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Adhrynn v1.2

An a priori artlang

TRANSITIVE VERBS

TRANSITIVE VERBS Transitive verbs have an agent and a patient. In the infinitive, the agent is completely dropped. The structure employed is agent-marker-patient-verb (or marker-patient-verb in the infinitive), and the verb is uninflected: Predictive Tense: 1. He is going to kill the bear len dhra gordh sloud 1. Neg. He is not going to kill the bear len nadhra gordh sloud 1. Inf. To be going to kill the bear dhram gordh sloud 1. Inf. Neg. To not be going to kill the bear nadhram gordh sloud 1. She is going to come to love him lan dhra les meld 1. Neg. She is not going to come to love him lan nadhra les meld 1. Inf. To be going to come to love him dhram les meld 1. Inf. Neg. To not be going to come to love him nadhram les meld The Predictive Tense can be given a sense of imminent instigation using the adverb edhra after the verb. Thus, dhram gordh sloud edhra to soon be going to kill the bear or lan dhra les meld edhra she is soon going to come to love him. In negative statements, edhra provides a sense that instigation is not imminent: nadhram gordh sloud edhra to not be going to kill the bear any time soon or lan nadhra les meld edhra she is not going to come to love him any time soon. The Incomplete Tense: 2. He is killing the bear len agra gordh sloud 2. Neg. He is not killing the bear len nagra gordh sloud 2. Inf. To be killing the bear agram gordh sloud 2. Inf. Neg. To not be killing the bear nagram gordh sloud 2. She is coming to love him lan agra les meld 2. Neg. She is not coming to love him lan nagra les meld 2. Inf. To be coming to love him agram les meld 2. Inf. Neg. To not be coming to love him nagram les meld The Incomplete Tense can be given a sense of recent instigation using the adverb braya after the verb. Thus, agram gordh sloud braya to have just started to kill the bear or lan agra les meld braya she has just started to come to love him. In negative statements, braya provides a sense that instigation has not yet occurred: nagram gordh sloud braya to have not yet started to kill the bear or lan nagra les meld braya she has not yet started to come to love him. With nafhray, the Incomplete Tense is given a sense of imminent realisation: Thus, agram gordh sloud nafhray to have almost finished killing the bear or lan agra les meld nafhray she has nearly come to love him. In negative statements, nafhray gives a sense that, although the process is ongoing, realisation is far from being reached: nagram gordh sloud nafhray to be far from having killed the bear or lan nagra les meld nafhray she is nowhere near having come to love him. The Complete Tense: 3. He has killed the bear len adra gordh sloud 3. Neg. He has not killed the bear len adranna gordh sloud 3. Inf. To have killed the bear adram gordh sloud 3. Inf. Neg. To have not killed the bear adrannam gordh sloud 3. She has come to love him lan adra les meld 3. Neg. She has not come to love him lan adranna les meld 3. Inf. To have come to love him adram les meld 3. Inf. Neg. To have not come to love him adrannam les meld The Complete Tense can be given a sense of recent completion with the adverb sorn placed after the verb. Thus, adram gordh sloud sorn to have just killed the bear or lan adra les meld sorn she has recently come to love him. In negative statements, sorn gives a sense that the state has not yet been reached: adrannam gordh sloud sorn to have not yet killed the bear or lan adranna les meld sorn she has not yet come to love him.

The Timeless Tense: 4. He kills the bear len a gordh sloud 4. Neg. He does not kill the bear len anna gordh sloud 4. Inf. To kill the bear am gordh sloud 4. Inf. Neg. To not kill the bear annam gordh sloud 4. She loves him lan a les meld 4. Neg. She does not love him lan anna les meld 4. Inf. To love him am les meld 4. Inf. Neg. To not love him annam les meld The Timeless Tense can be given a sense of enduring action using the adverb agrean after the verb. am gordhyn sloud agrean to habitually kill bears [general] or lan a les meld agrean she eternally loves him. In negative statements it suggests that the action is never performed: annam gordhyn sloud agrean to never kill bears [general], lan anna les meld agrean she has never loved him. Another adverb, nagread, gives a sense of regularity: am gordhyn sloud nagread to regularly kill bears [general] or lan a les meld nagread she sometimes loves him. In negative statements, it suggests that the frequency of the action is low: annam gordhyn sloud nagread to seldom kill bears [general] or lan anna les meld nagread she hardly ever loves him. The Four Tenses can be augmented with the adverb heord, which indicates that the action of the verb has undergone a change in potential. Thus, len agra gordh sloud heord he is now killing the bear, lan adra les meld heord she has now come to love him or len a gordhyn sloud heord he now kills bears [general]. In negative statements it also implies a change in potential: len nagra gordh sloud heord he is no longer killing the bear, lan anna les meld heord she no longer loves him. The heord adverb is never used, however, with negative statements in the Complete Tense (which would make no sense, since a completed action is, by definition, unchangeable). Passive Voice: Transitive verbs can form the passive voice. The patient is fronted and the agent is moved after the verb and preceded by a particle, su. In addition, the verb is inflected: Final Consonant Changes (Passive) r rra l lla d dra nd ndra rd rda ld lda dh dha ndh ndhra rdh rdha ldh ldha gh gha ngh ngha rgh rgha m mma n nna s ssa rm rma rn rna Pronouns, in the passive, retain their cases stubbornly. In English, where the passive of I love her is she is loved by me, in Adhrynn the equivalent would mean her is loved by I: len dhra gordh sloud gordh dhra sloudra (su len) he is going to kill the bear the bear is going to be killed (by him) lan agra les meld les agra melda (su lan) she is coming to love him he is coming to be loved (by her) len agra gordh sloud heord gordh agra sloudra heord (su len) he is now killing the bear the bear is now being killed (by him)

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