 will
use it; but if there is a natural alternative that has the
same effects, it will always choose the latter.
Medik8 is a British company, which manufactures in the UK, yet complies with
European standards. It is a brand rooted in science and nature and follows a combination
of eight core principles.
TO GET IT
For stockists call 1800 242 011
or visit www.medik8.com.au
Medik8 is on a mission to demystify antiageing
skincare. The company believes
looking 40 when you’re 50 is as simple as
following its anti-ageing philosophy ‘vitamin
C plus sunscreen by day, vitamin A by night’.
While anti-ageing is at its core, Medik8 also
provides solution specifi c skincare for a range
of skin concerns. It understands customers
often want their skincare to do more than one
job for them. That’s why its products can help
clear blemishes or pigmentation while also
helping to prevent premature skin ageing.
Formulations are important and Medik8
knows what to add in and what to keep out.
No fads or fashions. No parabens, phthalates
or sulphates, no microbeads. It may sound
contradictory, but some ingredients get
weaker when more concentrated so Medik8
researchers work tirelessly to fi nd the sweet
spot in every formulation - the concentration
that delivers the best results with minimal
irritation. Sometimes that means less is more.
Medik8 uses clinically proven ingredients with
original research behind them.
Many active ingredients in professional
skincare are incredibly unstable and diffi cult
to work with. Medik8 promises to deliver
professional strength products to the market as
freshly as possible. Its serums are handmade in
small batches by the master blender at its own
UK-based ISO certifi ed labs. This helps ensure
the products are still powerful and effective
when they reach its clients.
5. FREE THINKING
Medik8 is an independent company and
this allows it to be totally free in product
development with fresh ideas and swift
new product creation. Medik8 develops all
its ideas and products in-house in its own
You’ll only fi nd Medik8 in professionally
trained clinics, spas and specialist
websites. This ensures clients will receive
the attention, care and tailored skincare
advice they deserve.
It is important that active ingredients can
reach the correct location within the skin
to provide results. Medik8 uses liposome
and micro-emulsion technologies that
work like protective ‘bubbles’ around
the molecules to ensure ingredients can
reach the right place; avoiding being
stuck in the upper layers of the skin
and causing irritation. The company
develops and frequently patents its own
original research, often collaborating with
universities and academics.
Of course, Medik8 products are 100%
animal cruelty-free. The company is
dedicated to minimising its impact on
the environment whenever possible.
The manufacturing processes are energy
effi cient, without interfering with results.
Medik8 uses recycled paper for all of its
packaging and 40% recycled glass in its
serum bottles. Even its buildings are run
from 100% renewable energy sources.
With fashion tape, push-up bras and
Photoshop, it’s hard to tell these
days who has real breasts and who
has implants. Even if implants are
the case, with breast augmentation
such a commonly performed
procedure, most enlargements
can look and feel as natural
as real breasts. And with more
women choosing conservative,
more natural looking implants, it
becomes even harder to tell.
who isn’t a voyeur deep down and
we all love conjecture. so here’s
a selection of celebrities whose
breasts size and shape seem to have
changed over the years. We will
leave the final say up to you!
have they or
24 HOUR MAKEUP
IT’S OFT-QUOTED THAT TIME ONCE
SPENT IS ONE OF THOSE THINGS
THAT CAN NEVER BE RECOVERED.
SO THE TIME YOU SPEND ON YOUR
MAKEUP IS WAY TOO PRECIOUS FOR
IT TO FADE MERE HOURS AFTER
APPLICATION. PLUS WE ARE ALL
BUSY, ACTIVE PEOPLE SO WE WANT
TO BE CONFIDENT OUR MAKEUP
WILL SURVIVE A DAY IN THE LIFE OF
– WHETHER THAT INVOLVES GOING
TO THE GYM, ENJOYING LUNCH IN
THE SUN, WATCHING A SAD MOVIE
OR JUST THE DAY-TO-DAY GRIND.
HERE ARE OUR PICKS OF THE LONG
LASTING, SMUDGE PROOF AND
WATER RESISTANT PRODUCTS THAT
WE CAN RELY ON TO HAVE AS MUCH
STAYING POWER AS WE DO.
MAC Studio Fix 24 Hour
Smooth Wear, $38
1. Beauty Blender Bouce Liquid Long
Wear Foundation 30ml, $60, 2. Skinstitut
High Definition Foundation, $59, 3. Nude
by Nature Flawless Liquid Foundation,
$39.95, 4. Sisley Sisleya Le Teint 30ml,
$190, 5. beautyblender RE-DEW Set &
Refresh Spray 50ml, $45, 6. Skindinavia
Makeup Finishing Spray 118ml, $39.95,
7. MAC Pro Longwear Nourishing
Waterproof Foundation, $58.
1. 2. 3.
False Eyelashes, $29.95
8. Marc Jacobs O!mega Shadow Gel Powder Eyeshadow,
$42, 9. Sisley So Volume Mascara, $80, 10. Jane Iredale
Mystikol® Powdered Eyeliner, $52, 11. Kat Von D Tattoo
Liner in Trooper, $28, 12. MODELROCK Rock Chic Wings
Out Loud Brush Tip Eyeliner, $19.95, 13. Bobbi Brown
Long Wear Cream Shadow Stick in Violet Plum, $47, 14.
MODELROCK Rock Chic Eye Shadow Palette Vol 1, $89.
1. Marc Jacobs (P)outliner Longwear Lip
Liner Pencil, $36, 2. Kat Von D lipliner in
Vampira, $29, 3. Kat Von D liquid lipstick in
Miss Argentina, $28, 4. Bobbi Brown Luxe
Liquid Lip Color in Uber Pink, $56, 5. MAC
Retro Matte Lipstick in Ruby Woo, $36, 6.
Sisley Paris Le Phyto in 41 rouge miami, $68,
7. Bite Beauty Outburst Longwear Lip Stain in
Strawberry, $37, 8. Model Rock ROCK CHIC
Liquid Lipstick in Atomic Blonde, $28, 9. Nude
by Nature Creamy Matte Lipstick in 07 Red
4. 5. 6.
Born to be
We have to
agree with Diana
she said ‘I’ve never
met a leopard
print I didn’t like.’
We all have a
touch of the wild
in us, so appease
Christian Siriano Spring Summer 2019
Eyeshadow Palette in
Gold Edition, $33
DIOR Diorshow 5
Couleurs Eye Palette
in Expose, $107
cross body bag,
Beauty Le Marc
Lip Frost Lipstick
in Diva 502, $45
Palette - Flam(boy)
Yves Saint Laurent
Mascara Vinyl Couture
in Green, $57
Safari All Matte
Versace Pre-Fall 2019 Collection
Amazonian Clay Matte
Eyeshadow Palette, $55
To Kill Eye Tint
in Shade 4, $53
Tadashi Shoji Spring Summer 2019
in fearless khaki, $15
Tom Ford Spring Summer 2019
iQ OneGlide, $299
Animal magnetism. That certain je ne sais
quoi. Whatever you call it, sex appeal
has some serious scientific backing.
words by Aimeé rodrigues
No matter which branch of science you
subscribe to, we have it on good authority
that sexual attraction comes down to a
primal human quest: to reproduce and nurture healthy
offspring. Levels of attractiveness, and what both men
and women consider attractive in each other, appear
to be a function of both evolution and psychology.
Of course, every man and woman has their unique
taste, but an overwhelming number of studies show
that our biological need to procreate leads most of
us to pick mates who have certain physical traits
over those who don’t. These physical characteristics
stimulate the brain’s hypothalamus, leading to elevated
heart rate, perspiration and feelings of sexual arousal.
It is also a chemical state, with six or seven
hormones at play. ‘Being on drugs is like falling in
love (or vice versa),’ says Prof Rob Brooks, Professor
of Evolutionary Biology at the University of NSW
and author of Sex, Genes and Rock ‘n’ Roll: How
Evolution Has Shaped The Modern World.
Perhaps the most obvious physical trait that arouses
attraction is a youthful appearance,
which is linked to reproductive
capacity. In humans, mate ‘value’
therefore declines with age, beginning
in early adulthood. It follows, then,
that we are naturally inclined to
enhance our appearance.
But what attracts a man to a
woman fundamentally differs
from what women seek in a male
partner. ‘In virtually all of the
human populations sampled, males
rated physical attractiveness
(usually associated with youth)
significantly more important in
mate choice than females did,’
says Australian evolutionary
anthropologist Sean McBride.
‘Females, by contrast, mostly rated
earning potential and ambition-cumindustriousness
as more important
factors when choosing a mate.’ In
other words, the attractiveness of the
man is directly linked to his skills and
prowess rather than his looks.
‘An evolutionary perspective
on human behaviour suggests that
human beings, like members of other
animal species, are likely to have
adaptations for assessing the “value”
of potential sexual partners, using
visual and other cues, and that our
standards of physical attractiveness
arise from these adaptations,’
Regardless of culture or country
of origin, men find similar female
traits attractive. Their preferences
are biologically and evolutionarily
programmed to find signs of youth
and health attractive, so as to seek
females that are best suited to carry
on their genes.
Studies have found that female
figures with slender bodies, a low
waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and
large breasts are rated as the most
attractive, healthy, feminine-looking
and desirable for both casual and
long-term romantic relationships.
‘Large breasts consistently enhance
the attractiveness rating of both
slender and heavy figures, so long as
they have a low WHR,’ says McBride.
‘Polish research has shown that
women with large breasts and a small
waist had larger amounts of female
hormones than women with a broad
waist and large hips; narrow waist
and small breasts; or broad waist and
The significance of the WHR is
directly linked to fertility, as a low
WHR is believed to correspond to
the optimal fat distribution for high
fertility. If a woman is seen to be
more fertile, she is also seen to be
‘Women with a low WHR may also
be healthier, given that a high WHR
resulting from a bloated abdomen
can be a sign of parasite infection.
A high WHR in a female can also
predict menstrual irregularity,
hirsutism (excess hairiness), elevated
plasma triglycerides, diabetes,
hypertension, cardiovascular disease,
gall bladder disease and cancer of the
endometrium, ovaries and breast,’
But large breasts and a small waist
aren’t the only physical assets men are
drawn to. Other characteristics said
to be prized by our male ancestors in
Scientists have also discovered
that scent plays an important role
in the sexual attraction of males
to females. At certain points
during the menstrual cycle, women
produce more or less oestrogen and,
accordingly, their scent becomes more
or less appealing to men. Research
indicates that oestrogen triggers blood
flow to the hypothalamus in the male,
but not the female, brain.
In fact, research into our sense of
smell has determined that a simple
kiss has evolved in the Western world
from the universal human greeting of
smelling one another’s hands or faces.
Although such smells are not blatant,
and may not register in the conscious
mind, such smells influence mood and
sexual mating preferences.
Unlike pheromones, which are
long-distance chemical messengers
in the Animal Kingdom, these are
subtle protein secretions detected
at close quarters. ‘They enable
humans to determine whether they
are genetically similar or different,’
says Prof Rob Brooks. ‘Opposites do
attract,’ he says. ‘It’s like an internal
their potential mates were full
red lips, clear and smooth skin, clear
eyes, lustrous hair and good muscle
tone; all indications of a healthy,
‘These in-built preferences seem
to be aimed at ensuring males find
suitably fertile females who are
healthy enough to reproduce and,
in turn, produce healthy children,’
says McBride. ‘These mechanisms
are instinctual and generally
subconscious. Men don’t think to
themselves: “I must find a woman
with a WHR of 0.7 and smooth skin”.
We just find these characteristics
appealing and they are almost
universally sought after,’ he adds.
Could being attractive be less in the eye
of the beholder and more to do with a
mathematical equation involving our
waist and hip measurements?
It’s human nature to want to
know whether we’re attractive and
how we can make ourselves more
appealing. But a new study suggests
that to sum our real assets all we need
to do is an easy sum.
So perhaps beauty isn’t in the eye of
the beholder, it comes down the far less
subjective mathematical equation.
It has been found a woman’s
attractiveness relates to the size of
her waist compared with her hips.
Scientists have discovered the ratio
they say makes for the perfect fi gure.
A waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 0.7,
or a waist measurement at 70 per
cent of the hip circumference, is the
New Zealand anthropologist
Barnaby Dixson set out to fi nd what
makes a woman attractive to men. A
group of volunteers were presented
with various pictures of a woman in
which her bust, waist and hips had
been digitally altered and asked to rate
the image for attractiveness. Infra-red
cameras tracked their eyes as they
looked at the photos.
Although most were initially drawn
to the woman’s cleavage, her hips and
waist were key to attraction.
Perennially curvy beauties like
Marilyn Monroe, Sophia Loren, Jessica
Alba and Victoria’s Secret model
Alessandra Ambrosio are all examples
of the perfect ratio. Interestingly
though, it isn’t a ratio dependent on
curves or lack there of, it’s all simply
proportion of the waist to hips. (So
interestingly waif-like Kate Moss also
matches up to the ideal WHR of 0.7.
The concept and signifi cance of
WHR as an indicator of attractiveness
was fi rst theorised by psychologist
Devendra Singh in 1993, who argued
that the WHR was a consistent
Some researchers have found that
the waist-hip ratio is a signifi cant
measure of female attractiveness,
although this has been found to be
dependent on cultural values. Women
with a 0.7 WHR are usually rated as
more attractive by men from European
cultures, while China favours a WHR
of 0.6 which rose to 0.8 or 0.9 in parts
of South America and Africa.
However, the attractiveness of
the hourglass fi gure holds true across
countries and cultures. Research shows.
Men across the world can all agree –
from the UK, Cameroon, Germany
and China, to New Zealand. German
research released last year indicated an
hourglass fi gure to be more attractive
than even athletic types or long-legged,
It is thought that a small waist-to-hip
ratio is equated in the mind with good
health and high fertility. ‘It is likely
that perfect 0.7 ratio sends a biological
signal to men that this woman is most
fertile and most likely to produce a
healthy offspring, no matter what size
that woman is,’ says Dr Dixson. ‘It is all
about the distribution of fat which is
directly linked to fertility.’
In fact, it looks like we’re all
encouraged to celebrate our curvy
bits according to the research data.
Dr Dixson says men were wasting
their time pumping iron in the gym
because women have indicated they
invariably prefer a leaner, less
‘On a biological level, women
are more likely to pick a leaner,
even slightly more effeminate man as
they equate those physical traits with
being more caring and gentle and
therefore a better prospect as a partner,’
he explains. ‘Humans simply do not
Blonde vs brunette
It’s an age-old debate that had even Charles
Darwin stumped – he couldn’t find any
acceptable reason men might prefer blondes.
Since Darwin’s time, however, there have
been a few advancements in the science behind
Blonde hair is thought to be an indicator of
youth and sexual vitality, but a recent study,
which attempted to determine the most beautiful
woman in the world, picked a brunette, and
a 2011 study in the Scandinavian Journal
of Psychology found brunettes are generally
considered more attractive.
Women who wear makeup appear
more trustworthy, likeable and
competent – not to mention
attractive – to those around them, or
so a relatively recent study tells us.
‘As we have evolved, the brain has
become capable of making complex
social judgments on some very basic
visual cues,’ says Dr Arnaud Aubert,
an experimental psychologist and
associate professor in the department
of neurosciences at the Universitè
These visual cues typically revolve
around the idea of attractiveness and
trustworthiness, elements that the
right style of makeup can certainly
assist with. ‘First you see the face and
then, after a quick visual decoding,
a signal is relayed to the limbic area
of the brain where an emotional
level is assigned to what you have
seen – either pleasant or unpleasant,’
Dr Aubert says. ‘This information
is then translated to the forebrain
where it’s decided whether the face
is trustworthy or untrustworthy.
The whole process is carried out
By minimising flaws and enhancing
our best features, makeup – when
applied effectively – can make for a
more “pleasant” translation process.
Highlighter and illuminator, for
instance, can detract from a larger
nose, while the right shade of lip
colour can go a long way in boosting
that first impression.
‘All the social information is in
the centre of the face,’ Dr Aubert
explains. ‘If the brain is distracted by
imperfections, it processes less and so
has a weaker social assessment of the
person it is looking at.’
A study conducted by Harvard
University with Proctor and
Gamble supports Aubert’s findings.
Participants of the study were asked
to rate how likeable, trustworthy and
competent particular women were,
based on their makeup. They were
presented with images of women
with no makeup, and then the same
women made up in different ways –
natural, professional and glamorous.
One participant group was shown
the images for a couple of seconds
and the other group could inspect the
images for as long as they liked.
Lead author and assistant clinical
professor of psychology at Harvard
University, Nancy Etcoff explains
the effects of makeup were the same,
regardless of length of exposure.
‘When flashed quickly, every
cosmetic look significantly increased
how attractive, competent, likeable
and trustworthy the faces appeared to
the same faces without makeup,’ she
says. ‘When people could look at the
faces as long as they wanted to, all
makeup looks increased competence
and attractiveness once again.’ CBM
can be a daunting
here are our tips to
relieving your stress
for the perfect
It’s the canvas of every beauty look
and the go-to confidence booster
when our skin has decided to go
haywire: foundation. But, as with all
other beauty products, there are a million
and one different foundation options on
the market and it can get just a wee bit
confusing for a gal.
Besides finding a foundation that
matches your skin colour, you need to
find one that is best for your skin type.
Knowing your skin type and your desired
level of coverage will be the key to
finding your perfect match.
Foundation comes in a variety of
forms, with the four main types being
liquid, cream, stick and powder. The
right foundation can even out your skin
tone, give you a healthy complexion and
conceal flaws and pigmentation. With
each type comes a different finish and
level of coverage.
The correct shade of foundation
will mesh well with your skin and
complement your complexion. If there’s
an obvious un-blendable line between
your foundation and your natural colour,
you know you have chosen the wrong
shade (#floatingwhiteface, anyone?).
One of the most popular types of foundation due to its ability to
provide sheer coverage and an au natural look, a liquid foundation is
easy to apply and fits like a ‘second skin’.
The coverage has different levels and can vary from light to
heavy. Liquid foundation is also usually suited for both dry skin and
combination skin. If you have oily skin, look for the oil-free options.
Liquid foundation can be applied with a sponge, brush or can even
be dabbed on with your fingertips and worked in a circular motion.
Camouflage in Beige
Bobbi Brown Skin Long-Wear Weightless
Foundation SPF15, $70, Burberry Beauty
Fresh Glow Luminous Fluid Foundation in
34 Warm Nude, $86
A heavier base, cream is renowned for providing good coverage
and is the number-one choice for makeup artists (it must be doing
something right!). Due to its thick texture, which provides a creamy
and flawless finish, it’s great to wear on a night out.
There are many specialised versions on the market for different
skin types, including oil-based and 24-hour long-wearing coverage.
It works great on dry skin; however it’s best to avoid cream if you
have oily skin – no one has time for high-shine!
Cream foundation usually comes in a compact case and can be
applied with a sponge.
A duo gem, stick foundation can also be used as a
concealer. The coverage tends to be heavier, making
stick foundations perfect for covering up those niggling
blemishes and imperfections! As well as wearing the hero
cape for bad skin, the heavier coverage can also cover up
scars, redness and dark under-eye circles. Bonus!
Stick foundation is usually small and portable,
meaning no risk of a messy purse. Because of the heavier
consistency, stick foundations may not be suitable for
everyday use if you’re prone to blemishes.
This formula is best for normal to oily skin. However if
you have dry skin, make sure to apply a bit of moisturiser
first to avoid that ‘cakey’ look.
Touch-Up Stick, $44
Nude by Nature Touch of Glow
Highlight Stick, $24.95
A great on-the-go foundation,
powder truly is a touchup hero.
Lightweight and non-clogging,
powder applies evenly and
blends easily to achieve a radiant,
natural looking complexion.
Mineral powder is becoming
a very popular alternative and
is a great bet for people with
sensitive skin or allergies. Powder
is suitable for those with oily skin;
however be cautious not to apply
it too frequently, to avoid drying
out your skin.
Powder comes in compact
form (usually with a handy little
mirror) and is best applied using
a big ol’ fluffy brush.
Pro Filt’r Instant
Face Base, $85
Primer is one of the most powerful tools for filling in fine lines
as well as smoothing out complexions to create a flawless face.
We’re talking prime time! .
Beauty Blender Opal
Primer 30ml, $32
Daytime makeup should look soft and natural, but as the light fades
you want your face to glow in its place. Steal the limelight from the
candles in restaurants and bars with an illuminating product. This can
be a dusting of highlighting loose powder, an illuminiser stick or even
an illuminating concealer. Applied to the brow bones under the brows,
top of the cheekbones, bridge of the nose, inner corners of the eyes
and on the lip contour for added fullness; it will both smooth and
highlight. Don’t forget to blend, blend, blend.
Zoeva Heritage Highlighter
(Limited Edition), $26
While a highlighted and natural radiance is the
way to go for daytime, after the sun goes down
it’s prime time to show some sun-kissed skin and
get your glow on.
To get that tanned radiant look, apply bronzer or
shimmer powder on key areas — the brow bone,
cheekbones, and décolletage. Remember to
adjust your application to the darkness of your
surroundings, but be careful not to overdo it!
BECCA x Chrissy Teigen
Endless Bronze & Glow
(Limited Edition), $58
1. asap pure skin perfecting mineral foundation 30ml, $65, 2. Sisley Instant Eclat 30ml, $105, 3. Ole Henriksen
Banana Bright Primer, $48, 4. Bobbi Brown Highlighting Powder in Sunkissed Glow, $80, 5. Charlotte Tilbury
Lightgasm Face Palette, $120, 6. Skinstitut Loose Mineral Powder, $59, 7. Iconic London Illuminator 13ml, $68,
8. MAC Strobe Cream, $54, 9. La Mer The Hydrating Illuminator 40ml, $100, 10. Jane Iredale Sunbeam Bronzer
& Compact, $130, 11. Clarins Skin Illusion SPF 15 in Cashew 30ml, $52, 12. Dior Diorskin Forever Skin Glow
Foundation $89, 13. Marc Jacobs Dew Drops Coconut Gel Highlighter 24ml, $64, 14. MAC Studio Fix Fluid
Foundation, $54, 15. Peter Thomas Roth Skin To Die For Mineral-Matte CC Cream 30ml, $59, 16. Skindinavia
Makeup Primer Spray 118ml, $49.
11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
for your skin
Gaia Retreat & Spa has a global reputation
as the world’s best luxury spa and wellness
retreat. It was only natural it launched its own
skincare. we chat to Retreatment Botanics brand
developer Trudi Jaye about the luxe line.
For most skincare brands, winning a swag of prestigious
international awards six months after release is unheard
of, but that is exactly what Retreatment Botanics, the
new skincare range released by superstar Olivia Newton-John
and her experts at Gaia Retreat & Spa in Byron Bay, has done.
It recently won seven awards at The Beauty Shortlist
Best Loved 2019 Mama and Baby Awards, including Best
International Natural/Organic Brand. Not only that, since its
release in February this year, the range of 10 natural, Certified
Cruelty-Free and Vegan and Certified Palm Oil Free products
has been warmly embraced by beauty media, influencers, and
Little wonder, really. The look and feel of the beautiful
recyclable packaging, the all-natural aromas, the feel of the
products when they first touch the skin and the almostimmediate
results make Retreatment Botanics a stand-out,
Aussie-made skincare line-up.
Leading Olivia’s expert skincare
team is General Manager and
Brand Developer of Retreatment
Botanics, Trudi Jaye, who
worked alongside Olivia, the
Gaia Directors, Gaia therapists
and green skincare scientists to
perfect the finished product.
Here, we speak with her about
the brand’s journey.
HOW DID THE IDEA FOR
We have these amazing treatments
and incredibly skilled therapists at
Gaia. When the Retreat fi rst opened,
we would externally source skincare
to use in our treatments. At times,
the therapists would even source
organic ingredients themselves, often
from our own garden!
As Gaia grew and became this
amazing destination for health,
wellness and natural beauty
treatments, Olivia said, “you know,
we have this extraordinary wealth of
knowledge in our team, why don’t we
create our own skincare, where we
have control over the ingredients and
the integrity of the products.”
We wanted to create and use a
skincare brand that refl ects Gaia and
all we stand for. We believe we have
Retreatment Botanics is a way
for people to take the rituals and
experience of Gaia home with
them, to continue their self-care and
soul-care journey with the beautiful
herbs and essentials oils, which
evoke the feeling of Gaia, as well as
being really effective. This was so
important for us. Olivia is passionate
that something really works as well as
being lovely to use.
HAS ITS OWN UNIQUE
SCENT THAT EVOKES
THE EXPERIENCE OF
BEING AT GAIA.
THE RANGE HAS CRUELTY-FREE
AND VEGAN CERTIFICATIONS
AS WELL AS PALM-OIL FREE
CERTIFICATION. WERE THESE
BREAKERS FOR ITS CREATION?
Absolutely! These were nonnegotiables.
Olivia, myself and the
entire team at Gaia believe that
there is no need to harm an animal
or Mother Earth to create effective
skincare. We are really proud of these
certifi cations and believe they are a
truly unique aspect of our brand.
YOU’VE USED A NEW
CAN YOU TELL US A LITTLE
It’s a super-advanced extraction
method that captures the powerful
phyto-compounds within the
Australian plants we use as they
exist in nature.
To survive in the harshest places
on earth, these Australian native
plants intelligently store high
concentrations of antioxidants
and vitamins. This new Cellular
Extraction allows for delivery of
their molecular profi le to help target
skincare concerns and deliver visible
results from the very fi rst application.
THE AROMAS IN EACH
FORMULA ARE VERY SPECIAL,
WITH EACH PRODUCT HAVING
A DIFFERENT SCENT. WHAT IS
THE IDEA BEHIND THIS?
We wanted the entire experience
of Retreatment Botanics to refl ect a
Gaia treatment, including the aromas
we use in the spa itself, natural scents
of the beautiful land that Gaia sits
on, and the trees, bushes and shrubs
that grow from it.
Each product has its own unique
scent made from pure essential
oils that evokes the experience of
being at Gaia. For example, our
Calm Essential Oil Blend – with
sandalwood, ylang ylang, lemon
myrtle, mandarin and lime, is the
signature scent of Gaia Spa. Our
therapists use it to guide you into
deep relaxation at the beginning of
Wild Kakadu Hand and Body
Cream is scented with rose,
geranium, citrus, rosemary leaf and
lavender to deliver an uplifting but
calming hand and body massage at
home. A third example is Radiance
Cream Cleanser, which uses a
refreshing blend of citrus oils with
bergamot and rose. This is a beautiful
way to begin and end the day –
cleansing the skin as you inhale the
And of course, Olivia just loves
the stunning yet delicate aromas
in our serums – they smell so good,
lifting the spirit as you apply them
to your skin.
HOW QUICKLY CAN WE EXPECT
TO SEE RESULTS?
It was important to Olivia, the Gaia
Directors, me and the entire team
that we create a pure performance
range that delivers results from the
very fi rst application. So, what you
will see is softer, calmer and more
radiant skin from your fi rst use.
These results will only improve with
continued use. The skin renews itself
around every four weeks or so. After
four to six weeks, you will notice
really incredible results. CBM
While the bulk of our wellness focus
typically involves working out and
losing weight, not enough importance is
placed on improving our mental health.
you have nothing if you don’t have your health.
According to the World Health Organisation
(WHO): ‘Mental health is an integral part to health;
indeed, there is no health without mental health.’
But when was the last time you thought of
improving your mental health?
Mental health refers to the state of our cognitive
and/or emotional wellbeing – it’s all about how you
think, feel and behave. Mental health not only
enables you to cope with the stresses of everyday life
but it can also mean an absence of a mental disorder.
Your mental health can affect your daily life,
relationships and even your physical health. A
study from 2012 published in The BMJ found that
individuals with poor mental health are at increased
risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Other research has recently linked mental illness to a
higher risk of heart disease and stroke.
Boost your wellbeing and stay mentally healthy by
following a few steps, so you can be prepared to take
on any challenges life may throw at you.
A healthy, balanced diet is not only
beneficial for physical health but it
also has benefits for mental wellbeing.
While it can stave off a range of illnesses
including heart disease, diabetes and
cancer, a healthy diet assists in providing
a range of nutrients for your brain to stay
healthy and function well.
Following a Mediterranean-style diet,
which incorporates high consumption of
beans, nuts, cereals, seeds, plant-based
foods and fruits has, in a 2012 study, been
proven to be beneficial for mental wellbeing.
The diet is also low in saturated
fat and includes moderate consumption
of fish, poultry and dairy and low
consumption of meats and sugary foods.
Furthermore, a 2013 study of
almost 11,000 middle-aged women
found that those who followed a
Mediterranean diet not only lived
longer than control participants, but
they also exhibited better cognitive
function and mental health.
In September 2014 a UK study was
published in The BMJ Open suggesting
that eating five portions of fruits and
vegetables a day is good for mental
wellbeing. The research found that
out of 14,000 adults, 35.5 percent of
participants who ate five or more portions
of fruits and vegetables a day had good
mental wellbeing, compared with 6.8
percent of participants who ate less than
one portion a day.
The study was led by Dr Saverio
Stranges of the University of Warwick
Medical School, who said, ‘These
novel findings suggest that fruit and
vegetable intake may play a potential
role as a driver, not just of physical,
but also of mental wellbeing in the
There are a number of foods and
drinks that have been associated with
poor mental health. The high intake of
alcohol has been linked to anxiety and
depression, with mental health experts
recommending limiting alcohol intake.
Get more sleep
A lack of sleep can affect
metabolism, reducing the rate at
which we burn kilojoules. Chronic
sleep deprivation has been linked
to increased rates of obesity and
diabetes, according to research
at the UK’s University of
Warwick, which found that adults
who get less than seven hours of
sleep a night are twice as likely
to become obese.
A 2014 study by researchers from
the George Institute on Global
Health in Australia, found that
people who have less than 5 hours
sleep a night might be at higher
risk of mental illness. According
to a study at the University of
Michigan in the US, depression
rates are 40 times higher for
patients with insomnia and an
extra hour of sleep does more for
our happiness than a pay rise.
There are lots of things you
can do to improve your chances
of getting a good night’s sleep.
Going to bed and waking up at the
same time every day (even at the
weekends and during the holidays)
as a routine can boost the body’s
sleep-wake cycle, promoting a
better night’s sleep.
Television, computers, tablets
and phones all stimulate your
brain, making it hard to relax, so
it’s recommended to switch them
off in advance. It’s also suggested to
limit the intake of alcohol, caffeine
and sugary foods in the evening.
A warm bath before bed or
reading a book may help you fall
into a bedtime ritual, which will
tell the body that it’s time to
Regular physical activity is an
important key to help decrease
depression and anxiety.
The Australian Department of
Health recommends 150 to 300
minutes (2.5 to 5 hours) of moderate
to intense physical activity or 75 to
150 minutes (1¼ to 2½ hours) of
vigorous intensity physical activity
each week (for adults 18-64 years).
However, exercise doesn’t mean
you have to spend hours in the
gym or engage in long sessions on
the treadmill to reap the mental
health benefits of exercise. Research
has found that joining an outdoor
walking group may not only improve
your daily positive emotions
but may also contribute a nonpharmacological
approach to serious
conditions such as depression.
Stress seems to be an inevitable part
of adulthood that most of us will
experience at some point in our lives.
It’s been proven that whether it’s
through work, relationships or money
problems, stress can make the brain
more susceptible to mental illness.
However, there are ways in which
we can reduce or manage stress to
promote a sense of mindfulness and
relaxation. Yoga and meditation are
known to have many stress-reducing
benefits and have been found to
reduce the risk of anxiety and
depression in expectant mothers.
Above all, retaining a positive
outlook during difficult times may
also reduce stress. It could be as
simple as smiling. The journal of
Psychological Science published
a study in 2012, which found that
smiling during stressful periods could
lower the body’s stress response,
regardless of whether a person is
feeling happy or sad.
Find a hobby
While employment may cause stress, unemployment is linked with poor
physical and mental health.
Being employed brings more than a way of earning a living; it provides
a sense of identity and belonging, as well as offering structure to your life
as you strive to meet goals.
According to the Mental Health Foundation, finding a hobby or
taking up voluntary work may promote good mental health. Building
relationships and having interaction with other people is rewarding and
can significantly improve mental wellbeing.
spend time in
It seems 120 minutes a week in
nature is associated with benefits to
our health and wellbeing, according
to new research.
The authors of this new study,
published in Scientific Reports in 2019,
said theirs is the first large-scale research
to quantify how much time is needed to
feel the effects. The study used survey
data from more than 19,000 participants
in the United Kingdom, who were
quizzed about their contact with nature.
‘This applies to old and young, males
and females and the rich and the poor,’
said lead researcher Dr White from the
University of Exeter.
Nature, as defined by the study, did
not have to be pristine wilderness or
spectacular national parks - beaches, city
parks or farmland were all included as
So going for a surf or cycle might be
a great way to pair outdoor time with
getting active, but physical activity
wasn’t necessary to feel the benefits of
being in nature – just being out there
Improving your mental health is a
rewarding experience and changes can
be made at any time. They help you
handle life’s challenges and recover
from setbacks, boosting your mood and
building your resilience.
It’s important to remember that
seeking help is a sign of strength, not a
weakness. Receiving appropriate care
from a professional can help encourage
us to do things we may not be able to do
on our own. cbm
Each year around one in
five Australians will experience
a mental illness
One in seven Australians
will experience depression
in their lifetime
About 4% of people will
experience a major depressive
episode in a 12-month period,
with 5% of women and 3% of
Approximately 14% of
Australians will be affected
by an anxiety disorder in any
Women are more likely than
men to seek help for anxiety
disorders (18% compared with
11%) and mood disorders
(7.1% compared with 5.3%)
*Mindframe and Blackdog
No need to fake it. gynaecologist Dr Oseka Onuma
talks orgasms and sexual health for women.
n the famous scene from ‘When Harry Met Sally’, at
least half the female population could relate. This
is the percentage of women who experience some
sort of problem with their sex life and, while faking an
orgasm may be more common than you think, lack of
sexual gratification shouldn’t be hidden under the covers.
It’s widely accepted these days for a woman to have
anti-wrinkle injections to erase wrinkles, or surgery to
refine her nose or enlarge her breasts. Likewise, more
women than ever are concerned with the appearance of
their genitals or lack of sexual gratification.
Despite this, there continues to be a lot of negative
talk in mainstream media about the rising popularity of
the so-called ‘designer vagina’. Indeed, the vast majority
of vaginal rejuvenation patients are motivated by painful
intercourse, discomfort doing everyday activities and
‘Whilst there are significant advances taking place in
the understanding and treatment of female pelvic floor
and sexual dysfunction, discrimination of women, by
both men and women, lay people and medical, remains
a significant issue,’ says Adelaide gynaecologist and
pelvic reconstructive surgeon Dr Oseka Onuma. ‘This
continues to surprise me every working day when I
listen to patients and medical colleagues, but I cannot
understand why changes in attitude are so slow.’
Orgasms can relieve pain
Up to 30% of women have trouble
Condom use doesn’t affect
Orgasm gets better with age
A woman’s sexual self-esteem
can affect the quality of
There is such a thing as an
orgasm ‘gap’ – women orgasm
less than men
In rare cases, orgasm can happen
without genital stimulation
For most women, it takes
at least 20 minutes of sexual
activity to climax
Am I normal?
If you’ve ever had trouble climaxing, you’re not alone.
It’s been reported that a whopping 43% of women have
some sort of problem with their sex lives. Female sexual
dysfunction (anything that interferes with a woman’s
sexual satisfaction) is so common that the very idea that
it is a medical disorder has come under attack.
Many women never have orgasms during intercourse
and some also cannot have them through masturbation.
‘Women, much more than men, are answerable to
their hormonal, emotional and social circumstances in
the achievement of orgasm. That means that for many
women to achieve orgasm, their hormonal and emotional
health must be optimal, their social circumstance allows
them to be relaxed and there needs to be appropriate
stimulation of the organ(s) that facilitate orgasm,’
says Dr Onuma.
‘Women can enhance their orgasms by making sure
that they are healthy, physically fit, emotionally wellbalanced
with a hormonal status that is in equilibrium.
They also need the right social circumstances when
attempting to achieve orgasm with or without a partner.’
However, Dr Onuma says that some women will
never be able to achieve orgasm even if all the parameters
above appear to be ‘normal’ and optimised. There is no
‘Anorgasmia is the medical term used to describe this
and it is defined as a psychiatric disorder. Unfortunately,
there is no psychiatric treatment that appears to
consistently benefit women in this group, although some
women may respond to psychological counselling,’
says Dr Onuma.
‘It may be that these women simply represent a group
of ‘normal’ women. Within this group, there will be some
who obtain no pleasure at all through sexual activity and
those who do achieve great pleasure without achieving
orgasm. Should these women really be considered to be
‘abnormal’? I think not.’
Why can’t I orgasm?
With the effects of childbirth and age, many women can
suffer from problems with their genitalia that can make
them feel very self-conscious and unhappy, often affecting
relationships with sexual partners.
The kinds of problems are as varied as the women
who suffer from them. ‘Female sexual dysfunction is
complex and can be a result of hormonal, psychological,
psychiatric, physical, neurological, environmental and
social causes,’ says Dr Onuma.
‘Often, some of these causes co-exist. One factor
can result in another; for example, painful intercourse
(dyspareunia) may result in a fear of intercourse
The Australian Centre for Female
Pelvic & Vaginal Rejuvenation
resulting in psychological sequelae. Hormonal changes
of menopause can result in loss of libido or physical
alterations that can result in difficult or painful
intercourse,’ he says.
Other causes can relate to scar tissue or tears at the
entrance of the vagina, prolapse of the walls of the vagina,
prolapse of the uterus, endometriosis or elongated labia
minora tissues (which can cause irritation and discomfort).
In addition, loose or weak vaginal muscles, mainly caused
through the muscles stretching during childbirth, can
cause problems for some women and their sexual partners
Another problem may be female stress urinary
incontinence, caused predominantly by an improperly
But for many women with sexual dysfunction, the issue
is psychological, not physical. Although we all know
there is no ‘perfect’ way for a vagina to look, being shy or
embarrassed by your genital appearance can often result
in the avoidance of intimacy or lack of orgasm. ‘Most
commonly this is the woman’s own perception resulting
from a perceived change or long-standing issue. Much less
commonly, this results from adverse comments from an
intimate partner,’ says Dr Onuma.
What are the options?
Because female sexual dysfunction has many possible
symptoms and causes, treatment varies. It’s important for
women to communicate their concerns and understand
their body and its normal sexual response. Also, a woman’s
goals for her sex life are important in determining
treatment and evaluating progress.
‘Surgery for female sexual dysfunction should only be
contemplated when a physical cause for that dysfunction
has been clearly identified,’ stresses Dr Onuma.
There is a range of surgical and non-surgical options
available that can address and hopefully resolve these
problems. For example both surgical or laser reduction
labioplasty can sculpt the elongated or unequal labial
minora as desired. The vulvar structures (including
the labia minora, labia majora, mons pubis, perineum,
entrance to the vagina and hymen) can be surgically
enhanced, both functionally and aesthetically.
Non-surgical laser vaginal rejuvenation can effectively
enhance vaginal muscle tone, strength and control. For
example a non-surgical treatment can be used to treat
prolapse and/or relaxation of the vaginal walls, which
results in dyspareunia or reduced sensation.
‘Female sexual dysfunction is complex and does not
always imply abnormality. Affected women should seek
help – women should never accept that it’s ‘just part of
being a woman’,’ Dr Onuma concludes. CBM
EMPOWERING WOMEN THROUGH
KNOWLEGE, CHOICE AND ACCESS
TO WORLD CLASS CARE
DR OSEKA ONUMA
Gynaecologist and Pelvic
BSc. (Hons), MJur., CCST,
MBBS, FRANZCOG, FRCOG
4 Robe Terrace,
Medindie SA 5081
08 8344 6085
ADELAIDE • SYDNEY • DARWIN
THE KEY TO OPTIMISING YOUR MESOESTETIC ® TREATMENT
IS TO ENSURE YOU SEEK OUT A PROFESSIONAL AT A
SPECIALISED DEPIGMENTATION CENTRE.
It might surprise you that
hyperpigmentation is perceived
as the third most important skin
problem after wrinkles and sagging. It
is a common skin condition in which
patches of skin are darker in colour
than the surrounding skin tissue and
can be very upsetting for those who
suffer from it. It includes freckles,
sun spots, melasma, and other spots
caused mainly by sun exposure or skin
ageing. These occur where there is an
excess of melanin, the body’s pigment
that produces natural skin colouring.
It is such a widespread condition
that today, depigmenting treatments
represent over 20% of the total
cosmetic market, with over 90%
of caucasians experiencing skin
blemishes at some stage.
If you are considering having such
a treatment, mesoestetic ® has 30
years experience developing effective
solutions to treat skin pigmentation
and is recognised as a global leader
in topical depigmentation. Its
Hyperpigmentation is perceived as
the third most important skin problem
after wrinkles and sagging.
pigmentation treatments, notably
cosmelan ® and dermamelan ® ,
are world-renowned for their
effectiveness. However, it’s not only
the quality of the treatment that’s
important, it’s also the experience
and expertise of the professional
The mesoestetic ® Pharma Group
recently held its third in a series
of Specialised Depigmentation
seminars in Australia as part of a
global initiative. This worldwide
program is for clinics seeking a
cutting-edge advantage, by becoming
a mesoestetic ® Certified Specialised
What does that mean for you?
Well, the comprehensive course,
which was lectured by mesoestetic ®
International Trainer, Sabine Wallez,
resulted in a total of 51 Specialised
Depigmentation Centres certified
across Australia. Therefore you can
be confident that the staff members
at these clinics are trained to ensure
you will attain the best possible
results with your procedure and for
The topics covered in the
course included the importance
of the diagnostic component in
hyperpigmentation treatments such
as melasma, PIH, solar and senile
lentigos and ephelides, as well as antiageing
solutions and the importance
of sun protection.
According to Catherine
Biedermann, Managing Director
of Advanced Cosmeceuticals, the
course was an incredible opportunity
for Australian skin professionals to
learn first-hand about depigmentation
from Sabine Wallez and to hone
their specific skills for treating
cosmelan: what is it?
Cosmelan is a one-time, professional skin
brightening treatment developed by mesoestetic ® to
help reduce the appearance of pigmentation spots
and even out skin tone in a matter of weeks with
minimal side effects. The clinically proven results
are truly impressive, achieving up to 95 per cent
improvement in the majority of cases. Treatments
with the cosmelan topical solution are tailored to
each individual and the results are long lasting.
What to expect
The cosmelan treatment consists of two
phases and it is imperative that you follow the
directions given by the treating professional to
achieve complete success.
Phase 1 – in the clinic
The cosmelan 1 Mask is applied in the clinic
and left on the skin for a period of time which
is determined by the medical professional
according to your skin colour and type. This is
usually around 8 hours.
Phase 2 – at home maintenance
The mask is removed at home with mesoestetic ®
hydra milk cleanser and followed by an application
of hydra-vital factor k cream. Cosmelan 2
maintenance cream is applied at home according
to the recommended protocol of the medical
professional. The objective of this highly effective
maintenance cream is to ensure the continued
brightening of the complexion and fading of skin
discolourations while restoring luminosity.
After applying the cosmelan 2, follow daily with
hydra-vital factor k and hydrating moisturiser
with sun protection.
Peeling of the treated skin begins in
approximately 48-72 hours and lasts about
three days; hydra-vital factor k is provided for
multiple applications during the day and evening.
Follow-up is in 7-10 days at which point a marked
reduction in major discolouration will be evident.
Pigment reduction continues with the at-home
application of the cosmelan 2 product over the
next six months.
TO GET IT
For stockists, visit
or call 1800 242 011
Hyperpigmentation affects more than 80% of
women over the age of 25 and dermamelan ® signifies
an accessible, effective and minimally invasive
solution provided by medical professionals only. The
treatment combines in-clinc treatments and home
care prodcuts to target the mechanisms responsible
for skin pigmentation, thereby helping to lighten
unsightly blemishes and spots. It has a dual corrective
and controlling action, achieving short and long-term
results by keeping hyperpigmentation under control.
When it comes
routine is key to
The essentials for a simplified
yet effective skincare routine
include a gentle cleanser to
prep skin for penetration of
active ingredients, a good
exfoliator to buff away dead
skin cells and an SPF moisturiser
to protect your skin from those
harsh UV rays.
products and how to use them
is the first step in implementing
an effective skincare regimen.
With the myriad of products
on the market, it’s helpful to
get the basics right first, and
then venture to more targeted
Cleansers are an essential part of a
basic skincare routine. They wash off
makeup, dirt and oil and leave the
skin feeling clean, smooth and oil
free. Your skin should be cleansed
preferably twice a day – in the
morning and in the evening. There
are cleansers for every skin type:
if you’re prone to blocked pores,
use gel formulations; for delicate
skin, use milky products. Both gels
and milky products usually can be
washed off. For dry skin, use cream
products, which generally are wiped
off. If using a cream cleanser, you
probably will need to use a toner
1. Ella Baché Botanical Cleansing
Oil 200ml, $69, 2. Neutrogena
Deep Clean Cleansing Oil Normal
and Hydrating, $18.99, 3. Synergie
BioCleanse, $72, 4. Skinstitut
Gentle Cleanser, $49, 5. Alpha-H
Clear Skin Daily Face and Body
Wash 185ml, $45, 6. The Ordinary
Squalane Cleanser, $13.90.
Exfoliation removes the dead
surface cells which contribute both
to dryness and oiliness and can
cause blocked pores and problems
like acne. Exfoliation also stimulates
Scrubs treat the surface of the
skin and help unclog pores, while
exfoliants remove surface cell debris
and leave skin fresher and looking
brighter. Common types contain
alpha hydroxy acids and glycolic
acids, found in plant extracts.
It is essential to exfoliate regularly
at home, but nothing beats a
professional treatment which will
leave your skin glowing and fresh -
well worth the expense.
7. endota spa organics Atmica
& Menthol Recovery Scrub 250g,
$40, 8. endota spa organics Daily
Renewal Exfoliant 90ml, $45, 9. PCA
Skin ® Daily Exfoliant, $79.20, 10.
Synergie Mediscrub, $79.
Moisturise morning and night to help retain your skin’s
natural moisture and to provide a physical barrier
against environmental pollutants.
While you can use a single product, it is advisable
to use a richer moisturiser at night as the skin
absorbs products more effectively while you sleep,
undisturbed by environmental factors such as the sun
and wind. During the day, it is recommended to use a
moisturiser with a sun protection factor.
Which type of moisturiser suits you is personal – it’s
worth getting samples to try them out. Your clinician
can help you establish if you have dry, normal,
combination or oily skin. If skin is dry, you want
humectants and ingredients such as plumping lipids.
For sensitive skin, look for anti-inflammatories.
For combination or oily skin, you also want antiinflammatories
as well as ingredients that prevent
oil slicks from breaking out. There are also firming
moisturisers to help with sagging tissues.
Formulations vary from emulsions (water-based and
better for oily skin) to dense creams (oil-based, better
for dry skin).
Make sure to protect your skin all year round and
opt for moisturisers that include SPF.
1. Sisley Ecological Compound 125ml, $295, 2.
Medik8 Advanced Day Total 50ml, $119, 3. Aspect Sun
Hydrating Face SPF50+ 75ml, $59, 4. Skeyndor Power
Retinol Intensive Repairing Retinol Cream, 50ml, $98, 5.
Dermalogica Redness Relief Essence 150ml, $64, 6. La
Roche-Posay Toleriane Ultra 40ml, $41.95,
7. Olehenriksen Phat Glow Facial, $68, 8. Jergens
NEW Oil Infused Skin Firming Moisturiser 496ml, $11.99,
9. Mavala Anti Age Pro Day Serum for Face and Eyes
30ml, $64.95, 10. Bioderma Sebium Mat Control | 30mL,
$30.99, 11. CeraVe Moisturising Cream 170g, $12.99,
12. Bangn Body Firming Body Lotion, 150ml, $48,
13. Medik8 Nourishing Body Cream 250ml, $66, 14.
Retreatment Botanics Ultra Rich Moisturiser 100ml, $89,
15. Medik8 r-Retinoate ® Youth Activating Cream 50ml,
$298, 16. Arbonne RE9 Advanced Prepwork Overnight
Face Jelly, RRP $59, 17. Babor Ampoule Concentrates,
Glow Addict: 4 x Hydra Plus, 3 x Perfect Glow, $57, 18.
Vida Glow Cosmetics Emollient Moisturiser, $64.95, 19.
Clinique Take the Day Off Cleansing Balm 125ml, $56,
20. Guinot Lift Summum Cream 50ml, $223, 21. Jurlique
Moisture Plus Rare Rose Cream 50mL, $59, 22. Ella Baché
Spirulines Firming Day Cream 50ml, $125, 23. Ella Baché
Spirulines Firming Night Cream 50ml, $125, 24. Peter
Thomas Roth Potent-C Bright & Plump Moisturizer $106.
Using a facial mask can soothe and nourish skin,
oxygenate, improve the circulation, help clear up
blemishes and even reduce the appearance of fine
lines and wrinkles. Tightening masks help firm and tone
sagging skin, and moisturising masks add moisture to
dehydrated skin. For oily or acne-prone skin, a purifying
mask can deep-cleanse skin and absorb excess oil. The
benefits of masks are often underestimated but they can
give the complexion a real boost. Generally, they should
be used weekly after exfoliating.
Alpha-H Clear Skin Blemish Control Mask 100ml, $39.95,
Antipodes Aura Manuka Honey Mask 75ml, $54, La
Roche-Posay Effaclar Sebo-controlling mask 100ml,
$27.95, Sisley Black Rose Cream Mask 60ml, $180,
Société Eye Peptide Gel Mask 10 pairs per box 12g each,
$165, DNA Restoring Mask 60ml, $89, Naturally Serious
Maskimum Revival Hydra-Plumping Mask 100ml, $42,
Peter Thomas Roth 24k Gold Mask 150ml, $124,
Vida Glow Cosmetics Antioxidant Rich Hydration Mask,
$64.95, Image Skincare Mask Purifying Masque, $89.95.
1. 2. 3.
Serums are lightweight moisturisers
that penetrate deep into the skin to
deliver a concentrated dose of antiageing
goodness. Depending on the
product being used, serums can be
applied in the morning, at night or
both. They are typically worn beneath
cream moisturisers. Because serums are
designed to be highly concentrated, a
little goes a long way.
Traditional serums are water-based, but
many now come in oil form. Anti-ageing
serums deal primarily with fine lines,
wrinkles and dehydration, but also tone,
texture and dark spots. The ingredients
to look out for in a serum are similar to
those of day and night creams (vitamin
C, retinol and hyaluronic acid to name a
few); but, as with any skincare product,
choose those which best align with your
1. mesoestetic aox ferulic 30ml,
$199, 2. mesoestetic stemCell
Nanofiller Lip Contour 15ml, $121.40,
3. mesoestetic collagen 360 essence
30ml, $129, 4. asap radiance serum
30ml, $89, asap super A+ serum
30ml, $89, asap super B Complex
30ml, $95, asap super C serum 30ml,
$89, 5. Prevage Progressive Renewal
Treatment including Polyhydroxy
Acid (PHA), Alpha Hydroxy Acid
(AHA), Idebenone, and a pH Buffer,
$205, 6. Dermalogica AGE Bright
Clearing Serum 30ml, $98, 7. Alpha-H
Hyaluronic 8 with Primalhyal Ultrafiller
25ml, $69.95, 8. Priori Q+SOD fx220
Brightening Serum 30ml, $165, 9.
SALT By Hendrix Mermaid Facial Oil
30ml, $39.95, 10. Maaemo Vitalize
Face Elixir, $59.95,11. Vida Glow
Cosmetics Active Vitamin C Serum,
$69.95, 12. Cosmedix ® Clarity Skinclarifying
18. Ella Baché Daily
Hydration Mist 100ml,
organics Hydrate Me Mist,
120ml, $30, 20. Jurlique
Sweet Violet & Grapefruit
Hydrating Mist, 50ml, $37
Lip Therapy, $30
Bright Spot Fader,
13. Peter Thomas Roth 24K Gold Pure
Luxury Lift & Firm Hydra-Gel Eye Patches,
$98, 14. Medik8 r-Retinoate ® Eye Serum
Day & Night 15ml, $198, 15. Biologi
Rejuvenation Eye Serum, $79.95, 16.
Alpha-H Liquid Gold Firming Eye Cream,
$99, 17 Retreatment Botanics Firming
Eye Contour Cream 15ml, $65.
With so many nail
trend options to
try, there’s one
to suit everybody.
Whether you prefer
look or the
look, short and
neat or almond
the choices are
are some of our
fave 2019 fashion
forward nail trend
Grey Is the
Perfect for every occasion. Grey
can be calming and subtle or it
can be exhilarating and edgy.
and style with this bold
and slick classic.
Works whether off to work
or out to play! Add some
glitter and stripes for a little
bit of oomph!
Anything goes! Short and natural,
oval, stilletto or square. Almond
shaped nails are big right now –
for a ‘point’ of difference!
Always a fave
Top tips for
Never seesaw with a file on the
natural nail. This will encourage
splitting and chipping of the nail
plate, upsetting the nail-plate layers.
It’s also important to file your nails
when they are dry, not after you have
just had a shower or washed your
Try not to use nail polish remover
Gems & metallic
pattern to glam up, or
matt and wax look for
a touch of elegance.
Dark polishes can discolour nails,
so you should always wear a base
coat under them and never leave the
colour on for more than a week.
Avoid household cleaners and
put gloves on when dealing with
Hand lotion is your friend! Keep
hands and cuticles moisturised to
restore damaged nails and increase
In rare cases, brittle nails can
be caused by protein or vitamin
deficiencies. Hair, skin and nail
vitamins are good for strengthening
brittle nails and reducing breaking
1. Dior Rouge Dior VernisRouge Dior
Vernis, Tra la la, $41, 2. Mavala Mini
Nail Polish in 97 Wichita, $8.50, 3. Tom
Ford Nail Lacquer, Scarlet Chinois,
$52, 4. Givenchy Le Vernis Nail Polish
No5, $37, 5. Giorgio Armani Nail
Lacquer, 105 Taupe Greige, $40, 6.
Sephora Collection Color Hit Nail
Polish in L192 Winter Spirit and L62
Full Moon Party, $7 each, 7. Dior
Diorific Top Coat Midnight Wish -
Limited Edition $43, 8. Smith & Cult
Nailed Lacquer Nail Polish in Glass
Souls, $32, 9. Nails Inc. Nail Lacquer
- Leather Effects, $11, 10. Opi Infinite
Shine Grease Collection, $12.86, 11.
Bobbi Brown Nail Polish KhakiNail
Polish Khaki, $25.
fasting is becoming
an accepted means
of weight loss by
both the scientific
community and the
In recent years, various intermittent
fasting plans have become popular
with people seeking to lose weight or
improve their health.
The most popular regimens generally
involve very low or no calorie intake
on certain days per week, then eating
normally on non-fasting days.
Professor Krista Varady created the
Every-Other-Day Diet, based on
her groundbreaking research into
‘alternate-day modified fasting’ at
the University of Illinois in Chicago.
Proponents describe it as ‘the diet
that lets you eat all you want (half
the time) and keep the weight off!’
The plan involves alternate
‘fast’ and ‘feast’ days. Fasting days
consist of a single 500 calorie meal
at lunchtime. But then there is no
restriction on what, when or how
much is eaten on feasting days.
The two key attractions are:
• The promise that ‘you’ll lose
weight and improve your health
– while eating anything you want
and all you want, every other day’;
• Where most diets include a
daunting set of rules to be obeyed
– what you can eat and can’t eat,
how much you can and can’t eat,
when you can and can’t eat – here
there is only one rule: eat no more
than 500 calories on Diet Day,
eat anything you want and as
much as you want on Feast Day.
That’s it. No counting calories,
carbs, fat or protein. No avoiding
any particular food; all foods
are allowed. No complex meal
preparations and plans.
Two Days Per
Developed by popular UK TV
medico Dr Michael Mosley, the Fast
Diet involves fasting for two days
per week. People maintain their
usual eating routines for the other
five days. Dr Mosley sums up: ‘If we
were to distil the Fast Diet into a
single soundbite, it would all come
down to 5:2. That’s five days of
normal eating, with little thought
to calorie control and a slice of pie
for pudding if that’s what you
want. Then, on the other two days,
you reduce your calorie intake to
500 calories for women and 600
calories for men.’
Proponents claim that since you
are only fasting for two days of your
choice each week – and eating
normally on the other five days –
there is always something new and
tasty on the horizon. In short, it’s
easy to comply with a regime that
only asks you to restrict your calorie
intake occasionally. It ‘recalibrates
the diet equation, and stacks the
odds in your favour’.
Importantly, the plan is designed
as a ‘well-signposted path towards a
longer, healthier life’; weight
loss is ‘simply a happy adjunct to
all of that’.
Hence, according to Dr Mosley,
this eating plan can not only help
people lose weight, but offers an
array of other health benefits:
‘Studies of intermittent fasting
show that not only do people see
improvements in blood pressure and
their cholesterol levels, but also in
their insulin sensitivity.’
And how did he come up with
the recommendation that women
have 500 calories and men have
600 calories on a Fast Day?
Dr Mosley explains: ‘We used
the rule of thumb that women need
2,000 calories and men need 2,400
calories per day and on a Fast Day
you should eat a quarter of a normal
day’s recommended calories.’
Medical News Today assessed the
most common FAQs for beginners
to fasting routines.
Can I still exercise?
In an interview with US magazine The
Atlantic, Professor Krista Varady (creator
of the Every-Other-Day Diet) noted
that for people beginning her regimen,
after the first 10 days ‘their activity
levels were similar to people following a
traditional diet or an unrestricted eating
plan’. It may also be most beneficial
for exercise sessions to end one hour
Daily intermittent fasting limits
eating to a certain number of hours
each day. The 16:8 Diet is an
increasingly popular method, which
involves fasting for 16 hours per
day, leaving an eight-hour window
There are various forms of
this plan, with the most popular
advocating that the ‘fasting’ phase
should last through the night and
during the morning hours. Ideally the
‘fast’ should then be broken around
midday, with the last food for the
evening being consumed around
7pm or 8pm.
Alternately for those with a
personal preference for later daily
routines, the food window may be
between 2pm and 10pm.
Medical News Today has reported
on a study suggesting periodic fasting
– defined as ‘one day of water-only
fasting a week’ – may reduce the risk
of diabetes among people at high risk
for the condition.
Another study, conducted by Dr
Valter Longo at the University of
Southern California found longer
periods of fasting (two to four days)
may even ‘reboot’ the immune
system, clearing out old immune
cells and regenerating new ones – a
process they say could protect against
cell damage caused by factors such as
ageing and chemotherapy.
Won’t I eat too much on feast days?
According to Professor Varady, people
do eat more than their estimated
calorie needs on ‘feast’ days. However
they do not eat enough to make up
the deficit from fast days. And other UK
researchers (at University Hospital in
Manchester) have reported that people
unintentionally eat less on non-fasting
days as well.
Will I be hungry on fasting days?
Professor Varady reports that the first
10 days on the Every-Other-Day Diet
are the most challenging. Calorie-free
beverages, such as unsweetened tea,
may help offset hunger.
Do I still fast once I’m ready
to maintain my weight?
Some plans, such as the Every-Other-
Day Diet, also include a weight
maintenance phase, which involves
increasing the number of calories
consumed on fasting days from 500
to 1,000. Other plans recommend
decreasing the number of fasting days
A comprehensive survey by US
newsletter Medical News Today
found advocates of intermittent
fasting ‘say the following benefits can
Since the body is unable to draw
its energy from food during fasting,
it dips into glucose that is stored in
the liver and muscles. This begins
around eight hours after the last
meal is consumed. When the stored
glucose has been used up, the body
then begins to burn fat as a source
of energy, which can result in
As well as aiding weight loss, Dr
Razeen Mahroof at the University of
Oxford in the UK explains the use
of fat for energy can help preserve
muscle and reduce cholesterol levels.
The study by Dr Longo noted above
suggests prolonged fasting may
also be effective for regenerating
‘When you starve, the system tries
to save energy, and one of the things
it can do to save energy is to recycle
a lot of the immune cells that are not
needed, especially those that may be
damaged,’ he explains.
In the study, published in the
journal Stem Cell, his team found
repeated cycles of two-to-four days
without food over a six month period
destroyed the old and damaged
immune cells in mice and generated
What is more, the team found
cancer patients who fasted for three
days prior to chemotherapy were
protected against immune system
damage that can be caused by the
treatment, which they attribute to
immune cell regeneration.
‘The good news is that the body
got rid of the parts of the system
that might be damaged or old, the
inefficient parts, during the fasting,’
says Dr Longo. ‘Now, if you start
with a system heavily damaged by
chemotherapy or ageing, fasting
cycles can generate, literally, a new
Some researchers report years of
animal studies have shown a link
between restriction of calories,
fewer diseases and longer life.
Scientists have studied the
mechanisms behind those benefits
and their translation to humans.
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-
1) is a hormone linked to certain
diseases that affect lifespan, such as
cancer and type 2 diabetes. Some
experts report eating increases IGF-1
production. Fasting may be a way to
decrease IGF-1 levels, which could
potentially lower the risk of chronic
diseases and extend lifespan.
Studies have reported that restricting
calories decreases IGF-1 levels, which
results in slower tumour development.
A very small study in people with
cancer found that fasting reduced
some of the side effects of
chemotherapy, including fatigue,
nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.
Due to potential negative effects,
long-term calorie restriction is not
recommended for people with cancer.
Short-term calorie restriction, such
as intermittent fasting, may be an
option for this group of people.
Intermittent fasting may also impact
cognition. In a study of mice with
genes for Alzheimer’s disease,
intermittent fasting improved
performance on measures of cognitive
decline associated with ageing.
Some studies have shown that
intermittent fasting improves insulin
sensitivity more than traditional
diets, but others have not found the
same advantage. Researchers have
also reported intermittent fasting and
traditional diets lead to comparable
decreases in haemoglobin A1c.
According to the UK’s National
Health Service, there are numerous
health risks associated with
People who fast commonly
experience dehydration, largely
because their body is not getting any
fluid from food. If you are used to
having breakfast, lunch, dinner
and snacks in between, fasting periods
can be a major challenge. As such,
fasting can increase stress levels and
disrupt sleep. Dehydration, hunger or
lack of sleep during a fasting period
can also lead to headaches.
Fasting can also cause heartburn;
lack of food leads to a reduction in
Fasting ‘easier than
stomach acid, which digests food and
destroys bacteria. But smelling food or
even thinking about it during fasting
periods can trigger the brain into
telling the stomach to produce more
acid, leading to heartburn.
According to 5:2 Diet advocate
Dr Michael Mosley, intermittent
fasting is not recommended for people
with the following conditions:
• Being underweight
• Eating disorders
• Type 1 diabetes
• Type 2 diabetes that is controlled
• Pregnancy (or women
• Recent surgery
• Mental heath conditions
• Fever or illness
• Conditions where Warfarin
Negative feelings and behaviours
reported by Dr John Berardi in his
book Experiments with Intermittent
• Changes in mood
• Extreme hunger
• Low energy
• Obsessive thoughts about food
• Binge eating behaviour
And Medical News Today
noted people interested in trying
intermittent fasting ‘should consider
whether or not it will work with their
lifestyle. Fasting stresses the body, so
it may not be beneficial for people
already dealing with significant
US nutritionist Dr John Berardi
tried six different intermittent
fasting plans over six months
and published his results in
the book Experiments with
Over those six months he:
• Dropped 20 pounds of weight
(from 190 pounds to 170 pounds);
• Reduced his body fat from 10
per cent to four per cent (while
maintaining most of his lean
Importantly, he noted:
‘I accomplished the goals
I set for myself in a way that was
easier and less time consuming than
Berardi summed up his four
1. Trial fasting is a great way to
practice managing hunger. ‘This
is an essential skill for anyone who
wants to get in shape and stay
healthy and fit.’
2. More regular fasting isn’t
objectively better for losing body
fat. ‘While my IF experiments
worked quite well, the
intermittent fasting approach
(bigger meals, less frequently)
didn’t produce better fat loss
than a more conventional diet
approach (smaller meals, more
frequently) might have.’
3. More regular fasting did make it
easier to maintain a lower body
fat percentage. ‘Intermittent
fasting isn’t easy. However, I did
find that using this approach
made it easier for me to maintain
a low body weight and a very
low body fat percentage vs more
4. Intermittent fasting can work, but
it’s not for everyone, nor does
it need to be. ‘In the end, IF is
just one approach, among many
effective ones, for improving
health, performance, and body
Berardi says his results found
that ‘intermittent fasting can
be helpful for in-shape people
who want to really get lean
without following conventional
bodybuilding diets, or for
anyone who needs to learn the
difference between body hunger
and mental hunger.’
However he also explains that
successful nutrition plans,
‘whether they use smaller, more
frequent meals or larger, less
frequent meals all share a few
• Controlling calories. When
calories are controlled, progress is
made. ‘Whether you control them
by eating frequent small meals or
infrequent larger meals is
up to you.’
• Focusing on food quality. Fresh,
unprocessed, nutrient-dense food
is a must, regardless of which
eating style you adopt.
• Regular exercise. Exercise is a
critical part of the equation.
Berardi concludes: ‘Once those
three have been taken care of, it’s a
matter of personal preference and
Everyone has a
bad hair day, so
here are our tips
for some serious
to get your mane
back on track.
From salon-only brands to
organic, sulphate-free, siliconefree,
oil-free, there are hundreds
of haircare products out there.
Everyone’s hair is different, whether
it’s frizz city or thin lizzy – we’re all
just trying to snaffle a good hair day!
Rest assured, we have done all
the hard work to bring you the best
options to suit your hair type, so
you can get your mane looking and
Thankfully, hair responds well to
a little TLC and it’s not too late to
restore your crowning glory to its best
condition. So, let’s begin!
Often some shampoos can be too heavy
for certain types of hair, and contain
ingredients designed to nourish dry
hair, tame curls or get rid of frizz. Oils
are often to blame, but silicones can
sometimes also be a culprit in weighing
your hair down.
It’s good to switch up your hair routine
every once in a while – don’t be afraid
to do a little cross training for hair (even
if you revert back to your old favourite).
So sud up and reap the benefi ts of more
volume, hydration and strength with the
hottest shampoos around town.
The other half of the dynamic duo
is here to ensure you get soft, shiny,
manageable hair. Whether your hair is
dry, frizzy or curly, the top conditioners
are guaranteed to nourish, repair and
volumise even the neediest hair.
Keep in mind that the same
conditioner won’t work for everyone –
choosing the right one can be diffi cult,
but the best way to decide is to consider
the texture of your hair. If you have
thin hair, try a volumising conditioner
and if you have thick, greasy hair,
choose a conditioner formulated with
less oil. Picking the perfect formula can
drastically change your hair.
1. ECOCOCO Shampoo &
Conditioner, $35.95 each, 2. TIGI
copyright Custom Care Moisture
Shampoo and Conditioner, $32
each, 3. Stockholm Sweden REF
Ultimate Repair Shampoo 285ml and
Conditioner 245ml, $33.50 each, 4.
e-smooth Shampoo and Conditioner
250ml, $39.95 each, 5. Aveda damage
remedy restructuring shampoo
250ml and Conditoner 200ml, $50
each, 6. Aveda Cherry Almond
Softening Leave-in Conditioner 200ml,
$30, 7. Schwarzkopf Blonde Purple
Shampoo amd Conditioner, $13
each, 8. Schwarzkopf Q10+ Time
Restore Micellar Shampoo, $27.95,
9. Schwarzkopf Waves Light Splash
1. Jo Malone London Hair Mists
in Wild Bluebell, $75, 2. John
Frieda Frizz Ease Dream Curls
Curl Defining Crème, $16.99, 3.
Hair Rituel by Sisley Volumizing
Spray 150ml, $120, 4. Hair
Rituel by Sisley Precious Hair
Care Oil 100ml, $130, 5. Aveda
Rinseless Refresh Micellar Hair
& Scalp Refresher 200ml, $32,
6. Frank Body Caffeinated Hair
Mask, 125ml, $16.95, 7. Frank
Body Caffeinated Scalp Scrub,
125ml, $18.95, 8. Sachajuan
Straight and Shine Spray
200ml,$40, 9. White Sands
Infinity Finishing Spray, $39.95,
10. White Sands Liquid Texture
Firm Hold Extreme Hairspray,
$39.95, 11. TIGI copyright
Custom Care Volume Finishing
Spray, $27, 12. Pure Elements
Lavender Softening Mask
250ml, $33.50, 13. KhairPep
Transforme Treatment Masque
50ml, $85, 14. Olaplex No.6
Bond Smoother 100ml, $49.95,
15. Davines Oi Oil Hair Butter
250ml, $49.95, 16. Daily
Naturals Detangler 200ml,
$15.95, 17. Apotecari Mane
Event, 60 capsules, $54.95
GET THE RIGHT TOOLS FOR
With any task, it pays to have the right tools for the job.
To create an individual style quickly and precisely, without
damaging your hair, it pays to invest in quality. Always go
for the top of the range (or the top of your budget!)when
buying hairdryers, curling wands or styling irons – and the
new devices are feats of precise engineering, combining
advanced plates, fusion tecnology and mineral infusion,
just to name a few.
Leave-in conditioners and masks can sometimes be like
those second cousins you don’t know very well. But trust
me, you all can be such good friends! So, damaged hair,
meet leave-in conditioner.
Supplementing your hair care regime with regular
intensive treatments will help to keep hair in good shape.
Leave-in conditioner locks in moisture and as a result,
your hair not only becomes stronger, but more fl exible.
Investing in a weekly hair repair treatment leads to less
breakage and more shine, helping to keep those nasty split
ends in tow. Hurrah!
1. EVY PROFESSIONAL Infusalite
Dryer, $210, 2. VS SASSOON Digital
Sensor Hot Air Styler, RRP $99.95,
3. EVY PROFESSIONAL iQ OneGlide,
$299, 4. True Me Original, ceramic
plate hair stylers, $179.
TO FLICK FINE HAIR
TO THE CURB
BE CAUTIOUS WITH
Fine, limp hair can look even more fine and
limp if you have too many layers in your hair.
Instead opt for a blunt cut to create a more
voluminous look to your hair.
PLAY THE PART
For an instant root booster on the run,
simply switch sides of where you naturally
part your hair. To build the most height, try a
deep side part on the opposite side on dry
hair, and fix with a light hairspray.
SEE THE LIGHT
Lightening hair can make locks look thicker
as it “roughs up” the hair cuticle, plumping
the individual hair shafts. Be careful though;
bleaching your hair too much can make it
prone to breakage and split ends, which
makes hair look thinner. Strategically placed
lowlights and highlights are really effective
in adding dimension and texture to hair,
making it look thicker, fuller and healthier.
We’re all about creating a style that needs to last for as
long as possible and Dry Shampoo does an awesome
job of making dirty hair look clean! Great for in-between
washes, especially if you have a fringe, these beauties
remove excess oil and can be a reassuring option if
you’re anxious about breaking the once-a-day washing
habit. It’s also a fave styling product for adding a surefire
Batiste Dry Shampoo Limited Edition Tempt, $12.95
Everything you need to know
about breast augmentation.
Words by Aimée Rodrigues
reasts have been cultural, political and fashion icons, helped launch social
movements and started showbiz careers. They come in all sorts of shapes
and sizes, and thanks to the marvels of modern cosmetic surgery, breast
implant surgery can give you the breasts Mother Nature did not.
Breast implants are available to suit the needs and preferences of
just about every patient. Some women seek implant surgery to correct
congenital or developmental anatomical abnormalities, while others are
striving to repair the toll of age or breastfeeding by restoring their breasts to
a more youthful and upright position. Other women simply want to have a
larger size bust, which is more proportionate to their overall body size.
Implants may also be required to reconstruct a damaged or missing
breast, which has sustained injury, illness or mastectomy. There are
countless reasons women undergo breast augmentation and each one has
unique importance to the individual.
Careful discussion of your expectations and concerns with your chosen
surgeon, along with planning and assessment, can help to achieve a
successful outcome and natural-looking results. You should thoroughly
discuss your goals and motivations with a surgeon you trust and with whom
you feel comfortable.
Listening to your surgeon’s feedback and advice will go a long way in
ensuring expectations and motivations are realistic. Satisfaction with
breast augmentation results ultimately depends on your understanding of
the capabilities and limitations of the procedure.
WHAT MAKES A BEAUTIFUL BREAST?
The assessment of physical beauty varies
enormously across both time and cultures.
What one person considers sexy or beautiful
might be far removed from what another
perceives as attractive. However, there
remain widely held standards of physical
attractiveness, and achieving a positive
aesthetic outcome is crucial to the success of
When it comes to assessing the breasts,
you may be forgiven for thinking it’s all about
size. Indeed, breast augmentation involves
adding volume to the bust, but a satisfactory
augmentation is about a whole lot more than
just adding volume.
‘There is no such thing as the ‘perfect’
breast,’ says British plastic surgeon Dr Paul
Banwell. ‘However, there are four aesthetic
guidelines that can help surgeons deliver a
These guidelines, which refer to the
proportions of the upper and lower breast,
their slope as well as the position of the
nipple were investigated by a group of London
Plastic Surgeons at the University College
and Royal Free Hospitals. In a study entitled
‘Concepts in Aesthetic Breast Dimensions:
Analysis of the Ideal Breast’, Mallucci et al
used computer measurements to examine
the dimensions and proportions of 100 pairs
of natural (non-enhanced) breasts deemed
attractive, and identifi ed four features
common to all.
‘The study revealed that in all cases the
level of the nipple lay at a point 20 degrees
above the horizontal where, on average, the
proportion of the breast below it represented
55 per cent of overall volume of the breast and
above it 45 per cent,’ explains Dr Banwell.
‘In most cases, the upper pole was either
concave or straight, and the lower pole of the
breast was convex, creating a full curve.’
The UK group also analysed images of the
breasts of ordinary women both before and
after implant surgery to establish whether, if
a breast deviates from these measurements,
it becomes less attractive. The answer, they
found, was that it does, regardless of size.
However, Dr Banwell is keen to reinforce the
importance of tailoring breast shape and size to
the individual proportions and circumstances
of each patient.
‘A one-size-fi ts all approach is not
appropriate,’ he says. ‘We have a way of
assessing the aesthetics we’re trying to achieve
with a breast augmentation, but it’s important
to do that via a tailor-made approach.’
This involves detailed measurement, careful
discussion with each patient and judicious
selection of the optimal implant shape, texture
and method of placement.
‘Every breast is different in terms of its shape
and size and in terms of its characteristics,’
says Dr Banwell. ‘The surgeon has to assess
that and then needs to make a judgement
based upon the patient’s wishes in terms of
what they want to achieve versus what can
actually be achieved.’
With so many media infl uences, today it is
even more important to marry your wishes,
as the patient, with what is both realistic
and achievable. ‘It’s all about having realistic
expectations of improvement,’ he says.
‘Communication with the patient is therefore
so important. The patient needs to fully
understand what’s involved, and if there is any
discrepancy between what they want and what
can actually be achieved, it’s the responsibility
of the surgeon to point that out.’
The education and knowledge of patients
has changed in the past decade or so, and they
are becoming increasingly discerning about
the shape and type of implants they want.
However, the most common request remains:
for breasts to be ‘natural-looking’.
With an experienced and skilled surgeon
and the right expectations, you can look
forward to the most natural-looking,
aesthetically pleasing breast augmentations
for your individual requirements.
1. Implant shape
Choosing the right implant
is dependent on your existing
breast size, shape, symmetry and
projection, body type, and your
There is no one breast implant
shape that is best for everyone.
Your surgeon is the best resource
for determining what breast
implant is best for you and your
Round implants are circular with
an even projection of volume.
They are a good choice for those
who want more fullness in the
upper part of the breast and
tend to give greater cleavage.
Many surgeons agree that round
implants are typically the best
choice for those patients with
well-shaped natural breasts who
desire a straightforward breast
Teardrop, or anatomical, implants
more closely resemble the natural
shape of a breast, gradually
sloping downwards to produce an
attractive straight line from the
collarbone to the nipple. Teardrop
implants tend not to be as full as
round implants but because they
are fuller in the lower half they can
also provide greater projection in
proportion to the size of the base,
making them particularly suitable
for women with little natural
breast tissue. Mild elevation of the
breast and the nipple can also be
achieved, making them particularly
suitable for women who have mild
droopy or tuberous breasts.
2. Implant size
Breast implant sizes are designated by
their volume, typically ranging from
90 to 900 cubic centimetres (cc), or
by their weight. One gram of silicone
is equivalent to slightly less than 1ml
(1cc). The higher the number, the
larger the implant.
They are also made with different
diameter bases to suit different widths of
chest wall and with low to high profiles
(amount of forward projection). For this
reason, each manufacturer produces a
number of ‘styles’.
It’s important to take your natural
breast width into consideration. Your
surgeon will measure the base diameter
of your chest to determine the ideal
width of implant. If the implant is
too wide for your chest, you may
get ‘webbing’ between your breasts
(symmastia) or too much ‘side boob’. If
the implant is too narrow, it will not fill
the chest appropriately and be difficult
to create a shapely cleavage.
The choice of implant projection is to
a large extent a personal one. A woman
with adequate breast tissue and a shape
she is happy with may opt for a lowprofile
implant that will simply increase
the size of her breasts. Another patient
seeking to create cleavage, or a patient
with some degree of sag, may prefer
a high-profile implant that can help
achieve these results.
Your surgeon will take into
consideration the width of your chest
and breast tissue and advise you on the
most suitable implant size and style for
your individual anatomy.
3. Implant material
This next crucial factor looks at the
type of fill (saline or silicone) as
well as the shell of the implant wall
(smooth or textured).
Silicone vs saline
Saline and silicone breast implants
both have an outer silicone shell;
however they differ in material,
consistency and techniques used for
placement. Both types of implants
have their own advantages and risks.
Silicone gel-filled implants are
used more commonly in Australia.
Silicone implants contain a cohesive
gel, designed to mimic real breast
tissue. It has a slightly firm, nonrunny
consistency, which can give
a more natural feel. As the gel is
not liquid, the risk of dispersal if the
implant ruptures is minimised. It also
typically maintains its shape better
than a saline implant, especially in
the upper part of the implant.
Saline-filled implants use a
medical-grade saltwater solution,
which makes the implant feel like a
water-bed. This can be controlled to
an extent by the volume of fill in the
implant. If implant rupture occurs,
the saline is absorbed by the body.
However, saline implants feel firmer
than silicone implants and have a
higher risk of visible folds and ripples.
Unlike silicone gel implants,
saline implants can be filled
through a valve during surgery.
Because of this, the insertion of the
implants generally requires a smaller
incision than that associated with
silicone gel implants. The amount
of fill can also be adjusted after
surgery, which is not possible with
fixed silicone gel implants.
Smooth vs textured
Implant shells can be smooth or
textured. Smooth-shelled implants
are easy to insert and may make the
breast move and feel more natural
than a textured shell in certain
patients. However, they have
increased risk of capsular contracture
(hardening of the breast), which is a
common reason for re-operation.
Textured implants have a thicker
shell and the very nature of their
surface means they can grab onto
and adhere to the surrounding
tissue, causing less friction between
the implant and breast pocket and
therefore helping to reduce the risk
of capsular contracture. Many
surgeons also believe it offers them
greater control over the ultimate shape
of the breast.
Round implants come in smooth and
textured shells, but anatomical implants
have textured surfaces only to allow for
better integration with the surrounding
breast tissue. The implant may still flip
or move and distort the appearance
of the breast, so the surgeon must be
experienced with this type of implant.
The polyurethane foam coated
implant provides a texture specifically
designed to reduce rates of capsular
contracture. The foam coating means
the collagen fibres around the implant
do not line up, and are less likely to
slide over each other and contract.
Instead, the fibres assemble in a circular
pattern around the foam and are unable
to form a hardened capsule. There are
some differences in the surgical plan of
foam-coated implants; for example the
pocket size generally needs to be bigger
Regardless of the type of implant
women choose, the shape, texture and
size can be customised to reflect her
individual body type and aesthetic goals.
4. Incision site
The three main incision options are the
inframammary crease (under the breast
where it meets the chest), periareolar
(around the nipple) and transaxillary
(inside the armpit).
The inframammary incision is by far
the most common breast augmentation
incision used today, made in the
crease under the breast close to the
inframammary fold. The surgeon creates
a pocket for the breast implant, which
is slid up through the incision, then
positioned behind the nipple.
This incision offers the best exposure
for visualisation and allows the implant
to be placed over, partially under or
completely under the chest wall muscle.
The scar is hidden in the crease under
For the periareolar incision, an incision
is made just beyond the areola, which
is the darker area of skin surrounding
the nipple. The incision should be
made at the very edge of the areola
where the dark tissue meets the lighter
breast tissue, which makes the scar
Similar to the inframammary incision,
the periareolar incision allows the
surgeon to work close to the breast.
It is possible for the surgeon to easily
and precisely place the breast implants
in various positions in relation to the
chest muscle. However, this is the only
incision that involves cutting through
breast tissue and ducts, and sensitivity
in the nipple may be reduced.
The transaxillary incision is made
in the natural crease of the armpit
and a channel is created down to the
breast. This may be performed with an
endoscope (a small tube with a surgical
light and camera in the end) to provide
visibility. The implant is inserted and
moved through the channel into a
The greatest advantage of an
underarm breast augmentation incision
is that no scar is left on the breasts. The
scar is virtually invisible in the armpit
fold and lack of tension generally makes
for straightforward healing.
The transaxillary site is relatively
far from the breast, where the surgeon
needs to create a pocket for the implant,
so visibility is limited. There is also a
higher incidence of the implant being
positioned too high and a greater risk of
breast asymmetry after surgery.
5. Implant placement
The placement of breast implants has a
significant impact on the final outcome
of breast augmentation and therefore it
requires individual consideration.
Experienced surgeons base their
implant placement decisions on factors
such as the patient’s quantity of breast
tissue, natural breast size and symmetry,
dimension and shape of the chest wall,
amount of subcutaneous fat and quality
of breast skin.
Generally, there are three placement
options: subglandular (in front of the
muscle), submuscular (behind the muscle)
and dual plane (partially under the
muscle). There are pros and cons for
The subglandular pocket is created
between the breast tissue and the pectoral
muscle. This position resembles the
plane of normal breast tissue and the
implant is placed in front of the muscle.
Sometimes the implant is covered by a
thin membrane, the fascia, which lies
on top of the muscle. This is called
This position is suited to patients
who have sufficient breast tissue to
cover the top of the implant. This
procedure is typically faster and may be
more comfortable for the patient than
submuscular placement. There is generally
less post-operative pain and a shorter
recovery period because the chest muscles
have not been disturbed during surgery.
The implant also tends to move more
naturally in this position.
However, subglandular breast implants
may be more visible, especially if the
patient has little breast tissue, little body
fat and thin skin.
With subglandular implants, there
tends to be more of a pronounced
‘roundness’ to the breasts, which may
look less natural than those placed
under the muscle, but this is a matter
of personal preference.
The implant is placed under the pectoralis
major muscle after some release of the
inferior muscular attachments. Most of the
implant is positioned under the muscle.
This position can create a natural-looking
contour at the top of the breast in thin
patients and those with very little breast
tissue. The implant is fully covered, which
helps to camouflage the edges of the implant,
as well as rippling. With this placement, data
has shown there is less chance of capsular
There may be more post-operative
discomfort and a longer recovery period. The
implants may appear high at first and take
longer to ‘drop’.
This is where the implant is placed partially
beneath the pectoral muscle in the upper
pole, where the implant edges tend to be
most visible, while the lower half of the
implant is in the subglandular plane. This
placement is best suited to patients who
have insufficient tissue to cover the implant
at the top of the breast but who need the
bottom of the implant to fully expand the
lower half of the breast due to sag or a tight
crease under the breast.
This position minimises the rippling and
edge effect in thin patients while avoiding
abnormal contours in the lower half of the
breast. Generally, this placement is able to
achieve a more natural shape to the upper
portion of the breast instead of the ‘upper
roundness’ that can be more common
with subglandular implants. However, it
involves more complex surgery, which if
not performed correctly may result in
visible deformities when the pectoral
muscles are contracted.
what are the risks?
While breast augmentation is
typically a predictable procedure,
all surgery carries some level of
risk. Complications arising from
breast augmentation can include
Capsular contracture, or hardening
of the breast, is thought to be the
most common complication of breast
implant surgery. It can occur at any
time but more commonly in the
months immediately after surgery.
During surgery, a pocket is made
for the implant in the breast tissue.
After the implant has been inserted,
the body naturally forms a capsule
of fibrous tissue around the implant.
This lining, or capsule, is formed by
the body’s living tissue, and is the
body’s natural response. The capsule
allows the implant to look and feel
quite natural. In some cases, however,
the capsule begins to tighten, causing
a shrink-wrap effect and squeezing the
implant that it surrounds. Depending
on the severity, the breast can feel
firm or hard, become distorted and
It is not actually the implant that
has hardened – the shrinking of
the capsule compresses the implant
and causes it to feel hard, but if the
implant is removed it is still in its
original soft state.
Though the exact causes of
capsular contracture are unknown,
there are factors that may lead to
this complication, including seroma
(the development of extra fluid
around the implant), haematoma,
infection and smoking. Another
contributing factor is the placement
of the implant above the chest
muscle. When the implant is
placed below the muscle, capsular
contracture is said to be typically less
likely to occur.
To treat capsular contracture, there
are both surgical and non-surgical
options, although generally most
cases of capsular contracture will
require secondary surgery to remove
the implant. If the implants are
replaced, to prevent reoccurrence a
new pocket should be made as fresh
tissue needs to be in contact with
It’s important to understand that
breast implants have a limited life
span and, before going ahead with
breast augmentation, patients must
accept that more surgery may be
required initially or in the future to
address complications, remove or
replace the implants.
Additionally, the size of the original
implants may become less suited to
a woman’s body over time, due to
hormones, pregnancies, weight gain
Infection is a serious risk of any
surgery and occurs when wounds
become contaminated with
microorganisms, such as bacteria
or fungi. When infection occurs, it
generally appears within six weeks
of the procedure. Most infections
can be treated with antibiotics,
but in the worst cases the implant
may need to be removed and the
infection eliminated before the
implant is replaced.
It’s important to keep an eye out for
signs of infection, which may include
redness at the site, fatigue and fever.
Increased pain and swelling are also
typical signs of infection but, because
these symptoms are typical of all
breast surgeries, they can be difficult
Rippling occurs when the filling
inside the breast implant moves,
creating a winkle or fold on the outer
shell of the implant which then
can be felt by the patient, or which
becomes outwardly visible. Rippling
can also occur when adhesion to the
envelope restricts its movement.
Various factors govern the
likelihood of rippling, including the
implant type, texture and position.
It occurs less with silicone gel-filled
implants, smooth-surfaced implants
and those that are positioned under
the chest muscle.
If it occurs, the appearance of
rippling is dependent on the patient
– their physique and the thickness
and quality of their skin. If there is
little muscle or fatty tissue to cover
the implant, any rippling that results
will be more noticeable. Rippling
generally appears on the outer and
bottom sides of the breast and in
Displacement refers to the implants
moving out of their desired position,
and is more prone in women who
have teardrop-shaped or very
high-profile implants. Displacement
may occur due to the implant being
misplaced in the tissue pocket, or
from excessively stretched tissue,
or trauma. Displacement can occur
at any time after the procedure,
and will generally need to be
Depending on where the implant
is placed, breast augmentation may
interfere with the ability of an x-ray
to ‘see’ all the breast tissue, and
therefore can hinder the success
of a mammogram. Women with
breast implants should therefore
choose a facility that has technicians
experienced in obtaining reliable
mammograms from those who have
had breast augmentation.
Repeated studies have shown
there is no delay in the diagnosis
of breast cancer in women with
breast implants compared to women
Women should inform technicians
of the age of their implants before
mammography, as the age of the
implant increases the risk of rupture
Recently, there have been media
reports about a rare type of cancer
linked to breast implants: anaplastic
large cell carcinoma (ALCL).
Breast-implant associated ALCL
is not the same as breast cancer;
it is a rare type of lymphoma that
develops in the fluid surrounding
breast implants, not in the breast
Current expert opinion is that the
risk of contracting breast-implant
associated ALCL is about one in
5,000 women with implants. By
comparison, the risk of breast cancer
is one in eight.
The majority of cases are cured
with the removal of implants and
the fibrous capsule around them from
If there are changes in your breasts
associated with breast implants, and
especially if there is general swelling
or a lump, contact your specialist for
is breast implant
surgery right for you
The psychology behind the decision to have breast implants
is one of the most important aspects of the procedure. A
good candidate for breast augmentation is mentally and
physically stable and understands the reality of what this
surgery can achieve.
Often women seek cosmetic surgery as a means of fulfilling
emotional needs or resolving problematic body image issues. Any
cosmetic procedure affects the patient on a psychological level
just as much as on a physical one and it is important to remember
that if a woman with low self-esteem elects to undergo surgery
in the hope she will feel better about herself, she is likely to feel
disappointed with her surgery. While breast augmentation can
help boost a woman’s confidence, she will not benefit from surgery
if she thinks it is the cure-all for every aspect of her life.
Many women view their breasts as a vital component of their
gender identity, as the female breast is one of the prime symbols
of femininity, motherhood and sensuality. However, women are
notoriously critical of their bodies and some may be especially so
of their breasts. When contemplating breast augmentation, ensure
it’s for the right reasons. CBM
DID YOU KNOW
Breast augmentation has increased by more than 200% since
1997, according to stats from the American Society for
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.
Possibly the earliest representation of breasts in art is the Venus
of Willendorf, a tiny 11.1cm limestone statuette thought to date
from 24,000-22,000 BC. She was found in 1908 by archaeologist
Josef Szombathy at a Paleolithic site near Willendorf.
Human breasts function differently to those of other primates.
In other primates, the breasts grow only when the female is
producing milk. When the non-human primate has weaned her
young, her breasts flatten back down. In humans, the breasts
develop during a female’s adolescence, usually well before
pregnancy, and stay enlarged throughout her life.
Legend says that Hercules became immortal after he drank the
milk of the divine goddess Hera while she was sleeping. When
she woke, and realised he was not her own child, she drew her
breast away with such force that the milk spurted into the heavens
and created the Milky Way.
A fourth century prostitute was said to have been spared the
death penalty by baring her breasts. When it seemed the verdict
of her trial would be unfavourable, she removed her clothing. The
judges were so impressed by their beauty that they acquitted her.
It is believed the word ‘Amazon’ was derived from the Greek
‘a-mazos’, which means ‘without breast’. In Greek mythology, it
is said that the Amazons had their right breast removed so they
would be able to use a bow and arrow more freely and throw
spears without the physical limitation and obstruction.
No two breasts are exactly the same size; usually the left is larger.
From infancy to just before puberty, there is no difference
between the female and male breasts.
Although unusual, extra or ‘supernumerary’ nipples are not really
that rare, occurring in one out of 18 people. Pop stars Carrie
Underwood and Lily Allen and actor Mark Wahlberg all have a
third nipple. Anne Boleyn, the wife of King Henry VIII, is said to
have had a third nipple or even a third breast.
When it comes to milk production, size doesn’t matter. The milkproducing
structures are the same in all women. Just because one
woman’s breasts are bigger doesn’t necessarily mean she would
have or make more milk.
By answering these questions honestly
and reviewing them with your doctor,
you will become much clearer about
whether breast surgery is a good choice
for you psychologically and emotionally.
Why do you want to have
breast augmentation surgery?
How do you feel about your
body image right now?
Is anyone prompting you to
have the surgery?
Do you suffer from an emotional
or psychological disorder?
Did you recently experience a
stressful event or crisis, like a
divorce or the loss of a loved one?
Are you a perfectionist, and do you
find minor flaws with many parts of
your body and with your life?
Would you be prepared to handle
a complication if something goes
wrong after surgery?
?SUGAR. IT’S BEEN
DESCRIBED AS TOXIC,
SHOULD WE QUIT IT
Sugar is the villain of the day in the health
and wellness sector. Slowly but surely fats
are shedding their bad-boy status, and
sugar is taking over as the most detrimental
dietary ingredient to our waistlines, health and
We outline the bad rap sugar has been
attracting and look into the question on
everybody’s taste buds – should we banish it
from our diet once and for all?
The book Sweet Poison: Why Sugar is
Making Us Fat by David Gillespie, published
in 2008, marked a turning point in the way
we consider sugar consumption. In the book,
Gillespie investigated the relationship between
sugar, the ever-increasing obesity rates of the
Western world and the most prevalent diseases
in the 21st century.
It was Gillespie’s personal story, however,
that set people on the path of quitting
sugar. From being 40kg overweight,
he immediately started losing weight,
and kept it off, by cutting sugar
(specifically fructose) from his diet.
He claims sugar is addictive – a fact
exploited by food manufacturers –
and a rare resource to which we don’t
have an in-built ‘off switch’, meaning
we can keep eating it without feeling
full, leading to weight gain and a
myriad of health effects.
One study by Nicole Avena,
Pedro Rada and Bartley Hoebel
(2008) looked into the addictive
properties of sugar. It examined the
physiological response to sugar intake
in rats, and how the rats behaved
when ‘on’ and ‘off’ sugar.
‘Food addiction seems plausible
because brain pathways that evolved
to respond to natural rewards are also
activated by addictive drugs,’ the
report states. ‘Sugar is noteworthy as
a substance that releases opioids and
dopamine and thus might be expected
to have addictive potential.’
After a month ‘on’ sugar, the
animals showed a series of behaviours
similar to the signs of drug abuse.
‘These are categorised as ‘bingeing’,
meaning unusually large bouts of
intake, opiate-like ‘withdrawal’
indicated by signs of anxiety and
behavioural depression and ‘craving’
measured during sugar abstinence as
enhanced responding for sugar.’
Is it really
Sugar has been linked to high
blood sugar, cardiovascular
disease mortality, diabetes and
An article published in the
online journal Open Heart
found sugars are probably more
instrumental in increasing the
risk of hypertension (high blood
pressure) and cardiovascular
disease (CVD), as compared to
dietary sodium (salt).
‘Compelling evidence from basic
science, population studies, and
clinical trials implicate sugars, and
particularly the monosaccharide
fructose, as playing a major role in
the development of hypertension,’
the researchers state. ‘Moreover,
evidence suggests that sugars in
general and fructose in particular
may contribute to overall
cardiovascular risk through a
variety of mechanisms.’
Furthermore, a study published
in the JAMA Internal Medicine
journal, conducted by researchers
at the Division for Heart Disease
and Stroke Prevention at the
Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, associated a
high added sugar intake with a
heightened risk of CVD.
The study found that people
who consumed between 17 and 21
per cent of their daily calories from
added sugar exhibited a 38 percent
higher risk of CVD mortality,
compared to those whose added
sugar intake was maintained at
around eight percent. For those
whose daily intake of added sugar
was more than 21 percent of their
daily calories, they had double
the risk of CVD mortality. And,
in participants who consumed 25
percent of their daily calories from
added sugar, their risk of CVD
mortality was tripled.
The anti-ageing world is full of
talk about telomeres – or the
protective DNA that caps the end
of cell chromosomes. The common
consensus is the longer the telomeres,
the longer the quality of life. The
trick? Telomeres continuously shorten
as our cells replicate, getting shorter
and shorter as we age.
Ongoing research is furiously
exploring the possibilities in
lengthening telomeres to reduce the
rate of ageing or ways to prevent
their ever-persistent shortening. But
sugar, according to scientists from
the University of California-San
Francisco, is one sure-fire way to
shorten your telomeres before their
time. The research, led by Prof. Elissa
Epel, assessed 5,309 participants
and found those who drank larger
amounts of sugary soda tended to
have shorter telomeres in their white
blood cells, making them susceptible
to inflammation and chronic disease.
‘Regular consumption of sugarsweetened
sodas might influence
disease development,’ says Epel. ‘Not
only by straining the body’s metabolic
control of sugars but also through
accelerated cellular ageing of tissues.’
At a molecular level, sugar is a
crystalline carbohydrate. There are
many different types of sugar –
glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose
and sucrose (sucrose is your typical
table sugar, and is composed of
glucose and fructose).
Some of these sugars occur
naturally in fruits, vegetables and
other food groups. However, it’s
the added sugars, used to enhance
flavour and add sweetness, that
have been blamed as a culprit in
a myriad of health issues. These
sugars are usually delivered in the
form of sucrose or fructose corn
syrup, and it is fructose, more than
glucose, that is receiving the most
The highest quantities of added
sugars are found in soft drinks,
fruit juices, cakes, chocolate and
desserts. According to Medical
News Today, just a single can
of cola can contain up to seven
teaspoons of added sugar, while
an average-sized chocolate bar can
contain up to six teaspoons.
At present, the World
Health Organisation’s (WHO)
recommended daily dose of sugar
is less than 10 percent of your
daily total energy intake. WHO
suggests a further reduction to
less than five percent for beneficial
Many nutritionists recommend
against consuming more than 13
teaspoons a day.
So, are we all junkies?
According to the Harvard School of Public Health, the average American
consumes 22 teaspoons of added sugar a day, equating to an extra 350
calories. Scarily, these 22 mouthfuls of sweetness are easily consumed –
added sugar is difficult to avoid.
Gillespie claims food manufacturers are taking advantage of our
collective sugar addiction and are ‘lacing’ non-sweet products – such
as bread, sauces, soups and cereals – with the poison to ensure we stay
hooked. And he’s not alone in this thinking.
Dr Robert Lustig, a paediatric endocrinologist at the University of
California-San Francisco and author of the book Fat Chance: The Hidden
Truth About Sugar, says the food industry is purposefully sweetening up
‘The food industry has made sugar into a diet staple because they know
when they do, you buy more,’ he told The Guardian in 2013. ‘This is their
hook. If some unscrupulous cereal manufacturer went out and laced your
breakfast cereal with morphine to get you to buy more, what would you
think of that? They do it with sugar instead.’
raw vs white vs brown sugars
Hopeful sugar lovers have ventured the suggestion that brown sugar or
raw sugar might indeed by healthier than the super-refined white sugar
seen on most coffee-shop tables. Unfortunately, their hopes are dashed.
Although they go through slightly different processes, raw, white and
brown sugar are derived from the same source and hold very little
nutritional difference – ie, all are equally bad for you.
Sugar crystals are made from the juice of sugar cane or sugar beet.
The juice is filtered, evaporated, boiled – which produces molasses
– centrifuged and dried to yield raw sugar. White, or refined sugar,
undergoes further washing, bleaching, filtering, processing and drying.
Brown sugar is created through the addition of molasses to refined
Certainly, the myriad of health
problems associated with
high sugar intake is enough to
quieten anyone’s sugar cravings,
but is it healthy to eliminate
sugar from our diet completely?
Sugar is found naturally in fruits,
vegetables and dairy products,
which means that to eradicate it
completely from our diet would
leave us with little other than
meat and fats.
‘I am quite comfortable with
dietary sugars if they come from
whole foods such as fresh fruits
and vegetables, as the sugar
is diluted with water, fibre and
other nutrients,’ health expert
Professor Kerin O’Dea from
the Sansom Institute for Health
Research told the ABC.
As for added sugar, the
alternative options – in the form
of artificial sweeteners – are not
necessarily any better for you.
A recent study published in the
journal Nature found artificial
sweeteners interfere with gut
bacteria, increasing the chances
of obesity and diabetes.
‘Our findings suggest that
artificial sweeteners may
have directly contributed
to enhancing the exact
epidemic that they themselves
were intended to fight,’
the researchers from the
Department of Immunology
at the Weizmann Institute of
Science in Israel state.
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02 9327 7728
mobile 0410 627 767
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Shop 8, 401 - 407 New South Head Rd,
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Double Bay NSW 2028
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