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INTRO (7) NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual INTRO (7 ...

INTRO (7) NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual INTRO (7 ...

NLS (7)

NLS (7) NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual NLS (7) override the system default using the individual LC_∗ variables. • If the LC_ALL environment variable is not set, a value for a particular LC_∗ environment variable is not set, and the value of the LANG environment variable is not set, the locale for that specific category defaults to the C locale. The C or POSIX locale assumes the ASCII character set and defines information for the six categories. Character Sets Acharacter is any symbol used for the organization, control, or representation of data. Agroup of such symbols used to describe a particular language make upacharacter set. It is the encoding values in a character set that provide the interface between the system and its input and output devices. The following character sets are supported in NetBSD: ASCII ISO 8859 family Unicode The American Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII) standard specifies 128 Roman characters and control codes, encoded in a 7-bit character encoding scheme. Industry-standard character sets specified by the ISO/IEC 8859 standard. The standard is divided into 15 numbered parts, with each part specifying broad script similarities. Examples include Western European, Central European, Arabic, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Greek, and Turkish. The character sets use an 8-bit character encoding scheme which is compatible with the ASCII character set. The Unicode character set is the full set of known abstract characters of all real-world scripts. It can be used in environments where multiple scripts must be processed simultaneously. Unicode is compatible with ISO 8859-1 (Western European) and ASCII. Many character encoding schemes are available for Unicode, including UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32. These encoding schemes are multi-byte encodings. The UTF-8 encoding scheme uses 8-bit, variable-width encodings which is compatible with ASCII. The UTF-16 encoding scheme uses 16-bit, variable-width encodings. The UTF-32 encoding scheme using 32-bit, fixed-width encodings. Font Sets Afont set contains the glyphs to be displayed on the screen for a corresponding character in a character set. Adisplay must support a suitable font to display a character set. If suitable fonts are available to the X server, then X clients can include support for different character sets. xterm(1) includes support for Unicode with UTF-8 encoding. xfd(1) is useful for displaying all the characters in an X font. The NetBSD wscons(4) console provides support for loading fonts using the wsfontload(8) utility. Currently, only fonts for the ISO8859-1 family of character sets are supported. Internationalization for Programmers To facilitate translations of messages into various languages and to make the translated messages available to the program based on a user’s locale, it is necessary to keep messages separate from the programs and provide them in the form of message catalogs that a program can access at run time. Access to locale information is provided through the setlocale(3) and nl_langinfo(3) interfaces. See their respective man pages for further information. Message source files containing application messages are created by the programmer and converted to message catalogs. These catalogs are used by the application to retrieve and display messages, as needed. NetBSD supports two message catalog interfaces: the X/Open catgets(3) interface and the Uniforum gettext(3) interface. The catgets(3) interface has the advantage that it belongs to a standard which is well supported. Unfortunately the interface is complicated to use and maintenance of the catalogs is difficult. NetBSD 3.0 February 21, 2007 5

NLS (7) NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual NLS (7) The implementation also doesn’t support different character sets. The gettext(3) interface has not been standardized yet, however itisbeing supported by an increasing number of systems. It also provides many additional tools which make programming and catalog maintenance much easier. Support for Multi-byte Encodings Some character sets with multi-byte encodings may be difficult to decode, or may contain state (i.e., adjacent characters are dependent). ISO C specifies a set of functions using ’wide characters’ which can handle multi-byte encodings properly. The behaviour of these functions is affected by the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale. Awide character is specified in ISO C as being a fixed number of bits wide and is stateless. There are two types for wide characters: wchar_t and wint_t. wchar_t is a type which can contain one wide character and operates like ’char’ type does for one character. wint_t can contain one wide character or WEOF (wide EOF). There are functions that operate on wchar_t, and substitute for functions operating on ’char’. See wmemchr(3) and towlower(3) for details. There are some additional functions that operate on wchar_t. See wctype(3) and wctrans(3) for details. Wide characters should be used for all I/O processing which may rely on locale-specific strings. The two primary issues requiring special use of wide characters are: • All I/O is performed using multibyte characters. Input data is converted into wide characters immediately after reading and data for output is converted from wide characters to multi-byte encoding immediately before writing. Conversion is controlled by the mbstowcs(3), mbsrtowcs(3), wcstombs(3), wcsrtombs(3), mblen(3), mbrlen(3), and mbsinit(3). • Wide characters are used directly for I/O, using getwchar(3), fgetwc(3), getwc(3), ungetwc(3), fgetws(3), putwchar(3), fputwc(3), putwc(3), and fputws(3). They are also used for formatted I/O functions for wide characters such as fwscanf(3), wscanf(3), swscanf(3), fwprintf(3), wprintf(3), swprintf(3), vfwprintf(3), vwprintf(3), and vswprintf(3), and wide character identifier of %lc, %C, %ls, %S for conventional formatted I/O functions. SEE ALSO gencat(1), xfd(1), xterm(1), catgets(3), gettext(3), nl_langinfo(3), setlocale(3), wsfontload(8) BUGS This man page is incomplete. NetBSD 3.0 February 21, 2007 6

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