1 month ago

African-American Youth in The Juvenile Justice System

African-American Youth in The Juvenile Justice System

FIGURE 6-1 Involvement

FIGURE 6-1 Involvement of juveniles at various stages of the juvenile justice system, by race, 1996/1997. Note: Delinquency = acts committed by a juvenile that if committed by an adult could result in criminal prosecution. Delinquency referrals = includes not only arrests, but also all other sources of referral to juvenile court, such as social service agencies, schools, and parents. Petitioned = cases sent for formal processing in juvenile court; formal processing includes adjudicatory hearings and waiver hearings. Source: Snyder and Sickmund (1999); Stahl et al. (1999). In a report produced for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Hamparian, Leiber, and colleagues (1997) described the extent of disproportionate minority confinement of juveniles in state facilities. The report focused on six decision points (arrest, secure detention, confinement in secure juvenile correctional facilities, in adult jails, and in adult lockups, and transfer to criminal court), using state data from the late 1980s and early 1990s. Table 6-1 presents findings on the over-representation of minority youth, based on data from the Hamparian et al. (1997) report.1 Hamparian et al. (1997) created an index score, which represents the ratio of the number of youth involved at that decision point divided by the state's total juvenile population ages 10-17.2 An index number of 1.00 means that minorities are represented in the juvenile or criminal justice system in the same proportion as they are represented in the population. An index number larger than 1.0 indicates that minority youth are overrepresented; for example, an index number of 2.0 means that minority youth are represented at two times their representation in the juvenile population. The greater the index number, the larger the extent of overrepresentation. 1. The panel expresses appreciation to Amie Schuck and Jorge Chavez of The University at Albany for their assistance with these analyses. 2. It should be noted that for some states, information was not available for the entire state. In these cases, the at-risk population was calculated for the designated area. Page 50 of 114

TABLE 6-1 Overrepresentation of Minorities Percent Minority Population Arrest Secure Detention Secure Corrections Adult Jail Adult Lockup Transfer Criminal Court All minority youth a Mean 23.2 1.7 2.9 2.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 index 1.8 score b Median 17.2 1.7 2.6 2.4 1.7 1.3 1.9 index 1.8 score N 46 37 44 40 22 10 22 5 Black youth Mean 15.4 2.2 3.2 3.3 1.8 2.6 3.1 index 2.8 score Median 9.2 2.2 3.2 3.2 1.9 1.8 1.9 index 2.4 score N 40 30 32 33 16 11 15 8 Probation Note: Some of the numbers in this table differ slightly from those reported in Hamparian and Leiber (1997) for unknown reasons. a Minority youth include black, Hispanic, American Indian, and Asian or Pacific Islander. b Index score = ratio of number of youth involved at that decision point divided by the at-risk population. Source: Based on information from Hamparian et al. (1997) Table 6-1 clearly reveals that minority youth are overrepresented at all stages of the juvenile justice system included in this analysis. This table also shows that the disparity for black youth is higher, in all cases except one, than for all minorities. This suggests that it is the disparity for blacks that is driving the disproportionate minority representation. This also suggest that some other minorities are underrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Using these data, the smallest index number is 1.6 for arrests of all minority juveniles across the 37 states reporting data on arrests. For black youth, the index for arrests across the 30 states that reported separately for blacks is 2.2. The small number of states that reported data separately for Hispanics, American Indian, and Asian/ Pacific Islanders made it impossible to compare their indices to those for blacks. However, the data suggest that Hispanic and American Indian juveniles experience overrepresentation in the juvenile and adult justice systems, whereas Asian and Pacific Islander juveniles tend to be underrepresented. The above information is presented in an attempt to make concrete the extent of disproportionate representation of racial minorities; however, there are several limitations to these findings that need to be acknowledged. One of the difficulties involved in trying to ascertain the extent of disproportionality in the juvenile justice system is that laws and practices vary by state, and this makes state-by-state comparisons problematic. Thus, there are no standard reporting mechanisms that are Page 51 of 114

Latino and Hispanic Youth in the Juvenile Justice System
Native American Youth In The Juvenile Justice System
Juvenile Justice System and Risk Factor Data - Illinois Criminal ...
Understanding the Juvenile Justice System and IDEIA - The Family ...
Juvenile Justice in Arkansas - It's Showtime!
ReEngineering Juvenile Justice
Juvenile Justice System Improvement - JDAI Helpdesk
A SYSTEM PRIORITY - Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice
2006 National Report - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency ...
Landmark Cases in US Juvenile Justice (Pennsylvania)
Juvenile Case Management System - Texas Juvenile Justice ...
Landmark Cases in US Juvenile Justice (New Jersey)
Building Community for Youth in the Juvenile Justice and ... - IIRP
Juvenile Justice Spring 08
Juvenile Justice Handbook - Texas Attorney General
The Comeback States - National Juvenile Justice Network
Presnt. on Juvenile Justice System Ordinance, 2000..pdf - Reunite