8 months ago

Adhrynn v1.2

An a priori artlang

NUMBER We have already

NUMBER We have already seen the cardinal numbers for one, two and three (hem, dar, las). Adhrynn employs an octal counting system: hem one hemme first dar two darre second las three lasse third sym four symme fourth gor five gorre fifth rem six remme sixth lon seven lhonne seventh sadh eight sadhrem eighth daradh sixteen daradhrem sixteenth lasadh twenty-four lasadhrem twenty-fourth syradh thirty-two syradhrem thirty-second goradh forty goradhrem fortieth resadh forty-eight resadhrem forty-eighth losadh fifty-six losadhrem fifty-sixth edhran sixty-four edhrannem sixty-fourth Numbers without specific names are formed by addition, starting with the highest multiple of eight: sadh hem nine sadh hemme ninth sadh dar ten sadh darre tenth sadh las eleven sadh lasse eleventh … … daradh sym twenty daradh symme twentieth … … lasadh gor twenty-nine lasadh gorre twenty-ninth … … syradh rem thirty-eight syradh remme thirty-eighth … … goradh lon forty-seven goradh lonne forty-seventh … … edhran gor sixty-nine edhran gorre sixty-ninth edhran rem seventy edhran remme seventieth edhran lon seventy-one edhran lonne seventy-first edhran sadh seventy-two edhran sadhrem seventy-second edhran sadh hem seventy-three edhran sadh hemme seventy-third … … edhran syradh sym a hundred edhran syradh symme hundredth Larger numbers are rarely used in contexts beyond counting stock, and in literature expressions like dar edhran two sixty-fours, edhran edhran sixty-four sixty-fours tend to mean ‘lots of’ or ‘vast amounts of’ rather than referring to specific quantities. This is the same way that English employs vague numerical expressions like several hundred, or hundreds upon hundreds. Adverbial numbers (once, twice, thrice, etc.) are formed from the cardinal number inflected in the same way as attributive nouns: hemm, darr, lass, symm, gorr, remm, lonn, sadhm… once, twice, thrice, four-times, five-times, six-times, seven-times, eight-times…

Acting rather like numbers, we also find cardinal sar (zero, no, none), leor (any), smean (few/little/scant), argand (many/lots/abundant), efhor (mostly, most), sgream (all, every), fhend (more), uran (less, fewer), sufhend (too many), suran (too few), and ordinal rounne (last, last few, final). As we have already seen, numbers precede the nouns they modify: Common Plural Complete Plural General Plural hem gordha dar gordhan hem gordhyn one bear two of the bears the one and only bear (in existence) hemme gordha darre gordhan hemme gordhyn the first bear the second one of the bears the first (ever) bear hem san las gordha dar san las gordhan hem san las gordhyn one of three bears two of the three bears one of the only three bears (in existence) hemme san las gordha darre san las gordhan hemme san las gordhyn the first of three bears the second of the three bears the first of the only three bears (in existence) sar gordha sar gordhan sar gordhyn no bears none of the bears no bear (that exists) leor gordha leor gordhan leor gordhyn any bears any of the bears any bear (that exists) smean gordha smean gordhan smean gordhyn a few bears a few of the bears few bears (that exist) argand gordha argand gordhan argand gordhyn a lot of bears many of the bears many bears (that exist) efhor gordha efhor gordhan efhor gordhyn most bears most of the bears most bears (that exist) sgream gordha sgream gordhan sgream gordhyn every bear all of the bears all bears (that exist) fhend gordha fhend gordhan efhor gordhyn more bears more of the bears more bears (of those that exist) uran gordha uran gordhan uran gordhyn fewer bears fewer of the bears fewer bears (of those that exist) sufhend gordha sufhend gordhan sufhend gordhyn too many bears too many of the bears too many bears (of those that exist) suran gordha suran gordhan suran gordhyn too few bears too few of the bears too few bears (of those that exist) rounne gordha rounne gordhan rounne gordhyn the last bear the last of the bears the last bear (of those that exist) It is important again to stress the difference between the plural, total and general. A common plural refers to any number of instances of a noun, but does not necessarily include every instance. The complete plural refers to every instance of a noun within the speaker or writer’s frame of reference, but again does not necessarily include every possible instance. The general plural, however, includes every possible instance. If you find three swords, you would use the common plural to say “I have found three swords”, and the implication is that there are other swords you have not found and know nothing about. If you were looking for three swords and found them all, you would use the complete plural to say “I have found all three of the swords”, and the implication is that there are other swords you may or may not have found, but they are not part of the three you were looking for. If you found all the swords in existence and there happened to be three of them, you would use the general plural to say “I have found all three swords”, and the implication is that there are no more swords to find anywhere.

Slides - Center for Language Engineering
Grammar_Chapter_5.15.. - Be Cruciform!
Grammar_Chapter_5.14.. - Be Cruciform!
practical grammar of irish language.pdf -
A guide to contemporary usage - Index of - Free
9.1.12 PowerPoint - Grant County Schools