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Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n° 3-2016





































Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 15



by Luigi Colombo and Barbara Marana

The paper deals some experimental

benchmarks regarding urban environment

modelling. The employed techniques,

which automatically collected point clouds

and created the DSM, are terrestrial laser

scanning, with a direct GNSSRTK

geo-referencing, and UAS imagery.

Fig. 3 - A perspective view of S. Pellegrino Terme inside the point model.

The technological innovation

in survey

techniques has nowadays

led to the development of

automated systems, with combined

multi-functional sensors

including laser scanning, GNSS

receivers and imaging. These

devices can perform on field

metric operations, ranging from

spatial modelling, geo-referencing

of objects in an assigned

coordinate system, fast spatial

reconstructions of interiors or

exteriors and roofs, with the

Fig. 1 - Nadir and oblique images.

related thematic information

(colour, materials, decay).

The automatic sensors allow

to mainly collect point clouds,

from the ground, from road

vehicles or small remotely piloted

aircraft (Unmanned Arial

Systems). This redundant mass

of data simplifies the survey

process, increasing productivity

for 3D modelling and derived

sub-products (vector-raster),

such as perspective views, elevations,

orthophotos, horizontal

and vertical sections, thematic

maps, etc.

Present technologies and


Point clouds are today the first

source of spatial information

(also texturized with colours or

reflected energy). The clouds

are generated by automated

survey techniques, without

contact, and represent the basis

for creating the so-called Digital

Surface Models.

Terrestrial and air-transported

laser scanning has been till now

the main way to generate online

point clouds; more recently,

the research in Computer

Vision has deeply transformed

imaging survey, allowing the

off-line extraction of point

clouds from image blocks. One

speaks in this case of Dense

Image Matching, referring to

the software procedures which

guarantee this technologic enhancement.

It is known that the point cloud

collection does not occur in a

deterministic form, as manual

surveys (the meaningful points,

only), but in a stochastic way,

with the surveyed points which

become the nodes of a sampling

grid superimposed over the objects.

The grid step depends on selected

spatial resolution, measurement

distance, laser beam

impact (normality, obliquity)

and morphologic surface irregularities.

The transition from the grid

nodes to the interest points is

then performed by applying local

interpolation processes.

Much is known and has been

written these years about scanning

systems and associated

16 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016


Fig. 2 - Direct geo-referencing for scanning survey.

procedures, much less, perhaps,

about the bi-centennial imaging

survey. This technique was

indeed overcome at the end

of the previous century by the

advent and fast development of

laser scanning and only recently

it is coming back thanks to

Computer Vision support and

to remotely piloted aircrafts.

However, this cannot be considered

a return to the past but

rather a “back to the future” (as

written by someone), because

the technological scenario has

now significantly changed (processing

algorithms and so on).

Laser technology nevertheless

provides the relevant advantage

(thanks to the measured stationpoint

distance) that just one

single ray has to be reflected

from an object point for its 3D

determination; on the contrary,

imagery survey needs at least

two homologous reflected rays

(from different sensor locations)

for each object point and some

measured information on the

point model, as well.

Additionally, if problems arise

in laser scanning applications,

regarding reflective, transparent

and translucent surfaces (metals,

marble, paints, glass, etc.),

also for imagery approach the

surveyed objects must present a

meaningful geometry and thematic

characters, such as nonuniform

or not smooth and

monochrome surfaces and few


These conditions are necessary

to allow automatic recognition

of homologous points among

corresponding frames: the

process is performed by means

of digital image correlation algorithms,

with the support of

epipolar geometry to speed up

the search.

The acquisition phase registers a

block of photos, longitudinally

and transversally overlapped according

to the type of selected

survey (2D or 3D) (fig. 1):

aerial nadir or oblique images

are collected through horizontal

strips (ground survey) together

with normal or oblique shootings

belonging to vertical strips

(façade survey).

The aerial carrier brings survey

sensors and navigational devices

(GNSS+INS) for recording realtime

position and attitude of

the photo-camera: this enables

both autonomous flights, via

pre-defined way-points, and a

geo-referencing process based on

GNSS-RTK or PPK techniques

(the so-called Direct


Remotely piloted small

aircrafts (UAS) are vertical

take-off and landing carriers,

with hovering functions (the

so-called multi-rotorcrafts), or

fixed-wing aircrafts. All systems

are equipped with a stabilized

platform to overcome spatial

rotations produced by flight,

air turbulence or wind, and can

carry a payload, that is the sensors

for survey.

The UASs allow lower flightheights,

compared with

manned aircrafts; so, a larger

image scale is collected, with

the same value of camera focal

length, and higher levels of detail

and height accuracy.

Certainly, the lower flight

height increases the forward

motion effects on the image, resulting

in blurring phenomena;

it is possible to limit this problem

both by reducing the cruise

speed and well combining

stops, shutter time and sensitivity

(ISO) of the digital sensor.

So, the motion blur can be kept

within the pixel size of the photo

and the relative object settlement

inside the GSD parameter

(Ground Sampling Distance).

Some experiences regarding

multi-sensor survey for territory

documentation were recently

performed at the University

of Bergamo by the Geomatics

group: two applications of them

are described below.

Fig. 4 - A 3D view of the point model for the ancient bridge.

Fig. 5 - 3D model: a bank of the Brembo river with hotels and restaurants.

Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 17


The first experience:

the multi-scale survey

of S. Pellegrino Terme

This application regards the

multi-scale survey with terrestrial

laser scanning realized over

the urban land of S. Pellegrino

Terme, a small ancient town

close to Bergamo (northern


Advanced laser-scanning technologies

were used, with a

remarkable attention to the

needed level of detail and with

a careful look at buildings, their

decorations and history. The

reconstructed model was also

utilized to create a virtual walkthrough

for land investigation.

The performed survey has

pointed out the original development

of this settlement, designed

for leisure and wellness,

which was followed early by

a gradual decadence that only

new ideas and a renewed love

for the site could overcome.

The standards for urban model

construction and management

(city modelling) were proposed

by the Open Geospatial

Consortium (OGC) with the

CityGML: these models are

typically multi-scale 3D applications,

ranging from landscape

simulation to urban planning,

from managing calamities to

safety monitoring, etc.

A modelling process requires

the selection of geometric entities

according to the chosen

level of detail (LoD) and the

attribution of textures for augmenting

realism. This way,

the survey approach for S.

Pellegrino Terme documentation

was established, together

with the set of data to collect.

It is known that laser scanning

and imaging provide a dense

object-point cloud, which can

be geo-referenced in an assigned

coordinate system. The geo-referencing

is performed either indirectly,

through control points

Fig. 6 - Orthographic elevations of the Spa-buildings, extracted from the point model.

(pre-marked and measured on

the object) and matching procedures

based on natural features,

or directly using satellite positioning

and orientation devices.

The localization quality is enhanced

through differential

positioning techniques via

Internet corrections (code or

phase), transmitted from a

GNSS reference networks: a

few centimetre accuracy (at

95% likelihood) is guaranteed,

either interactively via a RTK

approach or in Post-Processing

(PPK). In the described application,

the GNSS reference

network (NetGeo), by Topcon

Positioning, was used.

The direct geo-referencing,

without control points and an

alignment phase, is particularly

convenient in applications

regarding large areas (requiring

several scans) when a level

of detail equal or lower than

LoD2-3 (likewise the scale

1:200 or smaller) is required.

Obviously, where the satellite

signal is not guaranteed, due to

urban obstructions, indirect or

mixed geo-referencing have to

be applied.

Anyway, it is useful to select

some check points (CP), among

the control points (GCP), to

assess the final accuracy of the


Figure 2 shows the adopted

scheme for capturing direct georeferenced

object points: a laser

scanner was used (Faro) and

two satellite receivers (Topcon),

fitted with a bracket respectively

over the scanner and on an orientation

point; both the receiv-

18 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016

Fig. 7 - A view of the monastic complex in Albino


ers, which operated in staticrapid

mode, were connected via

Internet to NetGeo for a fine

RTK positioning in the Italian

reference system (ETRF 2000).

The set of direct geo-referenced

scanning stations also provided

a pseudo GNSS network, able

to act as a geodetic support.

The collected point clouds were

altogether 200, with an average

spatial resolution of 100 mm in

the useful range (10÷350) m;

the computer storage has been

globally around 26 GB.

S. Pellegrino Terme, a small

tourist settlement today, was

very fashionable last century

in the world of entrepreneurial

bourgeoisie. The town is located

along the narrow Brembo

valley (north of the city of

Bergamo): famous for the healing

waters, it stands out in the

local landscape with the undisputed

charm of its architectures

and the elegance of the urban


Among the artistic treasures,

it must be remembered the

municipal Club-House (1904-

1906), with two towers reminiscent

of the famous one in

Monte Carlo (Principality of

Monaco), and the impressive

Grand Hotel (1904), along the

Brembo river, with the large

front full of decorations.

The Grand Hotel is connected

to the Club-House and the Spa

buildings, located on the right

bank of the river, through the

bridge “Principe Umberto I”.

All these structures were realized

at the beginning of the

nineteenth century in the

years of Belle Époque and Art


The terrestrial scanning survey

was performed in a multi-level

detail, ranging from OGC-

LoD2 and OGC-LoD4, and

corresponding to the scales

from 1:500 to 1:100.

A Faro laser scanner (Focus

X330) was utilized, with a builtin

photo-camera; this scanner,

characterized by a long range

(around 350 m), is particularly

effective for 3D survey of large

territorial spaces because it allows

a meaningful reduction

of the instrumental stations

needed to capture information

(see figures 3, 4, 5, 6).

Good results were generally

obtained, despite some deficiencies

in the building-roof

documentation, thanks to the

favorable hilly morphology and

the large range provided by the

scanning device.

The roof knowledge could be

better realized through an additional

survey from above, using

UAS techniques.

The other experience:

the UAS survey of the

Dehonian complex

The religious complex of

Dehonian fathers, is located in

Albino, a small town in the valley

of Serio, the river flowing

down from the mountains surrounding


This Apostolic school was

built in 1910; during the years

of World War II it became a

kind of big ark hosting people

evacuated from their homes

and moved to Albino, which

was considered safer from the

bombing risk.

In 1944 a part of the complex

was occupied by the Italian military,

who remained there until

early 1945; during the war, the

little town was bombed but the

Apostolic school was luckily


In the following years, until

1991, the structure served as

Diocesan Seminary; when this

activity ceased, the complex of

buildings was renovated to create

a meeting point for spirituality

(fig. 7), still active.

The imaging survey (using a

hexa-copter) aimed to provide a

Fig. 8a – The flight planning for the nadir image coverage.

Fig. 8b – Vertical strips with oblique images.

spatial model of the built area,

including roofs, for documentation

and maintenance purposes.

The model, with a level of

detail equal to 1:200 scale, was

performed by:

- a nadir image coverage with

horizontal (parallel) strips (fig.

8a) from heights less than 50

m, taken by a Sony photocamera

with a 14.2 MP CMOS

sensor (fixed focal length of 16

mm); the image overlaps were

between 80% and 60% and the

carrier speed around 5 m/s.

- some up and down vertical

strips over the façades, with

oblique images taken at a surface

distance around 10 m (fig.


It is known that an image-based

survey can be performed using

algorithms, techniques and

software ranging from those of

Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 19


Fig. 9 - Software for imaging.

classical Photogrammetry to

the modern ones of Computer

Vision; some well-known packages

for imaging are shown in

figure 9.

The collected nadir and oblique

images for the religious complex

(fig. 10), around 400 photos,

were used to generate a 3D

model through a dense image

matching, performed inside the

Swiss-made Pix4D Mapper, a

software of Computer Vision.

About thirty Ground Control

Points, for block adjustment

and geo-referencing (Italian

Reference System - ETRF 2000),

Fig. 10 - The set of collected nadir and horizontal images.

were targeted over some selected

details (on ground and

roofs), measured by direct

topographic methods (accuracy

equal to a few centimetres) and

then observed over the images.

Figure 11 points out the georeferenced

orthomosaic performed

from the set of photos

and regarding the main cloister;

figure 12 shows the correspondent

3D reconstruction through

a perspective view with phototextures.

It is interesting to observe that

the imaging model has resulted

a bit more smoothed in comparison

with those performed

through a laser scanning approach.

Final remarks

The described experiences have

highlighted the great potentiality

that laser scanning and

UAS imagery can offer for a

Fig. 11 - A geo-referenced orthomosaic for the main cloister.

multi-scale analysis of urban

land. This is the result of the

meaningful development now

achieved in the acquisition

phase, the deep ease allowed by

automation and the increased

reliability. The software has

once more had a central role for

an effective point cloud management

and raster-vector production.

The support of GNSS-

RTK technology has been

useful for cloud connection

(direct and automatic); besides,

GNSS and INS units represents

a fundamental basis for autonomous

aerial navigation and

positioning. Surely, the integration

between laser scanning and

UAS imagery will become more

and more interesting, to allow a

complete photo-realistic model

of urban environments; anyway,

some security aspects have to be

still improved in relation to aircraft

standards and flights.


The authors wish to thank the

students Lorenzo Filippini,

Riccardo Begnis and Daniela

Piantoni, who developed their

master theses in Building

Engineering, and Eng. Giorgio

Ubbiali of DMStrumenti for

the technological support in the

measurement campaign.

Fig. 12 - A 3D view regarding the reconstructed photorealistic model of the complex.

20 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016



B. Bhandari, U. Oli, N. Panta, U. Pudasaini (2015) -

Generation of high resolution DSM using UAV images - FIG

Working Week 2015 - Sofia - May 2015

L. Colombo, B. Marana (2015) - Terrestrial multi-sensor survey

for urban modelling - Geoinformatics, 3-2015

H. Hirschmueller (2011) - Semi-Global Matching -

Motivation, developments and applications - Proceedings of

Photogrammetric Week 2011, Stuttgart - Wichmann

J.N. Lee, K.C. Kwak (2014) - A trends analysis of image processing

in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle International Journal of

Computer, Information Science and Engineering, 8(2)

M. Naumann, G. Grenzdoerffer (2016) - Reconstructing a

church in 3D - GIM International, 2-2016

R. Pacey, P. Fricker (2005) - Forward Motion Compensation

(FMC) - Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing,

November 2005

R. Szeliski (2011) - Computer Vision: Algorithms and applications

- Springer - New York


The paper deals some experimental benchmarks regarding urban environment

modelling. The first application has been performed over the small

thermal settlement of S. Pellegrino Terme, famous in northern Italy both

for the healing waters and for its rich Art Noveau architectural decorations;

the second test is the documentation of the religious complex of

Dehonians in Albino, a little town close to Bergamo (Italy).

The employed techniques, which automatically collected point clouds

and created the DSM, are terrestrial laser scanning, with a direct GNSS-

RTK geo-referencing, and UAS imagery.


Luigi Colombo


Barbara Marana


University of Bergamo

DISA - Geomatics Group

Dalmine (Italy)


Land documentation; point-cloud analysis; laser scanning;

UAS imagery

Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 21


Welcome to the ZEB REVOlution

by Stuart Cadge

In this article we will introduce

the ZEB-REVO, and the attributes

that make this a unique piece

of surveying hardware. We will

discuss how the ZEB-REVO is

shaking up the surveying market,

Fig. 1 - The ZEB-REVO in action – handheld, pole-mounted, backpack-mounted – a

truly versatile tool.

and will look at a number of

industry applications in which the

ZEB-REVO is making a difference.

The surveying industry

has witnessed rapid

changes in the last

few years - the increased use

of mobile surveying devices

and the utilisation of LiDAR

technology (Light Detection

And Ranging) to produce 3-dimensional

point clouds of the

survey subject are two such examples.

Another major shift is

the mapping of indoor spaces,

utilising technology that does

not rely on GPS.

Leading the fore in all of these

technologies is GeoSLAM,

a young, vibrant technology

company based in the UK.

GeoSLAM specialises in the

manufacture and supply of

indoor, handheld mobile surveying

units; the ZEB1 and the

new ZEB-REVO, launched in

March 2016.

Strong Beginnings

GeoSLAM was founded in

2012 as a joint venture between

CSIRO (Australia’s National

Science Agency and the inventors

of WiFi) and 3D Laser

Mapping (a leading global provider

of 3D LIDAR solutions).

Coming from such strong pedigree

has allowed GeoSLAM to

grow rapidly in both range and

scope, currently incorporating a

global distribution network of

35 agents across 6 continents.

GeoSLAM launched their first

mobile scanner, the ZEB1, in

Q4 of 2013. With its springmounted

head and nodding

movement, the ZEB1 quickly

Fig. 2 - Comparison of ZEB1 data (left) and ZEB-REVO data (right) Image courtesy of Opti-cal

Survey Equipment.

gained notoriety and popularity.

Early adopters were amazed

by the speed of scanning, the

ease of use and the quality

of the results. Data processing

was also a simple process

– customers simply ‘drag and

drop’ their raw datasets onto

an online Uploader, in order to

register and process their scan.

In a matter of minutes, fullyregistered

3D point clouds were


However, GeoSLAM did not

rest on their laurels. The technology

industry moves quickly,

and GeoSLAM knew that a

second, more sophisticated

solution was required. ZEB1

customers spoke of their desire

for a truly-mobile scanner –

one that wasn’t just handheld.

They also wanted a fuller,

more even point cloud that the

40Hz ZEB1 could produce.

When the customers spoke,

GeoSLAM listened.

The REVOlution Begins

In March 2016, the ZEB-

REVO was launched. Featuring

an in-built motor to create

360 o rotation, the REVO can,

like the ZEB1, be handheld.

However, it can also be mounted

onto an extending pole,

fastened to a backpack, secured

to a trolley or vehicle, even

strapped to a UAV for aerial


22 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016


Fig. 3 - Building surveys (such as this family-sized home) are completed in minutes, not hours, with the ZEB-REVO.

The autonomous motion of

the motorised scan head opens

up a world of new applications

for this clever little scanner.

Little being the operative word;

weighing just over 4kg (including

the backpack) and with the

scanner head measuring 9 x 11

x 29cm, this is a surveying tool

that is truly mobile.

It’s not just the outside that

has evolved – inside the scanner

head is a powerful yet safe

(Class 1 Eye safe) 100Hz laser –

making an impressive 100 rotations/second.

The unit collects

the same number of points per

second as the ZEB1 – 43,200.

So what’s the advantage of this

faster speed?

The increased scan speed (over

2.5 times faster than the ZEB1)

means that the collected data

points are spread out more

evenly over a greater number of

scan lines - giving the appearance

of smoother, cleaner and

less noisy datasets. More importantly,

this even distribution of

points allows the world-beating

SLAM algorithm to work better.

The SLAM algorithm works

by dividing the scanned surface

into sectors, and identifying

points within each sector. If a

sector is devoid of points, then

it cannot be included in the

algorithm. So, by having a more

even distribution of points, the

SLAM algorithm can build a

fuller, more complete point


The difference is clear to see.

Compare the two images below

of the same elevation. The view

on the left is ZEB1 data, which

is characterised by a striated,

lined appearance. There are a

few gaps, especially higher up

the elevation where the scan

lines have hit the elevation at a

more acute angle.

The right hand view is the

same elevation captured with a

ZEB-REVO. The point cloud

is cleaner and the points are

more evenly distributed – creating

a much more ‘complete’

looking point cloud. Not only

does this provide better results,

it also supplies the user with

vitally important confidence in

the kit.

Versatility in Action

The upshot of these technological

advances is the sheer number

of new applications and

industries that are now open to

scanning with the ZEB-REVO.

Whether it is simply improving

an existing workflow of the

ZEB1 (i.e. stockpile surveys

and building scans) or opening

up brand new uses (i.e. manhole

and suspended ceilings,

utility trenches) versatility is the

word for the ZEB-REVO. A

number of these new and improved

applications are featured


Building Surveys

Building surveys have long been

the ‘bread and butter’ work of

the ZEB1 – the simplicity, ease

of use, highly mobile nature

of the unit lends it perfectly to

multi-level, indoor structures.

The ZEB-REVO has simply

improved and built upon this


The increased scan speed creates

a fuller, more complete point

cloud, reducing the number of

areas with low coverage. The

ability to rapidly unscrew the

handle and attach an extending

pole allows the user to reach

into spaces that may not otherwise

have been available – into

loft spaces, suspended ceilings,

even to ‘poke’ the unit out of

windows in order to obtain

overlaps with the building exterior.

Underground Mapping

Another staple of the ZEB1,

underground mapping includes

both mine and cave surveys.

Similarly to buildings, under-

Fig. 4 - The ZEB-RE-

VO in action – handheld,


backpack-mounted –

a truly versatile tool.

Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 23


ground is the perfect

environment for ZEB

systems, being devoid of

GPS, totally enclosed, and

often with many unique features

for the SLAM algorithm

to work with. Not only have

ZEB systems been proven to increase

survey quality and detail

(over traditional survey methods),

they have also slashed survey

times by a factor of 3.

A major advantage of the ZEB-

REVO in these environments is

safety – and the ability for the

REVO to access areas that human

users cannot. The autonomous

nature of the ZEB-REVO

allows the unit to be attached

to a remote-controlled trolley

system and sent into areas that

are either too small to access,

or that are hazardous to health.

The image shows the ZEB-

REVO head mounted onto the

front of a remote-controlled

trolley in a mine. The datalogger

sits just behind the head

in the body of the trolley. The

trolley was sent into a restricted

area of the mine that was inaccessible

to people, allowed to

scan, and returned to its starting



Another area of application

where both the ZEB1 and

ZEB-REVO excel. With these

mobile scanning units, stockpiles

of all varieties can be surveyed

in a matter of minutes.

The survey data can then be

easily imported into a variety of

third party software packages,

where volumetric calculations

can be carried out in minutes.

The advantages of the REVO

in this application are complete

coverage and continuous scanning.

A potential pitfall of using

the ZEB1 for stockpile scanning

was the chance that areas

would be missed, especially the

very top of the pile. It is not

advisable to walk on the stockpile

for obvious safety reasons.

Therefore, a pole-mounted

ZEB-REVO can be utilised to

ensure that complete coverage

of the stockpile is obtained,

allowing for a complete point

cloud model, and therefore, a

more accurate volume calculation.

The second major advantage

is the ability to simply

wall-mount the unit. For many

stockpile applications (and particularly

for indoor stockpiles),

continuous analysis of the

stockpile is required. With a remotely

operated, wall-mounted

unit, this is now a reality. It is

simply a case for the unit to be

switched on when a survey is

required, and the autonomous

motion will carry out the scan.

The 360 o vertical by 270o horizontal

field of view (i.e. just a

90o blind spot to the rear) ensures

that no parts of the pile

are missed..


A rather newer application for

the ZEB systems is in the world

of marine surveying. Anybody

who has been on a marine vessel

will know that space is at a

premium; this is even more so

when it comes to submarine


A number of marine authorities

and businesses have a requirement

to accurately but rapidly

survey their stock, either for

the purposes of creating 2-dimensional

blueprints, or for the

creation of 3-dimensional, fully

interactive models.

Both the ZEB1 and the ZEB-

REVO can be rapidly deployed

in a marine environment, and

used to create a 3-dimensional

point cloud of these hugely

complex environments.


Thought that ZEB units were

for indoor use only? Think

again. The ZEB1 and ZEB-

REVO work best in ‘enclosed’

environments – not necessarily

just indoor ones. A typical forest

will naturally be considered

to be an ‘enclosed’ environment

by the unit, as the tree canopy

creates a natural ‘ceiling’.

Coupled with the proliferation

of unique features that a forest

holds, and it can be seen that

forests are the perfect environment

for ZEB scanners.

Over the summer of 2016, a

number of different forestry

studies are being carried out

using the ZEB-REVO scanner.

The first of these studies, carried

out by the Geography department

of University College

London (UCL), focussed on

measuring small deformations

in the ground topography of a

mechanically-harvested area of


Fig. 5 - Stockpile scanning is made

simple with the pole-mounted ZEB-REVO.

Fig. 6 - Cross

section through

the engine room

of a marine vessel

captured with


24 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016


Fig. 7 - 3D data

of a vehicle

captured with


in minutes.

The suspicious

package is highlighted


From the data collected, the

team were able to create a cmaccurate

digital elevation model

(DEM) spanning 100s of square

metres. This data is then being

used to measure the outputs of

methane (CH 4

) from these areas

of felled forestry.

Another study, conducted in

relation with the University of

Leicester, involves the mapping

of varying forestry habitats

across the UK. The aim of this

study is to make comparisons

between different forestry habitats

across the UK, and also to

combine the data captured with

the handheld ZEB-REVO with

data captured from above, using

spaceborne-rader and UAVbased


On a simpler note, both ZEB

units can be utilised to rapidly

and accurately scan an area of

forestry, to obtain the point

cloud data, and to make cuts or

sections in the data at certain

heights. One such important

height is the breast height diameter

(BHD), which is a measurement

taken at 4.5 foot from

the ground. This measurement

is then used to create an estimate

for the biomass of the area

of forestry in question.

Security and Contingency


A final and possibly unexpected

use for both ZEB units

is in the ever-growing realm

of security. In an increasingly

uncertain world, governments,

police forces, security agencies

and indeed even companies are

increasingly security-conscious

and are turning to new technologies

to increase their security.

ZEB1 units have been in use by

a number of police forces since

their launch in 2013. Their

speed, ease of use and high

mobility make them the perfect

tool for capturing the details of

a crime scene, accident scene, or

for mapping a building or site

of interest. In the case where

speed is of the essence (for example,

after a RTC on a major

road) the ZEB unit can be deployed

in seconds, with a scan

complete in a few minutes. This

allows for a fully 3 dimensional

image, accurate to within a few

centimetres, to be gained.

The development of the autonomous


has obvious benefits in

these areas. In the case

of a crime scene, the polemounted

ZEB-REVO may be

deployed, to ensure that areas

of interest are not touched or


Where there is a risk to human

health (for example, a bomb

threat, or an unsecure building),

the REVO can be trolley

mounted (as in mining) and

sent in alone to scan the area of


It is our prediction that the

realms of security and reconnaissance,

there will be increasing

demand for this type of

rapid, mobile, versatile surveying


The Future

So what does the future hold

for GeoSLAM? In a rapidly

growing, rapidly changing

industry, standing still is

quite simply not an option.

GeoSLAM will continue to

respond to new challenges, new

technological developments,

and to identify new areas of application.

Be sure to pay attention

to forthcoming GeoSLAM

announcements, to hear more

about these highly exciting developments

in the pipeline.




GeoSLAM is a manufacturer and supplier

of handheld, 3D mobile mapping

systems. Founded in 2012 and

headquartered in the UK, GeoSLAM now

has a global distribution network of 35

distributors across six continents.


Stuart Cadge,

Pre Sales Engineer at GeoSLAM

For more information, please visit



Fig. 8 - Point

cloud data of an

area of forestry

with a section

taken at BHD

height for biomass

Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 25



26 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016


Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 27


Study and development of

a GIS for fire-fighting activities

based on INSPIRE directive

by Andrea Maria Lingua, Marco Piras,

Maria Angela Musci, Francesca

Noardo, Nives Grasso, Vittorio Verda

In the past years, the European Union has

invested in the development of the INSPIRE

Directive to support environmental policies

and actually EU is currently working on

developing "ad hoc" infrastructures for the

safe management of forests and fires.

Fig. 1 – External model definition.

The activities connected

to the forest-fire fighting

could be essentially

divided in three parts: before,

during and after the fire.

In these activities, the most

complex are the monitoring and

management of at-risk fire zones

and fire-fighting procedures especially

for large fires (> 40ha).

In the case of “big fire”, which

are fires with a very large extension,

the main problem is the

coordination between the human

resources (ground, marine

and air) which work to fight

the fires. This aspect is more

critical when the fire is across

the boundary, because there is

not a European protocol for

interventions and each country

has different procedures and

CONOPS (concept of operations).

Thus becomes clear the

complex reality that competent

authorities must handle in such

emergencies (Andrews and Rothermel

1982; Bovio 1993; Teie


The AF3 project (Advanced Forest

Fire Fighting) is part of the

7 th Framework Program and it is

focused on the prevention and

the management of big forestfires

through the development

of innovative techniques. The

AF3 purpose is to improve the

efficiency of fire-fighting operations

in progress and the protection

of human lives and heritage

by developing innovative technologies

to ensure the integration

between existing and new

systems. Furthermore, the AF3

project aims to increase interoperability

among firefighting

supports (Chuvieco et al 2010).

The project defines a unique

control center devoted to coordinate

all activities, from monitoring

to the intervention on

field. Among the technological

aspects, the project provides the

design of an SDI platform (Spatial

Data Infrastructure) which

is essentially based on a GIS

(Geographic Information System).

In the following sections,

GIS model proposed for a part

of the system will be described.

This GIS is structured according

to INSPIRE ( Infrastructure for

Spatial Information in Europe)


Fig. 2 Steps to create AF3 Database in PostgreSQL and Q-GIS.

28 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016


GIS and fire-fighting: a

brief description of the

European scenario

Currently, in Europe there are

already several GIS useful for decision

support at different stages

of fire management. However,

the opportunity to have both

updated or real-time data, and

a complete and consistent information,

is often missing. Especially

it is difficult to have an

actual data interoperability with

the existing available technologies.

In most cases, the information

collected in the GIS are incomplete

and they concern only

one phase of the overall management

process. There are, indeed,

systems used, exclusively,

for prediction or for planning or

emergency control. In this way, a

lot of information is lost. However,

this historical information

could be helpful to make more

comprehensive the tool for decision

support. Furthermore, it

lacks a central system to register

distribution and availability of

resources in risk periods, standardized

systems for fires registry

and systematic registration systems

of firefighting operations.

Finally, the metadata of the observed

maps are not always available

and the data validity is impossible

to be determined.

For example, in Europe, Web-

GIS known as EFFIS (European

Forest Fire Information System


was developed by the JRC

(Joint Research Centre). This

GeoDB, still under construction,

records only the data related

to fire risk analysis and the

occurred fires in Europe.

Description of the GIS in AF3

In order to propose an innovative

GIS platform devoted to

support the big forest fires management,

the following activities

must be considered: forecasting,

monitoring, planning, active

fight and post-fire practices.

Nowadays, the modern system is

not designed for a specific enduser

and it stands out for its versatility.

However, it is possible to

establish different authorization

for different users and method

of use.

In order to realize the dedicated

GIS for AF3, the traditional

modelling process was followed.

As well known, needs to pass

from the complexity of the reality

to a formal schema describing

entities and tools used in

fire-fighting operations.

External Model

The first step was the development

of an external model. In

this model, the useful information

could be gathered in three

categories of objects: the competent

authorities (command), the

objects to be protected (territory),

the event and the ignition

point (fire and hotspot) (Figure

1). In the case of AF3, there

is only one control center that

handles local operations centers,

the terrestrial and aerial troops.

The command center (command

center) is the national control

center. Local operations centers

(operating center) are in charge to

monitor and to fill register of the

fire cadaster and the mission report.

Instead, the teams (operating

team) take care of active fight

on the field.

Conceptual and

Logical Model

(INSPIRE oriented)

Next steps are the definition

of conceptual and logical models.

Therefore, these stages consist

in identification of entities,

attributes, definition of relationships

between the entities and

the data formats. The INSPIRE

directive, thus, provides fundamentals

for completely defining

the information layers closely

related to the land description

(e.g. digital terrain model and

digital surface model), the event

progression (e.g. time) and meteorological

data (e.g. wind

direction and speed, temperature,

humidity). This European

specification has a general nature,

which needs to be suitably

extended for adapting to the

specific application. Some “ad

hoc” entities are added in order

to consider the data related to

the command chain, fuel model

and forest types definition (Burgan

et al, 1998; Baskets 1999

Baskets 2002; Han Shuting et al


Currently, it is necessary to

highlight that in Italy, as in Europe,

a systematic survey and

monitoring of the forests are

missing. Moreover, standardized

methodology for the preparation

of suitable fuel models does

not exist.

Fig. 3 – Flow-chart of

alarm trigger.

Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 29


Considering these aspects,

an approximation

on the fuel models has

been done. In particular, in

Italy, the only achieved result is

a regional classification of forest

types, but it cannot be considered

equally valid for the calculation

of the danger indexes. The

development of this issue would

improve our capacity of fire forecasting

and, consequently, in the

fire-fighting management.

Fig. 4 – Example of query: hotspot and operating centre localization (left) and operating

team localization (right).

Internal Model

Open source platforms were

chosen to implement the database.

Specifically, PgAdmin

III were used to manage the

database PosgreSQL with its

spatial extension PostGIS and

the graphical interface. This

software allows the creation of

tables and relationships, the

implementation of triggers and

queries, the realization of views

for users and different uses and

finally the semi-automatic input

of data. This system is not

equipped with a graphical interface

to visualize the spatial data,

therefore a connection with Q-

GIS was realized.Thus, the procedure

of GeoDB implementation

follows the steps shown in

Figure 2.

A peculiarity of the internal

model was the trigger, which is

an “ad hoc” procedure for the

automatic manipulation (insertion,

modification and deletion)

of information related to a triggering

event (Perry 1990). To

complete the automatic management

of the entire system, a

large number of triggers must

be implemented. Below as example,

it has been described the

"trigger" that starts when fire

alarm is activated.

In this specific case, when the

alarm is recorded in the system,

the program executes the procedure

schematically shown in the

flow-chart in Figure 3.

Case of study (Sardinia)


In order to test the GIS functionalities,

a specific test site has

been selected. In particular, a

database related to South part of

the Sardinia (close to Cagliari)

has been considered.

Therefore, defined a specific

area, all fundamental data have

been collected, where the most

important information are the

state of the forests, fuel models,

water resource localization,

roads and technological networks,

command center, operational

centers, teams, meteorological

data, hotspots, alarm

have been inserted.

Using these information layers,

which are suitably designed and

compiled, using QGIS, it was

possible to realize an example

of a query on the system. Since

the alarm is activated (Figure 4

- left), the trigger is able to automatically

calculate the competent

command center, the

nearest operating center, with

the adapted number of men and

assets. Finally, in real- time, data

of the team and its location can

be displayed (Figure 4 - right).

On the field, the team will be

monitored and managed by

the command center, by means

of the automatic registration

of their coordinates (Figure 5),

measuring in real time the team



The developed GIS model describes

only a part of the “fire

prevention and management

system” provided by the AF3

project, but its complexity is

Fig. 5 – Example

of query

and trigger


Real time team

positioning on

the field.

30 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016

quite evident. Especially,

it underlines that it is

difficult (in some case

almost impossible), to

define exactly some entities

(e.g. Fuel model or

fuel moisture). Moreover,

an unique European

procedure does not exist,

therefore it is very complicated

to define the

CONOPS and a system

with a single command


The proposed model

shows that also the open

source platforms allow

to realize a complex SDI

structure. The triggering

system for the automatic

procedures allows to add

value to SDI, because it

makes the system realtime



The authors would like

to thank the CVVFF of

Cagliari for their availability

and data sharing.

Furthermore they thank

Dr. Raffaella Marzano

from University of Torino

for her help about

fuel model and forest

type and Dr. Cesti for his



Andrews, P.L.and Rothermel R.C. (1982), Charts for interpreting wildland fire behaviour characteristics. INTERGEO USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech.

Rep. INT-131.

Bovio G., (1993), Comportamento degli incendi boschivi estinguibili con attacco diretto. Monti e Boschi, 4: 19-24.

Burgan, R.E., Klaver, R.W. & Klaver, JM. (1998), Fuel Models and Fire Potential from Satellite and Surface Observations, International

Journal of WiIdIand Fire, 8: 159-170.

Cesti G., Cesti C. (1999), Antincendio Boschivo. Manuale operativo per l’equipaggio dell’autobotte. Musumeci, Quart, Aosta, vol 2.

Cesti G., (2002), Tipologie e comportamenti particolari del fuoco: risvolti nelle operazioni di estinzione, Il fuoco in foresta: ecologia e

controllo. Atti del XXXIX Corso di Cultura in Ecologia. Università degli Studi di Padova, Regione del Veneto, Centro Studi per

l’Ambiente Alpino, S. Vito di Cadore, 2-6 settembre 2002: 77-116.

Perry, D. G. (1990), Wildland Firefighting: Fire Behavior, Tactics, and Command, ed. Donald G. Perry.

Teie, W. C. (2005), Firefighter’s Handbook on Wildland Firefighting, 3nd ed. Deer Valley. Chuvieco, E. et al., (2010). Development of

a framework for fire risk assessment using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies.

Han Shuting, Han Yibin, Jin Jizhong, Zhou Wei (1987), The method for calculating forest fire behaviour index, Heilongjiang Forest

Protection Institute, Harbin, China, 77-82.

http://www.s3lab.polito.it/progetti/progetti_in_corso/af3 (08/10/2014)

http://forest.jrc.ec.europa.eu/effis/ (08/10/2014)

http://www.isotc211.org/ (06/11/2014)

http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/index.cfm/pageid/2 (03/11/2014)

http://www.postgresql.org (05/05/2015)


INSPIRE directive; fire fighting; GIS


According to the Annual Fire Report 2013 (European Commission-Joint Research Centre, 2014), there have been 873 forest fires in

Europe, in 2013, for a total of 340559 ha of territory. A comparison of this data to that of the previous years, highlights that, when

the intended goal is that of preserving the environment and saving human lives, the importance of the correct management of forest

fires can not be underestimated. In the past years, the European Union has invested in the development of the INSPIRE Directive

(Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) to support environmental policies. Furthermore, the EU is currently working on

developing "ad hoc" infrastructures for the safe management of forests and fires.

The AF3 EU project (Advanced Forest Fire Fighting), financed by the FP7, addresses the issue of developing innovative tools to handle

all stages of forest fires. The project develops a single control center for the coordination of monitoring, manoeuvring, and post-fire

operations. The SDI platform (Spatial Data Infrastructure) represents another component which was designed in the context of this

project. It is based on a GIS (Geographic Information System) which is able to efficiently integrate multi-modal data.

Following an analysis of the state of the art of information systems for forest fire-fighting, and in light of the end-user requirements

analyzed within the AF3 project, we propose a geo-topographic database based on the INSPIRE Directive and developed on opensource

platforms, which provides interoperability of the data and allows forecasting and monitoring of high-risk areas, decision making,

damage estimation, and post-fire management.


Andrea Maria Lingua

Marco Piras, Maria Angela Musci, Francesca Noardo, Nives Grasso, Vittorio Verda

Politecnico di Torino - Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'ambiente,

del territorio e delle infrastrutture (DIATI)

Vittorio Verda

Politecnico di Torino - DIpartimento di Energia (DENERG)


This work has been presented at the 19th Conference ASITA 2015 (Lecco). We would like to thank the organizing secretary for the

courtesy and his availability and wishes the best outcome for the 20th Conference ASITA 2016 (Cagliari 8-9-10 November 2016).

• Rilievi batimetrici automatizzati

• Fotogrammetria delle sponde

• Acquisizione dati e immagini

• Mappatura parametri ambientali

• Attività di ricerca

Vendita – Noleggio - Servizi chiavi in mano, anche con strumentazione cliente

Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 31


A survey from

UAV in critical

areas: the

advantages of

technology in

areas with

complex terrain

by Zaira Baglione

The tale of two experiences in the geological and cultural heritage area through the use of fixed-wing drones.

Innovation and high quality of the data returned from an aero-photogrammetric survey as support to the activities of

the different professionals. From the survey phase to the post-production all the precautions to obtain images with a

very good resolution and solve obstacles for the mapping of areas not easily accessible such as quarries.

The aerial photography

have had a great revolution

with the advent

of the UAV technology that

actually has allowed to overcome

the objective problems of

the access to the information.

Especially for the territories

with a complex topography, the

use of drones is an advantage

in terms of speed, cost reduction

and achievement of high

quality results. The applications

of the proximity remote sensing

in critical areas are a lot

and involve many areas: from

geology to engineering, from

surveillance to environmental

monitoring, civil protection,

archeology and more.

In particular it is recommended,

for several reasons, the use

of fixed-wing models for the

survey of medium-high extension

surfaces. Meanwhile, this

type of APR provides a greater

flying range than the multicopter

models (which generally

have shorter range, considering

also the take-off and landing

operations), in fact with a single

flight it is possible to cover areas

of several kilometers and obtain

uniform images, then with a

very appreciable qualitative output;

in addition the control of

the flight parameters is efficient

and it is possible to resists to the

adverse environmental conditions,

supporting wind gusts of

up to 60 km/h. The fixed-wing

aircraft, in general, are perfect

for the applications in geology

and archaeological surveys. Two

interesting experiences, related

respectively to the geological

and cultural heritage area, are

described below by Gabriele

Santiccioli, FlyTop president

and member of the Provincial

Board of Surveyors and

Surveyors Graduates of Rome.

Certainly a very growing sector

is the quarries monitoring

through precise mapping activities

to accurately control the

excavations, to know exactly the

amount of material removed

and prevent any movement of

materials and the risk of landslides.

A proof of the quality

of the remote control systems

for this type of professional application

is given by Gabriele

Santiccioli, president of FlyTop,

through a project carried out in

a mining quarry in the north

of Italy. "We enthusiastically

accepted the engagement by

the responsible Authority for

the exploitation of a quarry

in Emilia Romagna - says the

president Santiccioli - because

it meant for us to win a challenge.

This experimentation

yook place in an extremely

mountainous area, undoubtedly

challenging under the aeronautical

profile. We used a fixedwing

aircraft, FlyGeo24Mpx,

a unique drone in its category

32 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016


equipped with technology to

fly at a fixed altitude. Generally

this type of critical reconnaissance

is carried out with a

multirotor drone, but the fixed

wing flexibility allowed us to

successfully conclude the mission.

The conditions were not

easy, considering the extension

of the area to be analysed, about

95 hectares, and the difference

in height of 360 meters between

the top and the valley of

the quarry. However, with a single

flight, we have acquired in

25 minutes nearly five hundred

pictures with a resolution of 2.5

cm per pixel ". With regard to

the mining activity in the quarries

it must be said that both

private interests, relating to

companies that hold the regional

authorizations, both public

are involved at the same time,

considering that some of them

represent a heritage that should

be used in an intelligent

manner and preserve the

environment. The UAV is

a good instrument from

many points of view: it

allows to rationalize the excavation

areas on the basis

Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 33


of what is known from

the restitution of photos

and the subsequent study

and post-processing; they

provide information relating

to the amount of material removed

and, finally, they are the

only possible solution to reach

critical areas that may only be

known with the conventional

aerial photogrammetry systems

and with inevitable higher costs.

"In order to plan the operation

we referred to a regional technical

map (CTR) - continues

Santiccioli - and we decided

to set a fixed altitude of 130

meters. Through some control

points on the ground we made

12 strips with an overlap of 70

percent between each photo,

acquiring one frame every 25

meters. We got a 3D model of

the quarry, a cloud of points,

the DTM and DSM from the

restitution and we processed all

the photogrammetric data with

a special software characterized

by a very high level of metric

accuracy. We can say that this

result satisfied the client and

FlyTop, that realized the work."

The application of the UAV

technology has grown significantly

also for the cultural heritage

sector, not only for monitoring

and documentation,

but especially for the discovery

activities. With the partnership

started between the University

of Salento and FlyTop an

archaeological survey was carried

out in the Veio Park area,

a few kilometers from Rome,

in an area between the towns

of Formello and Isola Farnese.

Gabriele Santiccioli together

with Professor of ancient topography

Giuseppe Ceraudo describes

the survey done with the

fixed wing UAV FlyGeo24Mpx

that led to the identification of

ancient Etruscan and Roman

settlements, in particular the

remains of structures of buildings

and streets.

The discovery

comes from a

research project

that the University

of Salento leads

for over ten years

and had a decisive

result last

year following the

mission that led

to the discovery

of a city system

of Etruscan and

Roman eras. The

area covered by

the flight (about

forty hectares) was

overflown with a

fixed-wing drone

equipped with

a 24Mpx digital

camera with single

focal length lens.

The operation

involved the town

of Archi di Pontecchio and was

carried out in compliance with

ENAC specifications. The flight

has enabled to acquire images

of the highest quality, almost

two hundred pictures with a

resolution of 1.7 cm per pixel,

geo-referenced and complete of

3 parameters of translation and

rotation. Through the captured

frames there was a validation

of what were until now only

hypotheses; observing from the

sky the differentiated growth of

vegetation, in fact, it has been

recognized part of the ancient

Etruscan city of Veio.

About the accuracy of aerial

photogrammetric data Gabriele

Santiccioli says: "Our company

has always been committed to

combine innovation and integration,

so we have used all the

instruments that the surveyor

has, arriving until the production

of maps of high technical

quality in few hours. We have

obtained a cloud of points, a

3D model, the DTM and DSM

from the elaborate digital images

in order to know better

the morphology of the land.

Considering the future scenarios,

I do not exclude that shortly

the application of thermal and

multispectral sensors will enter

in the archaeological sector or at

least one study focused on the

result that could be achieved".

The aero-photogrammetric

proximity survey with the use

of an APR represents an archaeological

survey interesting

landscape, as well as a real and

accessible system for the study

of preliminary research. Later,

with subsequent investigations

and excavations, it will be able

to determine more accurately

the reference period and other

more detailed informations.

The survey done in the quarry

and the result of Veio demonstrate

how the remote sensing of

proximity through RPAS is advantageous

in terms of time and

costs, especially for particularly

extended areas of inspection or

not easily accessible.

34 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016


The aero-photogrammetric

proximity survey with the

UAV use represents an

interesting vision of the

archaeological survey, as

well as a concrete and accessible

system for the study

of preliminary researches.

Later, with subsequent

investigations and excavations,

it will be able to determine

more accurately the

reference period and other

more detailed information.

Both the survey done in

the quarry and the Veio

result demonstrate how the

remote sensing of proximity

through the use of on

UAV is useful in terms of

time and costs, especially

for particularly large areas

of inspection or not easily



UAV; cultural heritage;

survey; aerophotogrammetry


The tale of two experiences

in the geological

and cultural

heritage area through

the use of fixed-wing

drones. Innovation

and high quality of

the data returned

from an aero-photogrammetric


as support to the activities

of the different

professionals. From

the survey phase to

the post-production

all the precautions to

obtain images with a

very good resolution

and solve obstacles for

the mapping of areas

not easily accessible

such as quarries.


Zaira Baglione


Account manager


Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n°3-2016 35



Sun, water and


possible options

for the energy

future of the

Smart Cities

The Italian engineering company

Geocart S.p.A. (www.geocart.net),

in the context of the

urban planning according to

the "Smart Cities" approach,

has focused its attention on the

search for new solutions for the

production of energy from renewable

sources and resources

and the development of innovative

techniques for the monitoring

of energy efficiency.

The final objectives of the

study are threefold:

1. mapping of potential hydroelectric


from mini and micro-hydro


2. study on the feasibility of optimal

hydromethane generation

from renewable sources;

3. analysis of the efficient use

of solar resource on an urban


In addition to the estimation

of the potential productivity

of hydropower, the objective

of the study is to understand

the feasibility of optimal hydromethane

generation from

renewable sources and its use

for public transport in urban

areas or high environmental

value areas. The activity aims

to respond to market needs:

the various existing technologies

for hydrogen storage are

not fully satisfactory in terms

of efficiency, convenience and

affordability. A fundamental

aspect of the activity is the generation

of hydrogen-methane

mixtures having a maximum

hydrogen content of 30%

by volume, easier to use than

pure hydrogen: in fact, the hydromethane

can be used in a

normal natural gas engine.

For the analysis of the solar

potential of the urban area, the

research is based on 3D mapping

of city buildings, as a further

instrument of knowledge,

including for policy makers,

of the effective potential use

of solar resource on building

patrimony, and as a policy instrument

for the planning of

new construction areas. In this

context, particular attention is

paid to the study of the energy

exchanges of the urban area

and the so-called urban heat



(Source: Geocart)

Location-based data

and services enabling a


Any smart-city implementation

leveraging location-based data

and services is undoubtedly

reaching faster its sustainability

aims. The EU co-funded project

GeoSmartCity is contributing

to this, establishing a cross-platform,

re-usable and open hub

in which different categories of

users can discover and access interoperable

geographic information,

by means of generic-purpose

as well as specialized services

based on open standards.

The GeoSmartCity approach is

applied in two different urban

contexts (the Green-Energy scenario,

to support the implementation

of sustainable energy policies

,and the Underground scenario,

to support the integrated

management of underground

utility infrastructures) and tested

by 11 pilots, consisting of

cities/regions from 8 different

Member States.

The underlying layer of the

overall GeoSmartCity architecture

consists of interoperable

georeferenced and semantically

reach spatial datasets, which

have been harmonized according

to common data models

which extend INSPIRE application

schemas on Buildings

and Utilities & Governmental

Services and have been made

discoverable and accessible by

means of OGC webservices.


(Source: Epsilon Italia)

Leica Pegasus


The Leica Pegasus:Backpack is

an award-winning wearable reality

capture sensor platform. A

highly ergonomic design combines

five cameras offering fully

calibrated 360 degrees view and

two LiDAR profilers with an

ultra-light carbon fibre chassis.

It enables extensive and efficient

indoor or outdoor documentation

at a level of accuracy that is

authoritative and professional.

This unique mobile mapping

solution is designed for rapid

and regular reality capture. It is

completely portable, enabling it

to be checked in as luggage on

a flight. The Pegasus:Backpack

is designed to act a sensor platform

with our standard external

trigger and sync port outputs.

BIM – map indoors, outdoors,

underground, anywhere

The Pegasus:Backpack makes

progressive professional BIM

documentation a reality. It synchronises

imagery and point

cloud data, therefore assuring

a complete documentation

of a building for full life cycle

management. By using SLAM

(Simultaneous Localisation

and Mapping) technology and

a high precision IMU, it ensures

accurate positioning with

GNSS outages.

Industrial training – realitybased

information for fast

response Knowing and understanding

a landscape before

rushing into emergency situations

can save lives. Document

any site in 3D models and

images for fast, safe and efficient

response. Combined with

Autodesk, Intergraph and other

software, reality-based industrial

training is enhanced with

the most accurate and current

data sets. Safety & security – informed

decisions in emergency


The Pegasus:Backpack helps

you to make better and faster

decisions in emergency situations

due to access to more accurate

data. Evacuation plans

and route mapping benefit

from clear and detailed images

and point clouds that alert authorities

to any changes. Access

densely populated areas, providing

accurate and current mapping

to give city authorities a

clearer and deeper understanding

of the situation.

Natural disaster response – minimise

damage and save lives

For the first time, responders

to natural disasters can capture

disaster area data in 3D on foot.

Faster response times translate

into lives saved and damage

minimised. Capture the critical

data needed to make faster and

better informed decisions that

increases chances of survival and


Contact us for more information

or to request a demo.


(Source: Teorema srl)

36 Special Supplement to GEOmedia Journal Issue n. 3-2016











Host: DVW e.V.

Conference organiser: DVW GmbH

Trade fair organiser: HINTE GmbH


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