An a priori artlang
In passive infinitives the patient is dropped, but the agent (who would not usually be mentioned in the active infinitive) can be introduced: adrannam les meld sorn adrannam melda (su lan) to have not yet come to love him to have not yet come to be loved (by her) Infinitive Forms: In the infinitive, transitive verbs usually drop their agent and, in bare infinitives, their patient. The agent, however, can be retained if followed by the particle y: am sloud am gordh sloud am len y sloud am len y gordh sloud am sloudra am sloudra su len am gordh y sloudra am gordh y sloudra su len to kill to kill the bear for him to kill for him to kill the bear to be killed to be killed by him for the bear to be killed for the bear to be killed by him Note the stubborn cases of the pronouns. In Adhrynn, a pronoun keeps the case of whatever it references irrespective of the sentence structure employed. As an illustration of this: English: Adhrynn: English: Adhrynn: The dog bit the man The dog bit him [patient] He [agent] was bitten The dog bit the man The dog bit him [patient] Him [patient] was bitten The girl loves flowers She [agent] loves them [patient] They [agent] are loved by her [patient] The girl loves flowers She [agent] loves them [patient] Them [patient] are loved by she [agent] This unusual (but logical) phenomenon does not, of course, extend to nouns (which are entirely uninflected for case).
PREPOSITIONAL VERBS Many intransitive or transitive verbs can have a directional nature, incorporating a preposition into the verb phrase to indicate purpose, destination or direction. Intransitive verbs with a preposition become semi-transitive (e.g. go go into (enter) or look look at), although the target is not regarded as the patient but as an oblique. Transitive verbs with a preposition become ditransitive (e.g. pour pour into). Ditransitive verbs are always prepositional in nature and have up to three arguments: the agent, the patient (who is the recipient or destination) and the oblique (the thing received or moved). Two prepositional particles are employed: Positive: used when the agent’s action directly changes the state of the patient, for movements made by the agent (or an object used by the agent) towards the patient or for when the patient senses something originating from the agent. In English, positive prepositions include for, to, towards, in, into, on, onto, etc. The positive prepositional particle is se, and this follows the verb and precedes the oblique: mydh a scron larn se fheand king MARKER warrior give POS.PREP sword the king gives a sword to the warrior megh a lerm hlend se lam girl MARKER cup pour POS.PREP milk the girl pours the milk into a cup lan a bradh gorn se lerm she MARKER table place POS.PREP cup she places the cup on the table sfhraun a meodh se megh boy MARKER sing POS.PREP girl the boy sings to the girl lan a dhand se gaurn she MARKER go POS.PREP lake she goes to (or into) the lake Negative: used when the agent’s action does not directly change the state of the patient, for movements made by the agent (or an object used by the agent) away from the patient and when the agent senses something caused by the patient. In English, negative prepositions include from, away, off, out, out of, down, down from, under, below, etc. The negative prepositional particle is sdru, and this follows the verb and precedes the oblique: mydh a scron hayard sdru fheand king MARKER warrior take NEG.PREP sword the king takes a sword from the warrior megh a hlend sdru lam girl MARKER pour NEG.PREP milk the girl pours the milk away lan a bradh gorn sdru lerm she MARKER table place NEG.PREP cup she places the cup under (or away from) the table lan a dhand sdru gaurn she MARKER go NEG.PREP lake she comes out of (or from) the lake mayan a creyan sdru sfhraun mother MARKER listen NEG.PREP boy the mother listens to the boy