Talibanrörelsens uppkomst och drivkrafter - Svenska ...

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Talibanrörelsens uppkomst och drivkrafter - Svenska ...

FOI-R--3243--SE

Summary

The aim to this study is to give an in depth description of those destructive

forces, inside and outside of Afghanistan, that oppose the international

intervention and contend its goals. Over the last few years, the Afghan Taliban

have expanded their area of operations to include almost the whole country.

Factors driving this development have been the increasing weakness of the

Afghan government as much as the growing strength of the Taliban. As long as

corruption permeates the country‟s institutions, the Taliban will – in spite of the

terror methods they often use - remain a political factor to be taken into account.

Another prerequisite is support from Pakistan, mainly through elements within

the security service.

The insurgence in Afghanistan is fighting the government, as well as its

international allies. It is composed by various branches. The Quetta shura led by

Mullah Omar is the largest and most important. The Haqqani network recognizes

Mullah Omar as its leader but has a distinct character, through its close

collaboration with Pakistan‟s security service, its more internationalist approach

and its links to al-Qaeda. The Hezb-e Islami (Gulbuddin), HIG, on the other

hand, operates independently, albeit often in cooperation with the Taliban on the

local level. All these movements are based in safe havens in Pakistani areas

bordering Afghanistan, in particular the semiautonomous FATA region.

In FATA, a separate Pakistani Taliban movement has also come forward, which

now - even if it collaborates with the Afghan organizations – primarily attacks

symbols of the Pakistani state and has turned out to be more extremist than the

original Taliban. Both the Afghan Taliban movements and their Pakistani

counterpart collaborate with a number of Islamist jihad movements based mainly

in Southern Punjab. Thus, the Taliban insurgence has become a transnational

phenomenon which can no longer be treated as an Afghan internal affair.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Pakistan, Pashtunistan, Taliban, jihad movements,

negotiations, corruption, criminal networks

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