PuK - Process Technology & Components 2024

A technical trade magazine with a history of more than 60 years.

A technical trade magazine with a history of more than 60 years.


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+<br />

Special Show<br />


10 - 14 June <strong>2024</strong><br />

Frankfurt am Main, Germany<br />

#ACHEMA24<br />

World Forum and Leading Show<br />

for the <strong>Process</strong> Industries<br />

ACHEMA is the global hotspot for industry<br />

experts, decision-makers and solution<br />

providers. Experience unseen technology,<br />

collaborate cross-industry and connect<br />

yourself worldwide to make an impact.<br />

Are you ready? Join now!

Sustainable energy savings<br />

with heat recovery<br />

When using rotary screw compressors, boosters and blowers, a considerable portion of the energy generated is lost as heat. However, this doesn’t have<br />

to be the case: Thanks to innovative heat recovery systems from KAESER KOMPRESSOREN, this heat can be recovered and put to effective use.<br />

Heat recovery – The right decision<br />

Energy efficiency: You can significantly reduce your energy costs by recovering recyclable heat. The recovered<br />

heat can be used to heat spaces, to heat water, or to support industrial processes. You are therefore able to use your<br />

energy twice and save money at the same time.<br />

Sustainability: By utilising the recyclable heat from your compressed air supply, you significantly reduce CO2 emissions.<br />

Heat recovery actively contributes to climate protection and helps your company operate more sustainably.<br />

Durability: A lower compressor operating temperature means a longer service life. Heat recovery therefore not only<br />

saves money but also protects your investment.<br />

Flexibility: Heat recovery systems from KAESER can be adapted to almost any compressor. Whether you already<br />

have an existing system or wish to install a new one, our innovative technology can be integrated seamlessly.<br />

Funding opportunities: Government subsidy programmes are available to support energy-efficiency measures.<br />

Find out about potential funding opportunities and start benefiting today.<br />


Approx. 5 % Approx. 15 % Approx. 76 %<br />

Heat dissipation<br />

from the drive motor<br />

Heat energy<br />

recoverable through<br />

compressed air cooling<br />

Heat energy<br />

recoverable through<br />

fluid cooling<br />

100 % Approx. 96 %<br />

Total electrical power<br />

consumption<br />

Usable heat<br />

Approx. 2 % Approx. 2 % Approx. 4 %<br />

Non-usable heat<br />

Heat dissipated by the<br />

compressor into the<br />

ambient surroundings<br />

Heat remaining in the<br />

compressed air<br />

Heat recovery systems –<br />

Flexible for every need<br />

Hot air for space heating: Air-cooled rotary screw compressors, boosters and blowers from KAESER are ideal as<br />

complete systems to aid heat recovery for space heating and other hot air applications. Direct use of recyclable heat<br />

via an exhaust air ducting system enables up to 96 % of the total energy input to be recovered and reused.<br />

Hot water production: KAESER offers heat recovery systems with special heat exchangers for applications requiring<br />

hot water. Depending on the design, these systems can generate hot water up to 70°C for use as process, service and<br />

tap water. The indirect use of recyclable heat via heat exchanger systems can utilise up to 76 % of the electrical power<br />

provided to the compressed air supply.<br />

This is where heat recovery counts:<br />

● Feed into central heating systems<br />

● Hot water for sanitary equipment<br />

● Drying and sterilisation processes<br />

● Utility water for the food and beverage industry<br />

● Service water for the textile industry<br />

● <strong>Process</strong> water for the manufacturing industry<br />

Would you like to learn more about our innovative heat recovery systems?<br />

Then follow the QR code.<br />


Editorial<br />

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)<br />

Dear Readers,<br />

Up to now, TCO is a term that has primarily been used by manufacturers to define what users of leased products must pay<br />

the manufacturer per unit of time. I am now expanding the scope of this definition to include the entire technical industry,<br />

whether rented or purchased. TCO is the total cost (all costs arising) of ownership of a product, including depreciation,<br />

energy costs, maintenance and repair costs, personnel and spare parts costs, and the necessary peripheral costs such as<br />

administration and infrastructure.<br />

But why am I writing about this topic? The countries of Central Europe, and Germany in particular, are undergoing demographic<br />

change, with baby boomers retiring and younger generations unable to fill the resulting gaps in the labour market.<br />

Another point concerns the energy supply and the available raw materials. All of which underlines why we, in Europe,<br />

should be seeking out solutions to boost energy efficiency and remain economically significant without large reserves of<br />

raw materials.<br />

Well, it's actually quite simple. We need to improve and streamline everything and make it cheaper, from technology, to<br />

our energy and resource supply, to administration. In other words, reduce the TCO according to my new definition - and<br />

preferably with the help of AI.<br />

If we want to sell our products going forward, they will have to be highly energy efficient with an extended service life, given<br />

that our competitors can offer existing technology more cheaply. We should feed the raw materials we have back into processes<br />

and develop processes for them. This suggests a consistent circular economy and using materials more intentionally<br />

at the same time. Regardless of the personnel costs, this means: Reducing costs while achieving high quality. Whatever<br />

AI can do to help us, it should: Write letters, analyse data and issue control commands in normal processes. Staff should be<br />

deployed where control, creativity and sophisticated expertise are required. This could help underpin our future.<br />

So we’ve selected the articles in this issue to highlight efficiencies in a range of areas and show you how you - too -<br />

can further streamline your company and products to remain competitive going forward.<br />

Kind regards,<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

Prof. (ret.), advisor on hydrogen and energy issues<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />



Editorial Advisory Board<br />

Editorial Advisory Board <strong>2024</strong><br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker, Prof. (ret.), advisor on hydrogen and energy issues<br />

Head of the Editorial Advisory Board<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker was born in 1956 and studied mechanical engineering at the Heilbronn University of Applied<br />

Sciences and Chemical Engineering at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg where he did his doctorate in 1993. His industrial<br />

activity comprised an apprenticeship as a mechanic, three years as a designing engineer, four years as head of the R&D department<br />

and five years as proxy in the Engineering division. From 2000-2022 he has been professor and has been holding the chair in<br />

“<strong>Process</strong> Machinery and System Engineering“ at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. His subject area included layout and operation<br />

of systems, machines and plants for chemistry, water, food and biotechnological engineering as well as practical management.<br />

His research focus is on the pulsation problem and system dynamics in plants, the optimization and simulation of pumps, compressors and systems,<br />

the high-pressure component and process technology, the application of ionic fluids, the energetic optimization of systems and the research of wear<br />

processes. In 2008 he was Vice Dean of the School of Engineering, is editor of journals, member of several committees and research associations, gives<br />

hydrogen seminars throughout Germany, and is a technical consultant for companies and lecturer in international training programs.<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer, Head of Fluidics at Technical University Dortmund<br />

Andreas Brümmer, born in 1963, studied aerospace engineering at the Technical University of Braunschweig, where he completed<br />

his doctorate in the field of bird flight at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics. He began his industrial career in 1997 as head<br />

of the fluid dynamics at the company KÖTTER Consulting Engineers KG. Here he gained experience in the physical analysis and<br />

elimination of flow-induced vibrations in industrial plants. In 2005, he took over the technical management of the company.<br />

Since 2006, he has been Professor and Head of the Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Department at TU Dortmund University. His research<br />

focuses on the theoretical and experimental analysis of screw machines both in compressor applications (e.g. refrigeration and<br />

air compressors, vacuum pumps) and in expander applications (e.g. waste heat utilisation). He also researches pulsating flows<br />

in the environment of positive displacement machines and centrifugal pumps. He was Vice Dean and Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering<br />

from 2008 to 2011 and Senator at TU Dortmund University from 2012 to 2014. He is a reviewer for various international journals, serves on industrial<br />

advisory boards and scientific committees and is the scientific director of the International Conference on Screw Machines (ICSM), which<br />

has been held regularly at TU Dortmund University since 1984.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch, Project Engineer, KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE, Coburg<br />

Gerhart Hobusch, born in 1964, studied mechanical engineering at the University of Applied Sciences in Schweinfurt, Northern<br />

Bavaria. He graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering and completed postgraduate studies with a degree in industrial<br />

engineering. He has been working as a project engineer at KAESER KOMPRESSOREN SE, Coburg, since 1989. His responsibilities<br />

include the planning of compressed air stations, the development of economical, energy-saving concepts for compressed air stations<br />

and the worldwide training of KAESER project engineers. As part of his job, he has worked on research projects such as the<br />

“Compressed Air Efficiency” campaign, the EnEffAH joint project, as well as FOREnergy and Green Factory Bavaria, and is active in<br />

the VDMA's compressed air technology department. The standard compliant implementation of volume flow and power measurements<br />

on compressors, also in connection with China Energy Label efficiency requirements, as well as compressed air quality measurements according<br />

to ISO standards are also part of his tasks. In addition to the specialist lectures on compressed air technology held over the years, he is participating<br />

in the development of the KAESER blended learning concept with the design of e-learning courses and the implementation of online training courses.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johann Vetter, Head of Integrated Management Systems, NETZSCH Pumps & Systems GmbH, Waldkraiburg<br />

Johann Vetter, born in 1966, studied mechanical engineering at the Technical Colleage of Regensburg. His diploma thesis dealt<br />

with the topic “Filters and filter materials“ in Environmental and <strong>Process</strong> Engineering. Prior to his studies, Mr. Vetter had completed<br />

an apprenticeship as machine fitter and thus created a practical basis for his later activities in the automotive industry,<br />

where he worked for 16 years as a quality engineer, development engineer, project manager and department manager for airbag<br />

systems. Since 2013, Mr. Vetter has been responsible for special projects mainly for the oil and gas industry at NETZSCH<br />

Pumps & Systems, where he took over the position of Quality Manager after 3 years. Since October 2019 he has been responsible<br />

for the areas of integrated management systems and is also a member of the Management Board of NETZSCH Pumps &<br />

Systems. He is currently also the project manager responsible for sustainability at the NETZSCH Group.<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Sebastian Oberbeck, Global Energy Manager, Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, Asslar<br />

Sebastian Oberbeck, born 1970, graduated at the University of Applied Sciences Mittelhessen in engineering and precision<br />

mechanics. His career startet as project engineer and later as project manager at the Fraunhofer Institute for Microsystems<br />

in Mainz developing mainly micro pumps, micro valves and microsystems (MEMS) in publically funded as well as in industry<br />

sponsored projects. From 1998 he was responsible for nano technically manufactured Pointprobe AFM sensors at Nanosensors<br />

GmbH in Wetzlar. In 1999 he became founding member and partner of the startup company CPC Cellular Chemistry<br />

Systems GmbH where he was responsible for developing micro chemical reaction systems in Laboratory and Pilot plant applications<br />

in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. 2004 he took the product management responsibility for automotive<br />

drive shaft components of Daimler Chrysler and Getrag at tier 1 supplier Selzer Fertigungstechnik GmbH in Driedorf. From 2009 to 2019, he was<br />

responsible for development and basic research for backing pumps and systems at Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH. From 2020 to 2022, he was responsible<br />

for setting up and managing the Silicon Valley Innovation Center in San Jose, California for Pfeiffer Vacuum North America and took over the<br />

role of Global Energy Manager at Pfeiffer Vacuum at the beginning of 2023.<br />

6 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

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Dirk Koob<br />

CEO Aerzen Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG<br />



Contents<br />

Title<br />

SEEPEX optimizes sewage sludge transport in<br />

the Ruhr region<br />

Pump monitoringand process expertise for<br />

sewage treatment plants<br />

The pump manufacturer Seepex installed its monitoring<br />

solution in one of the largest wastewater companies in Germany<br />

– the Ruhrverband – to optimize the transport of sewage sludge.<br />

The permanent, live monitoring of all parameters during pump<br />

operation optimizes performance, increases energy efficiency<br />

and brings a high degree of reliability and predictability to<br />

maintenance processes. (starting on page 14)<br />

Contents<br />

Editorial<br />

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 5<br />

Leading article<br />

Efficiency and quality 10<br />

Cover story<br />

SEEPEX optimizes sewage sludge transport in the Ruhr region 14<br />

Pumps and Systems<br />

High-efficiency pumps<br />

The best control 18<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps prove their worth<br />

for critical mixing tasks in industrial oligonucleotide production 20<br />

Progressing cavity pumps<br />

Battery production in Europe drives pump manufacturers<br />

to new innovations 26<br />

Conical progressive cavity pump for demanding<br />

applications in the industrial and wastewater sectors 38<br />

Smart factory<br />

The intelligent path to the Smart Factory:<br />

How “pain points” become future-proof<br />

use cases thanks to the cloud 30<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

“Peristaltic pumps are an economical solution“ 33<br />

Screw pumps<br />

Advancing fluid conveyance beyond conventional boundaries 40<br />

Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum systems<br />

Tracking the Big Bang 42<br />

Index of Advertisers 52<br />

Impressum 52<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Pumps/Vacuum technology 56<br />

Trade fairs and events<br />

IFAT Munich <strong>2024</strong> 70<br />

IVS - INDUSTRIAL VALVE SUMMIT <strong>2024</strong> 72<br />

ACHEMA <strong>2024</strong> 74<br />

FILTECH <strong>2024</strong> 76<br />

VALVE WORLD EXPO <strong>2024</strong> 77<br />

DIAM & DDM 2025 78<br />

Compressors und Systems<br />

Machine room ventilation<br />

So that the packages do not run out of air 80<br />

Biogas backfeed<br />

Biogas Backfeed in Leoben 86<br />

Sustainability<br />

Sustainability on the rise 88<br />

Heat recovery<br />

Save money and benefit the environment 90<br />

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Plant documentation<br />

Getting started is easier than you think 93<br />

Frequency converter<br />

Multilevel technology: What it can do and what it enables 96<br />

Total cost of ownership<br />

Energy saving support 100<br />

Gaskets<br />

The complete, worry-free package for drinking water<br />

gaskets with KTW-BWGL conformity 102<br />

OT security<br />

OT security must be planned from the outset 104<br />

Sensors<br />

Sensors measure axle temperature:<br />

JUMO continues the success story of the TGV 106<br />

Drives<br />

Modern pioneer with a long tradition 108<br />

Seals<br />

New sealing options for CIP/SIP processes 110<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Compressors/Compressed air/<strong>Components</strong> 112<br />

Technical Data Purchasing 117<br />

Screw spindle vacuum pumps<br />

Potential of surface structures for the<br />

reduction of vacuum gap flows 46<br />

Repair vs. replace<br />

When to repair vs. replace your vacuum pump: A guide 53<br />

8<br />











Visit us to learn more:<br />

Messe Frankfurt a.M.<br />

10. – 14.06.<strong>2024</strong><br />

Hall 8, Stand 64<br />

Resistant pumps from Vogelsang: always the right choice!<br />

Even in applications under extreme conditions, you can, from now on, benefit<br />

from Vogelsang pumps‘ economic efficiency, which is highly valued worldwide.<br />

Because thanks to our cross-industry experience, our uncompromising focus on<br />

solutions and the diversity of our portfolio, you will find exactly the right pump<br />

for your needs. From highly temperature resistant rotary lobe pumps especially<br />

designed to match the demands of the chemical and petrochemical industry<br />

through to the revolutionary HiCone ® progressive cavity pump for maximum<br />

efficiency and multiplied service life.<br />



Leading article<br />

Efficiency and quality<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

Electricity is going to be our preferred<br />

form of energy in the future<br />

since it directly or indirectly<br />

replaces fossil fuels in everything<br />

from electric cars to homes and the<br />

chemical industry. CO 2<br />

and hydrogen<br />

are the magic bullets for indirect<br />

replacement.<br />

Hydrogen is universal in application<br />

and produced using electricity,<br />

while CO 2<br />

is harmful to our climate<br />

but will be an important raw material<br />

in the future. However, this means<br />

that we will need five to eight times<br />

more electricity or 10 to 16 times<br />

more electricity from wind and solar<br />

than today. This would only be possible<br />

if photovoltaic and wind power<br />

plants become far more efficient.<br />

Otherwise we will not have enough<br />

room, and resistance from the population<br />

is often encountered as well.<br />

We therefore have to import energy.<br />

Ammonia is no doubt the best<br />

option since its hydrogen content is<br />

high (110 Kg/m 3 ) and it only requires<br />

positive pressure of about 10 bar<br />

for transportation. The technology<br />

for recovering the hydrogen is available<br />

and relatively efficient. Australia<br />

is promising $1.50 per kilogram of<br />

hydrogen and the price is currently<br />

$2.00. Presumably this will be stored<br />

in ammonia. It will however cost<br />

more than that by the time it gets to<br />

us. Investments need to be made in<br />

production abroad, the construction<br />

of cargo ships, transportation, port<br />

receiving systems and the pending<br />

development of distribution structures<br />

in Europe. Since ammonia is<br />

toxic, one cannot expect to pump it<br />

through pipelines or to use it in municipal<br />

structures. Gas distribution<br />

networks in Germany are therefore<br />

being converted to hydrogen. Hydrogen<br />

currently costs € 4.55/kg in Germany.<br />

According to a publication of<br />

the Wuppertal Institute, hydrogen<br />

can be produced at lower cost in<br />

Germany compared to importing it<br />

in the form of ammonia. This is true<br />

in particular when the required electricity<br />

is produced domestically using<br />

photovoltaics (currently approx.<br />

8.5 cents/KWh, thus € 2.83/kg). We<br />

should therefore produce as much<br />

hydrogen as possible and sensible in<br />

Europe. This should allow us to meet<br />

our energy needs in conjunction<br />

with imports. However, we still have<br />

a long way to go and may experience<br />

occasional electricity shortages until<br />

we get there. There is at least some<br />

doubt whether energy imports will<br />

always proceed smoothly due to political<br />

changes. We should therefore<br />

turn this threat into an opportunity<br />

by developing products that are better<br />

than anything comparable in the<br />

world. Efficiency in all facets and durability<br />

are the keys to success. We<br />

need to build machinery and equipment<br />

that outperform all others in<br />

terms of efficiency and service life.<br />

In the examination of process<br />

technology, heat suggests itself as<br />

the focal point for assessing the efficiency<br />

of machinery (pumps, compressors<br />

etc.), equipment, electricity,<br />

materials and overhead.<br />

Heat energy and heating<br />

equipment<br />

Heat is a physical state that we need<br />

for technical applications and in our<br />

private life. Unfortunately, heat cannot<br />

be transported – or only in mobile,<br />

extremely well insulated heat<br />

storage vessels (costly). Heat should<br />

therefore be consumed where it is<br />

produced and one should always<br />

strive to maintain it at a high energy<br />

level where it is used. This means<br />

that heat dissipation losses should be<br />

minimised by good insulation or that<br />

waste heat should be utilised as far<br />

as possible. Heat flows can also be<br />

upgraded through compression, vapour<br />

recompression or heat pumps,<br />

thereby raising them to higher temperatures.<br />

In process technology, this means<br />

using heat cascades or heat upgrading<br />

methods, for example:<br />

1) The cold heat flow cools the warm<br />

flow, the warm flow cools the hot<br />

flow, and so forth! The hot flow<br />

can either be transformed back<br />

into electricity using a Carnot battery<br />

or the residual heat can be<br />

used for heating and returned to<br />

upgrading.<br />

2) If a flow of warm water is available<br />

that cannot be used any more, this<br />

could be provided to neighbours<br />

for heating or upgraded to reach<br />

a level that makes it usable again<br />

(for example, reheating from this<br />

level or, in case of gases or steam,<br />

compression or vapour recompression).<br />

3) If a hot flow is available that cannot<br />

be used any more, it should<br />

be stored in a mobile heat storage<br />

vessel or transformed into electricity<br />

using a Carnot battery<br />

4) When heating as well as cooling<br />

are required, both can be produced<br />

using a heat pump or the<br />

heat can be used for cooling generation,<br />

producing a warmer flow.<br />

Pumps and compressors<br />

The choice of a pump depends on<br />

the type of process used to produce<br />

a certain product. A rotary pump is<br />

the best choice when this meets the<br />

project requirements since it is costeffective<br />

and robust. However, its efficiency<br />

factor is poor in case of low<br />

flow rates or large control ranges.<br />

This raises the question of costs. The<br />

costs for a conveying task with a pressure<br />

increase of 10 bar, a flow rate<br />

of 10 m 3 /h and an efficiency factor of<br />

10 % are €19,352 when an electricity<br />

price of 0.285 cents/KWh is assumed<br />

10<br />


Leading article<br />

Fig. 1: Conveying costs per year (8800 hours) for different pump efficiency factors, sample<br />

calculation for water at 10 m 3 per hour and 10 bar pressure increase.<br />

(published industry price). With an efficiency<br />

factor of 80 %, the costs decrease<br />

by 88 % to just € 2,418.<br />

You can easily determine the<br />

costs for different conveying tasks<br />

in the table to the right by multiplying.<br />

For example, the costs double<br />

when the pressure difference increases<br />

to 20 bar. The same applies<br />

for the delivery rate and electricity<br />

costs. Also note that the motor has to<br />

be matched to the respective conveying<br />

task. The motor of a pump with<br />

a 20 % efficiency factor is about four<br />

times larger compared to a pump<br />

with an efficiency factor of 80 %.<br />

Better efficiency factors for rotary<br />

pumps can however also be obtained<br />

through strategic control and regulation<br />

measures. [Hieninger]<br />

The efficiency factor of displacement<br />

pumps is better on average up<br />

to mid-range delivery rates. Such machines<br />

are rarely offered beyond that,<br />

even though they are clearly preferable<br />

for conveying highly viscous substances,<br />

higher pressures, or when a<br />

high dosing accuracy is required. Oscillating<br />

pumps achieve the highest<br />

dosing accuracy, often with the highest<br />

efficiency factor, at up to +- 0.5 %.<br />

Unfortunately, oscillating pumps<br />

have the largest footprint as a rule<br />

and also produce the greatest pulsation.<br />

Pulsation dampers can usually<br />

reduce this to a residual pulsation<br />

of about 1–3 %. This is classified<br />

as harmless, which is surely incorrect<br />

since oscillations and pressure<br />

surges as well as cavitation cause<br />

wear on pumps and other system elements.<br />

Choosing the right pump in<br />

terms of sustainability and service life<br />

is therefore a key task.<br />

A pressure surge passes through<br />

a system at the speed of sound<br />

(1480 m/s in water) and acts in all directions<br />

in pipes. It has a lot of force<br />


PUMPS TO API 674<br />

- Liquid ammonia pumps<br />

- Reactor feed pumps<br />

- Methanol pumps<br />

- Produced water injection pumps<br />

- Wash water pumps<br />

Pressure:<br />

Flow rate:<br />

50 – 4000 bar<br />

0,1 – 200 m³/h<br />



Hammelmann GmbH<br />

Carl-Zeiss-Straße 6-8<br />

D-59302 Oelde<br />

+49 (0) 25 22 / 76 - 0<br />

pp@hammelmann.de<br />


Leading article<br />

and frequently attacks sensors, expands<br />

pipes or deforms surfaces.<br />

This often leads to small relative<br />

movements between components<br />

that can degrade the structure. All<br />

other pumps including rotary pumps<br />

also cause pulsation, which can even<br />

be severe under some conditions but<br />

is usually tolerated. To improve the<br />

durability of pumps, we need to optimise<br />

the damping of oscillations and<br />

surges, and of course prevent cavitation.<br />

Since such dampers unfortunately<br />

do not exist yet, this is an engineering<br />

challenge.<br />

leading engineering challenges for<br />

compressors. Leakages may also occur<br />

depending on the type of gas.<br />

This is more of an issue the smaller<br />

the gas molecules are. Hydrogen, for<br />

example, is being discussed a great<br />

deal today. Its lubrication properties<br />

are extremely poor and it gets<br />

warmer, not colder, when the pressure<br />

is relieved at the start of the intake<br />

stroke. A liquid seal is highly suitable<br />

here but does of course require<br />

gas purification on the pressure side.<br />

In view of the energy loss through<br />

heat and leakage close to a factor of<br />

Fig. 2: Compression types of compressors: d1 isothermal; d2 polytropic, adiabatic with efficient<br />

cooling; d3 adiabatic or isentropic; d4 polytropic with additional heat input, e. g. from<br />

seal friction.<br />

The efficiency factor of compressors<br />

is highly dependent on cooling during<br />

the entire compression process.<br />

When seal friction occurs in addition,<br />

this results in polytropic compression<br />

in which the gas is additionally<br />

heated beyond compression heating.<br />

The hotter the gas, the more energy<br />

is needed for conveying. Heating<br />

of the gas during intake into the<br />

working chamber with hot walls is<br />

also problematic since it reduces the<br />

intake volume. Compared to isothermal<br />

compression in which the working<br />

chamber is cooled, ideally using<br />

a liquid, polytropic compression consumes<br />

at least twice the energy. Selecting<br />

appropriate cooling or perfectly<br />

separating coolant droplets<br />

of the internal coolant are thus the<br />

two, gas purification on the pressure<br />

side should be amortised quickly.<br />

The energy demand for a target pressure<br />

also increases the lower the actual<br />

intake pressure is. Therefore,<br />

the pressure loss on the intake side<br />

should be minimised as far as possible.<br />

The same applies for the seal<br />

friction. The area below the curves<br />

and lines in Figure 2 represents the<br />

required compression energy.<br />

The efficiency factor of compressors<br />

depends on the following aspects:<br />

1) A lack of effective cooling results in<br />

adiabatic compression. When relatively<br />

high seal friction on the piston<br />

is added, we have polytropic<br />

compression. The consumption of<br />

energy is 150 % higher compared<br />

to isothermal compression. The<br />

hotter the gas at the end of conveying,<br />

the more conveying energy.<br />

2) Gas heating during intake is also<br />

problematic; compression heating<br />

results in hot working chamber<br />

walls. The incoming gas is heated<br />

and expands during intake. This<br />

considerably reduces the intake<br />

volume.<br />

3) Every piston compressor in the<br />

classic design has a dead space.<br />

This is the remaining space at upper<br />

dead centre, which first has<br />

to be depressurised on the intake<br />

stroke before the intake as such<br />

can begin. When conveying hydrogen,<br />

it also heats up when the<br />

pressure is relieved.<br />

4) The intake with pressure loss<br />

means that the actual intake pressure<br />

is lower than the static intake<br />

pressure. While the difference is<br />

small as a rule, it nevertheless has<br />

a negative effect since compression<br />

starting at a lower pressure<br />

consumes the most energy per<br />

compression stroke.<br />

5) A pressure loss also occurs on the<br />

pressure side. However, it occurs<br />

in the upper pressure range and is<br />

therefore the smallest loss in this<br />

list.<br />

6) Leakage on the piston: Depending<br />

on the gas type and its lubricating<br />

properties, the seal suffers<br />

considerable wear and thus also<br />

an appreciable leakage flow. Both<br />

are particularly high for hydrogen<br />

since it does not lubricate. A lot if<br />

research is therefore being done in<br />

this area as well.<br />

7) With poorly lubricating gases<br />

(such as hydrogen), sliding movements<br />

of the compressor valves<br />

can be expected to occur during<br />

valve closing, from the initial contact<br />

until the final limit of travel is<br />

reached, which can cause wear.<br />

The functionally best solution is a<br />

liquid piston or a layer of liquid over<br />

the metallic piston (piston works upward).<br />

This can reduce the dead space<br />

to zero. Leakage is also zero due to<br />

the barrier effect of the liquid and the<br />

piston seal is lubricated, which can<br />

12<br />


Leading article<br />

extend the maintenance intervals. A<br />

nearly isothermal compression can<br />

be achieved with the proper layout.<br />

Cooling with a liquid means that<br />

droplets are produced so that filter<br />

technology is required on the pressure<br />

side. Considering that the loss<br />

of energy through heat and leakage<br />

is in the range of more than a factor<br />

of two compared to isothermal<br />

compression and the drive motor<br />

has twice the output, meaning its approximate<br />

cost is at least 50 % more,<br />

gas purification on the pressure side<br />

should be amortised quickly and may<br />

in fact be less costly than one year of<br />

wasted energy and leakage.<br />

Chemical and biological<br />

production facilities<br />

The smaller the system with the same<br />

material flow, the lower the friction<br />

pressure loss. This should be taken<br />

into account in system planning. Some<br />

tests have already been conducted in<br />

this direction, but they stalled at the<br />

standardisation stage and a breakthrough<br />

was not achieved. We may<br />

have to rethink plant engineering and<br />

construction. One example that was<br />

intensively discussed are rails around<br />

a chemical plant, on which tank cars<br />

are moved e. g. from A to B etc. in order<br />

to be filled or emptied, transporting<br />

materials and goods. This would<br />

definitely open up new opportunities<br />

since there would no longer be tanks<br />

inside the plant. At most, there would<br />

be reactors if these could not be relocated<br />

to a rail car as well. In this case<br />

the plant would be reduced to pipework<br />

only. Physical separation could<br />

also be realised, permitting function<br />

pools with storage in moveable tanks.<br />

The number of pipe elbows would<br />

definitely be reduced as well. For<br />

those that cannot be eliminated, recent<br />

developments cut the additional<br />

loss in pipe elbows almost in half.<br />

When the plant as such consists only<br />

of pipework, cross-section changes<br />

that deplete energy are hardly needed<br />

and the length of the pipework<br />

could be reduced. In addition, many<br />

systems need to be pressurised and<br />

the pressure is usually discharged<br />

without being utilised.<br />

Energy recovery using expansion<br />

machines could be amortised relatively<br />

quickly.<br />

General rules:<br />

1) Since friction always consumes energy,<br />

optimal lubrication and materials<br />

with sliding properties or<br />

pressure lubrication are important.<br />

2) A noisy machine consumes more<br />

energy than a machine that runs<br />

quietly. Noise can also be indicative<br />

of wear.<br />

3) Heat distortion due to uneven thermal<br />

expansion can lead to damage<br />

caused by wear or loud machine<br />

noises. When a machine becomes<br />

louder after starting up, this can be<br />

an indicator of such effects.<br />

4) Vibrations in a pipe section can be<br />

indicative of small pressure surges<br />

or oscillations that energetically<br />

match the resonance frequency<br />

of the pipe section. This indicates<br />

oscillations in the system and increases<br />

the probability of damage.<br />

5) Cavitation is loud when bubbles<br />

implode on the walls and usually<br />

quiet when the bubbles implode in<br />

the fluid space. The latter is generally<br />

not harmful. However, cavitation<br />

that is barely audible but can<br />

nevertheless cause damage also<br />

occurs. Experience and learning<br />

processes are required here.<br />

Literature<br />

[Hieninger] Energy Efficiency (2021)<br />

14:23 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12053-<br />

021-09932-5<br />

The Author:<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eberhard Schlücker<br />

Prof. (ret.), advisor on hydrogen<br />

and energy issues<br />

We put the filling<br />

into the strudel!<br />

MORE!<br />

Hygienic WANGEN PUMPS pump<br />

medium-specifically, gently and reliably.

Cover story<br />

Pump monitoring and process expertise for<br />

sewage treatment plants<br />

SEEPEX optimizes sewage sludge transport<br />

in the Ruhr region<br />

Every river needs clean water.<br />

Treated wastewater from approximately<br />

two million people feeds the<br />

river that gives its name to Germany’s<br />

largest urban area, the Ruhr.<br />

For the Ruhrverband, digital monitoring<br />

solutions from the internationally<br />

renowned specialist SEEPEX<br />

ensure that the sludge treatment<br />

process remains under control.<br />

After a successful test phase of the<br />

pump monitoring system, Ruhrverband<br />

is convinced that permanent<br />

live monitoring of important parameters<br />

during pump operation<br />

improves performance, increases<br />

energy efficiency and brings high reliability<br />

and predictability to maintenance<br />

processes.<br />

Fig. 1: Ruhrverband, one of Germany’s largest waste water operators, treats the wastewater<br />

of approx. 2.2 million people in the Ruhr area every day. (Source: Ruhrverband, Essen Kupferdreh<br />

sewage treatment plant)<br />

Ruhrverband and SEEPEX have a<br />

long-standing partnership in the field<br />

of sewage sludge conveying. The<br />

Bottrop-based company’s powerful<br />

progressive cavity pumps transport<br />

viscous sludge over long distances to<br />

treatment plants. In two wastewater<br />

treatment plants in the city of Essen,<br />

pump monitoring solutions optimize<br />

processes on a permanent basis.<br />

Since 2021, the pump monitoring system<br />

has been recording sensor data<br />

for analysis. The goal is to optimize<br />

the operating performance of the installed<br />

pumps and reduce their maintenance<br />

requirements. The technology<br />

has proven to be successful and is<br />

now in permanent use.<br />

A challenging process over<br />

long distances<br />

Both partners faced the special challenge<br />

of long pumping distances of<br />

up to eight kilometers as well as with<br />

varying quantities and changing viscosity<br />

of the pumped medium. The<br />

result is a demanding and, in some<br />

cases, complex process with a great<br />

Fig. 2: Seepex installed digital monitoring solutions at two sewage treatment plants in the<br />

south of Essen, thereby optimizing sewage sludge transport. (Source: Seepex)<br />

deal of potential for optimization. The<br />

customer hoped that pump monitoring<br />

would provide suggestions for improvements<br />

in terms of operating parameters,<br />

operating times and energy<br />

consumption by analyzing pump operation<br />

and process conditions over<br />

a long period. Critical pressure conditions<br />

and wear were also areas of<br />

focus. Consequently, the pump monitoring<br />

system recorded pump data<br />

such as flow, pressure, vibration and<br />

14 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Cover story<br />

temperature. This allowed the system<br />

to monitor components and process<br />

conditions in real-time.<br />

The one-year pilot project involved<br />

two pumps conveying primary<br />

sludge from different locations<br />

for further treatment. One NS 70-24<br />

pump transports the primary sludge<br />

from the Essen-Kupferdreh WWTP<br />

over a distance of eight kilometers<br />

to the sludge treatment facility. The<br />

other BN 130-12 progressive cavity<br />

pump transports the sludge from the<br />

Essen-South WWTP over a distance of<br />

six kilometers. The task was to match<br />

both conveying methods to the capacity<br />

of the sludge treatment facility.<br />

Problem detection and<br />

root-cause analysis<br />

In February 2021, SEEPEX installed<br />

its pump monitoring units at the two<br />

sites. The scope of supply included<br />

the pump monitoring hardware, a<br />

customized sensor package, as well<br />

as the communication infrastructure<br />

and Connected Services for collecting,<br />

monitoring and analyzing the<br />

data. “SEEPEX supported Ruhrverband<br />

with monthly reports, presentation<br />

of findings and recommendations<br />

for action based on algorithms<br />

and our expert knowledge,” says the<br />

Product Manager of Digital Solutions<br />

at SEEPEX.<br />

Early in the analysis, SEEPEX experts<br />

were able to uncover previously unknown<br />

problems and determine the<br />

underlying causes. For example, discharge<br />

pressures were high and<br />

sometimes outside the pump’s specifications.<br />

The experts quickly determined<br />

that resonant frequencies<br />

overstressed the mechanical components,<br />

which was causing loosened<br />

screw fittings and a broken tie rod.<br />

Pump monitoring made the condition<br />

of the rotor and stator transparent<br />

as the test phase progressed.<br />

SEEPEX was able to determine the<br />

ideal time for their replacement with<br />

one month’s notice. This way, the customer<br />

was able to plan the maintenance<br />

work ahead of time and avoid<br />

process interruptions. On the other<br />

hand, the water association was able<br />

to fully utilize the wearing parts without<br />

jeopardizing process reliability.<br />

Further adjustments increased the<br />

service life of the rotor and stator by<br />

more than 50 %, which translates into<br />

annual savings of more than € 6,000<br />

per pump.<br />

25 % less power to operate<br />

By determining three key factors influencing<br />

energy consumption, the<br />

team of the pump manufacturer was<br />

able to identify potential energy cost<br />

savings of more than 25 % and ultimately<br />

recommend actions to improve<br />

energy efficiency. Ruhrverband<br />

implemented process control adjustments<br />

in close coordination with<br />

SEEPEX. Overall, Ruhrverband was<br />

impressed with the detailed energy<br />

analysis of its pumps. The monitoring<br />

system provides a clear overview<br />

of energy consumption and specific<br />

energy costs per cubic meter of<br />

pumped sludge. From now on, continuous<br />

pump monitoring will ensure<br />

optimal process conditions and consistently<br />

low energy consumption.<br />

Predictable maintenance cycles<br />

“The main benefit of SEEPEX’s continuous<br />

condition monitoring, analysis<br />

and reporting is the ability to predict<br />

maintenance cycles, which significantly<br />

reduces operating costs,” explains<br />

the Project Manager for Digitali zation<br />

Projects at Ruhrverband. “We were<br />

very grateful for the in-depth analysis<br />

on how to monitor wear and minimize<br />

the energy consumed per cubic<br />

meter of sludge pumped.”<br />

The compact, easy-to-understand<br />

monthly report, which summarizes<br />

key performance indicators (KPIs),<br />

trends and error messages, is invaluable<br />

to Ruhrverband. Through close<br />

cooperation, the monthly report has<br />

been continuously adapted to the<br />

needs of Ruhrverband. Incidentally,<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Cover story<br />

Fig. 3: Permanent condition monitoring as well as pump and process expertise summarized in a monthly status report with recommendations<br />

for action. (Source: Seepex)<br />

Ruhrverband<br />

Ruhrverband is a municipal water utility plant that provides water to<br />

4.6 million people and wastewater treatment to 60 cities in the Ruhr region.<br />

Its 65 wastewater treatment plants treat wastewater from 2.2 million<br />

people and businesses in the region every day, ensuring that only purified<br />

water is returned to the river.<br />

Pump Monitoring and Connected Services<br />

SEEPEX Pump Monitoring provides comprehensive monitoring and optimization<br />

of progressive cavity pumps to protect components and improve<br />

maintenance and operation. Digital monitoring minimizes life cycle costs<br />

and increases overall efficiency. Using sensors for temperature, pressure<br />

or flow, SEEPEX Pump Monitoring can make the pump's operating data<br />

available in the intelligent cloud-based platform. This allows users to continuously<br />

monitor the pump and view live data. Users can also set alarms<br />

and trends, and log all data for later performance analysis. The ability to<br />

access the pump's performance data at any time and respond quickly to<br />

changes through notifications helps to avoid unplanned downtime. Additionally,<br />

the pump only reports when it notices that something is wrong.<br />

all SEEPEX customers will benefit<br />

from the results in the future - the extended<br />

monthly report is now part of<br />

the monitoring solution.<br />

Pump monitoring benefits<br />

at a glance<br />

– Continuous monitoring of pump<br />

status and components provides<br />

visibility across applications and<br />

processes<br />

– Early notification of deviations<br />

from optimal condition<br />

– Increased component life<br />

– Determine optimal operating<br />

point with minimum energy<br />

consumption<br />

In addition to providing convenient service for critical processes, the benefits<br />

include improved spare parts utilization. The knowledge gained from<br />

pump monitoring can be used to optimize maintenance cycles. The measurement<br />

data can be accessed via an app on a smartphone, tablet or from<br />

a control room.<br />

SEEPEX offers Connected Services, another module in its digital portfolio,<br />

to analyze and use the available data at any time. Benefits of the cloudbased<br />

service include predictive maintenance through early warnings and<br />

wear prediction, and full access to historical, live and trended data for advanced<br />

analysis.<br />

SEEPEX GmbH, Bottrop, Germany<br />

www.seepex.com<br />

16 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>


The independent media platform for<br />

energy supply, efficiency enhancement and<br />

alternative energy sources and storage<br />

Sustainable opportunities in process<br />

technology<br />

Circular economy in the industrial<br />

production process<br />

Topics H 2<br />

, Synthetic Fuels, Water,<br />

Solar & Photovoltaics, Wind Power,<br />

Bioenergy, Geothermal Energy, Battery<br />

<strong>Technology</strong>, System Integration and<br />

other alternative options<br />

Dr. Harnisch Verlags GmbH · Eschenstr. 25 · 90441 Nuremberg · Tel.: +49 (0) 911 - 2018 0 · info@harnisch.com · www.harnisch.com

Pumps and Systems<br />

High-efficiency pumps<br />

High-efficiency pumps<br />

The best control<br />

Jochen Krings<br />

High energy costs are once again<br />

calling attention to the savings potential<br />

of circulating pumps. But<br />

how big are the differences between<br />

the latest models and older<br />

ones? And when is it worth it to replace<br />

them?<br />

The key to the enormous efficiency<br />

gains from modern high-efficiency<br />

pumps is their motor design and control.<br />

The Grundfos Alpha2 series, for<br />

example, is equipped with a highly<br />

efficient permanent magnet motor.<br />

Unlike conventional asynchronous<br />

motors, this one does not require<br />

ener gy to magnetise the rotor, making<br />

it around 30 per cent more efficient.<br />

As well as this, the pump’s<br />

components have been optimised to<br />

reduce typical losses to a minimum.<br />

These include the stator windings,<br />

eddy currents in the stator and rotor<br />

fins, the flow of current in the rotor<br />

rods and end rings, and friction in the<br />

bearings. The hydraulic has been optimised<br />

down to the last detail using<br />

computational flow simulations. The<br />

impeller, for example, has been completely<br />

redesigned from previous<br />

generations to convert the rotation of<br />

the motor shaft into flow even more<br />

efficiently.<br />

The materials also help to improve<br />

efficiency. The permanent magnet rotor<br />

is made from neodymium, and the<br />

motor can is made from composite<br />

material. The housing has a cataphoretic<br />

coating (applied using an electrochemical<br />

dip coating process) that not<br />

only provides a high degree of protection<br />

from corrosion, but also reduces<br />

flow resistance thanks to its especially<br />

even surface. Here too, the developers<br />

have fine-tuned every detail to<br />

achieve maximum efficiency.<br />

Smart control<br />

The introduction of electronic speed<br />

control in the 1990s was an important<br />

step in making pumps more efficient.<br />

There has, however, been further<br />

significant progress in this area<br />

too. Conventional control only returns<br />

an output variable such as the<br />

differential pressure back to the control<br />

variable. The special system conditions,<br />

such as the loss coefficients<br />

of pipes, fixtures, boilers and radiators,<br />

are largely ignored. As a result,<br />

the pump does not run on the system’s<br />

optimum control curve.<br />

Modern self-adapting pumps<br />

such as the Grundfos Alpha2, on the<br />

other hand, regularly analyse the system<br />

conditions and optimise the position<br />

of the proportional pressure<br />

Fig. 2: The latest high-efficiency pumps, such as the Alpha2, are significantly more efficient<br />

even than their predecessors, which were already among the most efficient of their time<br />

Fig. 1: Permanent motor, hydronic optimisation down to the last detail and smart control<br />

enable the highest level of efficiency (Grundfos Alpha2) (All images: Grundfos)<br />

curve automatically. The advantage<br />

of this is that the pump always runs<br />

on the optimum curve, so it does not<br />

consume more energy than necessary.<br />

It is not affected by short-term<br />

fluctuations in demand as these are<br />

compensated for by the proportional<br />

pressure control. The AutoAdapt<br />

technology also simplifies the commissioning<br />

process. All the installer<br />

needs to do is connect the power<br />

supply, and the pump will take care<br />

of optimising its settings itself.<br />

18 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

High-efficiency pumps<br />

Significant efficiency gains<br />

Since the EuP Directive came into<br />

force in 2013, virtually the only circulating<br />

pumps installed in Germany<br />

have been high-efficiency pumps.<br />

Nevertheless, there are still millions<br />

of old uncontrolled pumps running<br />

in boiler rooms. These are obviously<br />

worth replacing. A modern highefficiency<br />

pump is around 90 per<br />

cent more efficient than an old, uncontrolled<br />

circulating pump with<br />

the previous energy efficiency class<br />

D rating. For pumps with a typical<br />

size and standard load profile, this<br />

reduces power consumption by approximately<br />

450 kWh per year. With<br />

savings of some 150 euros per year,<br />

even without subsidies the new<br />

pump will have paid for itself within<br />

just a few years.<br />

est Alpha2 today will lead to savings<br />

of more than 100 kWh per year.<br />

Thanks to vast improvements in<br />

efficiency, the flow rates of pumps<br />

have changed so much that an existing<br />

pump can often be replaced<br />

with a smaller type and still provide<br />

the same performance. For example,<br />

an old Magna 40-100 can be replaced<br />

with a Magna3 32-100 or even<br />

a Magna3 25-120, depending on the<br />

operating point. This means that significant<br />

investment cost savings can<br />

be made too. With the right adapter<br />

sets provided for the Magna3 range,<br />

the smaller types can be adapted to<br />

the situation in which they are being<br />

installed. For example, pipe fitting<br />

models can be adapted to an existing<br />

flange connection and the installation<br />

length can be increased from<br />

180 to 220 mm.<br />

Fig. 4: The latest Alpha2 and Alpha3 models<br />

enable a simple hydronic balancing process<br />

that is eligible for a subsidy and saves additional<br />

energy<br />

Fig. 3: If a pump can be replaced with a smaller size to achieve the same flow rate, adapter<br />

sets can be used to adapt the pump to the situation where it is being installed (Grundfos<br />

Magna3)<br />

with the pump and is guided through<br />

the balancing process step by step by<br />

the GO Balance app. This simple procedure<br />

takes less than two hours for<br />

a typical single-family home and is eligible<br />

for a subsidy.<br />

Experience has shown that hydronic<br />

balancing increases the efficiency<br />

of the heating system by 10<br />

to 20 per cent. Despite this, it is estimated<br />

that up to 10 million German<br />

heating systems have not yet been<br />

balanced. This makes it all the more<br />

worthwhile to combine a pump replacement<br />

with hydronic balancing –<br />

yet another reason to get a modern<br />

high-efficiency pump.<br />

A less obvious point is that current<br />

high-efficiency models perform considerably<br />

better even than newer<br />

pumps. This becomes clear when<br />

looking at the best-selling Grundfos<br />

Alpha series, each generation of<br />

which was among the most efficient<br />

in its class at the time. Introduced in<br />

2005, the energy-saving Alpha Pro<br />

model with permanent magnet motor<br />

and integrated frequency converter<br />

was around 62 % more efficient than<br />

the original Alpha released in 2000.<br />

The latest Alpha2 generation is 68 %<br />

more efficient even than the Alpha<br />

Pro, and consumes 88 % less energy<br />

than the 2000 model. Replacing an<br />

energy-saving Alpha Pro with the lat-<br />

Replace and balance<br />

Today’s models, such as Alpha2 or<br />

Magna3, have been hydronically optimised<br />

so much that they are almost<br />

at the limits of what physics will allow.<br />

There are still further developments<br />

taking place, however, mainly<br />

in the area of digital integration. One<br />

example of this is hydronic balancing.<br />

When they leave the factory, both<br />

models are prepared for a process,<br />

developed by Grundfos, in which the<br />

pump provides the necessary data.<br />

The Alpha3 has the necessary wireless<br />

interface already built in, while<br />

the Alpha2 requires the Alpha Reader<br />

tool. The installer pairs a smartphone<br />

The Author: Jochen Krings,<br />

Professional Relations,<br />

Grundfos GmbH, Erkrath, Germany<br />

www.grundfos.de<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Production of biomolecules for pharmaceuticals<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps prove their<br />

worth for critical mixing tasks in industrial<br />

oligonucleotide production<br />

Dr. Hans-Joachim Johl<br />

The size of oligonucleotides lies between<br />

that of small, low-molecular-weight<br />

active pharmaceutical<br />

ingredients (APIs) and high-molecular-weight<br />

active pharmaceutical ingredients<br />

such as mAbs (monoclonal<br />

antibodies). Production facilities<br />

for the manufacture of oligonucleotides<br />

must be able to handle flammable,<br />

toxic compounds as well as<br />

meet hygienic standards to ensure<br />

biological integrity. Above all, however,<br />

they must be flexible and able<br />

to be scaled up from pilot plants<br />

so that they can ideally synthesize<br />

and purify a wide variety of drugs.<br />

In addition to standardized platform<br />

technologies, customer-specific<br />

GMP-compliant systems are<br />

also needed. Diaphragm metering<br />

pumps in these systems can meet<br />

the challenges of extreme chemical<br />

syntheses in the upstream process<br />

and also be used in contamination-free<br />

downstream processes.<br />

The flexible production of toxic and<br />

flammable fluid mixtures with widely<br />

varying flow rate requirements is<br />

particularly important here.<br />

From rare diseases to chronic indications,<br />

the demand for oligonucleotide-based<br />

drugs is steadily increasing.<br />

Oligonucleotides are short, small<br />

(= oligo) sections of genetic sequences<br />

(RNA and DNA). Nucleotides are<br />

the building blocks of nucleic acids<br />

occurring in DNA and RNA chains. Oligonucleotides<br />

are therefore among<br />

the most important components of<br />

modern molecular biology. One of<br />

the most important ways of producing<br />

oligonucleotides with modified<br />

nucleotides for therapeutic purposes<br />

is industrial DNA and RNA synthesis.<br />

In contrast to the frequently used,<br />

biopharmaceutically produced drugs<br />

that target proteins, oligonucleotides<br />

target disorders in the genetic<br />

code that are the cause of specific<br />

diseases. This makes them predestined<br />

for the treatment of previously<br />

incurable rare diseases, including<br />

neuronal diseases. The first antisense<br />

oligonucleotide drug was approved in<br />

1998 as Fomivirsen, under the trade<br />

name Vitravene, for the treatment of<br />

CMV virus in AIDS patients. 1 Several<br />

others followed, including Partisiran,<br />

approved in 2018 under the trade<br />

name Onpattro, a lipid nanoparticleformulated<br />

drug that is one of the<br />

newer oligonucleotide therapies for<br />

polyneuropathy. Although various<br />

oligonucleotide drugs have already<br />

been approved by the authorities,<br />

they have not yet been established<br />

on an industrial commercial scale.<br />

Many other drugs are currently in the<br />

clinical phase prior to industrial production<br />

and are therefore the focus<br />

of ongoing research efforts, which<br />

increasingly include economic and<br />

quantitative aspects.<br />

Challenge: Economical production<br />

of oligonucleotides<br />

As a result, many specialized companies<br />

are focusing on efficient and safe<br />

GMP production of oligonucleotides<br />

using suitable production facilities.<br />

The aim is to maximize yield while<br />

maintaining high purity. This means<br />

that manufacturers of active pharmaceutical<br />

ingredients are faced with<br />

the task of making their own production<br />

processes more and more economical<br />

and robust so that they can<br />

be scaled up from laboratory or pilot<br />

scale to industrial GMP production<br />

with the highest possible yield in synthesis<br />

and downstream steps, without<br />

sacrificing quality or neglecting<br />

economic aspects.<br />

An important step for oligonucleotide<br />

processes is known as media<br />

dilution, where the concentrations<br />

of a synthesized solution are<br />

adjusted. More concentrated storage<br />

solutions are continuously di-<br />

Fig. 1: Production facilities for the manufacture of oligonucleotides must be able to handle<br />

flammable, toxic compounds as well as meet hygienic standards to ensure biological<br />

integrity. (Source: LEWA)<br />

20 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

Fig. 2: The inline dilution systems use multihead<br />

diaphragm metering pumps specially<br />

designed for pharmaceutical applications.<br />

(Source: LEWA)<br />

luted to achieve the desired working<br />

concentration. The choice of solution<br />

depends on the subsequent steps in<br />

the downstream process. After the<br />

actual chemical synthesis, in which<br />

the nucleotides are added one after<br />

the other to a growing chain, the<br />

synthesized products undergo what<br />

is known as deprotection and purification<br />

steps to remove unwanted<br />

by-products. Accompanying process<br />

and quality control, e. g. in the form<br />

of mass spectrometry, ensures that<br />

the end product is within the defined<br />

specification window.<br />

Continuous flow regulation<br />

and keep the fluid quantity constant<br />

by controlling the speed of the metering<br />

pumps precisely. Pressure control<br />

valves with integrated electronically<br />

controlled pneumatic damping installed<br />

in the output-side manifold<br />

maintain low fluctuation and keep<br />

the mixing flow almost constant. This<br />

also applies to the pressure: Fluctuations<br />

are undesirable for the built-in<br />

measuring chains and interfere with<br />

the separation processes in the chromatography<br />

columns. Gas phase<br />

components and any temperature increase<br />

also have to be prevented.<br />

After the mixing result is combined<br />

in the manifold, the ratio is analyzed<br />

using appropriate measurement<br />

technology, e. g. via the pH<br />

value and electrical conductivity. After<br />

programming the stored target<br />

values in the higher-level control system,<br />

these are available as different<br />

methods for system control. The recorded<br />

measured values are determined<br />

at a high sampling rate and<br />

continuously evaluated centrally. The<br />

pumps used must be corrosion-resistant,<br />

hygienic and have a robust design<br />

for continuous use. LEWA has detailed<br />

knowledge and many years of<br />

experience in high-precision metering<br />

and mixing thanks to its de cades in<br />

the field of pump supply for the process<br />

chromatography of major OEMs.<br />

And this has also benefited the design<br />

of correspon ding mixing and metering<br />

systems for oligo synthesis customers<br />

for some years now.<br />

Fig. 4: Pressure control valve with damping<br />

properties equipped with an electronic pilot<br />

valve for automatic control.<br />

(Source: EQUILIBAR)<br />

Package units for individual<br />

dilution tasks<br />

The dilution systems designed and<br />

described are not standard systems,<br />

but customized inline metering and<br />

dilution systems that are designed<br />

and constructed as package units<br />

(PU) for the respective downstream<br />

process. A system of this type can<br />

have up to five process inlets and<br />

outlets – sometimes more – as well<br />

as various other connections, for example<br />

for flushing or waste water, to<br />

ensure flexible and continuous fluid<br />

transport. A cycle of chemical reactions<br />

is initiated by feeding in the<br />

respective synthesis fluids. Individual<br />

nucleotides are coupled and the<br />

desired modified chain sequence is<br />

In order to meet increased demand<br />

by expanding production capacities,<br />

precise and continuously operating<br />

inline dilution systems must be provided.<br />

One of the biggest challenges<br />

here is maintaining a consistently reproducible<br />

quality of the required<br />

buffer within the narrow window for<br />

permissible concentration deviations.<br />

Among other things, continuous<br />

monitoring of the flow rates and the<br />

resulting dilution ratios is essential<br />

for this. Therefore, inline dilution systems<br />

typically consist of several channels<br />

with valves, where each channel<br />

is equipped with a multi-head<br />

diaphragm pump and a Coriolis flow<br />

meter. They measure the mass flow<br />

Fig. 3: Pressure control valves with integrated electronically controlled pneumatic damping<br />

installed in the output-side manifold maintain low fluctuation and keep the mixing flow almost<br />

constant. (Source: LEWA)<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

formed by repeating the reactions.<br />

Due to the highly flammable fluids<br />

required, including solvents such as<br />

ethanol, isopropanol, toluene and<br />

acetonitrile, the systems often have<br />

to be designed for use in Ex zone 2 IIB<br />

T3. Inert gas (nitrogen) further protects<br />

the process. The inline dilution<br />

system for aqueous fluid mixtures in<br />

the downstream area provides highaccuracy<br />

buffer solutions for semicontinuous<br />

chromatography after<br />

synthesis. HPLC, ion pairing reversed<br />

phase (IP-RP) and ion exchange (IEX)<br />

chromatography columns are used<br />

for chromatographic purification. 2<br />

Individual dilution tasks can thus<br />

be implemented precisely and flexibly.<br />

Several 1,000 liters of solvent<br />

and aqueous fluids are required per<br />

kilogram of active ingredient. In order<br />

to be able to implement large<br />

adjustment ranges from a few liters<br />

per hour up to 6,000 l/h, it must be<br />

possible to call up an automated<br />

and continuous supply of changing<br />

mixtures for the downstream purification<br />

process via the system control.<br />

Several multi-head diaphragm<br />

metering pumps specially designed<br />

for pharmaceutical applications are<br />

used here. Their phase-shifted drive<br />

charac teristics, typically with three<br />

to five pump heads, enable a lowpulsation<br />

overall flow rate. Thanks<br />

to the back pressure-independent<br />

characteristic curve, the entire metering<br />

and mixing process for oligonucleotide<br />

production is reliably continuous<br />

and absolutely reproducible<br />

at all times. No other type of pump<br />

can achieve stable linear and step<br />

gradients as well as reliable gradient<br />

charac teristics more consistently.<br />

These hermeti cally tight pumps<br />

rule out backflow or plunger packing<br />

problems.<br />

Large adjustment ranges and high<br />

production reliability<br />

Because the production of dilution<br />

solutions sometimes requires very<br />

different flow rates, the systems<br />

must be designed to be flexible. One<br />

practical example required flow rates<br />

of a minimum of 40 l/h and a maximum<br />

of 2,500 l/h. A total of five LEWA<br />

ecodos hygienic diaphragm metering<br />

Fig. 5: Basic flow diagram of a flexible dilution system from concentrates (example). (Source: LEWA)<br />

pumps were integrated into this system<br />

in order to be able to cover this tent, such as the more corrosion-re-<br />

and steels with a higher alloy con-<br />

large adjustment range flexibly. The sistant 1.4529 stainless steel or Hastelloy<br />

for fluids with a high chloride<br />

pump heads are equipped with mechanically<br />

actuated, four-layer sandwich<br />

safety diaphragms. Since the able for metering highly corrosive<br />

content. This makes the pumps suit-<br />

area behind the diaphragm is subject and flammable fluids in oligonucleotide<br />

production over the long term.<br />

to strictly regulated clean room environmental<br />

conditions, contamination The patented four-layer PTFE sandwich<br />

diaphragm also helps here: It<br />

with operating materials or process<br />

fluids cannot occur. Due to the GMP is extremely stable and ensures that<br />

environment, which strives for high operation can be continued safely<br />

even in the event of a diaphragm<br />

integrity with regard to contamination<br />

of any kind, hygienic versions of rupture, thus providing a high level of<br />

the pumps must also be used in this process safety. In an emergency, the<br />

area of downstream processing. This integrated diaphragm rupture signaling<br />

system immediately reports a<br />

goes hand in hand with accep tance<br />

test certificates 3.1 and consis tently corresponding fault during operation<br />

certified construction materials, such without contaminating the rest of the<br />

as FDA, USP or AOF certificates of process line. Only hermetic plunger<br />

conformity. All metal parts in contact diaphragm pumps offer such a high<br />

with the fluid are mechanically and level of production reliability.<br />

additionally electropolished and have<br />

a surface roughness of Ra ≤ 0.5 µm. Precise control and continuous<br />

Thanks to the hygienic design of the monitoring<br />

diaphragm body, which almost completely<br />

eliminates dead spaces, the In terms of control, the use of a servomotor<br />

and an intelligent control sys-<br />

pumps can be cleaned in the CIP process<br />

very easily and without prior dismantling.<br />

requirement profiles to be impletem<br />

enable different customer-side<br />

The EHEDG EL Class 1 certificate<br />

for the ecodos pump type used to be extended up to 1:200. The<br />

mented and the adjustment range<br />

is a decisive proof of quality with regard<br />

to the excellent inline cleanabi-<br />

via the stroke length and the speed<br />

flow rate is traditionally adjusted<br />

lity of the fluid-side pump head. The of the pump motor via the frequency<br />

of an inverter. In newer concepts,<br />

materials used are 1.4435 stainless<br />

steel with a low delta ferrite content the speed of a fanless synchronous<br />

22 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

motor or permanent magnet synchronous<br />

motor (PMSM) is variable<br />

and operating points can be approached<br />

precisely and reproducibly<br />

without manual stroke adjustment<br />

– thus making them compliant with<br />

GMP. At ±1 percent, metering accuracy<br />

is extremely accurate. To prepare<br />

the mixtures in the chromatographic<br />

environment, the flow rates<br />

of the individual pump lines must be<br />

precisely maintained. For this purpose,<br />

they are determined by Coriolis<br />

flow meters and precisely controlled<br />

at the specified target values using<br />

the speed control of the pumps. Additional<br />

online monitoring of the pH<br />

value and electrical conductivity ensures<br />

continuous control of the process<br />

conditions.<br />

To ensure that the specified accuracies<br />

are maintained over wide adjustment<br />

ranges, correct suction-side<br />

pressures (NPIPA) must be ensured<br />

at the pumps. The abbreviation NPIP<br />

stands for “Net Positive Inlet Pressure”<br />

and NPIPA for “Net Positive Inlet<br />

Pressure Available”. The NPIP is similar<br />

to the well-known NPSH, although<br />

the latter is only defined by the<br />

height. In contrast, the NPIPA is the<br />

measure of the pump inlet pressure<br />

present at the inlet valves through<br />

the system. The NPIP is determined<br />

Fig. 6: Pressure control unit for adjusting constant damped fluid flows upstream of chromatography<br />

columns. (Source: EQUILIBAR)<br />

by the static pressure upstream of<br />

the pump, for example by a vessel<br />

with or without pressure superposition<br />

or by the pressure in closed circular<br />

piping. If the NPIP is too low, cavitation<br />

may occur in the pump heads<br />

if the steam pressure falls below the<br />

value specified. If, on the other hand,<br />

a diaphragm metering pump has a<br />

net suction pressure that is too high,<br />

there is a risk of excessive and uncontrolled<br />

flow, particularly with low<br />

metering quantities in pumps that do<br />

not have built-in valve springs due<br />

to hygiene requirements, which can<br />

impair metering accuracy and dilution<br />

rate. To control the pump-specific<br />

hydraulic conditions, pressure<br />

(retaining) control valves are therefore<br />

used on the discharge side of<br />

the pumps after all installations with<br />

pressure losses to ensure a constant<br />

max. 4.000 bar<br />

max. 10.000 l/min<br />

max. 600 m 3 /h<br />

max. 3000 kW

Pumps and Systems<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps<br />

back pressure. This can also be used<br />

to compensate for and smooth out<br />

small residual pulsations in the multiplex<br />

pump heads. A specific subset of<br />

sanitary control valves also contains<br />

a dampener to manage downstream<br />

pressure fluctuations which aid in the<br />

production stability of oligonucleotides.<br />

One such example is made by<br />

Equilibar, which are used in current<br />

package units. 3<br />

References<br />

1<br />

Text information from ABDATA database<br />

of pharmacies.<br />

2<br />

Large scale purification of oligonucleotides<br />

with ion exchange chromatography<br />

(U. Krop, T. Pöhlmann, N.<br />

Schneider).<br />

3<br />

Technical Information Equilibar, 320<br />

Rutledge Rd., Fletcher, North Carolina<br />

28732, United States<br />

The Author: Dr. Hans-Joachim Johl,<br />

Lead Product Manager Pharma,<br />

Food & Life Sciences at<br />

LEWA GmbH, Leonberg, Germany<br />

www.lewa.com/en/<br />

Fig. 7: Theoretical flow rate curve of a reciprocating 3-head diaphragm plunger pump<br />

(directly actuated) with a volumetric efficiency of 90 percent (graph 1).<br />

Undamped real-time signal for the volume and pressure curve of a reciprocating 3-head<br />

diaphragm plunger pump (directly actuated) ( graph 2). (Source: LEWA)<br />

The specifications of LEWA diaphragm metering pumps fulfill all requirements<br />

for continuous operation of dilution systems in the industrial GMP<br />

production of oligonucleotides:<br />

– A large adjustment range of the pump systems for maximum flexibility<br />

– Precise operation and repeat accuracy of the metering pumps and thus<br />

process stability<br />

– Safety for operating personnel thanks to hermetically tight systems<br />

– Experience in the design of the hydraulic environment of reciprocating<br />

diaphragm metering pumps<br />

– Robust system operation to ensure consistent quality, high yield and<br />

economically efficient operation<br />

24 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

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Pumps and Systems<br />

Progressing cavity pumps<br />

Battery production in Europe drives<br />

pump manufacturers to new innovations<br />

It is well known that Europe needs<br />

to develop secure supply chains for<br />

the manufacture of Lithium Ion (LiB)<br />

Batteries especially for the rapidly<br />

increasing demand for full electric<br />

or hybrid electrical vehicles. Asian<br />

manufacturers have dominated the<br />

supply of lithium batteries in recent<br />

years but the rapidly expanding<br />

production capability in Europe presents<br />

challenges for battery manufacturers<br />

and consequently equipment<br />

suppliers.<br />

Such a challenge was presented to<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH,<br />

a manufacturer of positive displacement<br />

pumps, regarding the difficulties<br />

of transferring and accurately<br />

dosing anode and cathode materials.<br />

One of the main challenges is the<br />

safe handling of anode slurries containing<br />

the solvent N-Methyl-2 pyrrolidone<br />

(NMP). Ideally, the pumping<br />

of such a toxic solvent would be handled<br />

by hermetically sealed pumps<br />

using a magnetic coupling.<br />

Magnetic couplings are used<br />

where leakage must be avoided<br />

when handling corrosive, hazardous<br />

or toxic fluids, or generally speaking<br />

to avoid the concerns associated<br />

with traditional mechanically sealed<br />

pumps.<br />

Such systems would be pumps<br />

equipped with packed glands or mechanical<br />

seals in various configurations.<br />

A pump fitted packed gland<br />

system in no way addresses the requirement<br />

for a leak free pump,<br />

whereas a pump fitted with a double<br />

mechanical seal with the requisite<br />

seal support system can fulfil the leak<br />

free requirement whilst introducing<br />

requirements for increased maintenance<br />

and control.<br />

Therefore, for a toxic product<br />

such as NMP, a magnetic coupling<br />

is an ideal solution addressing the<br />

need for a hermetically sealed pump.<br />

There are, however, drawbacks with<br />

proprietary magnetic couplings available<br />

from well-known manufacturers<br />

for applications requiring a progressing<br />

cavity pump.<br />

Conventional magnetic couplings<br />

are not suitable for battery<br />

production<br />

Progressing cavity pumps are used<br />

typically in applications where the<br />

fluid to be pumped is abrasive, contains<br />

solid particles, is viscous or<br />

shear sensitive or the application<br />

requires accurate dosing or any combination<br />

of two or more of these<br />

characteristics.<br />

Specifically, when handling<br />

cathode slurries for the production<br />

of lithium-ion batteries, the fluid is<br />

viscous, typically in the region of<br />

8000 to 20,000 mPas, naturally contains<br />

solid particles and for coating<br />

applications needs to be extremely<br />

accurately dosed. The combination<br />

of these characteristics means<br />

that standard magnetic couplings designed<br />

for direct coupling to a centrifugal<br />

pump, running at 2 pole and 4<br />

pole motor speeds, are not suitable<br />

for such types of applications.<br />

When running a magnetic coupled<br />

pump at high speeds, 1400 or<br />

2800 rpm, circulation of the pumped<br />

fluid will be required for cooling of<br />

the coupling. This is achieved by the<br />

fluid passing through cooling channels<br />

within the coupling. Such cooling<br />

channels are small in diameter<br />

and consequently are easily blocked<br />

by higher viscosity fluids.<br />

A progressing cavity pump<br />

pumping a product of up to 20,000<br />

mPas would typically run at speeds<br />

of around 100 to 200 rpm, although<br />

this should not be considered as the<br />

maximum viscosity capability for<br />

progressing cavity pumps. There are<br />

applications where progressing cavity<br />

pumps are used for products well<br />

in excess of 1 million mPas.<br />

NETZSCH designs new<br />

magnetic coupling for handling<br />

battery sludge<br />

Therefore, it was necessary to develop<br />

a magnetic coupling specifically<br />

designed to meet the requirements<br />

of typical progressing cavity applications.<br />

In the case of battery slurries,<br />

a coupling needed to be developed<br />

that would be capable of handling the<br />

viscosity of the slurries.<br />

As previously described, as the<br />

rotational speeds of the progressing<br />

cavity pump would be lower than<br />

would be usual for a centrifugal pump<br />

application, excessive heat generation<br />

within the coupling was not to<br />

be expected. There were, however,<br />

other challenges for which a solution<br />

would need to be found. One such<br />

challenge would be the torque that<br />

the coupling would have to transmit.<br />

NETZSCH successfully developed<br />

a magnetic coupling to meet the demands<br />

of battery slurry applications,<br />

that is to say a pump that is hermetically<br />

sealed preventing the escape<br />

of toxic vapours and also importantly<br />

the ingress of air bubbles into the<br />

slurry, a point that is of special importance<br />

in the foil coating process.<br />

However, customers then presented<br />

the NETZSCH development engineers<br />

with other challenges specifically related<br />

to battery applications.<br />

The newly developed magnetic<br />

coupling prevents air ingress into the<br />

product through the pump itself but<br />

nevertheless air bubbles can be present<br />

in the anode and cathode slurries<br />

originating from the slurry preparation<br />

process. Although deaerators<br />

can remove air bubbles from the slurries,<br />

customers have the experience<br />

that occasionally some bubbles find<br />

their way into the coating process.<br />

The newly developed magnetic coupling<br />

offers the possibility to add additional<br />

air extraction directly from the<br />

magnetic coupling when the pump is<br />

26 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Progressing cavity pumps<br />

Fig. 1: The newly developed coupling rods are integrated into the battery pump.<br />

correctly orientated. Consequently, be fitted to the magnetic coupling<br />

for very little capital outlay, bubble where necessary.<br />

free coating of the anode and cathode<br />

slurries can be guaranteed, significantly<br />

increasing quality and re-<br />

Automatic cleaning of the pump<br />

ducing wastage and recycling costs. Where the battery foil production<br />

To meet the requirements of ATEX process is a batch operation, the<br />

regulations a temperature probe can pump, along with all of the other<br />

production equipment, needs to be<br />

cleaned between cycles. Often this<br />

would be a completely manual process<br />

with the corresponding effort<br />

and expenditure.<br />

The challenge was presented to<br />

the NETZSCH development engineers<br />

if it would be possible to construct<br />

the pump in order that it could be<br />

cleaned using an automated system.<br />

This would require additional<br />

constructional changes to the pump.<br />

These included adding a flushing connection<br />

into the magnetic coupling.<br />

However, major adjustments were<br />

needed in the area of the pump suction<br />

housing and coupling rod.<br />

A progressing cavity pump requires<br />

a coupling rod that accommodates<br />

the requirements of both the<br />

rotational and eccentric movements.<br />

For battery applications involving anode<br />

and cathode slurries, the most<br />

suitable solution would be to select<br />

a flexible shaft. Such an arrangement<br />

has the benefit of needing no joints<br />

to accommodate the eccentric move-<br />




Close-coupled,<br />

space saving design<br />

Full containment guaranteed<br />

by high efficient non-metallic<br />

containment shell<br />

Electropolished wetted parts,<br />

ideal for ultra pure water<br />




Pumps and Systems<br />

Progressing cavity pumps<br />

ment as would be fitted in the vast<br />

majority of applications. The main deciding<br />

factor for using a flexible rod<br />

would be that the lubrication required<br />

for joints is eliminated. The benefit<br />

would be that there would be no contamination<br />

of the slurries by the lubricant<br />

when using lubricated joints, in<br />

the event of a joint seal failure.<br />

nation of the anode and cathode slurries.<br />

This would lead to a reduction of<br />

final product quality.<br />

Therefore, a flexible shaft is the<br />

obvious choice, however there is a<br />

disadvantage to using a standard<br />

flexible shaft. The traditional flexible<br />

shaft is manufactured from metals,<br />

often titanium or duplex stainless<br />

steel. Due to the limited flexibility of<br />

Coupling rod is manufactured<br />

additively<br />

such a construction, the flexible shaft<br />

needs to be longer than would otherwise<br />

be the case with a coupling rod<br />

For hygienic applications, a coupling featuring a joint system.<br />

rod system is available with open When considering automated<br />

joints using a stainless-steel rod and<br />

pins. For battery applications, such<br />

a system is not suitable due to the<br />

abrasive nature of the slurries and<br />

the danger of metal particle contami-<br />

cleaning, the increased volume within<br />

the pump housing due to its increased<br />

length would lead to increased<br />

product wastage. Ideally<br />

therefore, a concept was needed to<br />

Fig. 2: The progressing cavity pump is designed for complex battery applications.<br />

reduce the length of the pump housing<br />

as much as possible whilst providing<br />

sufficient coupling rod flexibility<br />

to ensure reliable pump operation.<br />

New production techniques opened<br />

possibilities to resolve this conundrum<br />

without incurring the significant<br />

tooling costs associated with injection<br />

moulding. By using additive<br />

manufacturing, it was possible to rapidly<br />

prototype potential designs and<br />

subsequently manufacture the final<br />

production components.<br />

To develop a shorter coupling rod<br />

that would reduce the pump housing<br />

length, be able to withstand the<br />

mechanical loads and to fulfil the demands<br />

of automated cleaning presented<br />

a challenge. Using the latest<br />

CFD programs, a coupling rod design<br />

was eventually finalised and incorporated<br />

into the final battery pump<br />

configuration. Using experience from<br />

food applications where cleaning in<br />

place to hygienic levels is the standard,<br />

a tangential inlet connection was<br />

incorporated to improve the cleanability<br />

of the pump by providing optimised<br />

flow conditions within the<br />

housing.<br />

Pump stator is also manufactured<br />

additively<br />

Fig. 3+4: Elastomer stators and additively manufactured stators are compatible with a separable<br />

stator system.<br />

To successfully cover the demands<br />

of battery slurry applications, a new<br />

concept would be required also for<br />

the pump stator. Normally, progressing<br />

cavity pumps are fitted with a stator<br />

manufactured from an elastomeric<br />

material. However, due to the<br />

chemical aggressivity of some of the<br />

fluids used in battery production, especially<br />

the NMP for cathode slurries,<br />

an alternative stator material would<br />

need to be used.<br />

In such applications it was usual<br />

to use a stator manufactured from<br />

PTFE. The manufacture of PTFE stators<br />

is a mechanical process where<br />

the stators are produced on a lathe,<br />

the inside profile being turned to size.<br />

However, given the success of manufacturing<br />

the flexible rod using additive<br />

manufacturing, it was decided<br />

to try and produce stators using the<br />

same process.<br />

After extensive testing a new design<br />

was born offering increased ac-<br />

28 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Progressing cavity pumps<br />

Fig. 5: The employees have a look at an innovatively manufactured stator.<br />

in the slurries from the rotor. Customers<br />

have the choice what combination<br />

of rotor and stator best suits<br />

their application.<br />

This is made simple by both elastomeric<br />

stators and additive manufacturing<br />

stators being compatible<br />

with a separable stator system as<br />

shown in figures 3 + 4.<br />

NETZSCH offers a progressing<br />

cavity pump with an optimized magnetic<br />

coupling manufactured using<br />

state-of-the-art production processes.<br />

It features a flow optimised housing<br />

for automatic cleaning as well as<br />

an additively manufactured coupling<br />

rod and stator. It therefore meets the<br />

high demands of the battery market.<br />

curacy in the production process as<br />

well as guaranteeing the necessary<br />

chemical resistance. The efficiency of<br />

the new stator design was such that<br />

for slot die coating applications the<br />

pump could easily exceed the accuracy<br />

requirements with regard to uniform<br />

film thickness both across and<br />

along the foil length.<br />

The counterpart of the stator, the rotor,<br />

also needs high levels of accuracy<br />

which can be achieved with both a<br />

metallic rotor or a ceramic rotor. The<br />

ceramic rotor offers a significant advantage<br />

over metal rotors in as much<br />

that the wear resistance is dramatically<br />

increased and more importantly<br />

there will be no metal wear particles<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH,<br />

Waldkraiburg, Germany<br />

www.pumps-systems.netzsch.com<br />

Accurate chemical dosing pump<br />

for flow rates up to 600 L/h and<br />

pressures up to 7 bar<br />

_<br />

wmfts.com | info.uk@wmfts.com | +44 1326 370 362<br />

Fluid<br />

<strong>Technology</strong><br />

Solutions<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Smart Factory<br />

The intelligent path to the Smart Factory:<br />

How “pain points” become future-proof use<br />

cases thanks to the cloud<br />

Andreas Dangl<br />

With the help of a cloud-based data<br />

and document management system,<br />

pump specialist KSB not only<br />

creates future-proof quality processes,<br />

but also a close-knit ecosystem<br />

along the entire supply chain.<br />

The Deloitte study “Accelerating<br />

smart manufacturing – The value of<br />

an ecosystem approach” gets to the<br />

heart of the matter: The fastest way<br />

to a Smart Factory leads through<br />

partnerships, e. g. in the form of close<br />

interconnection with subcontractors<br />

along the supply chain. Thus, companies<br />

will not only save costs, but also<br />

advance the digital transformation<br />

and accelerate product life cycles.<br />

In order to achieve this goal,<br />

seamless interconnection is clearly<br />

needed – in other words, secure,<br />

multimodal real-time communication<br />

throughout the entire ecosystem<br />

as well as holistic decision-making,<br />

which the responsible parties can<br />

achieve by exchanging information<br />

across all silo and company boundaries,<br />

according to the study.<br />

One German company that has already<br />

mastered a large part of the path<br />

to the Smart Factory is KSB Group.<br />

With an annual sales revenue of 2.6<br />

billion EUR and more than 15,000 employees,<br />

it is one of the world’s leading<br />

suppliers of high-quality pumps,<br />

valves, and associated systems.<br />

The pump plant in Pegnitz plays<br />

a special role within the organization.<br />

With around 1,600 employees, it is<br />

one of the largest and most modern<br />

locations in the KSB Group. It is also<br />

the pilot location for 3D metal printing<br />

– and the digital transformation.<br />

Here, the responsible parties use individual<br />

use cases to drive forward<br />

the transformation to the Smart Factory,<br />

which is intended to serve as a<br />

model for other KSB plants and customers<br />

around the world.<br />

The company understands the term<br />

“digital factory” as a kind of target<br />

image. The destination of this journey<br />

is flexible and modular production<br />

that is highly automated, digitalized,<br />

and fully interconnected, from<br />

incoming orders to production planning<br />

and outgoing logistics. “This is<br />

the only way to ensure agile, lean,<br />

and maximally customer-oriented<br />

production, also in the future.” And:<br />

“The smart automation of processes<br />

in production plants offers immense<br />

potential for increasing efficiency and<br />

quality, reducing costs, and increasing<br />

customer satisfaction as well as<br />

competitiveness,” according to KSB’s<br />

vision for digital transformation.<br />

Thousands of working hours saved<br />

The first use case at KSB shows which<br />

benefits a shared data environment<br />

along the value chain can bring. Project-related<br />

mechanical engineering<br />

in particular is subject to extensive<br />

documentation requirements in<br />

the course of the production of special<br />

pumps. The supplier companies<br />

are required to provide the necessary<br />

documents in a timely manner. Different<br />

specialist departments must in<br />

turn check and approve these. If delays<br />

occur in this process – regardless<br />

of where in the supply chain they occur<br />

– it is not uncommon for contractual<br />

penalties and reputation damage<br />

to occur.<br />

The traditional handling of information<br />

is not suitable for satisfactorily<br />

fulfilling the documentation obligation.<br />

All too often, documents are<br />

stored in “silos”, e. g. in departmental<br />

filing systems or e-mail inboxes,<br />

which makes retrieving them a challenge.<br />

Moreover, it happens easily to<br />

find different versions of a document<br />

in circulation. Each control measure<br />

is therefore very time-consuming. For<br />

instance, KSB used to spend around<br />

130 hours tracking deadlines to obtain<br />

the necessary documents for<br />

each individual project.<br />

This situation has fundamentally<br />

changed with the introduction<br />

of a cloud-based data and document<br />

management system. The project<br />

documents are now stored in a<br />

shared data environment and are<br />

available worldwide – always in the<br />

latest version. They can be accessed<br />

conveniently via a web interface,<br />

which is available in different languages<br />

on request.<br />

Fig. 1: Running test plans using a mobile device, Photo © : Gorodenkoff Productions OU via<br />

Getty Images, Fabasoft Approve<br />

30 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

World Class.<br />

Fig. 2: Digital recording of defects, Photo © : Westend61 via Getty Images<br />

Another advantage of using the cloud is that a new supplier can quickly<br />

and easily find their way into the manufacturer’s ecosystem, as they<br />

are not forced to install software locally.<br />

All project staff are now able to call up the current documentation<br />

status. This includes information on project status, scope of documentation,<br />

approvals, revisions, and upcoming deadlines. To prevent unauthorized<br />

persons from accessing sensitive data, the software is also<br />

equipped with an intelligent authorization and role concept that precisely<br />

defines who has access to which documents.<br />

The cloud provider also ensures that the overall system is secure<br />

– as long as companies obtain the service from a European provider<br />

with corresponding certifications such as the C5 requirements catalogue<br />

(“Cloud Computing Compliance Criteria Catalogue”) issued by<br />

the German Federal Office for Information Security (BSI).<br />

As to collaboration, a smart document management system scores<br />

highly with an integrated function set that includes typical workflows<br />

such as coordination, review and approval processes. If these are not<br />

sufficient, a low-code process editor is available, which can also be<br />

used by employees in the specialist departments.<br />

First conclusion: The use of digital supplier documentation helps<br />

KSB to save 4,500 working hours per year which were previously spent<br />

on time-consuming searches and accompanying measures. Thanks to<br />

the cloud, the company has thus managed to transform the original<br />

“pain point” into an efficient system.<br />

Cutting-edge quality management<br />

The second use case on the path to intelligent production is the creation<br />

of an end-to-end, highly automated digital quality process, which<br />

also impressively demonstrates the benefits of the close interconnection<br />

of players along the supply chain.<br />

Background: During product development, employees carry out<br />

and document various tests in order to ensure that KSB Group’s highquality<br />

standards are met. The technical order processing team draws<br />

up an order-related “Quality Control Plan” (QCP) for this purpose,<br />

which it coordinates with and adapts to the customer.<br />

The basis for the QCP are standard test plans that specify all requirements<br />

in detail, including those that define where the tests are to<br />

take place: directly at KSB or at one of the suppliers. A decisive criterion<br />

for the functioning of these process steps is the quality of communication<br />

between the responsible parties.<br />

With 1,200 QCPs per year and the manual inspection of around<br />

8,500 test certificates, the collaboration between the players has been<br />

LEWA ecoflow ® – the gamechanging<br />

metering pump series.<br />

Each purpose demands its own metering<br />

solution. That is why the LEWA ecoflow<br />

series for diaphragm and packed plunger<br />

pumps combines various drive unit sizes<br />

with different pump heads.<br />

Added to this is the process know-how<br />

of the LEWA experts: Our drive is the<br />

customized solution.<br />

More information:<br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Smart Factory<br />

Fig. 3: Construction drawings in Fabasoft Approve, Photo © : Fabasoft Approve<br />

data and document management<br />

system, which serves as the linchpin<br />

of the quality processes. The team<br />

members have direct access to the<br />

digitized lists, which ensures that no<br />

outdated specifications are in use.<br />

Whenever a standard changes, the<br />

software automatically replaces the<br />

relevant sections. As a result, the<br />

smart quality documentation always<br />

meets current legal requirements.<br />

The supplier companies benefit from<br />

this system as well. They are now always<br />

in the know as to when which<br />

inspections are to be carried out and<br />

which documents are to be submitted.<br />

If correction loops become necessary,<br />

these can also be mapped<br />

via the newly created, end-to-end digital<br />

quality process.<br />

Successful path to the<br />

Smart Factory<br />

Fig. 4: Digital supplier documentation, Photo © : Tom Werner via Getty Images<br />

a challenge in the past. The reason: tachments – the manufacturer printed<br />

out the documents, checked and<br />

The teams created the standard test<br />

plans and the QCPs using Microsoft<br />

Excel – with the disadvantage in SAP.<br />

scanned them, and then saved them<br />

that it required a lot of manual effort<br />

and was prone to errors. Each or-<br />

a use case as well. The company in-<br />

KSB turned this “pain point” into<br />

der was accompanied by a document troduced a platform on which it modeled<br />

an end-to-end digital process<br />

containing the collected quality requirements<br />

for all components. The – including an interface to SAP. This<br />

docu ment was sent by e-mail to the platform enabled the technical order<br />

processing team to digitize the<br />

responsible supplier, who then had<br />

to face the task of filtering out the information<br />

relating to their part of the plans at the Pegnitz plant. In concrete<br />

majority of the existing standard test<br />

delivery from the overall inspection terms, this means that the applicable<br />

norms and standards are now<br />

plan. After sending back the requested<br />

test certificates – again as email at- always available in the cloud-based<br />

The two use cases show the potential<br />

opened up by the intelligent automation<br />

of processes at KSB. A<br />

cloud-based data and document<br />

management system now enables<br />

the Group to take its quality management<br />

processes to a new, futureproof<br />

level. KSB also benefits from<br />

the smart data environment created<br />

along the supply chain, in which<br />

the exchange of information works<br />

seamlessly – ideal prerequisites for<br />

successfully navigating the path towards<br />

a Smart Factory.<br />

The Author<br />

Andreas Dangl is an entrepreneur<br />

and Managing Director of Fabasoft<br />

Approve GmbH. In his function, he<br />

supports industrial companies in<br />

the introduction of smart software<br />

for the management of technical<br />

data and documents.<br />

www.fabasoft.com/approve<br />

32 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

Metering of flocculants in drinking water treatment<br />

“Peristaltic pumps are an economical solution“<br />

Surface water from reservoirs plays<br />

an important role in the drinking<br />

water supply. Flocculation and filtration<br />

of colloidal particles is one<br />

of the central process steps in the<br />

purification process of turning raw<br />

water into drinking water. Metering<br />

pumps for flocculants must therefore<br />

meet the highest standards in<br />

terms of durability and operational<br />

reliability. For this reason, Thüringer<br />

Fernwasserversorgung (TFW) relies<br />

on Qdos peristaltic metering<br />

pumps from Watson-Marlow in the<br />

Luisenthal treatment plant. These<br />

pumps not only impress with their<br />

simple installation, operation, and<br />

low pulsation, but provide long operating<br />

times and easy maintenance<br />

in just a few minutes. This results in<br />

a highly economic solution.<br />

With an annual delivery volume of<br />

36.9 million m³ of drinking water,<br />

Thüringer Fernwasserversorgung (TFW)<br />

is one of the largest suppliers of longdistance<br />

drinking water in Germany.<br />

The public company TFW supplies<br />

drinking water to municipalities, municipal<br />

associations and municipal<br />

utilities via long-distance water pipelines<br />

with a total length of around<br />

550 km, thus ensuring the drinking<br />

water supply of more than one million<br />

inhabitants in the German state<br />

of Thuringia together with the local<br />

supply companies.<br />

TFW is the only German longdistance<br />

water supplier to exclusively<br />

provide surface water from six of<br />

its own drinking water reservoirs. It<br />

operates two modern and efficient<br />

drinking water treatment plants to<br />

process the surface water (raw water)<br />

into drinking water.<br />

Surface water as drinking water<br />

The importance of surface water for<br />

securing the drinking water supply<br />

should not be underestimated. Already<br />

today, a total of 55 % of total<br />

drinking water demand in Thuringia<br />

is supplied from reservoirs and their<br />

relevance for drinking water is likely<br />

to increase further in times of climate<br />

change, as current research shows<br />

Fig. 1: The Luisenthal plant, located at the Ohra water reservoir processes raw into drinking<br />

water – circa 21.5 million m³ per year.<br />

that reservoirs have a higher resilience<br />

to climate change than groundwater<br />

supplies. Due to the more frequent<br />

occurrence of local extreme<br />

weather conditions such as heavy<br />

rainfall, heatwaves and dry spells associated<br />

with climate change, longdistance<br />

water supplies are also likely<br />

to play a particularly important role in<br />

ensuring a secure drinking water supply<br />

through efficient water management<br />

in the future.<br />

Located in the Thuringian Forest<br />

Nature Park, the Ohra reservoir managed<br />

by TFW has a maximum storage<br />

capacity of up to 17.82 million<br />

m³. The raw water is extracted at different<br />

heights via an extraction tower.<br />

Around 700,000 people, including<br />

those in the cities of Jena and Erfurt<br />

and the nearby district town of Gotha,<br />

are supplied daily with water from the<br />

dam via the North and Central Thuringia<br />

long distance water supply system.<br />

Around 21.5 million m³ of raw<br />

water from the Ohra reservoir is being<br />

processed into drinking water every<br />

year in the Luisenthal plant located<br />

directly below the reservoir.<br />

From raw water to drinking water<br />

Depending on the quality of the raw<br />

water, various process steps have to<br />

be carried out, explains Ms. Hövel, a<br />

specialist engineer at Thüringer Fernwasserversorgung.<br />

“As the water usually<br />

only has a very small passage<br />

through the ground before it reaches<br />

the reservoirs, it is softer than<br />

groundwater. The equilibrium pH value<br />

of the raw water is often above the<br />

permitted pH value of the Drinking<br />

Water Regulation. In order to be able<br />

to adjust this pH value at the end of<br />

treatment and to increase miscibility<br />

with other drinking waters, our raw<br />

water is hardened at the beginning<br />

of the treatment process.” The local<br />

suppliers often add groundwater<br />

from their own extraction to the district<br />

water to produce a mixed water.<br />

The water is also subjected to a final<br />

disinfection process after filtration.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

One of the central treatment steps<br />

from raw water to drinking water is<br />

flocculation to eliminate finely dispersed,<br />

difficult to remove colloidal<br />

particles and humic substances that<br />

could cause turbidity, as well as microorganisms.<br />

By adding flocculants,<br />

the electrostatic repulsion of the particles<br />

and dissolved substances can<br />

be overcome. They then bind together<br />

to form larger flocs that are easier<br />

to remove. This means that organic<br />

and mineral particles can be safely<br />

filtered out.<br />

“We use the flocculant ferric chloride<br />

(FeCl 3<br />

) as an aqueous solution with<br />

a concentration of 40 %. It is dosed<br />

into the supply lines to our four 300 m³<br />

mixing and reaction basins,” explains<br />

the water technician at Thüringer<br />

Fernwasser. “Static mixers ensure the<br />

necessary turbulence in the water directly<br />

at the metering point, and flocculation<br />

then takes place in the basins.<br />

The flocs are then retained in a total<br />

of 14 open multi-layer filters. Anthracite,<br />

quartz sand and gravel are used<br />

as filter material. Flocculant additives<br />

and activated carbon can be added if<br />

required. The retained flocs are processed<br />

and used as dewatered sludge<br />

in biogas production.”<br />

Fig. 2: Flocculation is one of the central steps in the purification process of turning raw water<br />

into drinking water and allows the filtration colloidal particles and humic substances.<br />

Metering pumps for efficient<br />

flocculation<br />

The flocculant metering system is at<br />

the heart of the flocculation process.<br />

The metering pumps convey the ferric<br />

chloride from the siphon vessels<br />

of the storage tanks to the mixing and<br />

reaction tanks. One metering pump is<br />

in continuous 24/7 operation for each<br />

mixing and reaction tank. For optimum<br />

flocculation and filtration, the<br />

metering quantity is adjusted to the<br />

respective flocculant requirement; as<br />

a rule, the pumps each dose at a rate<br />

of around ten litres per hour, which<br />

corresponds to a daily flocculant consumption<br />

of around 1,000 litres of<br />

ferric chloride solution.<br />

Frequent maintenance of<br />

diaphragms necessary<br />

Diaphragm metering pumps, which<br />

are standard in many metering stations,<br />

were initially used in the new<br />

Fig. 3: Check the dosing concentration at the outlet into the mixing and reaction basins<br />

metering system installed in 2017.<br />

However, after just a few months, it became<br />

apparent that this type of pump<br />

could not offer the reliability and longevity<br />

required for continuous use. “After<br />

just a few months, numerous, often<br />

lengthy repairs became necessary.<br />

The diaphragms had to be replaced approximately<br />

every three months,” reports<br />

the water technician. “While this<br />

maintenance could at least be carried<br />

In order to ensure uninterrupted operation<br />

of the flocculation in all four<br />

mixing and reaction basins, in addition<br />

to frequent maintenance and repair<br />

work, further measures became<br />

necessary. “We had two more diaphragm<br />

pumps than planned in stock<br />

as spare pumps and at some point,<br />

even had to bring in other pump<br />

technologies as an additional solution,”<br />

she recalls.<br />

out in-house, we often had to hire an Increasingly dissatisfied with<br />

external company for frequent repairs.<br />

The manufacturer of the diaphragm<br />

pumps advised us to reduce the stroke<br />

length - unfortunately, this did not lead<br />

to any improvement either and this<br />

the unreliability of the diaphragm<br />

pumps and the associated high<br />

operating costs, and with no prospect<br />

of fundamentally improving the<br />

situation with the existing equipment,<br />

measure was also associated with a reduction<br />

the Thüringer Fernwasser<br />

in the maximum possible metering<br />

quantity,” adds the engineer.<br />

team joined forces with an engineering<br />

firm to look for a better alterna-<br />

34 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

tive. They found what they were looking<br />

for with the peristaltic metering<br />

pumps from Watson-Marlow Fluid<br />

<strong>Technology</strong> Solutions.<br />

Peristaltic metering pumps for<br />

water treatment<br />

Fig. 4: A total of five pumps have been in use in the dosing station for flocculants for more<br />

than a year.<br />

The decision was made to initially test<br />

Qdos as part of a six-month field trial<br />

- first with a certain amount of scepticism.<br />

“At that time, I was mainly familiar<br />

with peristaltic pumps as a solution<br />

for sterile applications in medical<br />

technology and pharmaceuticals, but<br />

not as a metering solution for the water<br />

industry,” reports the engineer.<br />

“I was therefore initially unsure about<br />

the cost-effectiveness of peristaltic<br />

pumps in water treatment. Especially<br />

as peristaltic pumps are somewhat<br />

more expensive to purchase.”<br />

The peristaltic pump from<br />

Watson-Marlow was developed specifically<br />

for metering chemicals and<br />

treatment substances in the water industry.<br />

“As a peristaltic pump, Qdos<br />

has no diaphragms, valves or seals to<br />

clog or leak. As a result, it offers particularly<br />

low installation costs and<br />

can be easily installed in existing metering<br />

systems to replace previously<br />

used pumps without additional equipment,”<br />

explains the Sales Engineer at<br />

Watson-Marlow.<br />

In addition, the peristaltic metering<br />

pump has a particularly innovative<br />

design principle: the only wearing<br />

part on the entire pump is the<br />

patented ReNu pumphead, which can<br />

be replaced as a single component in<br />

just a few minutes. The pump is then<br />

available “as new”. As the pumphead<br />

is completely encapsulated, any leakage<br />

of liquid is reliably prevented.<br />

The operator does not come into contact<br />

with the pumped liquid.<br />

Wide range of sizes, pump head<br />

and control options<br />

The versatile Qdos metering pumps<br />

are used in countless applications in<br />

the water and wastewater industry,<br />

Fig. 5: The only wearing part on the entire<br />

pump is the patented ReNu pumphead,<br />

which can be replaced as a single component<br />

in just a few minutes<br />

Drinking water approval – end in sight!<br />

KLINGERSIL ® C-4240<br />

Germany<br />

The drinking water supply<br />

without compromises –<br />

Test confi rmation<br />

according to KTW-BWGL<br />

until August 2028<br />

KLINGER GmbH, 65510 Idstein, Tel. +49 6126 40160, mail@klinger.de, www.klinger.de<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Peristaltic pumps<br />

as well as in the chemical industry<br />

and other process industries. A large<br />

selection of different pump models is<br />

available depending on the requirements<br />

profile: Different sizes are<br />

available for different flow rates, with<br />

maximum flow rates ranging from<br />

333 ml/min to 600 l/h. Depending on<br />

the model, they offer a wide range of<br />

control options, from manual control,<br />

4-20 mA to EtherNet/IP, PROFINET<br />

and PROFIBUS. Depending on the application,<br />

there are suitable pumphead<br />

options for the pump. A Santoprene<br />

tube is included as standard,<br />

which is suitable for a wide range of<br />

chemicals. Specially designed pumpheads,<br />

for example with SEBS or PU<br />

tubing materials, are also available<br />

for metering sodium hypochlorite or<br />

polymers.<br />

Fig. 6: The dosing pumps convey the flocculant ferric chloride from the siphon vessels of the<br />

storage tanks to the mixing and reaction basins.<br />

Peristaltic metering pumps<br />

impresses in trial<br />

Fig. 7: The Qdos metering pump is available in different sizes with maximum flow rates<br />

ranging from 333 ml/min to 600 l/h<br />

During the six-month trial in the<br />

drinking water treatment plant in<br />

Luisenthal, the pump was already<br />

able to fully convince. “The first thing<br />

we noticed was the significantly reduced<br />

noise level compared to the<br />

diaphragm pumps,” reports the water<br />

technician. “It is also much more<br />

user-friendly and doses much more<br />

evenly - i. e. with less pulsation - than<br />

a diaphragm pump.”<br />

However, the decisive criterion<br />

was: “As we are part of the critical infrastructure,<br />

reliability and low maintenance<br />

requirements, as well as quick<br />

and easy maintenance, if necessary,<br />

are of course the be-all and end-all<br />

for us,” says the engineer. “This is because<br />

flocculation and filtration is perhaps<br />

the most critical and important<br />

treatment step in the entire process;<br />

as soon as a pump breaks down, even<br />

briefly, this results in an immediate<br />

loss of our purification capacity.”<br />

Offering the required operational<br />

reliability<br />

In terms of reliability, the peristaltic<br />

metering pumps have impressed<br />

in these respects since their installation:<br />

a total of five pumps have now<br />

been in use in the metering station<br />

for more than one year and are running<br />

smoothly. Four pumps dose the<br />

flocculant into the four basins in continuous<br />

operation, while one pump<br />

is available as a reserve pump in the<br />

event of a failure. The current level<br />

of redundancy with one spare pump<br />

and four pumps in constant use<br />

would not have been practicable with<br />

the previous diaphragm pumps.<br />

The high level of operational safety<br />

is made possible not only by enormous<br />

reliability, but also by quick and<br />

easy maintenance. So far, the pumps<br />

are still working smoothly and reliably<br />

with the first pump head, and<br />

Thüringer Fernwasser is relaxed<br />

about future maintenance work.<br />

“Replacing the pump head is really<br />

easy and takes a maximum of ten minutes,<br />

including flushing and installing<br />

the pipes,” says an enthusias tic water<br />

technician, demonstrating the replacement<br />

process on the metering system’s<br />

reserve pump. No tools are re-<br />

quired and the pump does not need to<br />

be removed.<br />

The engineer gives an insight into<br />

the economic side of the application:<br />

“Despite higher initial investments for<br />

the Qdos peristaltic pumps, we are<br />

already saving considerable money<br />

in the second year due to lower costs<br />

for spare parts and maintenance<br />

compared to the diaphragm pumps.”<br />

The metering pumps quickly dispelled<br />

any initial scepticism regarding<br />

cost efficiency. “We have not only<br />

seen that peristaltic pumps are a reliable<br />

and efficient solution for metering<br />

applications in the drinking water<br />

industry. But that they are also a very<br />

economical solution here.”<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH<br />

Rommerskirchen, Germany<br />

www.wmfts.com/de-de/<br />

36 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Make your business flow<br />

13th International Valve Trade Fair & Conference<br />

03 – 05 December<br />

<strong>2024</strong><br />

Düsseldorf, Germany<br />


Pumps and Systems<br />

Progressing cavity pumps<br />

Service life extended, lighter workload on staff<br />

Conical progressive cavity pump for<br />

demanding applications in the industrial<br />

and wastewater sectors<br />

Markus Liebich<br />

Whether it’s high pressures or abrasive<br />

substances in the fluid: especially<br />

in the wastewater and industrial<br />

sectors, applications place high<br />

demands on pump technology. Progressive<br />

cavity pumps are designed<br />

to pump demanding media and<br />

have proven themselves as a pump<br />

technology in these industries.<br />

An example from the wastewater<br />

sector: digester feeding<br />

Progressive cavity pumps are often<br />

used to feed sludge digesters: the<br />

pumps push the thickened primary<br />

or raw sludge over long pumping<br />

distances into the digester towers,<br />

some of which are twenty meters<br />

high. A combination of abrasive media<br />

and high pressures of up to six<br />

bar put a lot of strain on the pumps.<br />

Often, the rotor and stator have to<br />

be replaced once or twice a year.<br />

This not only means that the pump<br />

is out of operation, but also requires<br />

a lot of time and resources: replacing<br />

spare parts is cost-intensive and requires<br />

at least two workers.<br />

Industrial users need flexible, lowmaintenance<br />

pumping solutions<br />

In industrial companies, too, pump<br />

technology conveys demanding media<br />

such as ceramic slurry. This watermineral<br />

mixture is required for the<br />

manufacture of ceramic products.<br />

The pulpy or semifluid consistency<br />

of ceramic slurry puts a lot of strain<br />

on the pumping elements during<br />

pumping. Slurried clay is also highly<br />

viscous, requiring powerful, robust<br />

industrial pumps that meet the requirements<br />

of the ceramics industry.<br />

For companies in the industrial<br />

and wastewater sectors, it is impor-<br />

Fig. 1: Energy-efficient and durable: The HiCone progressive cavity pump.<br />

(Source of all images: Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG)<br />

Fig. 2: The conical geometry of the rotor and stator enables precise readjustment in the<br />

event of wear and replaces the need to replace parts.<br />

times longer than that of a conventant<br />

to have pump technology that is<br />

suitable for demanding applications<br />

and can be flexibly adapted to operating<br />

parameters. This reduces the<br />

costs and time required for maintenance<br />

work.<br />

HiCone with conical rotor-stator<br />

geometry: adjustment instead of<br />

part replacement<br />

The HiCone progressive cavity pump<br />

from Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG is<br />

designed to meet these requirements.<br />

The rotor and stator of the<br />

pump are conical in shape. If a gap<br />

occurs between the two parts as a result<br />

of wear, this can be compensated<br />

during operation: the rotor is adjusted<br />

axially. The pump then regains the<br />

same characteristics as when it was<br />

new. There is no need for time-consuming<br />

and costly part changes.<br />

Cut down on repeated<br />

maintenance work<br />

Thanks to the precise adjustment, the<br />

service life of the HiCone is up to four<br />

38 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Progressing cavity pumps<br />

Fig. 3: The smart adjustment system allows the HiCone to be individually readjusted<br />

to suit a variety of operating parameters.<br />

tional progressive cavity pump.<br />

Maintenance work is required<br />

less frequently and is easier to<br />

plan. This relieves the burden on<br />

maintenance personnel and creates<br />

free capacity – which is also<br />

financially beneficial, especially<br />

in times of a shortage of skilled<br />

workers. This is particularly advantageous<br />

for companies with<br />

pumps in remote use. If the<br />

HiCone is equipped with automatic<br />

readjustment, the company<br />

has the option of observing<br />

and recording the wear of the<br />

pump on its monitors and optionally<br />

also on the pump. This<br />

means that maintenance work<br />

can be planned very precisely.<br />

Responding to process changes<br />

The fact that the HiCone can be<br />

individually adapted to the applicable<br />

operating parameters at<br />

any given time, such as temperature<br />

or viscosity, also contributes<br />

to this. The adjustment system<br />

ensures that the rotor and stator<br />

are optimally positioned in relation<br />

to each other. For example,<br />

the user can adjust them to different<br />

viscosities in the best possible<br />

way. The higher the viscosity,<br />

the better they seal the gap<br />

in the pump. The clamping can<br />

therefore be reduced. This is<br />

done by the user pulling the rotor<br />

out slightly.<br />

This also applies to applications<br />

with high temperatures or<br />

temperature changes: if the rubber<br />

in the stator expands due to<br />

high temperatures, there is increased<br />

clamping between the<br />

rotor and stator. To reduce this,<br />

the rotor is retracted. If the temperature<br />

then drops again, the<br />

rubber in the stator contracts. As<br />

a result, the clamping force is reduced<br />

and the pumping capacity<br />

decreases. In this case, the rotor<br />

is pushed in further until the desired<br />

clamping is achieved again.<br />

High flexibility: mobile sludge<br />

dewatering<br />

Companies working in the area<br />

of mobile sludge dewatering also<br />

benefit from this high flexibility<br />

of the HiCone. Here, the pump<br />

technology must be designed<br />

for high temperature fluctuations.<br />

The sludge is sucked out of<br />

the respective system by a progressive<br />

cavity pump and dewatered<br />

in a container. The operator<br />

uses this device at a number<br />

of different industrial companies.<br />

The sludge there varies between<br />

temperatures of 20 to 60<br />

degrees Celsius. To cover all applications,<br />

the operator therefore<br />

uses two progressive cavity<br />

pumps: a “normal” one for temperatures<br />

of up to 40 degrees<br />

and a progressive cavity pump<br />

with an undersized stator.<br />

By using the HiCone, the<br />

operator now saves the cost of a<br />

conventional progressive cavity<br />

pump and the associated power<br />

electronics. The company benefits<br />

from lower acquisition costs<br />

and more space in the container<br />

and can therefore react even more<br />

flexibly to the conditions on site.<br />

Energy-efficient pumping<br />

The HiCone is also particularly<br />

energy-efficient. This is due to its<br />

intelligent automatic startup. The<br />

size of the drive motor in a progressive<br />

cavity pump is usually<br />

determined by the high starting<br />

torque. Thanks to the adjustable<br />

clamping between rotor and stator,<br />

the motor needs less power<br />

than in a conventional progressive<br />

cavity pump. The torque<br />

when starting up the pump is<br />

minimized and the power requirement<br />

is reduced. The startup<br />

process is fully automatic.<br />

Due to the smaller drive motor,<br />

the frequency converter on the<br />

pump is also smaller.<br />

Experience the HiCone live:<br />

Vogelsang at IFAT and<br />

Achema<br />

Interested parties can find out<br />

more about the HiCone conical<br />

progressive cavity pump at<br />

various trade fairs this year:<br />

IFAT: May 13-17, Munich,<br />

Vogelsang booth in<br />

hall B1, booth 347/446<br />

Achema: June 10-14,<br />

Frankfurt am Main,<br />

Vogelsang booth in<br />

hall 8.0, booth F64<br />

The Author: Markus Liebich,<br />

Key Account Manager Wastewater<br />

and Biogas,<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG,<br />

Essen (Oldenburg), Germany<br />

www.vogelsang.info<br />

Team Digital for more efficiency.<br />

Pump monitoring, pump control and frequency<br />

converter – our digital solutions for centrifugal<br />

pumps and screw spindle pumps.<br />

Take advantage of these benefits:<br />

Comprehensive Monitoring | Energy Savings<br />

Predictive Maintenance | Connectivity<br />

Soft Sensors<br />

BRINKMANN PUMPEN | K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG<br />

T +49 2392 5006-0 | sales@brinkmannpumps.de | www.brinkmannpumps.de

Pumps and Systems<br />

Screw pumps<br />

Advancing fluid conveyance<br />

beyond conventional boundaries<br />

Peter Volkert<br />

In the realm of chemical applications,<br />

precision, safety, and efficiency<br />

reign supreme. When it comes<br />

to handling viscous fluids, positive<br />

displacement pumps play a pivotal<br />

role. Among these pumps, screw<br />

pumps stand out as they offer distinct<br />

advantages over their rotating<br />

counterparts. They excel in<br />

characteristics such as zero pulsation,<br />

exceptional suction capacity,<br />

low noise emissions, a broad flow<br />

rate range achievable with a single<br />

pump, and gentle fluid handling, all<br />

while maintaining exceptional efficiency<br />

and high performance.<br />

Screw pumps fall into two major categories,<br />

distinguished by the placement<br />

of their bearings: outer bearing<br />

and internal bearing pumps.<br />

Fig. 1: Diagram of the volumetric efficiency of the L2MG at 1,500 rpm<br />

Outer bearing pumps<br />

These pumps shine when it comes<br />

to handling liquids with higher solid<br />

contents or extremely high gas fractions,<br />

allowing for the conveyance of<br />

substantial flow rates. However, due<br />

to the necessity of four sealings and<br />

complex supply systems, they can<br />

become a costly solution.<br />

Internal bearing pumps<br />

In contrast, internal bearing pumps<br />

offer a host of advantages. They require<br />

only one mechanical seal, in<br />

contrast to the four needed in their<br />

external bearing counterparts, and<br />

can also be equipped with a magnetic<br />

coupling.<br />

Screw pumps with magnetic coupling<br />

represent a cutting-edge innovation<br />

that has revolutionized fluid<br />

handling across various industries,<br />

particularly in chemical applications.<br />

Leistritz, a revered name in the pump<br />

technology sector, has been at the<br />

forefront of this transformative development.<br />

Fig. 2: L2MG twin screw pump rendering<br />

A prime example<br />

Handling isocyanates exemplifies the<br />

prowess of this pump application,<br />

and Leistritz has amassed a wealth<br />

of experience in this regard with its<br />

magnetic-coupled internal bearing<br />

pumps.<br />

Regrettably, the use of this pump<br />

type has been limited in the handling<br />

of low-viscosity solvents like hexane or<br />

toluene, as the hydrodynamic bearing<br />

systems necessitate higher viscosity.<br />

Consequently, this highly secure and<br />

cost-efficient solution remained inapplicable<br />

for processes that required<br />

solvent flushing, such as polymerization<br />

loop processes. This limitation is<br />

rooted in a fundamental fact.<br />

This limitation has propelled conventional<br />

screw pumps with external<br />

bearings into a multifaceted role, excelling<br />

in handling low-viscosity products<br />

at the expense of higher costs.<br />

For the Leistritz engineers, rejuvenating<br />

screw pumps has become<br />

an exciting challenge – and they conquered<br />

it!<br />

40 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps and Systems<br />

Screw pumps<br />

A quantum leap forward<br />

The development of the L2MG pump<br />

series represents a significant milestone,<br />

especially in the aforementioned<br />

industries. Capable of seamlessly<br />

handling viscosities spanning<br />

from 0.3 to 100,000 mPas and delivering<br />

differential pressures up to<br />

40 bar, this innovative pump series<br />

optimizes processes, enhances efficiency,<br />

and ensures compliance<br />

with safety standards. The choice between<br />

magnetic and mechanical coupling<br />

offers versatility, while the sealless<br />

design minimizes maintenance<br />

concerns, all of which contribute to<br />

reduced life cycle costs.<br />

In conclusion, the Leistritz L2MG<br />

pump series is a game-changer for<br />

the polymerization and general<br />

chemical industry. Its versatility and<br />

performance enhancements usher<br />

in a new era of efficiency and safety,<br />

ultimately boosting productivity and<br />

cost savings for operators. As polymerization<br />

processes continue to<br />

evolve, the L2MG series is poised to<br />

play a pivotal role in driving progress<br />

and innovation in the field.<br />

Additionally, there is another decisive<br />

advantage: Due to the design<br />

of the L2MG, characterized by significantly<br />

higher efficiency and minimal<br />

backflow, sheer-sensitive products<br />

are handled with exceptional<br />

smoothness, eliminating concerns<br />

that molecule chains could be severed.<br />

Leistritz has introduced this<br />

groundbreaking pump series, the<br />

L2MG, which vastly extends the<br />

range of viscosities it can handle, accommodating<br />

increased differential<br />

pressures. The chemical industry<br />

now has access to a product capable<br />

of managing viscosities ranging from<br />

0.3 to 100,000 mPas at differential<br />

pressures up to 40 bars, no matter<br />

if magnetic or mechanical coupling<br />

is used.<br />

In terms of efficiency, safety, and<br />

life cycle costs, this development is a<br />

true game-changer that seemed unimaginable<br />

just five years ago.<br />

The Author: Peter Volkert,<br />

Head of Sales Chemistry & Life<br />

Science Leistritz Pumpen GmbH,<br />

Nuremberg, Germany<br />

https://pumps.leistritz.com<br />

We tackle the<br />

challenges of the<br />

future – with our<br />

intelligent vacuum<br />

solutions.<br />


Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum systems<br />

Tracking the Big Bang<br />

Vacuum Systems for technology development<br />

in gravitational wave detection<br />

Prof. Dr. Oliver Gerberding, Jens Grundmann, Dr. René Wutzler, Dr. Artem Basalaev<br />

How did our universe come into being?<br />

What is our universe made of?<br />

And what events occurred during the<br />

creation process? These and other<br />

questions are on the minds of astronomers<br />

and physicists around the<br />

world today. To answer these questions,<br />

we need information about<br />

the dark objects in our Universe and<br />

about the time close to the Big Bang,<br />

about 13.8 billion years ago. But how<br />

do we get information about objects<br />

that we cannot see and therefore<br />

cannot observe with electromagnetic<br />

radiation? How is it possible<br />

to observe objects and events close<br />

to the Big Bang, at a time when the<br />

universe was opaque? One carrier<br />

of such “old” information is what we<br />

call gravitational waves.<br />

As early as 1915, Albert Einstein described<br />

the influence of mass on space<br />

and time, or spacetime for short, in his<br />

general theory of relati vity [1]. Masses<br />

bend spacetime, which in turn affects<br />

the motion of masses, describing the<br />

phenomenon of gravity. The propagation<br />

of spacetime distortions caused<br />

by accelerated masses is now known<br />

as gravitational waves, and they produce<br />

tiny changes in distance at great<br />

distances from their source. Although<br />

Einstein developed the theory of the<br />

existence of these gravitational waves<br />

in 1915, he assumed at the time that<br />

we would not be able to detect them<br />

on Earth. In 2015, scientists succeeded<br />

in detecting exactly these gravitational<br />

waves [2]. With the help of the<br />

LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave<br />

Observatory) in the USA,<br />

the collision of two black holes, both<br />

many times the mass of our Sun, was<br />

detected. This collision occurred at a<br />

distance of 1.3 billion light-years from<br />

Earth, making it possible to observe a<br />

cosmic event that took place 1.3 billion<br />

years ago. Since then, more than 100<br />

such events have been recorded [3].<br />

How can we think of gravitational<br />

waves? A simple analogy is a large,<br />

still lake into which a stone is thrown.<br />

Waves are created at the point where<br />

the stone hits the surface of the water.<br />

These waves slowly lose strength<br />

with distance from the point of impact,<br />

so that the waves are barely<br />

noticeable on the shore of the lake.<br />

If this observation were applied to<br />

space, the lake would be our universe<br />

and the rock would symbolize a disturbance<br />

of space-time by an accelerated<br />

mass, such as a moving star or a<br />

collapsing black hole. We would hardly<br />

notice the effect in terms of gravitational<br />

waves at our measuring position,<br />

the Earth as an analogy to the<br />

shore of the lake. This is because,<br />

in addition to the distance from the<br />

events, space-time is very rigid and<br />

much less susceptible to oscillation<br />

than water. This means that only extreme<br />

events, such as the merging of<br />

black holes, can generate measurable<br />

gravitational waves.<br />

The distance changes caused<br />

by gravitational waves are extremely<br />

small. For example, a gravitational<br />

wave caused by the merging of black<br />

a second. These tiny measurements<br />

also place special demands on the<br />

measurement technology to be used.<br />

The central property of special<br />

relativity, that the speed of light is<br />

constant for any observer, was demonstrated<br />

by Michelson and Morley<br />

using a Michelson interferometer.<br />

The principle on which this instrument<br />

is based is laser interferometry<br />

[4]. Such laser interferometers<br />

are also used to detect gravitational<br />

waves, as they can measure tiny<br />

changes in distance extremely well.<br />

The special challenge of this method<br />

is the L-shaped arrangement and the<br />

longest possible optical paths (called<br />

arms) of infrared laser light. Long<br />

arms amplify the effect of the gravitational<br />

wave so that the changes in<br />

distance can still be detected. The laser<br />

light is directed into these arms<br />

by semi-transparent mirrors, reflected<br />

at the end by more mirrors, and<br />

returned to its point of origin. There,<br />

the light waves are superimposed (interference).<br />

Interfering, i. e. superimposed,<br />

waves can amplify each other if “wave<br />

crest meets wave crest” at the same<br />

holes in the Milky Way would change wavelength (constructive interference).<br />

the distance between the Sun and the<br />

Earth by only the diameter of a hydrogen<br />

atom. Moreover, for many of the<br />

objects we observe today, this change<br />

in distance lasts only a thousandth of<br />

Or, when the “wave crest and<br />

trough” meet, extinction occurs (destructive<br />

interference). In the experiment,<br />

the system is set up so that no<br />

light is visible at the output. When a<br />

Fig. 1: Screw pump and magnetically levitated turbopump from Pfeiffer Vacuum<br />

42 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum systems<br />

gravitational wave hits the plane in<br />

which the arms of the interferometer<br />

lie, one arm (or both, depending on<br />

the direction of incidence) is periodically<br />

shortened and lengthened. This<br />

changes the conditions for optical<br />

superposition, i. e. destructive interference,<br />

which produces a signal at<br />

the so-called dark finge. This is what<br />

makes the gravitational wave visible,<br />

or rather audible. LIGO is based on<br />

the same principle. At the two LIGO<br />

sites in the US states of Washington<br />

and Louisiana, great care is taken to<br />

ensure that the highly sensitive mirrors<br />

and their reflective properties<br />

are not affected by dirt. Therefore,<br />

only dry, hydrocarbon-free pumps<br />

are used to create the necessary vacuum.<br />

The pumping stations used consist<br />

of dry screw pumps and magnetically<br />

levitated turbopumps. This is<br />

the only way to achieve the limit of<br />

< 1 monolayer in 10 years on the mirrors.<br />

In addition to cleanliness, low vibration<br />

plays an important role.<br />

To ensure that new and more<br />

gravitational wave signals can be detected<br />

in the future, continuous improvements<br />

are needed to reduce<br />

interference. Detectors on Earth are<br />

limited in particular by the suspension<br />

and regulation of the mirrors in a<br />

vacuum. This suspension is necessary<br />

to isolate the mirrors from disturbances<br />

such as seismic waves. At the<br />

same time, however, it must allow the<br />

mirrors to be perfectly positioned. In<br />

particular, the next generation of detectors,<br />

such as the European Einstein<br />

Telescope [5], will be even more sensitive<br />

at lower frequencies and therefore<br />

require mirror suspensions with<br />

improved control and less noise. In<br />

order to develop the necessary technologies,<br />

smaller laboratories are trying<br />

to simulate the environmental<br />

conditions for the development of<br />

better instruments and components<br />

as accurately as possible, also in order<br />

not to reduce the observation<br />

times in the large detectors.<br />

As part of the “Quantum Universe”<br />

Cluster of Excellence (EXC2121:<br />

German Research Foundation - project<br />

number 390833306), the research<br />

group headed by Prof. Dr. Oliver<br />

Gerberding at the University of Hamburg<br />

is working on improving optomechanical<br />

sensors. Pfeiffer Vacuum the system, a second optical table is<br />

GmbH is supporting the working mounted on a side wall of the vacuum<br />

chamber and enables the trans-<br />

group with a special vacuum system.<br />

The vacuum system developed mission of laser light from the outside<br />

to the inside via transparent<br />

and manufactured within the project<br />

“VatiGrav” (vacuum chamber with flanges in the same plane as both<br />

seismic isolation of an optical test experimental tables. For easy access<br />

platform, funded by the University of to the chamber and the experiment<br />

Hamburg/State of Hamburg and the table inside, there are doors on both<br />

German Research Foundation, DFG, sides of the vacuum chamber. There<br />

project number 455096128) fulfills is a single large door at the front to<br />

several functions at once with its size make the entire interior volume accessible<br />

for experiments. This can<br />

of approx. 1.5 m long, 2 m wide and<br />

2.5 m high. The stainless-steel vacuum also be used to remove the internal<br />

chamber with a free internal dimension<br />

of 1.74 x 1.02 x 1.51 m (LxWxH) the vacuum chamber is divided and<br />

optical table if required. The rear of<br />

serves as a container for the experimental<br />

setups of Prof. Gerberding’s via two separate doors.<br />

allows access to the experiment table<br />

research group. For this purpose, the In addition to the dual functions<br />

vacuum chamber is equipped with of test chamber and vibration damping,<br />

the vacuum system is responsi-<br />

an optical table, which rests on passive<br />

vibration dampers on the chamber<br />

floor and on which the laser in-<br />

are performed under vacuum condible<br />

for ensuring that the experiments<br />

terferometry experiments and the tions. For this purpose, two oil-free<br />

pendulum systems can be set up. The ACP 40 multistage Roots pumps from<br />

purpose of the passive dampers is to Pfeiffer Vacuum are installed in the<br />

allow low-vibration experiments under<br />

vacuum conditions. In addition, in an adjacent room of the laboratory<br />

vacuum chamber. These are located<br />

the vacuum chamber itself rests on and are connected to the chamber by<br />

active vibration dampers that use internal<br />

sensor and control technology The two pumps are used to gener-<br />

approximately 4 m of vacuum piping.<br />

to ensure that vibrations and oscillations<br />

from the environment are sup-<br />

Once the pre-vacuum pressure of<br />

ate the pre-vacuum in the chamber.<br />

pressed and do not affect the experiments.<br />

Frequencies above 2 Hz are the ATH 3204 M turbomolecular<br />

about 1e-1 mbar has been reached,<br />

absorbed with over 90 % damping. pump located on the chamber ceiling<br />

This isolation concept is based on can be switched on to achieve even<br />

correspondingly more complex systems<br />

at LIGO [6] and in other spe-<br />

magnetically levitated turbomolecu-<br />

lower pressures. The ATH 3204 M is a<br />

cial laboratories around the world. To lar pump from Pfeiffer Vacuum and<br />

couple experimental setups outside has a maximum pumping speed of<br />

Fig. 2: Vacuum chamber with seismic isolation of an optical test platform<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum systems<br />

05A20GU5 & 05A23GU5). After successful<br />

demonstration, new methods,<br />

algorithms and sensors can be<br />

integrated into larger prototypes [8,<br />

9] and finally into current and future<br />

detectors. The goal is to improve the<br />

detection of gravitational waves, especially<br />

at low frequencies. Since<br />

most signals enter the measurement<br />

band at low frequencies, such<br />

improvements can, among other<br />

things, increase the observation time<br />

enormously. In the long run, it should<br />

be possible to detect the signals of<br />

merging black holes many minutes<br />

before the event and thus determine<br />

the position of the objects. Then<br />

other telescopes can point in that direction<br />

and “check” for electromagnetic<br />

traces of such events, which in<br />

turn allows us to better understand<br />

the physics of such objects.<br />

References<br />

Fig. 3: Oil-free multistage Roots pumps ACP 40<br />

3050 l/s for nitrogen. The magnetic<br />

bearing enables low-vibration evacuation<br />

of the volume. When connecting<br />

the individual pumps to each other,<br />

care was taken to use connecting<br />

elements that reduce vibration transmission.<br />

With the pump system, a vacuum<br />

pressure of approx. 1e-6 mbar<br />

can be achieved in less than 2 h and a<br />

final pressure of < 1e-7 mbar.<br />

During the course of the project,<br />

which lasted just over a year, other<br />

challenges arose in addition to the<br />

technical requirements for the system.<br />

In addition to the ubiquitous<br />

shortages of materials and components<br />

during the pandemic years and<br />

the associated delays, the future site<br />

of the vacuum system was undergoing<br />

reconstruction and expansion.<br />

This meant that not only the realization<br />

of the vacuum system, but also<br />

the coordination of the laboratory<br />

setup was an important task during<br />

the project. The interfaces and contact<br />

points between the vacuum system<br />

and the laboratory extension included<br />

the space requirements. Due<br />

to the existing room height, it was<br />

necessary to harmonize the room<br />

installations, the clean room tent in<br />

which the system would be located,<br />

and the height of the vacuum system.<br />

Other challenges included the<br />

weight of the system and the maximum<br />

floor load capacity, which could<br />

be undercut with floor reinforcements<br />

and additional support plates.<br />

In addition, the final installation of<br />

the system had to take into account<br />

the low passage heights and widths.<br />

However, all challenges were overcome<br />

and the system is now ready<br />

for use by Prof. Gerberding’s team.<br />

Scientists at the University of<br />

Hamburg have now begun to characterize<br />

and optimize the vacuum<br />

chamber and, in particular, the seismic<br />

isolation systems. Many further<br />

investigations and adjustments<br />

will be necessary before the system<br />

reaches its optimal performance -<br />

a process that usually takes several<br />

years. The first experiments to be<br />

performed in and with the chamber<br />

include studies on new methods of<br />

seismic isolation using artificial intelligence<br />

and the characterization<br />

of compact laser interferometers<br />

to be integrated into the pendulum<br />

systems as ultra-precise displacement<br />

sensors [7] (BMBF projects<br />

Einstein, A. (1915). Erklärung der<br />

Perihelbewegung des Merkur aus der<br />

allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Sitzungsberichte<br />

der Königlich Preußischen<br />

Akademie der Wissenschaften<br />

(Berlin, 831-839.<br />

Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D.,<br />

Abernathy, M. R., Acernese, F., Ackley,<br />

K., ... & Cavalieri, R. (2016). Observation<br />

of gravitational waves from a binary<br />

black hole merger. Physical review<br />

letters, 116(6), 061102.<br />

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the<br />

Virgo Collaboration, the KAGRA Collaboration<br />

et al., GWTC-3: Compact<br />

Binary Coalescences Observed by<br />

LIGO and Virgo During the Se cond<br />

Part of the Third Observing Run, General<br />

Rela tivitry and Quantum Cosmology<br />

(gr-qc), 2021, https://doi.<br />

org/10.48550/arXiv.2111.03606<br />

Saulson, P. R. (1994). Fundamentals of<br />

interferometric gravitational wave detectors.<br />

Punturo, M., Abernathy, M., Acernese,<br />

F., Allen, B., Andersson, N., Arun, K., ...<br />

& Yamamoto, K. (2010). The Einstein<br />

Telescope: a third-generation gravitational<br />

wave observatory. Classical and<br />

Quantum Gravity, 27(19), 194002.<br />

Matichard, F., Lantz, B., Mittleman,<br />

R., Mason, K., Kissel, J., Abbott, B., ...<br />

& Wen, S. (2015). Seismic isolation of<br />

Advanced LIGO: Review of strategy,<br />

44 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Vacuum technology<br />

Vacuum systems<br />

instrumentation and performance.<br />

Classical and Quantum Gravity,<br />

32(18), 185003.<br />

Gerberding, O., & Isleif, K. S. (2021).<br />

Ghost Beam Suppression in Deep Frequency<br />

Modulation Interferometry<br />

for Compact On-Axis Optical Heads.<br />

Sensors, 21(5), 1708.<br />

Kirchhoff, R., Mow-Lowry, C. M., Bergmann,<br />

G., Hanke, M. M., Koch, P.,<br />

Köhlenbeck, S. M., ... & Strain, K. A.<br />

(2020). Local active isolation of the<br />

AEI-SAS for the AEI 10 m prototype facility.<br />

Classical and Quantum Gravity,<br />

37(11), 115004.<br />

Di Pace, S., Mangano, V., Pierini, L.,<br />

Rezaei, A., Hennig, J. S., Hennig, M.,<br />

... & Van Heijningen, J. (2022). Research<br />

Facilities for Europe’s Next<br />

Generation Gravitational-Wave Detector<br />

Einstein Telescope. Galaxies,<br />

10(3), 65.<br />

Acknowledgements<br />

This project was funded by the German<br />

Research Foundation (DFG) as<br />

part of the “Large-scale research facilities”<br />

programme, project number<br />

455096128. Furthermore, O.<br />

Gerberding and A. Basalaev were<br />

funded within the framework of<br />

the Excellence Strategy - EXC 2121<br />

“Quantum Universe”, project number<br />

390833306 and by the Federal Ministry<br />

of Education and Research (BMBF)<br />

within the framework programm “Exploration<br />

of the Universe and Matter”,<br />

project 05A20GU5.<br />

The Authors:<br />

Prof. Dr. Oliver Gerberding, junior professor of physics at the University of<br />

Hamburg, where he is setting up a working group for gravitational wave detection<br />

as part of the Quantum Universe Cluster of Excellence. The group researches and<br />

develops techniques for the improvement and realization of detectors on Earth and<br />

in space and is involved in LIGO, the Einstein Telescope and the LISA mission.<br />

Jens Grundmann and Dr René Wutzler, both project manager at Dreebit GmbH, a<br />

wholly owned subsidiary of Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH, since 2020.<br />

Dr Artem Basalaevis, experimental physicist at the University of Hamburg in the<br />

working group of Prof Dr Oliver Gerberding in the Quantum Universe Cluster of<br />

Excellence.<br />


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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Vacuum technology<br />

Screw spindle vacuum pumps<br />

Potential of surface structures for the<br />

reduction of vacuum gap flows<br />

Sven Brock, Heiko Pleskun, Gero Polus, Jannis Saelzer, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof h.c. Dirk Biermann,<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer<br />

Abstract<br />

This article presents a patented approach<br />

for the fluid-mechanical and<br />

thermodynamic improvement of screw<br />

spindle vacuum pumps [Brü21]. These<br />

machines belong to the group of rotary<br />

positive displacement vacuum pumps<br />

and have two parallel rotors that convey<br />

the gas along the rotor axes. Chambers<br />

are formed between the rotors and<br />

the surrounding housing. Due to rotation<br />

the fluid is carried in axial direction<br />

and expelled on the high-pressure side<br />

(which is typically atmosphere) by reducing<br />

the chamber volume. The main<br />

loss mechanism of such machines is<br />

identified as the operational gaps,<br />

through which the fluid can flow in the<br />

opposite direction. These gap flows are<br />

usually minimized by selecting the lowest<br />

possible gap height.<br />

As the reduction of the gap height<br />

is limited by the operational safety due<br />

to manufacturing tolerances and thermal<br />

expansion, this study concentrates<br />

on the reduction of gap mass flow<br />

rates through surface structures without<br />

simultaneously reducing the gap<br />

height. These structures have a profile<br />

depth that is significantly less than the<br />

minimal gap height between the housing<br />

and the rotor. The main objective<br />

is to specifically manipulate the reflection<br />

properties of molecules in the region<br />

of rarefied gas flows where gassurface<br />

interactions dominate. The<br />

strategic arrangement of these surface<br />

structures should increase the rate of<br />

back scattering of the molecules in opposite<br />

direction of flow. This is intended<br />

to achieve a reduced gap mass flow<br />

without jeopardising the operational<br />

safety of the machine.<br />

they are able to generate a technically<br />

clean vacuum and at the same<br />

time have a good tolerance for dirt<br />

particles and small amounts of liquid.<br />

As only a few machine parts are required<br />

due to their design, the assembly<br />

and maintenance costs of<br />

these machines are comparatively<br />

low. Together with their high suction<br />

speed (up to S eff<br />

= 2500 m³/h), these<br />

machines are particularly interesting<br />

for industrial purposes. They offer<br />

suction pressures from p suction<br />

= 0.1 Pa<br />

up to atmospheric pressure p at<br />

and<br />

are therefore suitable for low and<br />

medium vacuum applications. In<br />

many applications, they are used as<br />

fore vacuum pumps in combination<br />

with roots pumps or other vacuum<br />

pumps for high suction speeds in the<br />

fine or high vacuum regime [Jou18].<br />

The most important parameter for<br />

SSVPs is the effective pumping speed<br />

S eff<br />

, which describes the volume flow<br />

on the low-pressure side. The lowest<br />

achievable pressure that can be<br />

reached in a recipient with a vacuum<br />

pump without external leakage is<br />

referred to as the ultimate pressure<br />

[Jou18]. The characteristic curve describing<br />

the machine is the so-called<br />

suction speed curve, which describes<br />

the suction speed as a function of the<br />

suction pressure, whereby the discharge<br />

pressure corresponds to the<br />

atmospheric pressure. In measurements,<br />

Dreifert and Müller have observed<br />

that the suction speed curve<br />

of an SSVP is significantly influenced<br />

by the clearance between the rotors<br />

and the enclosing housing (the socalled<br />

housing gap). Fig. 2 shows that<br />

even a ten per cent change in the gap<br />

height causes a significant change in<br />

the characteristic curve, with an increasing<br />

effect for lower suction pressures<br />

[Dre14]. Accordingly, minimising<br />

the housing gap mass flow rate is<br />

essential for the efficiency of the machine,<br />

whereby the reduction of the<br />

gap height has limits in terms of operational<br />

safety, as the clearance must<br />

be guaranteed minus the manufacturing<br />

tolerances, possible vibrations<br />

and, in particular, thermal expansion<br />

for friction-free operation.<br />

In general, the suction speed of<br />

the machine initially increases with<br />

decreasing suction pressure until<br />

a maxi mum - the so-called nominal<br />

suction speed - is reached. The<br />

suction speed then drops to zero as<br />

the pressure is lowered further and<br />

the machine’s ultimate pressure is<br />

Introduction<br />

Screw spindle vacuum pumps (SSVP)<br />

(see Fig. 1) have become increasingly<br />

important in recent years, because<br />

Fig. 1: Principle sketch of a screw spindle vacuum pump (SSVP)<br />

46 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Vacuum technology<br />

Screw spindle vacuum pumps<br />

Fig. 2: Suctions speed curve of an SSVP with different housing gap heights [Dre14].<br />

reached. As less and less mass enters<br />

the machine at lower pressures,<br />

an equilibrium is established at this<br />

pressure between the intake mass<br />

flow rate and the mass flow rate that<br />

returns through the gaps, so that<br />

the machine effectively no longer<br />

conveys anything, thus preventing<br />

a further reduction in pressure. The<br />

charac teristic of the machine with initially<br />

increasing suction speed results<br />

from the fluid mechanical properties<br />

within the gap. At high suction pressure,<br />

the molecular density is high,<br />

so that a molecule collides very frequently<br />

with other molecules until<br />

it encounters a boundary (rotor and<br />

housing). In this way, the momentum<br />

and energy transport are dominated<br />

by intermolecular collisions and the<br />

fluid moves as a continuum. When<br />

the pressure is reduced, the molecular<br />

density also decreases so that a<br />

particle can travel a greater distance<br />

until it collides with another particle.<br />

This increases the proportion of gassurface<br />

collisions, which leads to increased<br />

friction. If the pressure is so<br />

low that the number of intermolecular<br />

collisions is negligible compared to<br />

the particle-wall collisions, this is referred<br />

to as a molecular flow. A qualitative<br />

course of the normalised mass<br />

flow rate of a gap through which air<br />

flows is shown in Fig. 3. The normalisation<br />

is chosen so that a normalised<br />

mass flow rate of one corresponds to<br />

an isentropic choked nozzle flow. The<br />

gap height is set to h = 0.3 mm and<br />

T = 293 K is assumed for the ambient<br />

temperature. It is shown that the normalised<br />

mass flow rate with an initial<br />

continuum flow decreases significantly<br />

with decreasing inlet pressure<br />

until a minimum is reached and then<br />

increases again asymptotically with<br />

further pressure reduction towards<br />

molecular flow. The greater proportion<br />

of gas-surface interactions also<br />

increases the influence of relative<br />

wall movement on the mass flow<br />

rate. Such a wall movement is caused<br />

by the rotational speed of the rotors.<br />

Accordingly, the red line results from<br />

a wall movement in the direction of<br />

flow, the green line for a wall movement<br />

against the direction of flow<br />

and the black line describes a purely<br />

pressure-driven flow with static<br />

boundaries.<br />

In order to realise the highpressure<br />

ratios over the machine<br />

(e. g. p at<br />

/p suction<br />

= 10 5 ), the rotors have<br />

a significantly larger wrap than conventional<br />

screw machines in high<br />

pressure applications. This results in<br />

a kind of multi-stage design with several<br />

encapsulated working chambers<br />

in axial direction, which leads to a reduction<br />

in the pressure ratio between<br />

individual working chambers. In order<br />

to avoid continuous gap connections<br />

from the high-pressure to the lowpressure<br />

side, the number of teeth is<br />

limited to a maximum of two, or even<br />

one for some profiles. Internal compression<br />

is usually achieved by successively<br />

reducing the chamber volume<br />

by changing the rotor pitch, but<br />

more recently also by using conical<br />

rotors [Moe23]. The advantage of reducing<br />

the chamber volume continuously<br />

instead of using an end plate is a<br />

more uniform compression along the<br />

rotor and therefore better heat distribution<br />

in the machine. Furthermore,<br />

throttling losses can be reduced by<br />

avoiding control edges [Jou18]. One<br />

problem with the internal compression<br />

of the machines is that the machine<br />

has to cover very large pressure<br />

ranges. In nominal oper ation, a very<br />

large internal compression would<br />

be desirable, which would reduce<br />

the energy consumption on the one<br />

hand and possibly also the size on<br />

the other. For example, a large suction<br />

chamber takes up a lot of mass,<br />

which can then be compressed to a<br />

small volume and then pushed out<br />

on the high-pressure side at a low<br />

Fig. 3: Schematic course of the normalised mass flow rate through the housing gap of an<br />

SSVP as a function of the inlet pressure and the influence of relatively moved walls.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Vacuum technology<br />

Screw spindle vacuum pumps<br />

rotor lead. However, at high suction<br />

pressures, especially when starting<br />

up the machine and a recipient has<br />

to be evacuated initially, this leads to<br />

considerable over-compression and<br />

thus to temperature peaks, but above<br />

all to increased power consumption<br />

and thus to a high torque. This can<br />

be avoided by using a pressure relief<br />

valve, for example, but this requires<br />

a certain amount of maintenance. In<br />

order to ensure high internal compression<br />

while avoiding a pressure<br />

relief valve, Kösters and Eickhoff suggest<br />

that the housing gap on the lowpressure<br />

side of the machine should<br />

be deliberately made larger [Kös06].<br />

Therefore, the significantly improved<br />

gap situation in the low suction pressure<br />

range (see Fig. 3) is exploited.<br />

The idea is therefore that more mass<br />

flows back during start-up, which reduces<br />

or prevents over-compression,<br />

and a good machine is still obtained<br />

because the gaps become tighter as<br />

the pressure falls.<br />

This article proposes an approach<br />

that can significantly reduce the machine's<br />

housing gap mass flow rate<br />

in the low-pressure range without reducing<br />

the gap height and thus compromising<br />

operational safety. Since<br />

the gas-surface interactions dominate<br />

in rarefied gas flows, the scattering<br />

direction of the molecules is to be<br />

influenced by a microscopic surface<br />

structure so that they have a greater<br />

probability of being scattered back<br />

against the direction of flow.<br />

the exact normal vector in relation to<br />

the reflection point is not defined, as<br />

the roughness peaks are statistically<br />

distributed. It is therefore assumed<br />

that the particle carries out any number<br />

of collisions in the roughness<br />

structure, spends enough time to be<br />

in equilibrium with the wall in terms<br />

of energy and is then scattered away<br />

from the wall in any direction. The<br />

scattered velocity vector is therefore<br />

independent of the incidence angle,<br />

whereby the particles are scattered<br />

on average perpendicular to the wall.<br />

The result is the so-called cosine distribution,<br />

which is shown schematically<br />

in Fig. 4. On this basis, mathematical<br />

models for calculating the<br />

mass flow rate can be derived, which<br />

are in good agreement with measurement<br />

results for many technical surfaces<br />

[Jou18].<br />

The idea is now to manufacture<br />

a pattern on the surface transversal<br />

to the flow direction, as shown schematically<br />

in Fig. 5, through which the<br />

molecules have a greater probability<br />

of being scattered back in the opposite<br />

direction. The profile depth Λ of<br />

the pattern should be much smaller<br />

than the gap height h, but still large<br />

compared to the molecular diameter,<br />

so that the local surface structure is<br />

characterized as rough in relation to<br />

the individual molecule. With standard<br />

gap heights in the order of h ≈ 0.1-<br />

0.3 mm, the profile depth is in the order<br />

of Λ ≈ 1-30 µm. Assuming that<br />

the surface pattern has a roughness<br />

that is significantly smaller than the<br />

profile depth, this is still much larger<br />

than the molecular diameter, so that<br />

the assumption of diffuse scattering<br />

applies locally. Using the triangular<br />

profile as an example, the profile angles<br />

α and β are defined here.<br />

Simulation and modelling<br />

The influence of surface structures<br />

on the mass flow rate of gap flows is<br />

analysed using the direct simulation<br />

Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. This is<br />

a statistical simulation method for<br />

flows based on molecular movements<br />

and interactions. A special feature of<br />

the method is that a simulated particle<br />

represents a large number of identical<br />

molecules that perform identical<br />

movements at the same time. Furthermore,<br />

the particle movement<br />

and the particle collision are decoupled<br />

from each other, so that in one<br />

time step all particles are first moved<br />

along their trajectory and then collisions<br />

between the particles are carried<br />

out using statistical methods. In<br />

this way, the colliding particles receive<br />

modified velocity vectors and internal<br />

energies in compliance with the conservation<br />

of momentum and energy.<br />

This assumption makes it possible to<br />

analyse larger systems on a technical<br />

scale. Although each individual time<br />

step is subject to a large statistical uncertainty,<br />

this can be successively reduced<br />

by averaging many time steps<br />

over time. The gas-wall interaction fol-<br />

Gas-surface interaction<br />

The most common assumption of<br />

gas-surface interactions with technically<br />

smooth surfaces is the so-called<br />

diffuse wall scattering. In contrast to<br />

specular reflection, in which the molecule<br />

retains its entire tangential momentum<br />

and energy before the collision<br />

according to the principle of the<br />

incidence angle equalling the angle of<br />

reflection, diffuse scattering is based<br />

on the model assumption that the<br />

surface is very rough in relation to the<br />

molecular diameter since roughness<br />

peaks are usually specified in micrometres<br />

and the mole cular diameter is<br />

still about four powers smaller in the<br />

order of angstroms. This means that<br />

Fig. 4: Diffuse wall scattering on a technically smooth surface<br />

48 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Vacuum technology<br />

Screw spindle vacuum pumps<br />

Fig. 5: Molecular scattering on a structured surface<br />

lows the diffuse wall model described generated at the beginning of each<br />

above. If a particle leaves the simulation<br />

area during the movement step, ary conditions. [Bir94]<br />

time step on the basis of the bound-<br />

it is eliminated from the simulation. The macroscopic variables such<br />

At the open edges, new particles are as pressure, temperature and flow<br />

velocity are then derived from the<br />

particle distribution with the respective<br />

particle masses, the momentum<br />

and the corresponding energy.<br />

Sazhin already used this method to<br />

investigate a pressure-driven flow,<br />

starting from a high-pressure reservoir<br />

with pressure p 1<br />

and temperature<br />

T 1<br />

through a channel with a triangular<br />

structure on the channel walls<br />

into a perfect vacuum (p 2<br />

= 0) [Saz20].<br />

An exemplary simulation domain<br />

is shown in Fig. 6. The channel<br />

width is considered to be much larger<br />

than the channel height, so that a<br />

2D flow is considered. The dash-dot<br />

line indicates a symmetry plane so<br />

that both edges have the same surface<br />

structure. Fig. 7 shows the mass<br />

flow through the channel with surface<br />

structures in relation to the mass<br />

flow that occurs with smooth walls at<br />

the same gap height as a function of<br />

the gap inlet pressure p 1<br />

for different<br />

profile angles α = β.<br />

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PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Vacuum technology<br />

Screw spindle vacuum pumps<br />

Fig. 6: Simulation domain for a pressure-driven flow through a channel with structured<br />

surfaces<br />

a) L/h=1 b) L/h=10<br />

Fig. 7: Mass flow rate through a channel with structured surfaces related to the respective<br />

mass flow rate through a channel with smooth surfaces as a function of the inlet pressure p 1<br />

for different profile parameters α = β [Saz20].<br />

Fig. 7a shows this for a length to<br />

height ratio of one, which corresponds<br />

approximately to an orifice<br />

flow. It can be seen that all four<br />

curves cause an increased throttling<br />

effect with decreasing pressure,<br />

which can be explained analogously<br />

to Fig. 3 by the fact that the proportion<br />

of gas-surface interactions increases.<br />

Furthermore, the throttling<br />

effect depends on the shape of the<br />

surface structure. A very wide profile<br />

angle causes only a slight reduction<br />

in the mass flow rate, while a profile<br />

angle α = β = 45° already causes<br />

a reduction in the mass flow rate of<br />

about 10 % in the orifice flow. If the<br />

profile angle is reduced further, the<br />

flow stagnates. This can also be seen<br />

in Fig. 7b, where the same situation<br />

is shown for a length to height ratio<br />

of ten and the molecules therefore<br />

have to pass through a significantly<br />

longer channel. Here, a reduction of<br />

about 25 % can already be achieved<br />

for smaller profile angles. It is also<br />

noticeable that the effect becomes<br />

smaller for increasing inlet pressures,<br />

so that a transfer to the vacuum<br />

pump is particularly interesting<br />

for the low-pressure side of the machine.<br />

This results in promising synergy<br />

possibilities with the previously<br />

described approach by Kösters<br />

and Eickhoff, as larger machine gaps<br />

could be realised on the low-pressure<br />

side in order to prevent overcompression<br />

during start-up. As soon<br />

as the pressure on the low-pressure<br />

side is low enough, the increased gap<br />

size would be compensated for with<br />

the help of the surface structures by<br />

reducing the mass flow rate even further<br />

than is already the case due to<br />

the rarefied gas flow with technically<br />

smooth walls.<br />

Since there is always a superposition<br />

of a pressure-driven Poiseuille<br />

flow and a shear-driven Couette flow<br />

in the gaps of vacuum pumps, the<br />

DSMC method is used to analyse the<br />

effect of such a surface structure on<br />

a pure Couette flow. The corresponding<br />

simulation domain is shown in<br />

Fig. 8. With a gap height of h = 0.3<br />

mm, a profile depth Λ = 0.03 mm is<br />

used. Since the gap length and the<br />

gap width in vacuum pumps are<br />

much greater than the gap height,<br />

an infinitely wide and long channel is<br />

simulated for simplification, so that<br />

symmetrical boundary conditions are<br />

used in the depth direction (z) and<br />

cyclic boundary conditions in the flow<br />

direction (x) to reduce the computational<br />

effort. The latter have the property<br />

that the left and right cells are<br />

linked to each other as if the channel<br />

were continuing. Accordingly, a particle<br />

that crosses the cyclic boundary<br />

condition on the right-hand side<br />

is initialised again on the left-hand<br />

side and vice versa. The lower wall<br />

has a wall velocity of U = 10 m/s in<br />

the positive x-direction. In the reference<br />

plane shown in green, the mass<br />

flow rate is determined by calculating<br />

the sum of the particle masses in the<br />

positive x-direction minus the sum<br />

of the particle masses that cross the<br />

plane in the negative direction within<br />

a time step and then dividing by the<br />

time step:<br />

Eq. 1<br />

Regardless of the pressure range,<br />

the mass flow rate<br />

for a pure<br />

Couette flow with technically smooth<br />

surfaces can be calculated via<br />

Eq. 2<br />

incorporating the density ρ and the<br />

smallest cross-section area A = h b<br />

[Ple22a, Ple22b].<br />

Fig. 8: DSMC simulation domain of a pure<br />

Couette flow through a channel with onesided<br />

surface structure.<br />

Fig. 9 shows the simulated mass<br />

flow rate of a Couette flow for different<br />

profile angles α = β in relation to<br />

the mass flow rate through a channel<br />

with smooth walls with the same<br />

gap height as a function of the pres-<br />

50 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Vacuum technology<br />

Screw spindle vacuum pumps<br />

Fig. 9: Mass flow rate of a pure Couette<br />

flow through a channel with surface<br />

structures related to the respective<br />

mass flow rate with technically smooth<br />

walls as a function of the pressure p<br />

for different profile angles α = β.<br />

sure p for air at T = 293 K. The error<br />

bars show the maximum statistical<br />

uncertainty of the results.<br />

It can be seen that - as with the<br />

pressure-driven flow - a reduction<br />

in the mass flow rate at same<br />

minimal gap height can also be<br />

achieved with a shear-driven flow<br />

using surface structures. The<br />

smaller the pressure, the greater<br />

the effect, whereas the effect disappears<br />

at high pressures. Here<br />

too, the greatest reduction of<br />

about 30 % can be achieved for<br />

profile angles α = β = 30°.<br />

Conclusion and outlook<br />

The theoretical investigations<br />

suggest that a microscopic surface<br />

structure in the low-pressure<br />

range can achieve a significant reduction<br />

of up to 30 % in the gap<br />

mass flow rates in vacuum pumps<br />

without jeopardising operational<br />

safety. On the one hand, this<br />

can be used to ensure that the<br />

machine has a significantly better<br />

suction speed at lower suction<br />

pressure ranges with the same<br />

gap height, as the measurement<br />

results from Dreifert and Müller<br />

show with regard to the change<br />

in gap height. On the other hand,<br />

the idea of Kösters and Eickhoff<br />

could be pursued, with which the<br />

gap height on the low-pressure<br />

side of the machine is increased<br />

in order to reduce over-compression<br />

at high suction pressures.<br />

As the surface structure produces<br />

a significantly greater throttling<br />

effect, particularly at low<br />

suction pressures, but has hardly<br />

any effect at high suction pres-<br />

sures, over-compression can be<br />

reduced without the machine deteriorating<br />

at low suction pressures.<br />

Due to the great potential for<br />

improvement, the applicability<br />

of surface structures in rarefied<br />

gas flows is being investigated in<br />

more detail in a current cooperative<br />

research project between<br />

the Chair of Fluidics and the Institute<br />

of Machining <strong>Technology</strong><br />

at TU Dortmund University. In the<br />

course of the project, the shape of<br />

the structure is being optimised<br />

in order to achieve the greatest<br />

possible throttling effect on the<br />

one hand and to enable efficient<br />

production on the other hand. A<br />

central challenge in production is<br />

the small profile depth of the surface<br />

structure - this is referred to<br />

as micro-machining. The dimensions<br />

of the burrs can be of the<br />

same order of magnitude as the<br />

profile depth. For this reason, a<br />

special tool is developed with the<br />

aid of a finite element chip formation<br />

simulation, whereby various<br />

geometric adjustments to the<br />

tool can be simulatively investigated<br />

to minimise burr formation.<br />

The most promising tool variants<br />

are then manufactured and<br />

used to prepare samples with the<br />

identified surface structures. On<br />

the one hand, these are analysed<br />

metrologically, which enables the<br />

chip formation simulation to be<br />

validated, and on the other hand<br />

they are used on a vacuum test<br />

rig in which the throttling effect<br />

can be investigated.<br />

Acknowledgements<br />

Funded by the Deutsche<br />

Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG,<br />

German Research Foundation).<br />

Gefördert durch die Deutsche<br />

Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) –<br />

Projektnummer 513663608.<br />

Bibliography<br />

[Bir94] Bird, G. A.: Molecular gas<br />

dynamics and the direct simulation<br />

of gas flows (Clarendon<br />

Press, Oxford, 1994).<br />

[Brü21] Brümmer, B.; Pleskun,<br />

H.: Verfahren und Vorrichtung<br />

zur Beeinflussung verdünnter<br />

Gasströmungen mit Hilfe von<br />

Rauheiten aufweisenden Oberflächen,<br />

insbesondere an Vakuumpumpen,<br />

MEMS, Patent, DE<br />

102021002290, 2021.<br />

[Dre14] Dreifert, T.; Müller, R.:<br />

Screw Vacuum pumps - The state<br />

of the art: International Conference<br />

on Screw machines 2014:<br />

VDI-Berichte 2228, pp. 29-42<br />

(VDI-Verlag, 2014).<br />

[Jou18] Jousten, K.: Wutz - Handbuch<br />

der Vakuumtechnik, Vol. 12<br />

(Vieweg+Teubner,<br />

2018).<br />

Symbols and abbreviations<br />

symbol unit explanation<br />

b m gap width<br />

h m gap height<br />

L m gap length<br />

.<br />

m kg⁄s mass flow rate<br />

m kg mass<br />

p Pa pressure<br />

t s time<br />

T K temperature<br />

U m⁄s wall velocity<br />

α ° profile angle<br />

β ° profile angle<br />

Λ m profile depth<br />

ρ kg⁄m 3 density<br />

index or abbreviation<br />

eff<br />

suction<br />

Wiesbaden,<br />

[Kös06] Kösters, H.; Eickhoff, J.:<br />

Trockene Schraubenvakuumpumpe<br />

mit hoher innerer Verdichtung,<br />

Schraubenmaschinen 2006: VDI-<br />

Berichte 1932, pp. 423-428 (VDI-<br />

Verlag, 2006).<br />

1 inlet<br />

2 outlet<br />

explanation<br />

effective value<br />

suction value<br />

+ positive direction<br />

- negative direction<br />

The Authors:<br />

Sven Brock 1 , Heiko Pleskun 1 , Gero Polus 2 , Jannis Saelzer 2 ,<br />

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Dirk Biermann 2 , Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Brümmer 1<br />

1<br />

Chair of Fluidics, TU Dortmund University, 44227 Dortmund, Germany<br />

https://ft.mb.tu-dortmund.de/<br />

2<br />

Institute of Machining <strong>Technology</strong>, TU Dortmund University,<br />

44227 Dortmund, Germany<br />

https://isf.mb.tu-dortmund.de/<br />

[Moe23] Moesch, T. W. et al.:<br />

Thermodynamic analysis of a<br />

conical screw spindle compressor<br />

for R718: ICR2023 - 26th International<br />

Congress of Refrigeration,<br />

p. 012016, 2023.<br />

[Ple22a] Pleskun, H.; Bode, T.,<br />

Brümmer, B.: Couette flow in<br />

a rectangular channel in the<br />

whole range of the gas rarefaction,<br />

Physics of Fluids, Vol. 34, p.<br />

032004, 2022.<br />

[Ple22b] Pleskun, H.; Brümmer,<br />

B.: Gas-surface interactions of a<br />

Couette-Poiseuille flow in a rectangular<br />

channel, Physics of Fluids,<br />

Vol. 34, p. 082009, 2022.<br />

[Saz20] Sazhin, O.: Rarefied gas<br />

flow through a rough channel<br />

into a vacuum: Microfluid Nanofluid,<br />

Vol. 24, 2020.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />



Index of Advertisers<br />

Index of Advertisers<br />

Aerzener Maschinenfabrik GmbH page 7<br />

Kaeser Kompressoren SE<br />

Insert<br />


Bayerische Gesellschaft<br />

für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen mbH page 25<br />

BOGE KOMPRESSOREN Otto Boge GmbH & Co. KG page 85<br />


K.H. Brinkmann GmbH & Co. KG page 39<br />

Busch Dienste GmbH page 41<br />

C. Otto Gehrckens GmbH & Co. KG page 95<br />

DECHEMA Ausstellungs-GmbH<br />

2. Cover page<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA page 71<br />

Filtech Exhibitions Germany page 91<br />

GF Georg Fischer GmbH, Piping Systems page 99<br />

Hammelmann GmbH page 11<br />


3. Cover page<br />

Jung <strong>Process</strong> Systems GmbH page 75<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG page 23<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG page 27<br />

KLINGER GmbH page 35<br />

Leistritz Pumpen GmbH page 55<br />

LEWA GmbH page 31<br />

Messe Düsseldorf GmbH page 37<br />

MT – Messe & Event GmbH page 79<br />

NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

4. Cover page<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH page 49<br />

Promoberg Srl page 73<br />

Pumpenfabrik Wangen GmbH page 13<br />

SEEPEX GmbH<br />

Cover page<br />

Vogelsang GmbH & Co. KG page 9<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH page 29<br />

WOMA GmbH page 45<br />

Your media contact<br />

D-A-CH<br />

Thomas Mlynarik<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 2018 165<br />

Mobile: +49 (0) 151 5481 8181<br />

mlynarik@harnisch.com<br />



Gabriele Fahlbusch<br />

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 2018 275<br />

fahlbusch@harnisch.com<br />

Impressum<br />

Publisher<br />

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with the Editorial Advisory Board<br />

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NETZSCH Pumpen & Systeme GmbH<br />

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Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Disclaimer<br />

The named authors are responsible for<br />

the content of the individual articles and<br />

do not necessarily reflect the opinion of<br />

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the publisher cannot accept any liability<br />

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ISSN 2364-723X<br />

52 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Vacuum technology<br />

Repair vs. replace<br />

When to repair vs. replace your<br />

vacuum pump: A guide<br />

Cons<br />

Potential for higher costs in the long<br />

term: If the vacuum pump’s issues are<br />

difficult to repair, they may crop up<br />

again.<br />

Fixes only one specific problem: Vacuum<br />

pump repair doesn’t guarantee<br />

that other, different problems won’t<br />

arise in the future.<br />

Replacement<br />

If your vacuum pump is malfunctioning,<br />

you are faced with a choice:<br />

repair or replacement. Our guide<br />

will take you through both options<br />

and provide recommendations on<br />

when it makes sense to repair vacuum<br />

pumps and when to replace<br />

them. We will also take a look at<br />

how to spot and diagnose common<br />

issues before they lead to system<br />

failure.<br />

The basics<br />

Whatever the path of action, the decision<br />

to repair or replace always begins<br />

with testing and diagnosis. A factory-trained<br />

service technician who<br />

specializes in vacuum pump services<br />

All photos: Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

inspects the equipment and identifies<br />

the problem.<br />

Repair<br />

If your vacuum pump can be repaired,<br />

faulty components are removed<br />

and replaced, and the equipment<br />

is returned to manufacturer<br />

specifications.<br />

Pros<br />

Cost effective: If the issue is minor, or<br />

the vacuum pump is relatively new,<br />

there may only be a few spare parts<br />

to replace.<br />

Low environmental impact: Fewer resources<br />

are used, and less waste is<br />

produced.<br />

If you opt to replace your vacuum<br />

pump, the existing one will be removed<br />

and a brand-new pump will<br />

be installed.<br />

Pros<br />

Higher reliability: New vacuum pumps<br />

have entirely new components and<br />

may be more energy efficient.<br />

New warranty: A new unit comes with<br />

a new warranty, offering peace of<br />

mind, and potentially reducing future<br />

repair costs.<br />

Cons<br />

Higher upfront costs: Purchasing a<br />

new vacuum pump means higher initial<br />

costs.<br />

Longer installation time: Installing and<br />

integrating a new vacuum pump usually<br />

takes longer than to carry out a<br />

small repair.<br />

Key considerations<br />

Before you make a decision for vacuum<br />

pump repair or replacement,<br />

there are five criteria to assess.<br />

1) Costs<br />

If your existing vacuum pump has<br />

only a minor issue, repair may be the<br />

more economical option. How ever,<br />

you should also consider longer-term<br />

maintenance and repair costs. As a<br />

vacuum pump gets older, for example,<br />

it may require more frequent servicing.<br />

This could add up to more than<br />

the price of a replacement over time,<br />

even though this will require a much<br />

larger immediate outlay.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Vacuum technology<br />

Repair vs. replace<br />

2) <strong>Process</strong> requirements<br />

Evaluate whether your existing vacuum<br />

pump is still the best option for<br />

your process. If your vacuum pump<br />

is always running flat-out, or reserve<br />

pumps are regularly coming online to<br />

meet demand, the process may have<br />

outgrown the pump’s current capabilities.<br />

Replacement could therefore<br />

be a sensible option. This will help<br />

avoid production delays and ensure<br />

you maintain optimal quality and performance.<br />

and your process. This could sway<br />

your decision between repair or replacement.<br />

vice providers and specialist factorytrained<br />

technicians to diagnose and<br />

troubleshoot these issues. Fixing<br />

3) Service history<br />

Has this same problem occurred before?<br />

Examine the service history to<br />

be sure. Regular maintenance actions<br />

like replacing spare parts such<br />

as seals, gaskets, or vanes is usually<br />

nothing to be concerned about, but<br />

if larger issues keep cropping up, repairs<br />

may no longer be an option.<br />

4) Energy efficiency<br />

Many new generations of vacuum<br />

pumps are more energy efficient than<br />

the one before. You should therefore<br />

consider the benefit of replacing<br />

your current vacuum pump with one<br />

that consumes less energy. Depending<br />

on the difference in consumption<br />

between your current vacuum pump<br />

and the newest technology, your energy<br />

bills could sink considerably.<br />

And your carbon footprint too.<br />

5) Technical features<br />

Consider how state-of-the-art your<br />

current vacuum pump is. Do more<br />

modern vacuum pumps come with<br />

new technical features that could<br />

benefit your process? This could be<br />

the right time to invest. You could<br />

also look into retrofitting. Some features<br />

can be added to an existing<br />

vacu um pump – such as a variable<br />

speed drive or intelligent monitoring<br />

of your vacuum pump. This allows<br />

you to upgrade without investing in a<br />

full new system.<br />

However, if your pump is getting<br />

older, it may no longer be compatible<br />

with these newer features that have<br />

become available since its purchase.<br />

As a result, your process could miss<br />

out on some optimization possibilities.<br />

You should therefore consider<br />

how important this option is to you<br />

Diagnosing and troubleshooting<br />

common issues<br />

Vacuum pumps rarely fail with no<br />

warning. However, it can be hard to<br />

catch the early symptoms of a problem.<br />

Regular maintenance is the<br />

first step: A problem spotted early<br />

is g enerally easier to repair. It is also<br />

helpful to familiarize yourself with<br />

common issues and the telltale signs<br />

of a failing vacuum pump:<br />

– excessive noise or vibrations<br />

– leaks<br />

– reduced pumping speed<br />

– overheating<br />

Don’t hesitate to ask for assistance<br />

from professional vacuum pump serthem<br />

promptly is crucial to ensuring<br />

cost-effective vacuum pump repairs<br />

and minimizing the risk of downtime.<br />

It is also worth considering investing<br />

in an intelligent monitoring system.<br />

This will continuously monitor each<br />

vacuum pump’s performance data<br />

and flag any anomalies.<br />

Real-world example: weighing<br />

repair vs. replacement<br />

In a food packaging plant, the performance<br />

of the vacuum pump is critical<br />

for the quality and shelf-life of the<br />

foodstuffs. However, a vacuum pump<br />

was experiencing increased noise<br />

and reduced pumping speed, leading<br />

to production delays.<br />

54 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Vacuum technology<br />

Repair vs. replace<br />

After careful inspection, the technician<br />

from the vacuum pump repair<br />

service provider determined that the<br />

problem was the result of a leak. The<br />

vacuum pump had been in operation<br />

for several years, but this was<br />

the first time the issue had occurred.<br />

And, although the initial symptoms<br />

looked troubling, it was a simple fix.<br />

Vacuum pump repair was therefore<br />

the most sensible option. The service<br />

technician replaced the worn seal,<br />

and the vacuum pump was back up<br />

and running.<br />

Conclusion<br />

When your vacuum pump isn’t running<br />

as it should be, you should carefully<br />

weigh your options. Consult the<br />

experts from vacuum pump repair<br />

service providers and have them conduct<br />

a proper inspection and diagnosis.<br />

You should also assess efficiency,<br />

performance, and the cost of repairs<br />

– both now and in the future – versus<br />

the cost of a new vacuum pump.<br />

This will help you determine the best<br />

course of action. Ultimately, your decision<br />

should be based on what is<br />

most cost-effective and beneficial for<br />

your production process.<br />

These criteria can be tricky to assess<br />

by yourself, so Busch will be<br />

happy to assist. Our specialists will<br />

visit you on site, evaluate your current<br />

equipment and give you a recommendation<br />

on how to move forward.<br />

Whatever you decide, we offer<br />

to carry out any necessary repairs, replace<br />

the vacuum pump if necessary<br />

or take care of maintenance. We offer<br />

suitable service contracts, intelligent<br />

IoT solutions and and 24/7 remote<br />

condition monitoring of your vacuum<br />

pump. With 60 years of experience in<br />

the world of vacuum, you can be sure<br />

your vacuum supply is in good hands.<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Mary MacGregor Velhinho<br />

https://www.buschvacuum.com<br />



HYPER3<br />

Triple Screw Pump<br />



Twin Screw Pump<br />

An unbeatable combination: maximum efficiency and<br />

groundbreaking design. Leistritz screw pumps for the<br />

F&B industry. Proven many times over in demanding<br />

applications, unrivalled in reliability, energy efficiency<br />

and cleanability.<br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Optimal Pump Monitoring with<br />

Artificial Intelligence (AI)<br />

ABEL has reached a new milestone in the world of pump technology.<br />

The intelligent monitoring system “Smart Pump Assistant”, developed<br />

in-house, now also enables predictive pump maintenance. With the introduction<br />

of artificial intelligence (AI) in pump monitoring, ABEL has<br />

reached the next level. The North German pump manufacturer is thus<br />

setting new standards for the industry.<br />

This pioneering technology is characterized by several key elements.<br />

This innovative solution makes it possible to generate precise predictions<br />

for maintenance requirements by integrating artificial intelligence.<br />

ABEL is the first company on the market to offer predictive<br />

maintenance for piston diaphragm pumps.<br />

By using AI, we can realize proactive maintenance that minimizes<br />

downtime and revolutionizes efficiency in pump maintenance. The application<br />

of predictive maintenance offers numerous customer benefits,<br />

including increased system availability, significant reduction in<br />

maintenance costs and improved overall performance of piston diaphragm<br />

pumps.<br />

Fig. 2: Smart Messaging System<br />

Fig. 3: Smart Pump Assistant optimizes the use of ABEL pumps<br />

Fig. 1: Scheme: Predictive vs. Preventive Maintenance<br />

Maximum reliability<br />

Thanks to our AI-driven solution, potential problems with piston diaphragm<br />

pumps can be detected early, long before they lead to costly<br />

failures. This means maximum uptime and minimum downtime.<br />

Cost savings<br />

Predictive fault detection not only enables smooth operation, but also<br />

leads to significant savings. Repairs can be planned and expensive<br />

emergency measures avoided.<br />

Efficiency improvements<br />

Our AI technology continuously optimizes pump operation to maximize<br />

energy efficiency and resource utilization. This means not only<br />

cost savings, but also more environmentally friendly production.<br />

Competitive advantage<br />

Companies that use our AI-driven pump monitoring are one step<br />

ahead of their competitors. They can prevent breakdowns, increase<br />

productivity and strengthen their market position.<br />

The fact that ABEL has received support from the German Federal<br />

Ministry of Education and Research for this innovation shows the economic<br />

importance and innovative spirit behind this technology. Our customers<br />

benefit from a solution that is recognized at the highest level.<br />

24/7 Error Detection with AI<br />

The ABEL Smart Pump Assistant provides customers with important<br />

insights into the pump’s performance, health status and pumping process.<br />

With the help of the SPA, can optimize the operation of the pump.<br />

In addition, the SPA regularly calculates the optimum next maintenance<br />

time based on individual usage profile. With the help of artificial<br />

intelligence, data is not only digitally illustrated, but also evaluated<br />

and understood.<br />

The SPA informs fully automatically when errors or malfunctions<br />

occur on your pump. It shows on which component of the pump the<br />

error occurs, how high the efficiency loss is and gives recommendations/instructions<br />

on how the fault can be rectified. Alternatively, the<br />

app can use to request help directly from ABEL.<br />

Practical example: Use of the SPA monitor system optimizes<br />

filter press feeding<br />

The ABEL customer, the company SOLVALOR in Rouen (France), specializes<br />

in recycling and recovery of soils – for the most part excavated<br />

soils in civil engineering and mainly coming from Paris. Today, the company<br />

is market leader in the recovery and recycling of soils.<br />

In spring 2021, two ABEL hydraulic diaphragm pumps were put<br />

into operation at the plant of this French customer. These diaphragm<br />

pumps of the type HMD-G-80-1000 are used for filter press feeding at<br />

a level of 80 m³/h and 12 bar.<br />

Optimal support through the ABEL Smart Pump Assistant<br />

The daily deployment and monitoring of the two ABEL HM pumps is<br />

supported at the company SOLVALOR by the monitoring system Smart<br />

Pump Assistant (SPA). With this SPA ABEL offers remote assistance.<br />

56 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

and energy within the production process, while at the same time<br />

increasing productivity.<br />

Figure 5 shows that the ABEL pumps have managed 46 filter press<br />

cycles in 5 production days without any standstill.<br />

On the whole, the company SOLVALOR is very satisfied with the<br />

performance of the ABEL pumps as well as the ABEL services.<br />

ABEL’s introduction of AI into pump monitoring is more than just a<br />

technological achievement - it is a game changer for companies around<br />

the world. Customers can look forward to a future where pumping systems<br />

are more reliable, cost-efficient, and environmentally friendly. It's<br />

time to open the next chapter in the world of pump technology!<br />

smart-pump-assistant - ABEL Pump <strong>Technology</strong> (abelpumps.com)<br />

Fig. 4: Application of the ABEL HM-pumps for filter press feeding at the French<br />

company SOLVALOR<br />

Immediate anomalies are detected based on the data and appropriate<br />

corrective action is suggested.<br />

Furthermore, the ABEL customer receives a monthly performance<br />

report, which documents the daily use as well as the condition of their<br />

pump-/ filtration process. “The performance report allows us to optimize<br />

production scheduling as well as maintenance planning.” -<br />

Maxime Jolly, Industrial Director, SOLVALOR.<br />

On special request, now, the customer can also access the theoretically<br />

calculated throughput capacity which saves them costly<br />

flow meters. Thus, information on the state of their ABEL pumps is<br />

constantly available to the ABEL customer.<br />

ABEL GmbH<br />

Abel-Twiete 1<br />

21514 Büchen, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (4155) 818-0<br />

Fax +49 (4155) 818-499<br />

abel-mail@idexcorp.com<br />

www.abelpumps.com<br />

Less maintenance effort thanks to<br />

advanced vacuum generation<br />

Porzellanfabrik Hermsdorf GmbH, Germany<br />

Higher quality, less maintenance and lower costs – two standard vacuum<br />

systems from Busch Vacuum Solutions prove that everything is<br />

possible at the Hermsdorf porcelain factory in Thuringia. There, they<br />

are used for extruder degassing.<br />

Industrial ceramics have been produced in Hermsdorf, near Jena, since<br />

1890. In the past, high-voltage insulators; now, ceramic honeycomb<br />

bodies for heat exchangers, ventilation and emission control systems.<br />

They have always kept up with the times, developing innovative materials,<br />

products and state-of-the-art production processes to do so. Just<br />

like the two new SIMPLEX vacuum systems from Busch that are used to<br />

degas the ceramic mass. In 2021, these replaced four oil-lubricated rotary<br />

vane vacuum pumps and have been providing four extrusion lines<br />

with the required vacuum ever since. More than 100 employees currently<br />

work in the historic halls of the porcelain factory.<br />

Fig. 5: “The ABEL pumps have allowed me to increase the productivity dramatically<br />

and to transfer more slurry, because – compared with the prior technology -<br />

I can manage more filtration cycles in the same time. Also, it doesn’t matter any<br />

longer what kind of slurry I transfer - the ABEL pump will get the job done!” –<br />

Maxime Jolly, Industrial Director, SOLVALOR<br />

By means of the Smart Pump Assistant detailed operational parameters<br />

like temperature and pressures can be visualized. If parameters<br />

are exceeded, the customer receives an alert. By implementing<br />

the insights gained through the Smart Pump Assistant, the customer<br />

SOLVALOR was able to save considerable amounts of time, costs<br />

Fig. 1: The honeycomb bodies are given their fine holes and thin walls by a<br />

template behind the screw press. (all photos: Busch Vacuum Solutions)<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

1600 holes, no air bubbles<br />

The strand of square-shaped ceramic, still damp, slides smoothly out<br />

of the screw press. But after 1.50 metres, the race is over. Clever hands<br />

then cut off the front piece and place it on a large rack to dry. They<br />

do this continuously in three shifts. After around nine days, when the<br />

mass only contains one percent residual moisture, the honeycombs<br />

are fired in an oven at 1,200 degrees. 1,600 small holes run through<br />

them lengthwise like honeycomb cells, separated only by fine walls, all<br />

precise and symmetrical. To ensure that this remains the case after the<br />

combustion process, the mass must not contain any air pockets. These<br />

would expand with the heat in the oven and cause the entire honeycomb<br />

body to burst. For this reason, the mass must be degassed beforehand<br />

with SIMPLEX vacuum systems from Busch. At the heart of<br />

each control cabinet and vacuum vessel is a MINK MV Synchro dry claw<br />

vacuum pump. What other vacuum pumps see as a challenge, namely<br />

handling very moist, paste-like masses, they can master with ease.<br />

This is precisely why they have been developed for extruder degassing.<br />

tems from Busch are completely different. They do not require oil in<br />

the compression chamber and are virtually maintenance-free, quiet<br />

and frequency controlled. While the previous pumps were constantly<br />

running and had to be manually controlled by means of false air valves,<br />

the new vacuum systems from Busch automatically adapt to the required<br />

vacuum level and switch off when no vacuum is required. “We<br />

initially used a Busch loaner system for testing purposes and were immediately<br />

impressed. We are still completely satisfied with our own<br />

SIMPLEX systems today. In terms of maintenance, the new systems really<br />

make things much easier,” says the Managing Director.<br />

From Hermsdorf to the world<br />

Two energy-saving, extremely low-maintenance dry standard systems<br />

that replace four old, energy- and maintenance-intensive oil-lubricated<br />

pumps: “Thanks to the good advice we received from Busch, we have<br />

saved 10,000 kWh per year. Since installation, the two vacuum systems<br />

have been running absolutely trouble-free. There’s no comparison with<br />

the predecessor pumps at all,” says the Managing Director. And thanks<br />

to the new vacuum solution from Busch, 80,000 to 90,000 high-quality<br />

honeycomb bodies in various shapes and sizes leave the traditional<br />

plant in Hermsdorf every month. They ensure efficient heat recovery<br />

and clean air in ventilation systems of passive houses or afterburning<br />

plants on large container ships and cruise ships worldwide.<br />

Busch Vacuum Solutions<br />

Schauinslandstr. 1<br />

79689 Maulburg, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (7622) 681-0<br />

Fax +49 (7622) 5484<br />

info@busch.de<br />

www.buschvacuum.com<br />

Fig. 2: The intelligent vacuum system SIMPLEX VO from Busch degasses the mass<br />

in the extruder.<br />

No muddy matter<br />

The previously used oil-lubricated rotary vane vacuum pumps did not<br />

cope as well with the process conditions. “The oil quickly became an<br />

emulsion with the condensed water vapour. They were noisy, they<br />

stank, and the filters were permanently clogged. This resulted in excessive<br />

wear and pump failure. Once a month we had to change the filters<br />

and oil, which was a lovely muddy job,” says the Managing Director of<br />

Porzellanfabrik Hermsdorf GmbH. The new SIMPLEX VO vacuum sys-<br />

Fig. 3: The dried honeycomb bodies waiting to be fired. They do not contain air<br />

pockets that could burst in the oven.<br />

Compressed-air diaphragm pumps<br />

for adhesives<br />

Within furniture and woodworking industries, diaphragm pumps powered<br />

by compressed air are used to pump adhesives and glues as well<br />

as piston pumps.<br />

And this is also why pump manufacturer JESSBERGER, based in Ottobrunn<br />

near Munich, offers the JP-810 series of air-operated diaphragm<br />

pumps.<br />

The advantage of a diaphragm pump is that it is self-priming, will<br />

operate even when it runs dry and the delivery rate is customer-adjustable<br />

via the compressed air supply. If you close the delivery side of the<br />

pump, it will stop immediately and restart again as soon as the need<br />

for glue or adhesive arises and the delivery side is reopened.<br />

The pumps are also available in an ATEX version for Ex Zone 1<br />

(standard: Ex Zone 2, II 3/3 G Ex h IIC T4 Gb, II 3 D Ex h IIIB T 135°C<br />

Db X) and are suitable for almost all applications. As well as neutral<br />

liquids, the aluminium or adhesive pumps are also usable for slightly<br />

aggressive, flammable substances and highly viscous media such as<br />

adhesives or glues up to 50,000 mPas.<br />

The manufacturer's diaphragm pumps have been designed using<br />

various materials (polypropylene, stainless steel, aluminium and PVDF)<br />

and sizes (connections ¼" to 3") and hence cover wide-ranging capacities,<br />

from 8 l/min to 1,050 l/min. The use of 100 % oil-free compressed<br />

58 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

air for the drive source is imperative. A maximum operating pressure<br />

of 8 bar is required to operate the pumps.<br />

Automatic pulsation dampers and suction and discharge hose connectors<br />

are available as accessories and likewise stroke counters for<br />

accurate dosing.<br />

The reliable functioning of I&C systems can be impaired by the following<br />

influences:<br />

– Method of operation, i.e. the ability to meet the requirements that<br />

are essential for the intended use of the I&C systems (identification<br />

of overfilling, stopping an incipient explosion, turning on ventilation)<br />

– The process error tolerance time<br />

– External events such as overvoltage, power loss<br />

– Errors with a common cause, such as contaminated compressed air,<br />

defective insulation<br />

Temperature Monitoring<br />

Test setup<br />

Idler drum,<br />

Heating of new<br />

bearing (5)<br />


Jägerweg 5-7<br />

85521 Ottobrunn, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (89) 6666 33-400<br />

Fax +49 (89) 6666 33-411<br />

info@jesspumpen.de<br />

www.jesspumpen.de<br />

Risk reduction in explosion zones:<br />

Read the manual! Reliable pump<br />

moni toring keeps company management<br />

out of prison<br />

Pump monitoring in industrial processes is far more than just a safety<br />

measure for the pump unit. Aside from preventive maintenance and<br />

the recording of operating data, ignition source monitoring has become<br />

significantly more important in recent years – especially in explosion<br />

zones. Precise risk classification is crucial for explosion prevention.<br />

Reliable pump monitoring is essential to ensure smooth<br />

processes and therefore operating efficiency.<br />

TÜV safety experts are familiar with this scenario: Pumps that lack adequate<br />

stability can quickly run hot. This heat can lead to an explosion<br />

with devastating damage in production. The company may be liable<br />

for part of the damage if the liability insurance provider can prove negligence<br />

on the company’s part. This makes unprotected pump units a<br />

high operational risk. Beyond that, the responsible managers commit<br />

a crime if they fail to comply with legal requirements. In short, reliable<br />

pump monitoring keeps company management out of prison!<br />

Drive drum<br />

JUMO Sensor (3)<br />

In threaded hole<br />

for cover<br />

PT100 (2)<br />

at bearing housing<br />

Shaft<br />

temperature (1)<br />

Temperature at<br />

grease nippel<br />

position (4)<br />

Air temperature (6)<br />

Safety in the production process is a top priority for companies<br />

Safety in the production process is a top priority for companies.<br />

Numerous interrelated standards and directives are therefore in place.<br />

Consistent application is essential for all of them, for example, the Industrial<br />

Safety Directive (BetrSichV) and the Technical Guideline for the<br />

Handling of Hazardous Materials (TRGS) 725.<br />

What may appear simple and logical at first glance quickly turns<br />

out to be complex after entering the jungle of standards, guidelines,<br />

directives, technical rules and manufacturer recommendations that<br />

need to be observed for the monitoring of ignition sources.<br />

The IEC/EN 60079-xx standards on the topic of explosion protection,<br />

DIN EN 50495 (Safety devices required for the safe functioning of<br />

equipment with respect to explosion risks) and DIN EN 14597 (Temperature<br />

control devices and temperature limiters for heat generating<br />

systems) are all relevant for this topic. An examination of the DIN EN<br />

14597 standard always comprises a complete measuring, control and<br />

limiting system consisting of sensors, logic and actuating elements.<br />

The following aspects, for example, are certified for the individual components:<br />

Confusing jungle of standards and directives<br />

Few manufacturers cover the entire safety chain for instrumentation<br />

and control (I&C) with their products and solutions.<br />

– Response characteristics of the sensor technology<br />

– Reactions (modes of action) of the evaluation electronics<br />

– Reliability/service life of the actuating elements<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Temperature Monitoring<br />

Thermal images<br />

Notice: The face side of the shaft was coated for better reflectiveness. Therefore, the temperatures of the radial surfaces may be distorted.<br />

Temperature Monitoring<br />

Thermal images<br />

Notice: The face side of the shaft was coated for better reflectiveness. Therefore, the temperatures of the radial surfaces may be distorted.<br />

IEC/EN 61508, EN/ISO 13849 and EN/IEC 62061 & 61511 in the area of<br />

functional safety as well as the Technical Guideline for the Handling<br />

of Hazardous Materials (TRGS) 725 also apply, along with additional<br />

product- specific standards where applicable.<br />

Safety precautions have traditionally focused primarily on electrical<br />

explosion protection. However, the mechanical components as a potential<br />

ignition source has increasingly come into focus in recent years.<br />

Users have to understand and carefully evaluate this background, and<br />

incorporate that into their decision-making processes. Particular challenges<br />

in this regard are the correct application of explosion protec-<br />

tion marking and the evaluation of the safety integrity level (SIL) and<br />

performance level (PL).<br />

Attention: The company bears the burden of proof<br />

SIL and PL are becoming more and more important in the process industry<br />

and machine construction. Engineering the interconnection of<br />

sensor, logic and actuator units to form a safety measuring chain is increasingly<br />

becoming a central aspect in SIL calculations.<br />

A detailed examination of the entire measuring chain is crucial<br />

here! The principle that everyone is considered innocent until proven<br />

60 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

guilty generally applies. However, shifting the burden of proof reverses<br />

this obligation to produce evidence, so the accused must prove their<br />

innocence if they have acted negligently.<br />

Application of the standards is considered the state of the art in<br />

our case. Deviating from these standards shifts the burden of proof<br />

in case of damage. This burden of proof means that evidence must be<br />

provided, showing that the implementation was equal to or better than<br />

the standard. Based on my many years of practical experience, I can<br />

only recommend to you: Read the manual!<br />

Safety yes – headaches no<br />

Machinery and facility planners who have come into contact with the<br />

topic of functional safety are sure to have realised just how complex<br />

and multifaceted it is. Operators and planners of protective devices<br />

bear tremendous responsibility for the risk of damage. Needing to procure<br />

components that are safe, they are faced by a mountain of figures<br />

and formulas. In the end, they still don’t know whether everything was<br />

calculated correctly.<br />

JUMO SAFETY PERFORMANCE shows that there is an easier way.<br />

All JUMO products and services for SIL and PL are combined under<br />

this brand name. With JUMO SAFETY PERFORMANCE, we offer a certified,<br />

compact system for functional safety in accordance with SIL<br />

and PL that has been established for many years. No calculations are<br />

necessary. It is also suitable for ATEX/IECEx/EAC applicationsand the<br />

Machinery Directive.<br />

JUMO guarantees safety in compliance with standards and the law.<br />

In short: It is a complete safety system consisting of a sensor, logic and<br />

relay output to operate the actuator – from one source.<br />

The application of the technical rules and standards presented<br />

above, in combination with the overall system certification of JSP for<br />

pump monitoring, can lead to a different kind of error analysis. Up to<br />

45 % of systematic and systemic errors can be prevented by this complete<br />

solution.<br />

Fig. 1: Valve arrangement of a combined test system<br />

and 3. subjected to pressure retention tests. Until now, testing options<br />

for large vessels have been limited. Pneumatic or hydraulic intensifier<br />

pumps are often used when high pressure is required. However, the<br />

flow rates of these pumps are limited, which means that the desired<br />

cycle times cannot be achieved or that life tests of 20,000 cycles take<br />

too long. Other pump technologies must be used. Plunger pumps are<br />

the first choice because they can provide both high pressures and high<br />

flow rates. KAMAT pumps operate at pressures of up to 3500 bar and<br />

flow rates in excess of 280 m³/h.<br />

JUMO GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Moritz-Juchheim-Straße 1<br />

36039 Fulda, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (661) 6003-0<br />

Fax +49 (661) 6003-500<br />

mail@jumo.net<br />

www.jumo.de<br />

Growing market for container<br />

pressure testing pumps<br />

Fig. 2: Suitable for big vessel testing: KAMAT high-pressure pump of type<br />

K50018A-3G<br />

The market for pressure vessels for energy storage and for the transport<br />

and utilization of industrial gases is growing, mainly due to the desire<br />

to use hydrogen as a fuel.<br />

KAMAT has recently developed market-ready and standardized pump<br />

systems that are specially adapted to the testing of pressure vessels<br />

and take into account all aspects of this task. This includes the pressure<br />

test itself, but also the temperature control of the test medium and the<br />

modeling of test and pressure curves.<br />

The task: Vessels from small to very large volumes must be tested<br />

in three categories. Using water as the test medium, also with anti-corrosion<br />

additives, pressure vessels are 1. burst tested, 2. cycled<br />

Fig. 3: KAMAT control throttle 3000 bar for modulation of cycling test curves<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

When designing a pump system, it is important to consider that, depending<br />

on the size of the tank, 1-10 cycles per minute are performed<br />

when pressurizing a tank, i. e. the tank is pressurized to test pressure<br />

and then depressurized. At 10 cycles per minute, a flow rate of<br />

250 l/min or more is quickly required. Despite the high flow rate, the<br />

upper and lower test pressures must be approached very precisely.<br />

This is a challenge in a dynamic hydraulic system. KAMAT therefore<br />

develops both the necessary valve technology (valves, control throttle,<br />

sensors) and the control algorithms of the control system itself. This<br />

ensures that upper test pressures are not exceeded and lower holding<br />

pressures are not undershot. Due to the design of the KAMAT pump,<br />

test pressures up to 3500 bar can be achieved in this setup. Burst tests<br />

are also possible at up to 3500 bar.<br />

Fig. 4-6: Test curves for pressure vessel testing<br />

KAMAT units can be quickly and optimally customized to meet<br />

customer requirements. The optimized modular pump system can be<br />

used for the high-pressure section. This results in three categories of<br />

equipment:<br />

– Cycling unit with the necessary valve technology, regulating throttle<br />

and control technology<br />

– Bursting device with the necessary valve technology and control<br />

technology. This is already possible, for example, with KAMAT's<br />

smallest pump, the K108.<br />

– Device for pressure retention tests (leak detection)<br />

Of course, the functionalities can also be combined if required.<br />

In a world increasingly focused on sustainability and efficiency, KAMAT's<br />

innovative pump systems stand at the forefront of the container pressure<br />

testing market. By offering solutions that blend high performance<br />

with precision and adaptability, KAMAT is not only meeting the growing<br />

demand for safe and efficient energy storage and transport but is<br />

also paving the way for a more sustainable future powered by hydrogen<br />

fuel.<br />

KAMAT - 50 years of pump innovation: A succinct success story<br />

KAMAT has been a beacon of innovation and sustainability since its inception<br />

in 1974 as Myers Europe GmbH, laying the groundwork for a<br />

broad range of high-pressure pumps by focusing on triplex high-pressure<br />

plunger pump manufacture.<br />

In 1979, after the separation from its American parent company,<br />

Dipl.-Ing. Karl J. Sprakel took the helm, rebranding to Myers-Europe<br />

Pumps and initiating product development and international market<br />

expansion, setting the stage for KAMAT’s growth.<br />

The period from 1983 to 1987 marked a phase of organic growth<br />

and strategic acquisitions, notably the Hochdruck-Apparatebau Witten<br />

merger, enhancing the product line and necessitating a production<br />

area expansion in the Witten-Annen industrial park.<br />

62 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Between 1987 and 2012, KAMAT experienced significant technological<br />

advancements and expansion, led by Jan Sprakel and<br />

Dirk K. Sprakel. This era saw the introduction of the “water mist” division,<br />

later becoming the independent FOGTEC GmbH.<br />

2012 was a transformative year for KAMAT, with upgrades to<br />

facilities and expansion of the production space. This period also introduced<br />

unmanned production capabilities and modernized infrastructure,<br />

reflecting the company’s adaptability and innovation drive.<br />

With the generation change in 2012, Jan Sprakel and<br />

Dr.-Ing. Andreas Wahl took over the management and continue<br />

the legacy of innovation and expansion. With the name change to<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG in 2014 demonstrated that KAMAT manufactures<br />

much more than just pumps.<br />

KAMAT’s 50-year history has been marked by continuous innovation,<br />

strategic development and a commitment to quality and sustainability.<br />

The company’s pioneering spirit promises to keep it at<br />

the forefront of the high-pressure pump industry for the foreseeable<br />

future. Right down to the sourcing of materials that are truly “Made in<br />

Germany”.<br />

the metering of the blowing agent into the plastic melt must be consistently<br />

precise in order to achieve a homogeneous and high-quality<br />

end product. The proven LEWA ecofoam metering system was therefore<br />

specially designed to meter all common blowing agents precisely<br />

and reliably.<br />

KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG<br />

Salinger Feld 10<br />

58454 Witten, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (2302) 89 030<br />

info@KAMAT.de<br />

www.KAMAT.de/en/<br />

Foam extrusion<br />

Risk-free process optimization:<br />

Rentable testing system precisely<br />

meters different blowing agents even<br />

with fluctuating extruder pressure<br />

Includes cooling unit for CO 2<br />

and explosion-proof design<br />

for flammable media<br />

A lower density, better mechanical and insulating properties and significantly<br />

reduced raw material consumption. Given these advantages,<br />

it is no wonder that foamed plastics have taken the market by storm<br />

in recent years. They are mainly used as packaging components and<br />

for shock absorption, thermal insulation and soundproofing. However,<br />

the variance in blowing agents and their process conditions, such as<br />

high pressure or deviating temperatures, require specified systems<br />

and quickly make the extrusion process relatively complex. The LEWA<br />

ecofoam metering system provides a remedy. A fail-safe complete solution<br />

for all known blowing agents, it is characterized by consistently<br />

precise metering even for fluctuating parameters. The LEWA ecofoam<br />

testing system offers users a cost-efficient opportunity to see the reliable<br />

quality of the extruder system and the end products for themselves<br />

in everyday operation without obligation.<br />

Depending on the intended use and desired properties of the plastic<br />

product, different blowing agents are used in foam extrusion. For example,<br />

they can be carbon dioxide, propane, butane, pentane or halogenated<br />

hydrocarbons such as Freon 152a. Although the discharge<br />

pressures and temperatures of these media differ from one another,<br />

Universal extruder system for testing with all blowing agents<br />

To ensure the required constant foam quality, the quantity of blowing<br />

agent in the LEWA ecofoam is adjusted proportionally to the rotation<br />

speed of the extruder. The smart control technology developed by<br />

LEWA itself comes into play here. It continuously compares the signal<br />

from the flow meter with the guide signal and regulates the rotation<br />

speed of the drive motor accordingly. Due to the pump's pressure-stiff<br />

characteristic curve, metering remains constant even for fluctuating<br />

extruder pressure.<br />

At its core, the hermetically tight and therefore low-maintenance<br />

system consists of a LEWA ecoflow diaphragm metering pump, which<br />

delivers the blowing agent at a pressure of 50 to 350 bar. The flow rate<br />

depends on the set pressure and the compressibility of the medium.<br />

For example, it can be 13 kg/h CO 2<br />

, 8 kg/h i-butane or 20 kg/h H 2<br />

O at<br />

250 bar. Since the LEWA ecofoam testing system was designed for all<br />

known blowing agents, it is already explosion-proof for flammable media<br />

such as propane or butane as standard and is equipped with a<br />

cooling unit for carbon dioxide.<br />

To ensure that the system can be easily transported for testing<br />

purposes, all components are securely mounted on a common mount<br />

base. It can be rented for up to six weeks without obligation, although<br />

longer periods are also possible by arrangement. This gives users the<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions (WMFTS) has launched the<br />

Qdos H-FLO chemical metering and dosing pump, designed specifically<br />

for higher flow rates up to 600 l/h.<br />

Qdos H-FLO delivers the same outstanding accuracy and reliability<br />

as other Qdos pumps but for higher flow rates with a variety of<br />

pump heads and a range of different tube material to ensure chemical<br />

compatibility with the process fluid.<br />

The Qdos H-FLO high-precision pump offers flexibility to be scalable<br />

with a customer’s process, whether it is in water and wastewater<br />

treatment, mining and mineral processing, chemical applications in<br />

food and beverage or pulp and paper.<br />

The release of Qdos H-FLO enhances the range of Qdos pumps<br />

by offering flow rates up to 600 l/h and pressure capability up to 7 bar<br />

(102 psi).<br />

Like the rest of the Qdos range of peristaltic pumps, Qdos H-FLO<br />

cuts costs through higher precision chemical metering, with an accuracy<br />

of ±1% and repeatability of ±0.5% in dosing.<br />

Qdos H-FLO will bring benefits to applications including:<br />

– Disinfectants<br />

– Coagulants<br />

– Flocculants<br />

– Acids/alkalis<br />

– Mining reagents<br />

– Surfactants<br />

opportunity to test the reliable quality of the system and the consistently<br />

precise metering of different blowing agents in a real application<br />

environment – entirely without financial risk.<br />

Further information at:<br />

https://www.lewa.com/en-US/systems/lewa-ecofoam<br />

LEWA GmbH<br />

Ulmer Str. 10<br />

71229 Leonberg, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (7152) 14-0<br />

Fax +49 (7152) 14-1303<br />

lewa@lewa.de<br />

www.lewa.de<br />

New Qdos H-FLO chemical metering<br />

and dosing pump offers higher<br />

flow rates for a wide range of dosing<br />

applications<br />

– Latest pump in the Qdos range is for higher flow rates up to 600 l/h<br />

– New peristaltic pump makes chemical dosing simpler, safer and<br />

cost-effective<br />

– Qdos H-FLO serves a wide variety of applications and industries<br />

Fig. 1: Qdos chemical metering and dosing pumps showing Qdos H-FLO<br />

(pictured centre), Qdos 60 and Qdos CWT<br />

Adeel Hassan, Product Manager at WMFTS, said: “At Watson-Marlow<br />

Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions, we believe in engineering innovation to<br />

solve complex customer problems by providing simple-to-use solutions.<br />

The high accuracy and repeatability of our pumps helps to<br />

achieve cost savings in chemical usage which also assists our customers<br />

in their journey towards net zero targets. While the pump has inherited<br />

unique features from the current Qdos range, it also brings several<br />

new-to-market features to make chemical dosing simpler, safer and<br />

cost-effective.<br />

“Customer feedback has been a fundamental driver in developing<br />

Qdos for higher flow rate applications. Qdos H-FLO aims to make<br />

chemical dosing simpler and efficient for operations, maintenance and<br />

EHS teams. It offers several onboard communication options for SCA-<br />

DA and PLC integration to achieve process optimisation.”<br />

64 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Fig. 2: Qdos H-FLO Universal+ chemical metering and dosing pump with hose<br />

With the new Certa Compact, Watson-Marlow is expanding MasoSine's<br />

Certa Sine pump series, which is well established in the food and beverage<br />

sector. Thanks to a more flexible and simplified design, the new<br />

Certa Compact models offer a 30 % smaller footprint compared to the<br />

existing Certa models. This benefits integrators and manufacturers of<br />

modular system concepts and complete turnkey plant systems, among<br />

others. In addition to saving space in their systems, they also save valuable<br />

assembly time and costs during installation.<br />

Despite its compact design, the new pump retains all the advantages<br />

of Sine pump technology: in addition to a high suction capabilities<br />

combined with gentle pumping action with low shear forces and<br />

minimal pulsation, all Certa pumps offer outstanding hygienic properties<br />

with certification in accordance with EHEDG Type EL Aseptic Class I.<br />

In addition, users of Sine pumps benefit from up to 50 % lower power<br />

consumption compared to other pump types when pumping highly<br />

viscous media.<br />

Benefits of the new Qdos H-FLO include:<br />

– Flowrates from 2.0 ml/min to 600 l/h<br />

– Pressure capability up to 7 bar pressure<br />

– RFID Pump head detection ensures confirmation of correct pump<br />

head<br />

– Revolution counter for pump head service maintenance<br />

– Leak detection and fluid containment prevent spills and chemical<br />

exposure upon pump head expiry<br />

– Network integration, control and communication options include<br />

EtherNet/IP, PROFINET and PROFIBUS for easy integration with<br />


– One common pump drive with several pump head options for<br />

changing process conditions and chemistries<br />

Qdos H-FLO is supported with an optional pressure sensing kit that<br />

provides real-time pressure monitoring, which ensures process security<br />

and improves safety. The optional pressure sensing kit comes with<br />

configurable alarms for process monitoring. The pressure sensing kit<br />

will be available across the entire Qdos range and is compatible with<br />

commonly used chemicals in process industries.<br />

Fig. 1: The new Certa Compact models offer a particularly small footprint<br />

(both photos: Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH<br />

Kurt-Alder-Str. 1<br />

41569 Rommerskirchen, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (2183) 42040<br />

info.de@wmfts.com<br />

www.wmfts.com<br />

New Certa Compact Sine ® pump reduces<br />

space and energy requirements<br />

Watson-Marlow Fluid <strong>Technology</strong> Solutions is expanding its range of<br />

MasoSine Certa Sine pumps. The new Certa Compact models take up<br />

30% less space than the existing Certa pumps. Certa Compact pumps<br />

retain all the advantages of Sine pump technology, such as high suction<br />

capabilities, gentle pumping and excellent hygienic properties.<br />

Like all Certa models, Certa Compact offers particularly high energy<br />

efficiency.<br />

Fig. 2: Thanks to the design principle with just one rotor, one shaft and one seal,<br />

Sine pumps offer particularly low energy consumption<br />

Gentle on sensitive food products<br />

The new Certa Compact models offer a flow rate of up to 99,000 litres<br />

per hour at a pressure of up to 6 bar. It handles high viscosity fluids of<br />

up to eight million centipoise. Thanks to their unrivalled gentle pumping<br />

action, Sine pumps are particularly suitable for sensitive media in<br />

the food and beverage industry. They maintain product integrity and<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

prevent product loss. In the dairy industry, for example, they prevent<br />

damage to the cheese curd, the formation of cheese dust or loss of viscosity.<br />

In breweries, the pumps are particularly suitable for use in yeast<br />

management and protect the sensitive cells thanks to their powerful<br />

pumping speed and unrivaled gentle pumping action. In the beverage<br />

industry, the Sine pumps can offer efficient loading and unloading of<br />

tanks and fast processing times without the risk of cavitation thanks to<br />

their high pumping speed.<br />

Watson-Marlow GmbH<br />

Kurt-Alder-Str. 1<br />

41569 Rommerskirchen, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (2183) 42040<br />

info.de@wmfts.com<br />

www.wmfts.com<br />

Full containment<br />

By using a hermetically tight magnetic coupling, the pumped liquid is<br />

safely contained within the pump. This prevents loss of the liquid and<br />

at the same time eliminates any contamination from the outside.<br />

A magnetic drive pump utilizes a magnetic field to transfer torque<br />

from the drive to the pump shaft without any physical connection. The<br />

containment shell plays a crucial role in maintaining the hermetic integrity<br />

as it separates the pumped liquid from its environment. There<br />

are no dynamic seals from which leaks can escape to the environment,<br />

but even more important, from which abrasives over time could pollute<br />

the pumped liquid.<br />

Magnetic drive pumps<br />

Powering The Hydrogen Revolution<br />

Towards a greener, hydrogenpowered<br />

world<br />

As the world seeks sustainable energy solutions, hydrogen is emerging<br />

as a key player in the transition to a greener future. At Klaus Union, we<br />

are proud to be at the forefront of this revolutionary journey by manufacturing<br />

state-of-the-art magnetic drive pumps for hydrogen production<br />

applications.<br />

Magnetic drive pumps play a crucial role in the production of hydrogen.<br />

They ensure the safe and efficient pumping of fluids in processes<br />

like alkaline water (for KOH or NaOH) and PEM electrolysis, where hydrogen<br />

is generated from ultra-pure water.<br />

So, what makes Klaus Union magnetic drive pumps essential<br />

for hydrogen production?<br />

Fig. 2: Heavy duty containment shells made from industrial ceramics<br />

for up to 63 bar<br />

Ideal for ultra-pure water<br />

By electrochemical polishing (electropolishing) the wetted parts of the<br />

pump and using journal bearings made of silicon carbide, pollution<br />

with ions or abrasives is prevented.<br />

Electropolishing removes surface defects and local stresses contained<br />

in the thin layer of material on the surface, providing optimum<br />

properties of the base material. The risk of pollution is eliminated as<br />

the process reduces the micro-roughness of the material.<br />

Further the parts are supplied in an oil- and grease-free execution. In<br />

this case, the assembly is meticulously performed within our dedicated,<br />

state-of-the-art clean room facility. The degree of purity achieved is<br />

equivalent to some of our valves which are used in air separation applications<br />

(pumping of oxygen).<br />

Close-coupled design<br />

Especially for large pumps and motors, the compact close-coupled design<br />

is indispensable for installation in tight spaces like containerized<br />

modules.<br />

Close-coupled design means, that the driver is connected to the<br />

pump’s intermediate lantern by an adapter flange, eliminating the<br />

need of a coupling or guard. Thus, the risk of misaligning is eliminated<br />

plus there are no limited lifetime ball bearings in the pump.<br />

Fig. 1: Close-coupled centrifugal pump with magnetic drive and electropolished<br />

pump casing<br />

Maintenance free<br />

Due to the contactless transmission of torque and highly durable journal<br />

bearing materials, in close-coupled design no scheduled maintenance<br />

is required.<br />

66 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

Scheduled maintenance of a magnetic drive pump depends only on<br />

the type of bearings installed making it obsolete in a close-coupled<br />

pump. The magnetic coupling itself is maintenance free and wear free,<br />

provided it is operated within agreed limits.<br />

Erdinger has been relying on sera’s expertise and experience in the<br />

beverage industry for almost 30 years. Around 150 dosing pumps and<br />

dosing systems are in use at the private brewery and ensure smooth<br />

processes and consistent quality in production.<br />

Energy efficiency<br />

Magnetic drive pumps, especially with non-metallic containment shell,<br />

are highly efficient, contributing to energy savings and reducing the<br />

carbon footprint of hydrogen production.<br />

Non-metallic containment shells made of zirconium oxide are not<br />

electrically conductive. Due to this characteristic there are no eddy<br />

current losses impacting the pump performance. The energy consumption<br />

can thus be reduced by 10 to 15 %, compared to metallic<br />

containment shells.<br />

Belt lubrication<br />

Smooth product transport, in the truest sense of the word, between<br />

individual systems such as bottling or packaging is essential for efficient<br />

production. To reduce friction between the conveyor belt and the<br />

bottle or crate, the conveyor belts at Erdinger are also lubricated. sera<br />

dosing technology is used here to add the right amount of chemicals to<br />

the water circuit for belt lubrication.<br />

Join us<br />

By manufacturing these cutting-edge pumps, Klaus Union is committed<br />

to advancing the hydrogen economy. We are sure that hydrogen holds<br />

the potential to reshape industries, reduce greenhouse gas emissions,<br />

and provide sustainable energy solutions for generations to come. Depending<br />

on the application, these essentials are available for all Klaus<br />

Union pump types.<br />

Join us on this exciting journey towards a greener, hydrogenpowered<br />

world. Feel free to contact us if you have any further<br />

questions: info@klaus-union.com<br />

KLAUS UNION GmbH & Co. KG<br />

P.O. Box 10 13 49<br />

44713 Bochum, Germany<br />

Phone +49 (234) 4595-0<br />

Fax +49 (234) 4595-7000<br />

info@klaus-union.com<br />

www.klaus-union.com<br />

sera dosing technology at<br />

Erdinger Privatbrauerei<br />

Cleaning in Place (CIP)<br />

Cleaning in Place (CIP) is used in the food and beverage industry to cyclically<br />

clean the entire production system, including tanks and pipework.<br />

The product remaining in the system is first rinsed out, then<br />

organic trace substances are removed with lye, mineral deposits are<br />

„Des Erdinger Weißbier, des is hoid a Pracht hollara-di-riad-dei,<br />

des schmeckt uns beim Tag und bei der Nacht.“<br />

Everyone in the German-speaking world knows this Bavarian jingle. No<br />

wonder – Erdinger Privatbrauerei has been using it unchanged in TV<br />

and radio adverts since the 1970s. Consistency, reliability and quality –<br />

that’s what Erdinger stands for, and not just in advertising.<br />

Founded in 1886, the company has always been committed to<br />

wheat beer. With the world-famous Erdinger Weißbier, they have<br />

created a classic that has enjoyed great popularity for over 130 years.<br />

In the meantime, the portfolio has of course been supplemented by<br />

other beers, such as non-alcoholic wheat beers.<br />

With an output of 1.7 million hectolitres, the wheat beer brewery in<br />

Erding is the largest wheat beer brewery in the world and the private<br />

brewery’s only production site. From here, Erdinger sells its beers in<br />

over 100 countries. Erdinger wheat beers are traditionally produced by<br />

bottle fermentation.<br />

Consistency, reliability and quality – these are the factors behind<br />

Erdinger’s success story. And, of course, strong partners who share the<br />

same values as Erdinger.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Pumps/Vacuum technology<br />

Companies – Innovations – Products<br />

removed with acid and finally the system is rinsed with fresh water.<br />

The chemicals required for cleaning are stored in stacking tanks. The<br />

chemicals (lye, acid and disinfectant) are mixed in the required concentration<br />

(usually 98 % H 2<br />

O and 2 % additive) and dosed into the cleaning<br />

process using sera compact dosing systems of the CVD (Compact Vertical<br />

Dosing) type. CIP is not only safe, but above all economical, as<br />

the cleaning agents and water used are only consumed in the desired<br />

quantity and can be partially recycled.<br />

Alexander Kreuter, Product Manager at Pfeiffer Vacuum: “As one of<br />

the leading suppliers of vacuum technology, we are proud to be able<br />

to present the smallest hybrid-bearing high-power turbopump on the<br />

market. It combines high performance with practicality. This small<br />

pump is particularly versatile in the area of analytics and is portable.<br />

And, with our patented Laser Balancing technology, it has the lowest vibration<br />

level on the market. This makes it perfect for applications that<br />

are sensitive to vibrations!”<br />

Design in the food and beverage industry<br />

To ensure that CIP works perfectly, dosing systems and pumps must<br />

have special design features. The products used are designed and constructed<br />

by sera in such a way that there are no so-called dead spaces<br />

in the respective interior (part in contact with the media) in which solids<br />

or bacteria can be deposited.<br />

<strong>Process</strong> and waste water treatment<br />

Efficiency and sustainability are important factors in every production<br />

process – and Erdinger is no exception. The treatment of process and<br />

waste water can therefore make a difference. Treated with the right<br />

chemicals, the water can be reused and thus contribute to sustainable<br />

production.<br />

Erdinger draws its brewing water directly from two of the brewery’s<br />

own wells with a depth of 160 metres. If necessary, the brewing water<br />

is also treated to ensure a constant pH value, for example. Dosing<br />

technology from sera is also used here, thus ensuring the sustainable<br />

use of water.<br />

Dosing technology in the beverage industry<br />

– Cleaning in Place (CIP)<br />

– IBC emptying stations<br />

– Tank filling and emptying<br />

– Dosing of chemicals and additives<br />

Smallest Hybrid-Bearing High-Power turbopump HiPace 30 Neo<br />

sera ProDos GmbH<br />

sera-Str. 1<br />

34376 Immenhausen, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (5673) 999-02<br />

sales.prodos@sera-web.com<br />

www.sera-web.com<br />

HiPace 30 Neo: Smallest Hybrid-<br />

Bearing High-Power turbopump<br />

on the market<br />

– For light gases<br />

– Compact and portable<br />

– Patented Laser Balancing <strong>Technology</strong><br />

The HiPace 30 Neo combines compactness, drive efficiency and intelligence.<br />

It thus makes a further contribution to the sustainability of<br />

the turbopump portfolio. For example, the more compact design and<br />

the associated material savings mean that a significant proportion of<br />

CO 2<br />

can be saved. Thanks to the use of intelligent sensor technology,<br />

the pump is always operated with the best possible energy input.<br />

Thanks to the intelligent control system, the pumps can be interconnected<br />

without great effort, i. e. upstream and turbo pumps interact<br />

with each other. In this way, a complex, IoT-capable vacuum system<br />

can be realized in just a few steps.<br />

The pump is both compact and smart: With its special Pfeiffer Vacuum<br />

accessory interface, AccessLink, which recognizes accessories automatically,<br />

the system can be up and running quickly in just a few steps.<br />

The HiPace 30 Neo incorporates a new high-performance lubricant,<br />

which guarantees safety and reliability with improved aging resistance,<br />

optimized lubrication behaviour and high temperature resistance. The<br />

HiPace 30 Neo pumps run maintenance-free for up to 5 years.<br />

The new HiPace 30 Neo turbopump from Pfeiffer Vacuum is a vacuum<br />

pump for compact analysis systems and portable applications. Due<br />

to its high gas throughput and exceptional compression, it is suitable<br />

for light gases and has excellent critical backing pressure. The good<br />

balancing quality of the rotor, which runs at up to 1,500 revolutions<br />

per second, makes the vacuum pump ideal for vibration-sensitive<br />

applications.<br />

Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH<br />

Berliner Str. 43<br />

35614 Asslar, Germany<br />

Tel +49 (6441) 802-0<br />

Fax +49 6441 802-1202<br />

info@pfeiffer-vacuum.com<br />

www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com<br />

68 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Come and see for yourself:<br />

www.harnisch.com<br />

Perfectly<br />

positioned.<br />

The international specialist magazines from Dr. Harnisch Publications<br />

In addition to the haptic charm of<br />

classic print magazines, we also<br />

offer newsletters, news, events and<br />

subscriptions on our magazine<br />

websites in addition to the digital<br />

editions that can be read free of charge.<br />

Take a look at www.harnisch.com<br />

for all relevant content.<br />

Our publications include:<br />

- <strong>Technology</strong> & Marketing -

Trade fairs and events<br />

IFAT Munich <strong>2024</strong><br />

IFAT Munich <strong>2024</strong><br />

Municipalities: core target group for<br />

the environmental industry<br />

– Tackling the consequences of<br />

climate change<br />

– Maintaining quality and safety<br />

in water management<br />

– Day of resilient municipalities<br />

on May 16<br />

Municipalities are among the most<br />

important users of the products<br />

and processes presented at the IFAT<br />

Munich <strong>2024</strong> environmental technology<br />

trade fair. New challenges,<br />

opportunities and solutions also<br />

create a great need for information<br />

and discussion for cities and municipalities.<br />

From May 13 to 17, <strong>2024</strong>, IFAT Munich<br />

will bring the global environmental<br />

technology industry together again in<br />

one place. The exhibitors at the Munich<br />

exhibition center will then once<br />

again present their latest products,<br />

processes and services from the<br />

fields of water and wastewater, waste<br />

and raw materials management to<br />

the specialist audience. For many of<br />

them, cities and municipalities, with<br />

their wide range of environmentally<br />

relevant tasks, are part of their key<br />

customer base. Municipalities, for example,<br />

face the permanent challenge<br />

of ensuring the quantity and quality<br />

of the drinking water supply, maintaining<br />

infrastructural values, and<br />

averting potential risks to society and<br />

the environment—all at a reason able<br />

cost. In line with that, the German<br />

Technical and Scientific Association<br />

for Gas and Water (DVGW) is offering<br />

three solution tours at the world’s<br />

leading trade fair in Munich entitled<br />

“Innovative technologies for assessing<br />

the condition of buried pipelines,”<br />

“Protection of critical infrastructure<br />

in drinking water supply,” and “Increased<br />

water temperature in the<br />

distribution network.” At the association’s<br />

stand, keynote speeches will<br />

first explain the respective problem<br />

before guided tours lead participants<br />

to corresponding exhibitor solutions.<br />

New PFAS limit values affect treatment<br />

requirements<br />

The revised Drinking Water Ordinance<br />

came into force in Germany<br />

in June 2023. It implements significant<br />

elements of the EU Drinking<br />

Water Directive from 2020. Among<br />

the new and amended limit values,<br />

the toxicologically relevant per- and<br />

polyfluoroalkyl substances, PFAS for<br />

short, clearly play the most important<br />

role. Water suppliers may have<br />

to filter out PFAS with considerable<br />

technical effort. “However, end-ofpipe<br />

approaches are not a solution.<br />

The production and use of PFAS must<br />

be limited to a few essential purposes.<br />

The aim must be to already<br />

avoid these substances at the pollution<br />

source. These substances must<br />

not be released into the environment<br />

in the first place,” says Wolf Merkel,<br />

DVGW Board Member for Water. The<br />

association is taking this as an oppor-<br />

Photo: Messe München GmbH<br />

tunity to present new technological<br />

approaches to the treatment of water<br />

containing PFAS at IFAT Munich<br />

as part of its “TechLIFT” event format,<br />

and to discuss them with a panel of<br />

experts.<br />

“The list of challenges facing<br />

local authorities in the wastewater<br />

sector is also long,” as Dr. Friedrich<br />

Hetzel stresses. As examples, the<br />

head of the Water and Waste Management<br />

Department at the German<br />

Association for Water, Wastewater<br />

and Waste (DWA) cites the separation<br />

of phosphorus from wastewater and<br />

sewage sludge, the lower limit values<br />

for nutrients such as phosphorus in<br />

the effluent of wastewater treatment<br />

plants expected as a result of the<br />

amendment to the EU Urban Wastewater<br />

Directive, the removal of trace<br />

substances from the water cycle, and<br />

combined sewer overflows.<br />

For a water-conscious, resilient<br />

municipality<br />

Driven by the consequences of climate<br />

change, he also believes that wa-<br />

70 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

ter-conscious urban development should<br />

be high up on the municipal agenda. “A central<br />

aspect here is the intelligent handling<br />

of rainwater, especially in the context of extreme<br />

events. What is needed are solutions<br />

that help deal with their consequences or<br />

minimize them in advance through appropriate<br />

technical measures,” says Hetzel. Specifically<br />

for the public sector, the DWA, in collaboration<br />

with the DVGW and the German<br />

Association of Local Utilities (VKU), is offering<br />

the Day of Resilient Municipalities on<br />

Thursday, May 16, as well as various solution<br />

tours at IFAT Munich.<br />

Digitalization and protection of critical<br />

infrastructure<br />

As with society as a whole, cities and municipalities<br />

are of course also called upon<br />

to address the opportunities and risks of<br />

the megatrend of digitalization. The VKU,<br />

for example, is organizing a panel discussion<br />

on the forum stage entitled “AI: Detection<br />

systems and reusable materials<br />

scanners—how much AI does the waste industry<br />

need?” It will examine the question<br />

of whether AI is really suitable for minimizing<br />

resource consumption and improving<br />

the quality of the individual categories of<br />

waste collected in the interests of a functioning<br />

circular economy.<br />

The public utility and waste disposal industry<br />

is also a critical infrastructure (KRI-<br />

TIS). “The physical and virtual threat has<br />

been growing here for years. It is essential<br />

to protect these services,” emphasizes<br />

VKU Vice President Patrick Hasenkamp. On<br />

the forum stage, the association will show<br />

which legal obligations KRITIS operators<br />

must already fulfill now and, more importantly,<br />

in the future.<br />

The VKU solution tour “Waste Logistics<br />

2035” also takes a look into the future.<br />

“Waste logistics will play a decisive role<br />

in resource management by minimizing<br />

waste, preserving valuable resources, and<br />

hence reducing the environmental impact,”<br />

Hasenkamp is convinced. After a presentation,<br />

the trade fair visitors will be guided to<br />

selected VKU member companies, where<br />

they will learn more about current developments.<br />

Clean drives for municipal vehicles<br />

“When it comes to municipal vehicles and<br />

equipment, the use of alternative drive systems,<br />

especially hydrogen and battery solutions,<br />

and the development of the required<br />

charging infrastructure are still key issues,”<br />

says Burkard Oppmann, President of the<br />

German Municipal Vehicles and Equipment<br />

Industry Association (VAK). The VAK will, for<br />

the first time, be holding a 45-minute panel<br />

discussion with industry experts on these<br />

and other topics on each day of IFAT Munich<br />

<strong>2024</strong>. The discussion will deal, among other<br />

things, with an emission-free municipal vehicle<br />

industry and municipal economy, the<br />

promotion of CO 2<br />

-free waste disposal, and<br />

professional driver qualifications.<br />

The future topic of hydrogen<br />

What role can hydrogen play in the municipal<br />

circular economy? A Spotlight Area is<br />

dedicated to this question. According to<br />

the organizers, the DVGW and the Zentrum<br />

Wasserstoff.Bayern (H2.B), it will show that<br />

there are interesting starting points both<br />

in the production and use of the climatefriendly<br />

energy source and its by-products.<br />

For example, the energy generated in wasteto-energy<br />

and biogas plants can be used for<br />

carbon-neutral hydrogen production. In addition<br />

to hydrogen, the electrolysis of water<br />

also produces oxygen, which can be used to<br />

effectively aerate clarifiers. Methane from<br />

sewage sludge treatment or also plastic<br />

waste can be processed into hydrogen and<br />

carbon that can be used in agriculture or industry.<br />

And the fact that the first waste collection<br />

vehicles are already running on hydrogen<br />

has already been mentioned above.<br />

Messe München<br />

www.ifat.de<br />

Problem solver for<br />

process engineering<br />

and sewage technology<br />

www.eggerpumps.com<br />

Turo ® Vortex series T and TA<br />

Suitable for high solids concentrations<br />

and shear sensitive products in<br />

the chemical industry and for clogfree<br />

pumping of raw sewage with<br />

fibres and sludge.<br />

Iris ® Diaphragm Control Valve<br />

Highly precise and energy saving<br />

control of flow rate through concentric<br />

Iris ® diaphragms. For aeration airflow<br />

control in WWTP’s and for gases or<br />

liquids in industry.<br />


PUMPS SINCE 1947<br />

Switzerland<br />

Emile Egger & Cie SA<br />

Route de Neuchâtel 36<br />

2088 Cressier NE<br />

Phone +41 (0)32 758 71 11<br />

Germany<br />

Emile Egger & Co. GmbH<br />

Wattstrasse 28<br />

68199 Mannheim<br />

Phone +49 (0)621 84 213-0

Trade fairs and events<br />

IVS - INDUSTRIAL VALVE SUMMIT <strong>2024</strong><br />

The countdown to IVS –<br />

INDUSTRIAL VALVE SUMMIT <strong>2024</strong> has started<br />

The fifth edition of IVS – Industrial<br />

Valve Summit, the most important<br />

international event dedicated<br />

to reference technologies and flow<br />

control solutions, is only one month<br />

away. The fair trade, organised<br />

by Confindustria Bergamo and<br />

Promoberg, will take place at the<br />

Bergamo Exhibition Centre, in Italy,<br />

on May 15 th and 16 th , <strong>2024</strong>.<br />

During the IVS <strong>2024</strong>, the organisers<br />

will enrich the offer with side events<br />

and moments of interaction, creating<br />

a true 'valve week', continuing along<br />

the event’s growth path. Starting on<br />

14th May with the opening ceremony,<br />

followed by the opening of the pavilions<br />

reserved to exhibitors, IVS will<br />

offer a valuable opportunity for the<br />

players in the supply chain to meet<br />

and discuss. The event will get into<br />

full swing on 15 th and 16 th May with<br />

the halls opening the doors to the international<br />

public, with hundreds of<br />

exhibitors and thousands of trade<br />

visitors expected. And after the twoday<br />

exhibition, there will be a further<br />

opportunity for foreign delegations<br />

attending the fair to meet the players<br />

in the extended Oil & Gas supply<br />

chain, on Friday 17 th May. In 2022,<br />

the Summit welcomed 12,000 visitors<br />

(+12 % compared to 2019) representing<br />

over 60 countries, in addition<br />

to 300 exhibiting companies (+17 %<br />

compared to 2019) representing 12<br />

countries.<br />

Over the years, the Summit has<br />

established itself as a space where<br />

change can be interpreted and the<br />

latest innovations can be explored,<br />

identifying and examining the challenges<br />

facing the industry. IVS <strong>2024</strong><br />

will hold the widest scientific calendar<br />

ever proposed by the event, which<br />

will be structured by a total of 46 conferences,<br />

round tables, workshops,<br />

case studies and laboratories. The experts<br />

who will take the floor will delve<br />

around eight macro-themes: additive<br />

manufacturing; digital technologies<br />

applied to valves, actuators, and<br />

flow control systems; seals and fugitive<br />

emissions; valve and material design<br />

for harsh weather conditions;<br />

regulatory standards and developments;<br />

supply chain management;<br />

artificial intelligence applied to mechanical<br />

design, supply, and manufacturing;<br />

energy transition and carbon<br />

capture and storage systems.<br />

These are complemented by round<br />

tables discussing hydrogen, analysing<br />

market trends, the Corporate Sustainability<br />

Reporting Directive (CSRD),<br />

greenhouse gas management and<br />

other topics. The update of the IVS-<br />

Prometeia Observatory “The Oil&Gas<br />

Valve Industry <strong>2024</strong>”, developed with<br />

the contribution of the Confindustria<br />

Bergamo research office, will also be<br />

presented at the exhibition.<br />

Photo: IVS - Industrial Valve Summit<br />

Bergamo is ready to welcome thousands<br />

of people from all over the<br />

world. Not only in terms of hospitality<br />

and infrastructural efficiency,<br />

but also through a cultural, networking<br />

and leisure offer that goes<br />

beyond the two-day exhibition. The<br />

Bergamo district is a strategic centre<br />

of gravity for the entire industry: a<br />

100-kilometre radius of the province<br />

is home to 90 % of the companies<br />

that contribute to the industrial valve<br />

value chain in Italy. A leading territory<br />

for the sector and in the national<br />

panorama, which is distinguished by<br />

elements such as manufacturing expertise,<br />

excellence on international<br />

markets and entrepreneurial culture.<br />

Get your pass to access IVS: registration.industrialvalvesummit.com/<br />

site/home.xsp<br />

72 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Trade fairs and events<br />

ACHEMA <strong>2024</strong><br />

ACHEMA <strong>2024</strong>:<br />

Multifaceted lecture programme for the<br />

world of the process industry<br />

ACHEMA <strong>2024</strong> will once again fully<br />

integrate the lecture and supporting<br />

programme with the exhibition.<br />

In 2022, ACHEMA integrated<br />

the congress and the so-called Innovation<br />

Stages into the exhibition<br />

for the first time. Due to the positive<br />

feedback, the concept will be continued<br />

this year. In total, more than<br />

750 presentations await visitors in<br />

the lecture halls and on the stages<br />

in the exhibition.<br />

“Science and Industry in Dialogue<br />

has always been DECHEMA’s credo<br />

and since the last ACHEMA it has<br />

also been a living practice in the lecture<br />

and congress programme. The<br />

success proves us right: With more<br />

than 20,000 listeners, the number<br />

of attendees in 2022 was significantly<br />

higher than at ACHEMA 2018,<br />

which had more participants overall,”<br />

says Dr Andreas Förster, Executive<br />

Director of DECHEMA e. V. and thus<br />

organiser of ACHEMA. This year’s congress<br />

programme focuses on the topics<br />

of hydrogen, sustainability, circular<br />

economy and digitalisation. At the<br />

six Innovation Stages in the exhibition<br />

and in the five highlight sessions<br />

of the congress, ACHEMA <strong>2024</strong> will<br />

address these and other top topics of<br />

the process industry.<br />

<strong>Process</strong> Innovation<br />

The GEA <strong>Process</strong> Innovation Stage in<br />

Hall 9.0 will focus on topics such as<br />

electrification, flexibilisation and biotechnologisation<br />

of chemical processes<br />

as well as contributions to smart<br />

digital technologies in plant construction<br />

and operation. In the <strong>Process</strong><br />

Highlight Session “Nature as a<br />

role model – maximum resource efficiency<br />

in the chemical industry”, experts<br />

will discuss the vision of a fully<br />

resource-efficient chemical industry<br />

and its implementation. The highlight<br />

session will take place on Friday, 14<br />

June <strong>2024</strong> from 12:00 to 13:00.<br />

Pharma Innovation<br />

The ZETA Pharma Innovation Stage in<br />

Hall 4.1 will cover biopharmaceutical<br />

production in addition to many other<br />

topics related to pharmaceutical production<br />

and packaging, which is also<br />

the focus of the Pharma Highlight Session<br />

on Monday, 10 June <strong>2024</strong> from<br />

13:00 to 14:00: Under the title “Next<br />

generation pharma manufacturing<br />

– current advances in cell and gene<br />

therapy”, the Pharma Highlight Session<br />

will have a closer look on the centralised<br />

and decentralised production<br />

of cell therapeutics and the current<br />

challenges of translational research<br />

and the marketing of therapies.<br />

Lab Innovation<br />

More than ever, success in the laboratory<br />

is determined by the technologies<br />

used in the laboratory and<br />

at the interfaces to engineering and<br />

production. This is the focus of the<br />

presentations on the Lab Innovation<br />

Stage in Hall 12.0. In addition<br />

to the Lab Innovation Stage, ACHE-<br />

MA <strong>2024</strong> will also feature an action<br />

area dedi cated to the digitalised,<br />

miniaturised and auto mated laboratory<br />

of the future. Besides innovative<br />

bio analytics and (bio)pharmaceutical<br />

applications, sustainability as well<br />

as the planning, construction, equipment<br />

and operation of laboratories<br />

will also be highlighted. The latter is<br />

a particular focus in the SEFA Theatre<br />

of the Scientific Equipment and<br />

Furniture Association: at ACHEMA, it<br />

is the contact point for laboratory operators,<br />

architects, users and experts<br />

from the laboratory community who<br />

want to find out more about the laboratory-grade<br />

environment and gain<br />

insights into successful examples<br />

from around the world.<br />

Green Innovation<br />

all photos: DECHEMA/ e.V./Hannibal<br />

The challenge of climate-neutral<br />

production in the process industries,<br />

the circular economy, the integration<br />

of molecular and industrial<br />

biotechnolo gy, sustainable innovations<br />

and investments – these are the<br />

topics that are the focus of the EY<br />

74 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Trade fairs and events<br />

ACHEMA <strong>2024</strong><br />

Green Innovation Stage in Hall 6.0.<br />

“The chemical industry is looking to<br />

innovative technologies to bolster<br />

sustainability, such as green chemistry<br />

and circular economy practices.<br />

ACHEMA is a key platform for bringing<br />

industry experts together to address<br />

these challenges and foster<br />

innovation”, emphasises Matthias<br />

Brey, Head of Sustainability Consulting<br />

Europe West at EY. In the highlight<br />

session “Beyond fossil fuels – exploring<br />

alternative carbon sources for a<br />

sustainable chemical industry”, on<br />

Thursday, 13 June <strong>2024</strong> from 13:00<br />

to 14:00, experts from science and<br />

industry will discuss how fossil-free<br />

production can become a reality.<br />

Digital Innovation<br />

Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence,<br />

autonomous systems, digital twins<br />

and, last but not least, cybersecurity:<br />

The Siemens Digital Innovation Stage<br />

in Hall 11.0 offers a comprehensive<br />

and practical overview of key digital<br />

trends and their use in the process<br />

industry. “For the process industry,<br />

ACHEMA is the key platform<br />

where innovation and practical application<br />

come together. We will show<br />

how Siemens is connecting the real<br />

world with the digital world to create<br />

a more sustainable future for<br />

our customers”, says Axel Lorenz,<br />

CEO <strong>Process</strong> Automation at Siemens.<br />

The highlight session “Artificial intelligence<br />

and auto nomous systems in<br />

the process industry” on Wednesday,<br />

12 June <strong>2024</strong> from 13:00 to 14:00 will<br />

discuss the steps towards autonomous<br />

systems and explore the technological<br />

and cultural challenges that<br />

lie ahead.<br />

Hydrogen Innovation<br />

exhibitors at ACHEMA will present the<br />

milestones of the hydrogen economy<br />

to date as well as future challenges.<br />

The highlight session “Hyperscaling<br />

hydrogen – turning strategy into reality”<br />

on Tuesday, 11 June <strong>2024</strong> from<br />

13:00 to 14:00 will deal with the central<br />

questions of the hydrogen rampup:<br />

What does hyperscaling mean for<br />

plant engineering, its suppliers and<br />

users? What investments and partnerships<br />

do we need for technology<br />

development and infrastructure? All<br />

highlight sessions will take place in<br />

the room Europa in Hall 4.0.<br />

While the congress sessions<br />

will primarily focus on applicationoriented<br />

research and the development<br />

from proof-of-concept to the<br />

threshold of market entry, the Innovation<br />

Stages will focus on current<br />

production issues, best practices and<br />

ready-to-use technologies via short<br />

presen tations – always with application<br />

in mind. With the exhibition<br />

and the closer integration of the various<br />

components, ACHEMA will offer<br />

a complete 360-degree perspective<br />

on all trends and technologies in the<br />

process industries. The lecture programme<br />

is therefore an important<br />

reason why experts and users from<br />

130 countries will once again be coming<br />

to ACHEMA in Frankfurt this year.<br />

www.achema.de/en<br />

The process industry stands like no<br />

other sector for the technological<br />

backbone of a functioning hydrogen<br />

economy: The Siemens Hydrogen Innovation<br />

Stage in Hall 6.0, the Special<br />

Show Hydrogen and numerous other<br />

Flexible chemical twin screw pumps made by Jung <strong>Process</strong> Systems<br />

Visit us<br />

Hall 8, Stand F27<br />

Pumping different viscosities and pressures with one and the same pump?<br />

Twin screw pumps from the CHEMSPIN series are multi-talented pumps for the<br />

chemical industry. Whether aqueous, highly viscous, lumpy, fibrous, corrosive,<br />

abrasive or gas-laden, the pumps are characterized by maximum efficiency<br />

and flexibility. The customer can pump a wide variety of products, viscosities<br />

or pressures with just one pump.<br />

Flow rate: up to 300 m 3 /h<br />

Solids:<br />

up to 67 mm<br />

Viscosity: up to 1.000.000 mPas<br />

Temperature: up to 180 °C<br />

Jung <strong>Process</strong> Systems GmbH Auweg 8 25495 Kummerfeld T. +49 4101 80409-0 E-Mail: sales@jung-process-systems.de

Trade fairs and events<br />

FILTECH <strong>2024</strong><br />

Filtration and separation:<br />

trends for the process industry<br />

With constant growth rates, the<br />

global market for industrial filtration<br />

continues to surprise with innovations<br />

– this was also evident at<br />

FILTECH. An overview of promising<br />

trends.<br />

Separation and filtration are becoming<br />

finer and more precise, more digital<br />

and more intelligent. With the defining<br />

trends in mind, industry players<br />

are preparing for the most important<br />

platform in the sector. When FILTECH<br />

invites visitors to the trade fair and<br />

congress in November <strong>2024</strong>, experts<br />

from all areas will exchange ideas,<br />

discover new technologies and shape<br />

the future of separation technology.<br />

Which topics will occupy the industry<br />

in the near future? An overview of application-specific<br />

developments.<br />

AI: Boost for soft drinks<br />

Artificial intelligence has enormous<br />

potential for various industries, including<br />

filtration. It enables real-time<br />

monitoring and optimization of filtration<br />

systems, improves efficiency<br />

and minimizes energy consumption.<br />

Adaptive systems automatically adjust<br />

to changing conditions, while AIbased<br />

quality control increases filtration<br />

accuracy and efficiency.<br />

Filtration as a Service<br />

Filtration as a Service (FaaS) is a new<br />

concept for the business use of filtration<br />

technology: instead of filter elements,<br />

operators book throughputs.<br />

Companies can use filtration services<br />

on demand without having to deal<br />

with equipment investments or maintenance.<br />

FaaS enables a focus on core<br />

competencies and always up-to-date<br />

filtration technology with an integration<br />

of monitoring and optimization.<br />

Pharmaceutical production:<br />

Safe products thanks to<br />

activated carbon<br />

In the food and pharmaceutical industries,<br />

filtration requirements are becoming<br />

particularly stringent. Activated<br />

carbon is increasingly being used<br />

to remove unwanted by-products,<br />

discoloration and odours. Two trends<br />

can be identified: pro ducts in powder<br />

form and filter sheets with bonded<br />

activated carbon, which offer even<br />

greater safety and purity.<br />

Wine: Filtration problems due to<br />

Botrytis- and Oidium-contaminated<br />

grapes<br />

The 2023 wine year brought various<br />

challenges for producers, such<br />

as oversupply in various regions and<br />

climatic extremes. The filterability of<br />

the wine is impaired by unclear young<br />

wines and clogged filters, especially<br />

in the case of botrytis- or oidium-infested<br />

grapes. Filtration specialists<br />

offer solutions such as enzymes and<br />

laboratory tests. Climatic conditions<br />

could increasingly force such measures,<br />

which is why winegrowing specialists<br />

are already preparing for<br />

them.<br />

Food: Stricter regulations through<br />

better testing procedures<br />

Increasing precision in food testing<br />

increases the demands on filtration.<br />

Systems must meet higher standards<br />

and be regularly monitored and<br />

maintained. Fine filtration technologies<br />

such as membrane or nanofiltration<br />

are becoming more popular because<br />

they remove even the smallest<br />

impurities.<br />

Innovative solutions for complex<br />

processes<br />

Separation technology is diverse. In<br />

all areas, the filtration and separation<br />

market is poised for growth and<br />

change. As companies recognize the<br />

importance of filtration in maintaining<br />

product quality and environmental<br />

responsibility, the demand for<br />

advanced filtration solutions will continue<br />

to grow. At FILTECH, attendees<br />

will find solutions that can meet every<br />

need - today and in the future.<br />

www.filtech.de<br />

Photo: Filtech GmbH<br />

76 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Trade fairs and events<br />

VALVE WORLD EXPO <strong>2024</strong><br />

VALVE WORLD EXPO <strong>2024</strong> in Düsseldorf<br />

Industry reacts to economic policy challenges<br />

a “must” for the high performers in<br />

industry,” promises the Director at<br />

Messe Düsseldorf. Together with his<br />

team he looks to the trade fair kickoff<br />

on 3 December with anticipation.<br />

In <strong>2024</strong> the ecoMetals campaign by<br />

Messe Düsseldorf will again accompany<br />

the VALVE WORLD EXPO. With<br />

the help of a QR code visitors can decide<br />

themselves when to plan their<br />

tours to the exhibitors at the fair to<br />

find out live at the stand how sustainably<br />

these firms manufacture at their<br />

plants.<br />

Hydrogen seems to be one everyone’s<br />

lips but how do the key technology<br />

sectors of industrial fittings<br />

and valves confront it?<br />

How can existing gas pipelines be refitted<br />

cost-efficiently, when will sufficient<br />

new pipelines be produced and<br />

used throughout the country, and will<br />

hydrogen production become more<br />

inexpensive in future? Where is the<br />

skilled labour to build and fill these<br />

pipelines?<br />

So many questions for an industry<br />

that is undergoing rapid transition.<br />

The currently 327 exhibitors from 29<br />

countries taking part in the VALVE<br />

WORLD EXPO with Congress in Düsseldorf<br />

from 3 to 5 December <strong>2024</strong><br />

will showcase the innovations this<br />

sector has in store for the energy<br />

transition.<br />

all photos: Messe Düsseldorf/tillmann<br />

the sector firmly believes in its leading<br />

event as an innovation driver and<br />

international community platform.<br />

Alongside German companies, exhibitors<br />

from Italy, Spain, the UK, Turkey,<br />

the USA, India and China will be represented<br />

in Düsseldorf again.<br />

Here, every two years, the industry<br />

gets together at the international industrial<br />

valve summit to exchange<br />

ideas on innovations, trends and solutions.<br />

“Düsseldorf as a hotspot of<br />

the industrial valve industries – accompanied<br />

by a high-calibre Congress,<br />

the Valve Star Awards and<br />

the sustainable ecoMetal trails – is<br />

After their successful debut in 2022,<br />

the Valve Star Awards will also be presented<br />

to especially innovative companies<br />

and their products in <strong>2024</strong>.<br />

Organised by the Vulkan-Verlag publishing<br />

house, exhibitors can submit<br />

their products with a brief description<br />

in the run-up to the trade fair<br />

and thereby nominate them for participation<br />

in the Valve Star Awards.<br />

Votes are cast online. The winners will<br />

be recognised in the four categories<br />

Valves, Actuators, Sealing <strong>Technology</strong><br />

and the special category Industry<br />

4.0/Automation during the trade fair<br />

in Düsseldorf.<br />

www.valveworldexpo.de.<br />

The exhibits on show at the No. 1<br />

trade fair for industrial valves range<br />

from powerful machinery and equipment<br />

to tiny special valves, thereby<br />

mapping the entire value chain in industrial<br />

valves.<br />

The convincing interim registration<br />

figures already reflect today that<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Trade fairs and events<br />

DIAM & DDM 2025<br />

DIAM & DDM - Review of a successful<br />

anniversary year 2023 & preview 2025<br />

2023 was a very special year for the<br />

organisers of DIAM & DDM. In addition<br />

to the two face-to-face events<br />

in Leipzig/Schkeuditz and Bochum,<br />

the 10 th anniversary of the trade<br />

fair was also celebrated. Since the<br />

founding of the then stand-alone<br />

DIAM, these were events number 10<br />

and 11, which were held last year.<br />

This special year came to a successful<br />

conclusion with the 6 th edition at<br />

the premiere location in Bochum’s<br />

Jahrhunderthalle.<br />

“We are very proud that we have been<br />

around for more than 10 years and<br />

that we have been able to develop<br />

DIAM & DDM together with our exhibitors<br />

into the largest national industry<br />

gathering for industrial valves<br />

& sealing technology. As in the past,<br />

our 6 th edition in Bochum was once<br />

again a very good presence event.<br />

We are highly satisfied!”, summarised<br />

Malte Theuerkauf and Kevin Hildach.<br />

Almost 150 exhibitors came to the<br />

Jahrhunderthalle. The joy of the exhibitors<br />

at the well-known “family<br />

reunion” was clearly recognisable.<br />

The satisfaction of the organisers is<br />

also reflected in the statement from<br />

the premium partner from 2023:<br />

“We at SAMSON AG supported DIAM<br />

& DDM as a premium partner in order<br />

to accompany the successful format<br />

of this important industry trade<br />

fair into the future. DIAM & DDM was<br />

very successful for us and we look<br />

forward to innovative events in 2025!”<br />

In the future, the organisers of the<br />

largest national industry meeting for<br />

industrial valves & sealing technology<br />

will continue to stick to their proven<br />

concept and make further adjustments<br />

to expand the success of the<br />

trade fair.<br />

The next DIAM & DDM trade fairs<br />

will take place on 2 nd and 3 rd April<br />

2025 in Leipzig/Schkeuditz and on<br />

12 th and 13 th November 2025 in the<br />

“Jahrhunderthalle” Bochum.<br />

The dates:<br />

GLOBANA Trade Centre<br />

Leipzig/Schkeuditz<br />

2 nd and 3 rd April 2025<br />

Jahrhunderthalle Bochum<br />

12 th and 13 th November 2025<br />

Opening hours:<br />

1 st day of the fair from 09:00-17:00<br />

2 nd day of the fair from 09:00-16:00<br />

www.diam-ddm.de<br />

78 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Save<br />

the<br />

Date<br />

industrial valves &<br />

sealing technology<br />

/ 2nd – 3rd April 2025<br />

/ Globana Eventhallen<br />

Leipzig/Schkeuditz<br />

/ 12th – 13th November 2025<br />

/ Jahrhunderthalle Bochum<br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

Machine room ventilation<br />

Machine room ventilation<br />

So that the packages do not run out of air<br />

The machine room -<br />

The unnoticed stepchild<br />

Compressors, blowers and turbos<br />

are at the heart of countless processes<br />

worldwide. They are generally<br />

designed for maximum efficiency<br />

and maximal energy savings, thus<br />

reducing costs and CO 2<br />

emissions.<br />

However, 15 per cent of 100 per cent<br />

of the energy used is typically lost in a<br />

poorly designed machine room - thermal<br />

losses due to heat radiation from<br />

the packages and mechanical losses<br />

due to underpressure in the machine<br />

room and intake losses. It is therefore<br />

essential to include the machine<br />

room in the efficiency concept to ensure<br />

the most economical operation<br />

possible. Room ventilation plays a<br />

central role here, as the air pressure<br />

and temperature in the room where<br />

the machines are installed are crucial<br />

for efficient operation. Or in short:<br />

Without a professional machine<br />

room ventilation system, users literally<br />

lose their money in the air.<br />

There is still plenty of room<br />

for improvement<br />

Machine room ventilation is rarely<br />

at the top of the priority list. This is<br />

a big mistake, because if the ambient<br />

conditions in the installation room<br />

are not appropriate, the blowers and<br />

compressors have to work harder or<br />

run longer to achieve the required capacity.<br />

System operators often do not<br />

realise how much they are counteracting<br />

the efficiency benefits of their<br />

packages with inadequate ventilation<br />

of the installation rooms. The losses<br />

caused by excessively high temperatures<br />

and/or incorrect air pressure<br />

are striking. That quickly adds up to<br />

more than 10,000 euros per year.<br />

– Faster wear of the system<br />

components<br />

– Reduced machine service life<br />

– Unhindered sound propagation<br />

– Higher energy and maintenance<br />

costs<br />

Air pressure, temperature and<br />

sound - The values must be right<br />

It is completely irrelevant where the<br />

packages get their intake air from: It<br />

is important that there is enough air<br />

at correct temperature. Sounds banal,<br />

but it is by no means trivial.<br />

Without supplies, the machines<br />

run out of air<br />

AERZEN packages work according to<br />

the positive displacement principle<br />

(compressor with internal compression,<br />

blower without) and are socalled<br />

forced conveying systems. This<br />

means that they extract air from their<br />

surroundings - continuously. If no or<br />

too little air can flow in, there is lack<br />

of air in the room. An underpres-<br />

sure is created. This can go so far that<br />

doors can no longer be opened. For<br />

example, with a 2 m 2 door leaf and<br />

25 mbar underpressure in the room,<br />

a compressive force of 5,000 N acts<br />

on the door. This corresponds to approx.<br />

510 kg. People in the machine<br />

room would then no longer be able to<br />

leave it - a dangerous situation.<br />

In addition, there is a loss of efficiency<br />

in the machines. As the air<br />

pressure drops, the density of the<br />

air decreases and the blowers (compressors)<br />

must increase their power<br />

requirement to achieve the intended<br />

performance. For applications with<br />

a differential pressure of 500 mbar,<br />

this quickly means an increase in performance<br />

of 10 per cent.<br />

<strong>Process</strong> air generators like it cool<br />

When air is compressed, a lot of heat<br />

is generated during the process -<br />

both in the generated air flow and<br />

under the acoustic hood due to the<br />

waste heat from the motor, silencer<br />

and compressor. If this waste heat<br />

is not conducted out of the room,<br />

the ambient temperature can rise to<br />

unacceptable levels. As a result, the<br />

packages can overheat, which leads<br />

to a loss of efficiency, faster wear and<br />

The consequences of inadequate<br />

room ventilation:<br />

– Higher energy demand of the<br />

packages<br />

80 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

Machine room ventilation<br />

a shorter service life - up to and including<br />

acute (total) damage. This effect<br />

occurs with all machine technologies,<br />

but to varying degrees. Positive<br />

displacement blowers, which are very<br />

common in pneumatics and wastewater<br />

technology, generate particularly<br />

high levels of heat. As a result,<br />

these are increasingly being replaced<br />

by rotary lobe compressors and turbos,<br />

which offer higher energy efficiency<br />

and lower heat dissipation.<br />

Loud instead of warm?<br />

Not a good idea.<br />

Anyone who thinks they can simply<br />

open the door or window of a machine<br />

room to improve the indoor<br />

climate in operation has made the<br />

invoice without the sound. This is because<br />

sound can escape unhindered<br />

through the openings - an undesirable<br />

side effect that makes it difficult<br />

to comply with occupational health<br />

and safety and noise protection regulations.<br />

The other extreme is just as<br />

ineffective. If the focus in the design<br />

of the machine room was solely on<br />

making the external shell as soundproof<br />

as possible, too little outside<br />

air could flow into the internals due<br />

to the sound insulation. The packages<br />

would literally run out of air due to a<br />

lack of replenishment. Suction of the<br />

machines via piping, i. e. directly from<br />

the outside, can also have disadvantages,<br />

as the suction noise is shifted<br />

almost directly to the outside.<br />

Supplementary problems<br />

in pneumatics<br />

When pneumatically conveying sensitive<br />

media in the food industry - for example<br />

sugar, cocoa powder or similar<br />

- certain temperature ranges must be<br />

maintained. If the conveying air is too<br />

warm, the conveying material will be<br />

damaged. If sensitive products are to<br />

be conveyed, operators must ensure<br />

that the intake air is cool. The higher<br />

the suction temperature, the higher<br />

the discharge temperature of the<br />

compressor. As a rule of thumb: For<br />

every 100 mbar increase in pressure<br />

in the compression process, the temperature<br />

on the outlet side rises by<br />

10 Kelvin. With a conveying pressure<br />

of 500 mbar and an ambient temperature<br />

of 20 degrees, this results in a<br />

discharge temperature of 70 degrees<br />

(20 degrees suction temperature plus<br />

50 degrees temperature increase due<br />

to the compression process).<br />

every 100 mbar more pressure =<br />

10 Kelvin warmer conveying air<br />

If the discharge temperature is too<br />

warm for the conveying medium, the<br />

conveying air must be cooled down.<br />

For blowers up to 1,000 mbar, this is<br />

done on the intake side. The advantage<br />

here is that intake cooling systems<br />

usually pre-dry the air.<br />

For screw compressors, on the<br />

other hand, cooling on the discharge<br />

side is recommended. Due to the<br />

higher pressures, compression temperatures<br />

of approx. 200 degrees are<br />

achieved. However, this is not possible<br />

without pressure losses through<br />

aftercoolers, condensate drains and,<br />

if necessary, dryers to dry the cooled<br />

air. In the case of longer conveying<br />

distances, convection on the piping<br />

also leads to cooling of the conveying<br />

air and thus, under certain circumstances,<br />

to remaining under the pressure<br />

dew point. If the pressure falls<br />

below the pressure dew point, water<br />

wastes. Temperature management<br />

is therefore of crucial importance for<br />

the efficiency and quality of the conveying<br />

processes.<br />

The biggest sins of efficiency -<br />

Costs without benefits<br />

If the supply and exhaust air ducts<br />

are insufficiently dimensioned and/<br />

or the internal temperatures are too<br />

high, the packages must increase<br />

their performance in order to provide<br />

the necessary quantity of process air.<br />

At the end of the day, these reductions<br />

in efficiency add up to a glaring<br />

loss in energy efficiency and thus to<br />

rising electricity costs. It is therefore<br />

not insignificant for the efficiency of<br />

the process and compressed air generators<br />

how the machine room is designed.<br />

The key points are above all<br />

sufficient volume flow, the correct air<br />

pressure, effective limitation of the<br />

temperature in the installation room<br />

and the alignment of the room or<br />

building according to the direction of<br />

the compass.<br />

The following faults should<br />

be avoided:<br />

– Ventilation openings too narrow<br />

– Ventilation grilles blocked<br />

– Internal temperatures too high<br />

– Intake air too warm<br />

– Clogged filter mats<br />

– Noise protection concept without<br />

consideration of sufficient air<br />

supply (hazard of underpressure)<br />

– Open machine room doors<br />

(keyword: noise emissions)<br />

– Frequency inverter in the machine<br />

room (= heat source)<br />

The consequences of inadequate or<br />

non-existing machine room ventilation<br />

are losses - losses in efficiency,<br />

losses in the service life of the packages,<br />

losses in the supply of the pneumatic<br />

conveying system and losses in<br />

finances.<br />

In a poorly designed machine room,<br />

the blowers and compressors must<br />

typically have a 15 per cent higher capacity<br />

to provide the required quantity<br />

of process air.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

Machine room ventilation<br />

Optimum room ventilation -<br />

The heat must be blown out,<br />

the sound stays in<br />

Whether suction of cooling and/or<br />

conveying air directly from the machine<br />

room or from outside via a separate<br />

piping: Sufficiently dimensioned<br />

room ventilation is required for all intake<br />

types. The machine room ventilation<br />

fulfils three functions: Supply<br />

of conveying air, temperature regulation<br />

and noise protection.<br />

velocity and installation height as well<br />

as other relevant data in the online<br />

tool - the room ventilation calculator<br />

then automatically calculates the necessary<br />

room ventilation.<br />

Louvre silencer for the supply<br />

and exhaust air side<br />

The main work is taken over by supply<br />

and exhaust air louvre silencers.<br />

They ensure that sufficient air is available<br />

for compression, that the room<br />

does not heat up and that noise emissions<br />

do not exceed the limit values.<br />

The louvres inside are designed to<br />

effectively reduce noise and generate<br />

little flow resistance so that the<br />

packages in the machine room do<br />

not draw underpressure. The inlet<br />

air louvre is completed by a weather<br />

protection grille, which also prevents<br />

birds and leaves from getting into the<br />

intake duct.<br />

From north to south<br />

The main purpose of the exhaust air<br />

louvre is to conduct excess heat to<br />

the external air. As a rule, it is only<br />

half the size of the inlet air louvre<br />

and should be positioned in the ma-<br />

An art in itself<br />

When calculating, designing and implementing<br />

the ideal machine room<br />

ventilation, a large number of factors<br />

must be taken into account - from the<br />

performance data of the packages and<br />

the geographical conditions to the optimum<br />

position of the supply and exhaust<br />

air louvres in the room. The design<br />

of the machine room ventilation<br />

should therefore exclusively be carried<br />

out by professionals. The room<br />

ventilation calculator from AERZEN<br />

provides initial assistance for planning<br />

and optimisation. Planning offices and<br />

system manufacturers can enter existing<br />

values such as motor rating, ambient<br />

temperature, volume flow, flow<br />

Ideally, the supply and exhaust air louvres in the machine room should be positioned so<br />

that the air flows through the interior as diagonally as possible.<br />

Functions of the machine room ventilation:<br />

– Supply of conveying air<br />

– Temperature regulation<br />

– Noise protection<br />

chine room - in relation to the inlet air<br />

louvre - so that the air flows through<br />

the interior as diagonally as possible.<br />

For exhaust air, the same applies in<br />

terms of noise emissions as for inlet<br />

air: The heat must be blown out,<br />

the sound stays in. The exhaust air<br />

louvres are therefore equipped with<br />

sound-absorbing elements and use<br />

exhaust fans to ensure that the warm<br />

air leaves the room quickly. The exhaust<br />

fans are best assembled at ceiling<br />

height, as this is where the air is<br />

warmest.<br />

The cardinal points also play a<br />

role. For example, the inlet air in the<br />

82 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

Machine room ventilation<br />

northern hemisphere is ideally located<br />

in the north, as the air there<br />

is colder and therefore has a higher<br />

density. The exhaust air is ideally<br />

aligned to the south.<br />

Louvre blades against the cold<br />

Optional louvre blades can be used<br />

to close and open the supply and exhaust<br />

air louvres - either manually<br />

by hand control or automatically using<br />

a thermostat and switchgear. This<br />

is useful for application in cold outside<br />

temperatures. If it is below freezing<br />

outside, it is neither desirable for<br />

heat to leave the room nor for cold to<br />

enter the room. By closing and opening<br />

the supply and exhaust air louvres<br />

as required using louvre blades,<br />

both can be prevented while still securing<br />

good room ventilation.<br />

This is what ideal machine room ventilation<br />

looks like:<br />

– Sufficiently dimensioned ventilation<br />

openings<br />

– In the northern hemisphere: Alignment<br />

of the inlet air to the north<br />

(colder air with higher density) and<br />

the exhaust air to the south<br />

– Room is flowed through diagonally<br />

Regular filter changes pay off<br />

The filter is normally changed once a<br />

year. In most cases, this is too rarely<br />

the case. In view of the immense efficiency<br />

and cost losses caused by filter<br />

contamination of the suction filter, a<br />

replacement cycle of two months is<br />

recommended. It is not enough to<br />

blow out the clogged filter with compressed<br />

air. Clogged filters quickly<br />

cause a pressure resistance of 25 and<br />

more millibars. In an average plant<br />

with four blowers, each with a motor<br />

rating of 37 kW, a total of 6,900 operating<br />

hours per year and 40 cents per<br />

kilowatt hour, the clogged suction filter<br />

alone would demand five per cent<br />

more performance from the blowers.<br />

That's more than € 20,000 a year.<br />

Frequently changing the suction filters<br />

is therefore worthwhile and also<br />

saves costs.<br />

Engine room with ventilation on the south and north sides<br />

Realising efficiency potential<br />

– Use of louvre silencers on the supply<br />

and exhaust air side<br />

To summarise: Any reduction in efficiency<br />

- even if it is only a few percentage<br />

points - has a negative impact on (where the air is warmest)<br />

– Exhaust fans at ceiling height<br />

the energy balance and thus increases<br />

electricity costs. To ensure that side temperatures (with manual<br />

– Louvre blades for use in cold out-<br />

the machine room does not become adjustment or automated)<br />

an efficiency killer, criteria such as a – Regular maintenance of the suction<br />

filters<br />

sufficient air supply, a cooler suction<br />

temperature, optimum air pressure,<br />

alignment of the supply and exhaust Invest once, profit forever - Modern<br />

air to the direction of the compass ventilation concepts make the difference<br />

and regular filter cleaning should not<br />

be ignored.<br />

High energy costs, increasing scarcity<br />

of resources, growing environmental<br />

awareness and increased cost<br />

pressure are forcing companies and<br />

plant operators to optimise their processes<br />

and use resources more economically<br />

and efficiently. The use of<br />

high-performance technologies and<br />

energy-saving packages is an important<br />

step. However, the key to maximal<br />

energy and cost efficiency lies in<br />

a holistic approach - and this includes<br />

optimising the design of the installation<br />

room for the blowers, compressors<br />

and turbos.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

Machine room ventilation<br />

The following calculation example illustrates<br />

the costs incurred due to inadequate<br />

room ventilation.<br />

Calculation example: Losses due to inadequate room ventilation<br />

Initial situation:<br />

– 4 packages with a motor rating<br />

of 37 kW each<br />

– 6,900 operating hours per year<br />

– 40 ct/kWh electricity costs<br />

– Application with a differential<br />

pressure of 500 mbar at an ambient<br />

pressure of 1,000 mbar (1 bar)<br />

In the application example, excessive<br />

temperatures, underpressure in the<br />

room and dirty suction filters result in<br />

annual costs of around € 40,848 - an<br />

enormous sum.<br />

These costs are absolutely avoidable.<br />

Even simple measures help to eliminate<br />

these unnecessary losses and at<br />

the same time solve the noise problems<br />

that can occur during process<br />

and compressed air generation.<br />

tion room can be eliminated with little<br />

effort and a manageable financial<br />

investment. Compared to the annual<br />

savings, the costs for the one-off investment<br />

in a machine room ventilation<br />

system are negligible.<br />

Minimum costs, maximum<br />

efficiency<br />

Efficiency losses of blowers and compressors<br />

resulting from insufficient<br />

ambient conditions in the installa-<br />

Maschinenfabrik Aerzen GmbH<br />

Aerzen, Germany<br />

www.aerzen.com<br />

84 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

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Compressors and Systems<br />

Biogas backfeed<br />

Biogas Backfeed in Leoben<br />

Ralf Deichelmann<br />

The best-known Austrian beer<br />

brand on the global stage is Gösser<br />

Bräu, owned by Brau Union Österreich<br />

AG. And the brewery, located<br />

in Leoben, Styria, has traditions<br />

that date back more than 1000<br />

years. In 1860, the brewer Max Kober<br />

breathed new life into the brewery,<br />

which had been started by the<br />

nuns of Göss and later abandoned.<br />

Nowadays, the green portion of the<br />

logo also signifies the company's<br />

commitment to a climate-friendly<br />

business policy. Gösser is pulling out<br />

all the stops to reduce its fossil fuel<br />

consumption in production, procurement<br />

and delivery. As well as rolling<br />

out a large solar installation and<br />

lever aging waste heat during the<br />

brewing process, tapping into its own<br />

biogas is one pillar of the company's<br />

sustainability strategy.<br />

In fact, the biogas supply is a joint project<br />

between Brau Union, the energy<br />

supplier Energienetze Steiermark<br />

and the compressor specialist BAUER<br />

KOMPRESSOREN. The biogas used in<br />

the production process is extracted<br />

from the brewery's spent grains, the<br />

residue from the brewing process, in<br />

Brau Union's own bio gas plant and<br />

then transferred to “Energienetze<br />

Steiermark” (Styrian Energy Networks),<br />

which then converts the raw<br />

gas into ready-to-use, compressed<br />

and purified biomethane.<br />

To ensure it is usable down the line,<br />

the freshly extracted raw gas must<br />

first be treated. It undergoes a process<br />

called amine scrubbing, which<br />

removes unwanted by-products from<br />

the raw gas.<br />

Fig. 1: The Gösser brewery uses biogas compressed by BAUER<br />

Typical uses include to remove carbon<br />

dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and<br />

other acid gases from gas mixtures.<br />

Amine scrubbing is based on the<br />

chemisorption principle, which paves<br />

the way for high purities, even at relatively<br />

low pressures. The gas is only<br />

under a few millibars of pressure<br />

when it enters the feed system. Prior<br />

to compression, the quality of the<br />

processed biomethane is measured<br />

with a gas analyser to determine the<br />

methane content and its accompanying<br />

substances and thus comply with<br />

the benchmark values specified in<br />

the relevant standards.<br />

Fig. 2: Biogas recompressor station from BAUER KOMPRESSOREN as a containerised<br />

solution for outdoor use<br />

Two technically different compressor<br />

systems were planned because<br />

the power is fed into different grids<br />

according to demand. And this is<br />

where the cutting-edge compressor<br />

technolo gy of natural gas and biogas<br />

specialist BAUER KOMPRESSOREN<br />

comes into play. The first of the two<br />

systems uses a CNK9-55 water-cooled<br />

screw compressor, which is designed<br />

to deliver high capacity at low pres-<br />

86 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

Biogas backfeed<br />

sure. This feeds the processed biomethane<br />

into a 4 bar network, which is<br />

used in the brewing process at the<br />

brewery.<br />

Fig. 3: Leoben gas feed circuit diagram<br />

After compression, the biomethane<br />

is re-cleaned via special filter<br />

systems and cooled down to a gas<br />

temperature of around 20°C using<br />

a chiller, as the pipes in the brewery<br />

process are made of temperaturesensitive<br />

PE. If the extraction during<br />

the brewing process is too low, the<br />

second compressor, a water-cooled<br />

CS23.8-37 medium-pressure compressor,<br />

switches over fully automatically.<br />

This high-pressure booster, developed<br />


makes it possible to handle high inlet<br />

pressure without reducing it. This<br />

operating mode is particularly energy-efficient<br />

and reduces energy consumption.<br />

Specially developed control<br />

and valve technology ensures<br />

uninterrupted operation. The compressors<br />

are housed in heated and<br />

ventilated containers, allowing them<br />

to operate in highly variable outdoor<br />

conditions.<br />

Fig. 4: Water-cooled CNK9-55 screw compressor<br />

Gösser Bräu has added another important<br />

building block to its sustainability<br />

strategy with the commissioning<br />

of the fully installed systems<br />

following final acceptance.<br />

The Author: Ralf Deichelmann,<br />

Marketing and PR<br />


Munich, Germany<br />

www.bauer-kompressoren.de<br />

Fig. 5: Water-cooled medium-pressure compressor type CS23.8-37<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

Sustainability<br />

Compressed air specialist committed to the climate<br />

and customers<br />

Sustainability on the rise<br />

The use of compressed air consumes<br />

a lot of energy. However, work is also<br />

being done on the ecological balance<br />

in this area. Manufacturers such as<br />

BOGE support their customers in<br />

saving electricity and CO 2<br />

and are<br />

involved in cross-industry projects<br />

that contribute to environmental<br />

and climate protection.<br />

BOGE is also involved in the Haru Oni<br />

project. The Bielefeld-based manufacturer<br />

of compressors and compressed<br />

air systems supplies the compressed<br />

air required to operate the<br />

system. It is required as instrument<br />

air - for example to control pneumatic<br />

valves - but also to generate the nitrogen.<br />

The generator works according<br />

to the pressure swing adsorption<br />

(PSA) process and supplies nitrogen<br />

with a purity of 99.99 per cent. BOGE<br />

has also developed a system for compressing<br />

the carbon dioxide extracted<br />

from the air. “Unlike usual, the CO 2<br />

is not stored in a solid container, but<br />

in a bubble made of rubberised fabric<br />

that inflates to the specified filling<br />

level,” explains the Senior Project<br />

Manager at BOGE. Many of the sys-<br />

One of these projects is “Haru Oni” - in<br />

the language of the indigenous people<br />

of Chile, this means “strong wind”.<br />

There is more than enough of it in the<br />

southernmost region of Chile. In the<br />

“Haru Oni” pilot project, wind energy<br />

is to be used to produce e-fuel. In<br />

other words, the substance that will<br />

power some cars, ships and airplanes<br />

as well as countless machines in the<br />

future. Companies from several countries<br />

have joined forces under the<br />

leadership of the Chilean project company<br />

HIF (Highly Innovative Fuels). The<br />

common goal is to initially produce<br />

130 cubic metres of the green fuel. In<br />

a second phase, production is to be increased<br />

to 55,000 cubic metres and<br />

from 2026 to 550,000 cubic metres.<br />

The climate-neutral fuel is obtained<br />

from hydrogen and carbon dioxide.<br />

To do this, water is split into its<br />

components hydrogen and oxygen<br />

using electrical energy. The hydrogen<br />

is mixed with carbon dioxide, which<br />

is absorbed and collected directly<br />

from the air, to form a synthesis gas.<br />

This is then processed into methanol<br />

and finally into synthetic petrol. The<br />

companies involved in the project,<br />

including Siemens Energy, are trialling<br />

various new processes for this.<br />

Fig. 1: As part of the Haru Oni project, BOGE has developed a system for compressing the<br />

carbon dioxide extracted from the air. The CO 2<br />

is stored in a bubble made of rubberised fabric,<br />

which inflates to the specified level.<br />

Nitrogen with a purity of<br />

99.99 per cent<br />

Fig. 2: With the new components for screw compressors, up to 94 per cent of the energy<br />

used can be recovered.<br />

88 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

Compressors and Systems<br />

Sustainability<br />

tems used in the project are pilot systems,<br />

some of which are being operated<br />

for the first time and need to be<br />

harmonised with each other.<br />

More heat equals less energy<br />

Renewable energies from wind and<br />

sun play a key role in achieving the internationally<br />

agreed climate targets.<br />

But this alone will hardly be enough<br />

- energy must also be wasted less,<br />

saved wherever possible and utilised<br />

several times. This is why BOGE offers<br />

its customers the option of recovering<br />

some of the energy used to<br />

generate compressed air and utilising<br />

it further: the heat generated is no<br />

longer released into the environment<br />

but can be used, for example, to heat<br />

operating areas and to heat water or<br />

oils. With the new components for<br />

screw compressors, up to 94 per cent<br />

of the energy used can be recovered.<br />

As the heat generated is dissipated,<br />

the energy required to cool the compressors<br />

is also reduced. The investment<br />

is therefore usually amortised<br />

within a few months: a double benefit<br />

for the environment and for the<br />

company.<br />

Clean drinking water with<br />

compressed air<br />

In addition to utilising renewable<br />

energy sources and saving process<br />

heat, there are other ways to contribute<br />

to climate protection. For<br />

example, the issue of drinking water<br />

is being given even greater attention<br />

than before since climate change<br />

has been accompanied by water<br />

shortages in large parts of Europe.<br />

A Belgian supplier maintains a drinking<br />

water network of over 2,300 kilometres,<br />

supplying almost 200,000<br />

people. The water comes from the<br />

Albert Canal and the Nete Canal as<br />

well as the Eekhoven reservoir. As<br />

it is a shallow, stagnant body of water,<br />

blue-green algae quickly develop<br />

there in the hot summer months.<br />

They discolour the water, form unsightly<br />

foam and floating mats on<br />

its surface and also pose a threat to<br />

human health.<br />

To prevent this, the utility company<br />

has developed a plan together<br />

Fig. 3: With the “Blueprotect” solution<br />

developed by BOGE, the insects are exposed<br />

to nitrogen for 30 to 40 days so that no<br />

broods can develop.<br />

with BOGE for an aeration system to<br />

thwart the formation of algae. The<br />

system supplies oil-free compressed<br />

air and pumps it into the water via<br />

five-point aerators. The aeration<br />

ensures good mixing, leading to increased<br />

oxygen levels, reduced nutrient<br />

release through the soil and the<br />

elimination of dead zones. This prevents<br />

algae from forming layers and<br />

keeps the drinking water clean.<br />

Customised solutions for customers<br />

Generating renewable energy, utilising<br />

waste heat, ensuring clean drinking<br />

water - ecological and sustainable<br />

management has many facets. One<br />

aspect that seems rather unusual is<br />

of great importance for grain silos:<br />

the use of nitrogen for pest control.<br />

In the food industry, the use of the<br />

gas has long been common practice<br />

to displace oxygen from packaging<br />

and thus protect food from spoiling.<br />

BOGE is now applying the same principle<br />

to grain silos: Nitrogen extracted<br />

from the ambient air is channelled<br />

into the silos, where it displaces the<br />

oxygen without which aerobic animals<br />

- in this case grain beetles in<br />

particular - cannot exist. The economic<br />

losses caused by pest infestation<br />

in silos can quickly amount to<br />

hundreds of thousands of euros. If,<br />

for example, breweries detect pests<br />

during quality control of the grain delivered<br />

by a malting plant, they often<br />

refuse to accept the grain and the delivery<br />

is returned.<br />

With the “Blueprotect” solution<br />

developed by BOGE, the insects are<br />

exposed to nitrogen for 30 to 40 days<br />

so that no broods can develop. The<br />

devices required for nitrogen production<br />

- compressor, dryer and filter -<br />

are integrated into a container in sizes<br />

10 and 20 feet. The container can be<br />

used for several silos via plug-andplay.<br />

Nitrogen is supplied to the silo<br />

via pipes or hoses, whereby existing<br />

fire brigade connections or ventilation<br />

pipes can be used. “We focus<br />

on the customer's requirements and<br />

offer customised solutions,” says the<br />

expert for special gases at BOGE.<br />

The tighter a silo is, the more<br />

efficient the process is. However,<br />

fine cracks are often not recognisable,<br />

and it is not uncommon for there<br />

to be leaks in the area of the grain<br />

feed and discharge openings, air inlet<br />

openings or manholes. On request,<br />

BOGE can therefore provide a test<br />

container that supplies nitrogen at<br />

a flow rate of 40 to 60 cubic metres<br />

per hour. This allows the tightness of<br />

the silo to be determined within a few<br />

days and the system to be designed<br />

accordingly. “Blueprotect is ecological<br />

and therefore a forward-looking alternative<br />

to the use of conventional<br />

methods,” explains the expert.<br />

Sustainability pays off<br />

For a long time, sustainability was<br />

a term that only played a role in<br />

forestry. This has now changed, because<br />

there is a growing realisation<br />

that ecological action and management<br />

is necessary in all areas: also<br />

in mechanical engineering - also in<br />

the compressed air segment. With its<br />

vari ous initiatives and projects, the<br />

Bielefeld-based compressor manufacturer<br />

BOGE shows how diverse<br />

the areas are in which sustainability<br />

is worthwhile - for the environment<br />

as well as for the company.<br />


Otto Boge GmbH & Co. KG,<br />

Bielefeld, Germany<br />

www.boge.com<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


Compressors and Systems<br />

Heat recovery<br />

Heat recovery<br />

Save money and benefit the environment<br />

Dipl. Betriebswirtin Daniela Koehler, Dipl.-Ing (FH) Gerhart Hobusch<br />

Compressors and the compressed<br />

air they generate are used in a multitude<br />

of industrial applica-tions.<br />

However, the fact that compressor<br />

exhaust heat can be harnessed often<br />

remains forgot-ten. The magic<br />

words here are “heat recovery”: up<br />

to 96 % of the drive energy supplied<br />

to a compressor is available for reuse.<br />

This not only saves energy and<br />

costs, but also reduces the operator’s<br />

CO 2<br />

footprint.<br />

Fully 100 % of the drive energy supplied<br />

to a compressor is converted<br />

into heat. Both air- and fluid-cooled<br />

rotary screw compressors are exceptionally<br />

well-suited to comprehensive<br />

recovery and reuse of this energy;<br />

around 76 % of their energy input remains<br />

as heat in the cooling fluid and<br />

is removed in the fluid cooler. A further<br />

15 % can be recovered as heat<br />

via the compressed air aftercooler.<br />

Up to 5 % of the heat produced is<br />

emitted by the electric motor – with<br />

targeted cooling, fully enclosed rotary<br />

screw compressors can even recover<br />

this energy as well. Only 2 % of the total<br />

energy input is lost as heat radiation,<br />

whilst a further 2 % remains as<br />

heat in the compressed air.<br />

Of course, this heat could simply<br />

be conveyed away. However, there<br />

are plenty of ways to make use of this<br />

readily available energy source that<br />

occurs as a by-product of the compression<br />

process. The simplest and<br />

most efficient method is to use the<br />

compressor exhaust heat directly,<br />

e. g. for heating adjoining rooms or<br />

spaces. Here, instead of discharging<br />

hot air from the compressed air station<br />

outside, an air ducting system directs<br />

it to neighbouring warehouses<br />

or work-shops. When no hot air is<br />

required, the heated exhaust air is<br />

simply conveyed outdoors by means<br />

of a flap or louvre. A thermostatically<br />

controlled louvre enables hot air to<br />

be provided as and when required<br />

in order to maintain a constant temperature.<br />

In addition to providing full or supplementary<br />

heating for operating spaces,<br />

hot compressor exhaust air can<br />

be used to support applications such<br />

as drying processes, generating hot air<br />

curtains or preheating burner air for<br />

heating systems. The corresponding<br />

investment costs can often be amortised<br />

within a period of one year.<br />

Compressor exhaust heat can also<br />

be used to supply existing hot water<br />

heating and service water systems; depending<br />

on the available storage capacity,<br />

water temperatures of 70 ºC<br />

and even higher can be gener ated.<br />

There are several ways to achieve this.<br />

The most cost-effective method is to<br />

use a plate-type heat exchanger integrated<br />

into the compressor, which is<br />

connected to the compressor cooling<br />

fluid circuit and transfers energy from<br />

the heated cooling fluid to the water<br />

that requires heating. Depending on<br />

whether the hot water is required for<br />

particularly sensitive production or<br />

cleaning processes, for showering and<br />

washing, or for general heating systems,<br />

special safety heat exchangers<br />

or conventional plate-type heat exchangers<br />

may be used. These enable<br />

70 – 80 % of the installed compressor<br />

output to be used for heating purposes<br />

without the need for any additional<br />

expenditure on energy.<br />

Fig. 1: Virtually the full amount of energy supplied for compressed air generation can be<br />

used for heat recovery.<br />

Fig. 2: Heated compressor cooling air can be used for simple and effective heating of neighbouring<br />

spaces via air ducting.<br />

90 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>


This variant of heat recovery is also possible<br />

with primary water-cooled rotary screw compressors.<br />

Heat recovery is principally worthwhile<br />

when the compressors in question feature<br />

a power output of at least 5.5 kW.<br />

Establishing actual requirement<br />

Since very few operators know their exact<br />

air demand, it is worth conducting a compressed<br />

air audit before installing a compressor<br />

system. Performed swiftly and seamlessly<br />

using state-of-the-art analysis tools such as<br />

the ADA/KESS (Air Demand Ana lysis/Kaeser<br />

Energy Saving System), this audit can determine<br />

the precise demand data for a project.<br />

The web-based system transmits measured<br />

data and system data for the audited station,<br />

and rapidly provides an initial report for the<br />

operator. These data can then be transferred<br />

to the KESS system and subsequently used to<br />

determine the planning steps for the air station<br />

operator, as well as the investment costs<br />

and potential for energy savings. In the case<br />

of a completely new installation, optimised solutions<br />

are devised and suggested from the<br />

outset so that the operator can compare independently<br />

between different system variants<br />

and select the most cost-efficient choice.<br />

Where building management systems are<br />

used, it is recommended to conduct a thermal<br />

audit in conjunction with the compressed<br />

air audit so that the heat balance can be determined<br />

in parallel with the air consumption.<br />

This allows thermal data such as temperature<br />

flow and return to be investigated in addition<br />

to compressed air data such as volume, pressure<br />

and required air quality.<br />

Once these details are established, it can<br />

be determined what percentage of the compressor<br />

exhaust heat can be absorbed into<br />

the normal heat requirement of the project.<br />

This in turn allows the size of the storage vessel<br />

and the required temperature to be calculated.<br />

In the best-case scenario, 96 % of the<br />

heat output can be used.<br />

What to consider<br />

A few points must be taken into account when<br />

planning or optimising a compressed air station.<br />

For example, compressors and heating<br />

systems should not be placed in the same<br />

room, since optimal use of these requires<br />

different room climate conditions and the<br />

compressor must not be permitted to draw<br />

in dangerous admixtures. The compressor<br />

room needs to be well venti-lated; the room<br />

for the heating system does not. In an ideal<br />

world, the two rooms would be separate but<br />

situated near to one another, so that the ducting<br />

route between compressors and heating<br />

system can be as short as possible. Even<br />

when the two systems are positioned apart,<br />

the heat from the compressors can be used<br />

to heat the burner intake air for the heating<br />

system.<br />

Since the volume of accumulating heat<br />

and the heat requirement are rarely identical,<br />

it is im-portant to ensure that there is sufficient<br />

thermal storage potential in the form of<br />

large vessels. This guarantees optimum sup-<br />

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Fig. 3: Compressed air station with air ducts for heat recovery. The ducts convey hot air to neighbouring spaces.<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />

Your Contact: Suzanne Abetz<br />

E-mail: info@filtech.de<br />

Phone: +49 (0)2132 93 57 60

Compressors and Systems<br />

Heat recovery<br />

ply when generation and consumption<br />

volumes differ, as happens in the<br />

case of a house equipped with solar<br />

heating, where it also necessary to install<br />

a means of thermal storage so<br />

that hot water is still available when<br />

the sun is not shining.<br />

Air- or water-cooled compressors?<br />

Once the design has been decided, it<br />

is vital to select the correct compressors.<br />

In general, two different cooling<br />

methods are available for compressors:<br />

air cooling and water cooling. As<br />

al-ready mentioned, in the case of the<br />

former, air ducts with thermostatically<br />

controlled flaps con-vey the hot exhaust<br />

air directly from the compressors<br />

to the neighbouring operating<br />

spaces, in order to provide heating<br />

for example. To minimise heat losses,<br />

the distance the exhaust air needs<br />

to travel from the compressor to the<br />

point of use should not be too far.<br />

Today, air-cooled rotary screw compressors<br />

are available with up to 315<br />

kW of power. Even if it is not required<br />

year-round, heat recovery with this<br />

type of system pays dividends: the<br />

required investment for heat recovery<br />

is relatively low and can usually<br />

be amortised within just a year.<br />

Systems equipped with additional<br />

hot water heat recovery can supply<br />

water at temperatures up to 70 °C<br />

throughout the year, and even higher<br />

if needed. However, since these<br />

systems have an impact on compressor<br />

power consumption, it should be<br />

checked beforehand that their use<br />

is justifiable from a cost-efficiency<br />

point of view.<br />

In the case of water-cooled compressors,<br />

the user-end requirements<br />

and cooling water costs also play an<br />

important role; in principle, how ever,<br />

heat recovery as described above<br />

can also be achieved here by means<br />

of a se cond connected circuit.<br />

Summary<br />

Heat recovery can significantly increase<br />

the efficiency of a compressed<br />

air system and reduce environmental<br />

damage by preventing emissions<br />

of greenhouse gas. The required investment<br />

costs depend on local conditions,<br />

the intended purpose and the<br />

method of heat recovery chosen.<br />

The Authors:<br />

Dipl. Betriebswirtin Daniela Koehler,<br />

Press Officer,<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhart Hobusch,<br />

Lead Project Engineer,<br />

both Kaeser Kompressoren<br />

Coburg, Germany<br />

www.kaeser.com<br />

92 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Plant documentation<br />

Getting started is easier than you think<br />

Plant Documentation 4.0 – an essential enabler for Industry 4.0<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (BA) Martin Dubovy, Dipl.-Betriebsw. (FH) Evelyn Landgraf<br />

Specialist articles on Industry 4.0<br />

generally emphasize the aspect of<br />

technical feasibility of the consistent,<br />

intelligent networking of machines,<br />

processes and personnel: What gateways,<br />

protocols and platforms will be<br />

needed to interlink machines from<br />

different manufacturers? What legal<br />

requirements have to be observed?<br />

How can security be designed to<br />

avoid hacker attacks? However, one<br />

aspect that is often overlooked is<br />

this: Digitalized plants and processes<br />

can only be reliably administered<br />

if documentation is available that reflects<br />

the current status of the production<br />

plants. In many places reality<br />

is still far removed from Plant<br />

Documentation 4.0 – despite the fact<br />

that it is just as essential to the success<br />

of Industry 4.0 as the necessary<br />

communication techniques and all<br />

security concepts.<br />

We are living in a time of perpetual<br />

change. This is also reflected in industrial<br />

production. Manufacturing processes<br />

are continually adapted and<br />

optimized; products are increasingly<br />

being individually manufactured. This<br />

is not new, because in the past, too,<br />

production plants were in a state of<br />

perpetual change: failed components<br />

were replaced, software patches and<br />

updates were installed, process optimization<br />

programs were developed,<br />

and much more. Nevertheless, this<br />

trend is gaining speed and processes<br />

are becoming more dynamic.<br />

tally with plant reality, is always very<br />

time-consuming – thus quality control<br />

process is generally confined to<br />

some random checks. Thus, often<br />

enough, plant documentation does<br />

not even correspond to plant reality<br />

at the start – and even if it does correspond<br />

initially, the task of keeping<br />

the status of this documentation up<br />

to date is anything but trivial. The bigger<br />

and more complex the plant, the<br />

greater this challenge appears. It may<br />

even sound a little schizophrenic to<br />

be talking about digital twins on the<br />

one hand, whereas in many places a<br />

daily struggle is still going on to master<br />

plant documentation with the aid<br />

of paper documents, Excel lists and<br />

complex file structures. However, this<br />

is exactly where Plant Documentation<br />

4.0 can make a vital contribution, especially<br />

if a system is also able to simplify<br />

the management of changes.<br />

Current status of all built-in<br />

components – and much more<br />

In sectors such as petrochemicals,<br />

chemicals, logistics, manufacturing,<br />

in power plants, plant construction<br />

or the pharmaceutical industry, production<br />

processes are generally complex,<br />

and plants often assume gigantic<br />

proportions. Thus, these sectors<br />

of industry have had to rely on digital<br />

documentation for a long time<br />

now to keep track of the as-built status<br />

of their plants and manage the<br />

relevant interrelated processes. So,<br />

it is not surprising that a company<br />

like Rösberg Engineering GmbH from<br />

Karlsruhe – already active in these<br />

sectors for decades – developed digital<br />

solutions many years ago in order<br />

to keep an overview of the flood<br />

of information in these types of<br />

plants. The Account Manager Plant<br />

Solutions at RÖSBERG Engineering<br />

GmbH comments: “With our I&C-CAE<br />

system ProDOK (Fig. 1) we primarily<br />

document the planning and construction<br />

of plants. However, it is also<br />

important to know the current status<br />

and components built in during<br />

the operational phase. Our software<br />

tool LiveDOK (Fig. 2) helps with the<br />

administration and documentation<br />

of changes. A main focus of the tool<br />

is on simply find documentation updates<br />

and enabling the changes to be<br />

made available to everyone quickly<br />

and easily.”<br />

Reliable documentation of<br />

as-built status<br />

As-built documentation – meaning<br />

documentation that reflects the actual<br />

state of a new plant – has always<br />

been required for commissioning,<br />

but in fact the time and resources<br />

involved in preparing the relevant<br />

documents is always immense.<br />

And controlling the delivered documents,<br />

to make sure they really do<br />

Fig. 1: ProDOK is the I&C-CAE system for the planning and operational support of process<br />

control equipment in process plants. ProDOK enables rational, consistent project planning<br />

and consistent documentation, ensuring an integrated planning process that follows unified<br />

rules. (Copyright: Rösberg)<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Plant documentation<br />

When envisaging Plant Documentation<br />

4.0 probably the first aspect to<br />

be considered is the advantages for<br />

maintenance. Here, of course, it is extremely<br />

useful to know the current<br />

state of the plant and be able to easily<br />

document the changes. To do this,<br />

maintenance crews can simply enter<br />

the change on a tablet with a stylus<br />

(Fig. 3), and it is saved together with<br />

the information about who made the<br />

change, when, and explanation if necessary.<br />

Workflows built into the system<br />

then ensure that the original<br />

documentation is reviewed regularly<br />

and thus stays clear and up-to-date.<br />

In addition to maintenance, many<br />

other areas benefit from digital documentation<br />

(Fig. 4). These include<br />

e. g., troubleshooting, large-scale revisions,<br />

project-related documentation,<br />

loop checks and the management<br />

of assets, the integration of<br />

package units, and know-how transfer.<br />

And when it comes to audits, it<br />

certainly pays off to have up-to-date,<br />

legally compliant documentation at<br />

hand at all times.<br />

Fig. 2: LiveDOK makes distributed documentation of large-scale plants digitally available<br />

to engineers and plant operators: all relevant documents and drawings are presented in a<br />

structured way on one unified, intuitive user interface – regardless of their format and medium.<br />

Plant data can be administered, searched and corrected in real time – from planning<br />

to operation, anytime, anywhere. (Copyright: Rösberg)<br />

Troubleshooting, large-scale<br />

revisions and loop checks<br />

When something goes wrong, every<br />

minute counts. In a situation of<br />

Various use cases benefit from<br />

Plant Documentation 4.0<br />

Fig. 4: Very diverse use cases benefit from the use of LiveDOK. (Graphic Rösberg)<br />

Fig. 3: Redlining: Changes can be very simply noted, for example by a handwritten notice on<br />

a tablet. (Photo: Rösberg)<br />

this kind valuable time is lost if the<br />

current documentation status of<br />

the plant first has to be assembled<br />

– in the worst case, inability to react<br />

fast enough may result in damage<br />

or danger to people and the environment.<br />

In large-scale revisions,<br />

too, time is usually tight. Numerous<br />

employees need to be coordinated<br />

and very many changes made to<br />

the documentation simultaneously.<br />

This makes it all the more important<br />

to ensure that everyone involved in<br />

the process has access to the current<br />

documentation at all times. Similarly,<br />

loop checks also involve the coordination<br />

of large numbers of employees<br />

and the structured execution of<br />

various tasks.<br />

94 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Plant documentation<br />

Managing assets and<br />

package units<br />

Digital documentation is also beneficial<br />

for effective asset management<br />

– for instance, when a manufacturer<br />

discontinues an asset,<br />

making it necessary to know how<br />

many of the relevant components<br />

are built into the plant and where;<br />

or when compiling an overview<br />

of components that will no longer<br />

receive support in the near future.<br />

Only a company managing<br />

its assets effectively can keep production<br />

running reliably. Another<br />

aspect that necessitates digital<br />

documentation is the trend in<br />

the process industry towards integrating<br />

Package Units, meaning<br />

the distribution of large plants into<br />

smaller units. This raises the question<br />

of how the documentation<br />

that is delivered together with a<br />

functional unit can most easily be<br />

transferred into the already-existing<br />

plant documentation.<br />

When engaging in extensive plant<br />

retrofit or extensions, or for inspection<br />

purposes, many project-related<br />

documents also have<br />

to be immediately available as<br />

and when required. If these documents<br />

only exist in paper form,<br />

or are only available from different<br />

sources and in assorted file<br />

formats, compiling them is effortintensive<br />

and not overly efficient.<br />

Another advantage of consistent<br />

digital documentation is that<br />

know-how can be preserved, because<br />

the knowledge no longer<br />

exists solely in the minds of experienced<br />

employees. This substantially<br />

facilitates knowledge transfer<br />

to new employees.<br />

“In all these and many other<br />

use cases, LiveDOK has been<br />

proving its worth for decades<br />

now” the Account Manager Plant<br />

Solutions says, and adds: “With<br />

digitalization the focus was on<br />

the PC, but with Industry 4.0 the<br />

focus is on the Internet. This also<br />

applies, so to speak, to Plant Documentation<br />

4.0. We have been<br />

creating digital documentation<br />

for a long time now, but we have<br />

consistently developed our concepts<br />

further, for instance regarding<br />

cloud enablement, in order to<br />

stay with the pulse of the times.<br />

Thus, our customers get a tried<br />

and tested product that uses today’s<br />

state-of-the-art technologies<br />

to fulfill the technical and legal requirements<br />

of tomorrow.” In the<br />

use cases described above, the<br />

documentation tool enables documents<br />

to be found fast, provides<br />

a realistic overview of the components<br />

built into the plant while<br />

helping to keep docu mentation<br />

up-to-date, ensures standardization<br />

in documentation in line<br />

with current legal requirements,<br />

gives all disciplines involved in a<br />

project access to the documentation<br />

without media discontinuity,<br />

and ensures that everyone in<br />

the team is working with the same<br />

documents.<br />

Rösberg Engineering GmbH<br />

Rösberg Engineering GmbH, founded in Karlsruhe in 1962,<br />

offers tailored automation solutions created by 180 employees<br />

working at seven locations in Germany and one in India and<br />

China, for internationally active enterprises in the process industry.<br />

Today RÖSBERG is an internationally successful automation<br />

specialist and developer of software solutions. Its scope includes<br />

basic and detail engineering for the automation of process<br />

and production plants as well as the configuration, delivery<br />

and commissioning of distributed control systems. The enterprise<br />

also has extensive project planning and application experience<br />

in the implementation of safety-related controls, is an<br />

expert in functional safety, and offers sector-specific software<br />

solutions in the area of information technology. The I&C-CAE<br />

system ProDOK has enjoyed international success for more<br />

than 30 years now. Together under the name of Plant Solutions,<br />

ProDOK, the digital plant documentation LiveDOK and the Plant<br />

Assist Manager (PAM) support plants over their whole life cycle,<br />

from planning, construction and commissioning through to<br />

modernization, expansion and decommissioning.<br />

Project-related documentation<br />

and know-how transfer<br />

Getting started is easier<br />

than you think<br />

Companies who wish to consistently<br />

implement Industry 4.0 cannot<br />

do so without digital, cloud<br />

capable plant documentation, especially<br />

where large plants are<br />

concerned. Nevertheless, many<br />

companies are still put off by the<br />

initial effort and expense of digitalizing<br />

their documentation at all<br />

in the first place. Here the process<br />

automation experts can reassure<br />

them – numerous projects carried<br />

out in the past have shown<br />

that getting started is much easier<br />

than users generally fear. And<br />

not only that – very often digitalization<br />

opens up many optimization<br />

opportunities, so the effort<br />

pays off much faster than many<br />

people think.<br />

The Authors:<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (BA) Martin Dubovy,<br />

Account Manager Plant Solutions<br />

and Dipl.-Betriebsw. (FH)<br />

Evelyn Landgraf, Marketing, at<br />

Rösberg Engineering GmbH<br />

https://livedok.roesberg.com/<br />



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Request insight into the files now – and explore<br />

the serial successes of our clients: info@cog.de<br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Frequency converter<br />

Frequency converter series SD4M for high-speed applications<br />

Multilevel technology: What it can do<br />

and what it enables<br />

Markus Finselberger<br />

Motor-driven and generator-driven<br />

high-speed applications with high<br />

output powers push the standard<br />

converter technologies to their<br />

limits. Especially in the field of renewable<br />

energy as well as efficient<br />

compressed air supply, the demand<br />

for converters that enable<br />

high rotating field frequencies<br />

grows. Therefore, the high-speed<br />

specialists at SIEB & MEYER AG<br />

have developed a solution based<br />

on three-level technology. With the<br />

series SD4M, motor losses, electromagnetic<br />

radiation as well as insulation<br />

stress can be reduced significantly.<br />

The following article answers<br />

important questions regarding use<br />

and function of the multilevel frequency<br />

converters.<br />

How does a multilevel frequency<br />

converter work?<br />

The majority of frequency converters<br />

used in modern drive technology is<br />

based on two-level technology. That<br />

means, at first the converters rectify<br />

the mains AC voltage into DC voltage<br />

and then convert this DC voltage to<br />

an AC voltage with variable frequency<br />

and amplitude, which can be supplied<br />

to motors with adjustable speed. The<br />

AC voltage is generated with alternating<br />

polarity – plus and minus – on<br />

two levels. Many converters use the<br />

modulation type PWM (pulse-width<br />

modulation) for this purpose. Multilevel<br />

converters use at least one more<br />

intermediate voltage level, which<br />

makes a quite different output stage<br />

topology neces sary. A conventional<br />

three-phase two-level converter requires,<br />

for example, six electronic<br />

power switches (transistors), whereas<br />

a three-level converter requires<br />

twelve switches.<br />

For which applications are multilevel<br />

converters suitable?<br />

Multilevel converters enable, for<br />

example, a significant increase in the<br />

efficiency of turbomachinery such as<br />

turbo compressors and blowers (e. g.<br />

for wastewater treatment) and of rotating<br />

energy storage units (flywheel)<br />

as well as ORC systems for the conversion<br />

of waste energy into electric<br />

energy. The efficiency of these<br />

systems increases with their speed.<br />

However, until now the market hardly<br />

offered any converters for output<br />

powers >100 kW and rotating<br />

field frequencies up to 2,000 Hz –<br />

especially when sensorless control<br />

of synchronous motors is required.<br />

Multi level technology closes this gap.<br />

What requirements do HS motors<br />

demand of the converter technology?<br />

The applications mentioned above<br />

employ high-speed motors (HS motors)<br />

that generate power via speed<br />

and not via torque. As a general rule,<br />

the rotor volume changes at the same<br />

rate as the reciprocal of the speed increase.<br />

That means, at 10 times of<br />

the speed the rotor volume has decreased<br />

to one-tenth. This in turn results<br />

in limited heat dissipation. The<br />

negative effects are amplified when<br />

the motor is operated in vacuo or in<br />

a gas with low thermal conductivity,<br />

for example in flywheel applications.<br />

Therefore, the used frequency converters<br />

must reduce motor losses<br />

and the resulting heat development<br />

as far as possible.<br />

What influence do high speeds have<br />

on the motor design?<br />

Fig. 1: Multilevel frequency converters support applications that require high rotating field<br />

frequencies. They enable, for example, a significant increase in the efficiency of turbo<br />

compressors and blowers that are used e. g. for wastewater treatment.<br />

(Image © : Kletr_261344590 - adobestock.com )<br />

The motor design must be adapted<br />

according to the power/speed ratio<br />

required by the application. Beside<br />

the permissible circumferential speed<br />

of the rotor, the bending-critical frequency<br />

of the corresponding shaft<br />

have to be considered. That means,<br />

a synchronous motor with 100 kW at<br />

60,000 rpm, for example, can reach<br />

the required power density only by<br />

means of a 4-pole motor design. With<br />

96 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Frequency converter<br />

a 2-pole design, the distribution of the<br />

magnetic field would be worse and the<br />

resulting unsymmetrical utilization of<br />

the magnetic field would increase the<br />

rotor volume by 1.5 times. However,<br />

the required length of the shaft for<br />

this construction would not work due<br />

to bending-critical frequencies. For<br />

this reason, a rotating field frequency<br />

of 2,000 Hz instead of 1,000 Hz is required<br />

to operate a motor with 60,000<br />

rpm, which makes using a high-speed<br />

converter necessary.<br />

… and what impact do they have on<br />

motor losses?<br />

Up to now, two-level frequency<br />

converters were used in these<br />

applications. They generate the required<br />

output frequency via pulse<br />

width modulation (PWM). Depending<br />

on the used switching frequency<br />

and the inductance of the motor,<br />

this method causes a current ripple<br />

of the motor current, though: the<br />

Fig. 2: The three-level technology of the SD4M series by SIEB & MEYER combined with devicedependent<br />

switching frequencies of up to 32 kHz ensures excellent current quality, which reduces<br />

motor losses and increases the efficiency accordingly. (Fig. 2-6: SIEB & MEYER AG)<br />

effective motor inductance of HS motors<br />

drops when the speed increases<br />

and the smoothing of the current<br />

ripple decreases proportionally.<br />

These high-frequency currents cause<br />

additional losses in the motor that<br />

are not negligible as they in turn lead<br />

to increased heat development and<br />






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<strong>Components</strong><br />

Frequency converter<br />

Fig. 3: The three-level technology plus the higher switching frequency compared to standard<br />

converters reduce the harmonic current parts (ripple current) to 10 % so that the converterbased<br />

rotor losses are significantly lower.<br />

PWM pattern. Using three-level technology,<br />

the voltage level is cut by half,<br />

which in turn reduces the current<br />

ripple by half in the first approximation.<br />

This in turn results in much<br />

lower rotor heat. With the same PWM<br />

frequency, three-level converters can<br />

reduce the losses generated in the<br />

rotor by about 75 %. Therefore, many<br />

applications can work without motor<br />

filters or smoothing chokes between<br />

motor and converter, which reduces<br />

the weight, the installation space and<br />

the costs of the system. Furthermore,<br />

users benefit from the optimized<br />

overall efficiency.<br />

bearing loads. It is therefore necessary<br />

to reduce these losses to a level<br />

that ensures safe operation. Limit<br />

temperatures of synchronous rotors<br />

range between 90 and 150 °C.<br />

Why are the switching frequencies<br />

of two-level frequency converters<br />

limited?<br />

In the power range >100 kW, the<br />

available two-level frequency converters<br />

usually provide maximum admissible<br />

switching frequencies of 4 or<br />

6 kHz because an intermediate circuit<br />

voltage up to 600 V requires semiconductor<br />

switches (IGBTs) with a cut-off<br />

voltage of 1,200 V. Higher switching<br />

frequencies are not practical for technical<br />

and economic reasons since the<br />

higher switching losses would cause<br />

disproportionate heating and a reduction<br />

of the ampacity. Therefore,<br />

the maximum possible effective rotating<br />

field frequency is between 600<br />

and 800 Hz as the PWM frequency<br />

must be 8 to 10 times of the rotating<br />

field frequency to realize an approximately<br />

sinusoidal output current.<br />

… and why does three-level technology<br />

enable higher switching<br />

frequencies?<br />

Three-level frequency converters<br />

enable higher switching frequencies<br />

because each semiconductor<br />

switch must switch only half the intermediate<br />

circuit voltage of 300 V.<br />

This makes using semiconductors<br />

with a cut-off voltage of 600 V possible.<br />

These semiconductors come<br />

Fig. 4: Influence of speed and rotating field frequency on the motor design<br />

Fig. 5: The three-level technology cuts the voltage level in half, which in turn reduces the<br />

current ripple by half in the first approximation<br />

with significantly better switching<br />

characteris tics, which makes the resulting<br />

power losses controllable<br />

and generates only low converterrelated<br />

losses in the rotor in spite of<br />

switching frequencies up to 32 kHz.<br />

To what extent can three-level technology<br />

reduce motor losses?<br />

Beside the PWM switching frequency,<br />

another important variable affecting<br />

the motor losses is the voltage level<br />

added to the motor winding with the<br />

How does the three-level technology<br />

reduce insulation stress?<br />

The three-level technology solves the<br />

‘partial discharge problem’ feared<br />

by many. Partial discharge means<br />

a gradual destruction of the stator<br />

insulation due to voltage peaks at<br />

the motor. These are generated by<br />

switching edges of the power transistors<br />

in modern converters. If the<br />

insulation is eventually destroyed<br />

completely, the motor is permanently<br />

damaged. Beside the length<br />

98 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Frequency converter<br />

with DC supply. SIEB & MEYER has<br />

applied for NRTL/CSA certification<br />

for all device variants so that users<br />

can soon integrate the devices into<br />

machines for the US market without<br />

additional approvals.<br />

Advantages of multilevel<br />

technology at a glance:<br />

Fig. 6: Innovative applications that were developed due to the German turnaround in energy<br />

policy also benefit greatly from multilevel technology. SD4M ensures, for example, a significant<br />

increase in the efficiency of regenerative systems such as rotating energy storage units<br />

(flywheel).<br />

Operation of high-speed motors<br />

with<br />

– very good current quality<br />

– low power loss<br />

– low rotor heating<br />

– high system efficiency<br />

– low insulation stress and<br />

– reduced CO 2<br />

emissions<br />

of the motor cable, the amplitude<br />

of the voltage jumps causes this effect.<br />

Three-level converters use only<br />

50 % of the voltage amplitude at each<br />

switching operation, reducing the<br />

partial discharge problem even with<br />

longer motor cables to a great extent.<br />

Therefore, the effect can be neglected<br />

in the most cases.<br />

What does the SD4M series<br />

by SIEB & MEYER offer?<br />

For the development of the SD4M series,<br />

SIEB & MEYER combined tried and<br />

tested technology with the latest control<br />

and communication technology.<br />

The three-level technolo gy of SD4M<br />

combined with device-dependent<br />

switching frequencies of up to 32 kHz<br />

ensures excellent current quality,<br />

which reduces motor losses and increases<br />

the efficiency accordingly.<br />

The available SD4M vari ants cover a<br />

power range between 70 and 490 kW<br />

or 120 and 800 A rated current. The<br />

multiprotocol real-time Ethernet interface,<br />

available on the device as<br />

standard (including PROFINET IO and<br />

EtherCAT), enables hassle-free implementation<br />

of the SD4M in the higherranking<br />

control. An optimal operation<br />

with an external regenerative power<br />

supply is possible using the variants<br />

The Author: Markus Finselberger,<br />

head of sales drive electronics at<br />

SIEB & MEYER AG,<br />

Lüneburg, Germany<br />

www.sieb-meyer.de<br />

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Hall B3 | Stand 351/450 May 13-17, <strong>2024</strong><br />

Lay_IS_anz_189x62_lugstyle_IFAT24_EN.indd 2 22.03.<strong>2024</strong> 13:34:10<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Total cost of ownership<br />

Energy saving support<br />

Electrical drives in production and<br />

logistics carry a significant savings<br />

potential. With the NORD ECO service,<br />

NORD DRIVESYSTEMS supports<br />

its customers in achieving this<br />

potential and finding the most energy-efficient<br />

drive solution.<br />

70 percent! That is the share of the<br />

total energy consumption of all industries<br />

that is required for electric<br />

drives according to expert estimates.<br />

This is not only a significant cost factor<br />

– there is also a great optimisation<br />

and savings potential. NORD<br />

DRIVESYSTEMS provides a special<br />

service so that its customers can exploit<br />

this potential: the NORD ECO<br />

service.<br />

NORD DRIVESYSTEMS is one of<br />

the world market leaders for electronic<br />

drive components and offers<br />

an extensive portfolio of electronic<br />

motors, gear units and electronic<br />

drive technologies adapted to the<br />

challenges of the individual industries.<br />

“We are continuously working<br />

on improving the energy efficiency<br />

of our components so we can offer<br />

power ful and, at the same time, economical<br />

products to our customers”,<br />

the Head of Marketing, emphasises.<br />

Measurement of the<br />

performance data<br />

The NORD ECO service helps to find<br />

the most energy-efficient drive solution<br />

for a specific application case.<br />

The first step is the comprehensive<br />

survey of measured values. In order<br />

to optimise a drive solution with regard<br />

to energy efficiency, it is necessary<br />

to first know the details of the<br />

application. For this purpose, the socalled<br />

NORD ECO BOX, a mobile control<br />

cabinet, is connected between<br />

the motor and the power supply. The<br />

ECO BOX consists of an energy measuring<br />

device with data logger function,<br />

current transformer and cable<br />

connections. Whether a conveyor belt<br />

or the lifting gear of a crane – the type<br />

Fig. 1: The NORD modular system allows us to provide an assembly of a gear unit, motor<br />

and frequency inverter into a configuration with optimum energy efficiency<br />

(all images: NORD DRIVESYSTEMS)<br />

of application that drives the motor is<br />

irrelevant for the measurement.<br />

Over a period of about two weeks,<br />

the box records data in real time<br />

about permanent loads, load peaks<br />

and irregular conditions. You need<br />

this longer period and thus a higher<br />

data density in order to identify patterns<br />

and eliminate random outliers.<br />

Evaluation of the data<br />

Once the survey is completed, the<br />

results are uploaded to software developed<br />

by NORD that automatically<br />

evaluates the data. The customer<br />

Fig. 2: With the service components analysis,<br />

consultation and optimisation, NORD<br />

helps its customers to achieve an energyefficient<br />

system design<br />

receives the evaluation in the form<br />

of a PDF document which presents<br />

the main key data. “Of course, we<br />

support the customer in the interpretation<br />

of the data”, the Head of<br />

Marketing highlights.<br />

The NORD ECO box contains an<br />

energy measuring device that measures<br />

the drive’s current and voltage.<br />

It determines the effective or reactive<br />

power, i. e. the energy actually used<br />

or not used – and from this calculates<br />

the relative power factor. This measurement<br />

over time makes it possible<br />

to create a load cycle for the system.<br />

This shows whether a system’s<br />

dimensioning corresponds to the requirements<br />

of the respective application.<br />

“We often encounter drive<br />

systems that are clearly overdimensioned<br />

for the corresponding application”,<br />

the Head of Marketing says,<br />

“and that is obviously not efficient.”<br />

Alternative components<br />

A practical example: NORD examines<br />

a drive system and observes an<br />

average power consumption of<br />

1.1 kW with a peak of 1.9 kW. The<br />

system is driven by a 4-kW motor<br />

that is operating at less than 30 percent<br />

capacity on average. A typical<br />

case of overdimensioning. NORD recommends<br />

a motor with a power of<br />

2.2 kW that is operating at a capacity<br />

of around 50 percent on average.<br />

There are also cases where we rec-<br />

100 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Total cost of ownership<br />

If NORD recommends a different<br />

drive after a measurement, the company<br />

also offers an additional service.<br />

“We then offer to operate the system<br />

with the drive recommended by us<br />

and to perform a second measurement<br />

in the same period”, the Head<br />

of Marketing says. The evaluations<br />

can be compared in a TCO analysis<br />

(Total Cost of Ownership), and the<br />

most cost- and energy-efficient solution<br />

can be determined.<br />

Fig. 3: The gear unit, motor and frequency<br />

inverter in NORD’s DuoDrive are optimally<br />

matched and enable a system efficiency of<br />

up to 92 percent<br />

ommend replacing an IE3 or IE4 motor<br />

with a high- efficiency IE5+ drive.<br />

In case a standard drive does not<br />

cover the requirements, NORD also<br />

offers a customised solution.<br />

Reduction of variants<br />

As significant as the advantages of a<br />

NORD ECO measurement are for an<br />

individual drive system, they increase<br />

even further when viewed over an<br />

entire system. For large systems with<br />

several drives, such as in intralogistics,<br />

the ECO service can significantly<br />

reduce the number of different<br />

drive systems. Such a variant reduction<br />

helps to minimise administrative<br />

costs over an entire system and<br />

streamline production, logistics, storage<br />

and service processes. The high-<br />

Fig. 5: The NORD ECO service compares the<br />

installed power with the actual consumption,<br />

frequently resulting in a reduction of<br />

variants in a system<br />

efficiency NORD motors, which provide<br />

a constant torque over a large<br />

speed range, are particularly suitable<br />

for a reduction of variants.<br />

NORD DRIVESYSTEMS has already<br />

created the load profiles of drive systems<br />

in numerous measurements.<br />

The company offers this service for<br />

systems with both its own and thirdparty<br />

components. “It goes without<br />

saying that we treat the recorded customer<br />

data with confidentiality”, the<br />

drive expert emphasises. “With our<br />

ECO service, we have already helped<br />

many customers in improving the<br />

energy efficiency of their production<br />

and therefore reducing their carbon<br />

footprint.”<br />


Bargteheide, Deutschland<br />

www.nord.com<br />

Fig. 4: NORD ECO: In five steps, the NORD service achieves energy savings, cost reduction<br />

and CO 2<br />

reduction<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Gaskets<br />

The complete, worry-free package for drinking<br />

water gaskets with KTW-BWGL conformity<br />

Dipl.-Ing. Norbert Weimer<br />

With the KTW-BWGL (assessment<br />

basis for plastics and other organic<br />

materials in contact with drinking<br />

water), a new regulation has come<br />

into force that has a strong influence<br />

on the handling of gasket materials<br />

in drinking water. The use of<br />

established gasket materials is now<br />

prohibited and there are few options<br />

for new types of gaskets that<br />

conform to the regulation.<br />

Buyers of drinking water gaskets<br />

need new options<br />

The UBA (German Environment Agency)<br />

has defined new requirements for<br />

drinking water supply components.<br />

The KTW-BWGL is authoritative for<br />

organic materials used in elastomer<br />

and compressed fibre gaskets. Products<br />

and components made of organic<br />

materials are evaluated with<br />

regard to the raw materials (primary<br />

materials) used and the transfer of<br />

substances to drinking water.<br />

Those raw materials that may be<br />

used to manufacture elastomers in<br />

contact with drinking water are included<br />

in the UBA’s positive list. The<br />

list for organic materials also applies<br />

to fibre-reinforced gasket sheets<br />

bonded with elastomers (FA – fibrebased<br />

gasket sheets). The positive<br />

list contains the fully evaluated substances<br />

(monomers, fillers, plasticisers,<br />

anti-ageing agents, processing<br />

aids, cross-linking agents, etc.). Only a<br />

few months remain before the end of<br />

the transition period for gasket materials<br />

containing raw materials that<br />

have not been evaluated fully or at<br />

all. Switching to new gasket materials<br />

then becomes mandatory.<br />

intended for drinking water applications<br />

can no longer be used in this<br />

field. It is painful that the established<br />

range of applications is no longer<br />

guaranteed due to the curtailment of<br />

the possible ingredients.<br />

This also affects processors in<br />

particular, such as cutting shops and<br />

technical distributors, who have to<br />

readjust (storage and costing) with<br />

regard to the utilisation of gasket<br />

sheets in cutting as well as storage for<br />

different applications (e. g. drinking<br />

water, gas, temperature ranges, etc.).<br />

Manufacturers of valves, pumps and<br />

equipment may also encounter problems<br />

when the assignment of various<br />

gasket materials to different fields of<br />

application in production is not manageable<br />

(example: heating appliances<br />

with gaskets for gas as well as heating<br />

water and drinking water) and an allpurpose<br />

gasket is no longer available.<br />

All of this means that users and<br />

the supply chain should look for a<br />

well-functioning alternative in good<br />

time. This is where the gasket material<br />

manufacturer KLINGER comes<br />

in with a new product. KLINGERSIL<br />

C-4240 is a new fibre-based (FA) gasket<br />

that is extremely well suited as a<br />

solution to this problem.<br />

This gasket type (FA) is commonly<br />

used in drinking water systems, and<br />

is affected by the new KTW-BWGL<br />

regulation due to the binder (elastomer).<br />

The reduction in the permitted<br />

ingredients for the production process<br />

is so great that the rolling and<br />

vulcanisation process requires the<br />

highest level of know-how in order<br />

to be able to produce a gasket sheet<br />

under these conditions at all. To date,<br />

KLINGER is the only manufacturer to<br />

have successfully developed an FA<br />

gasket sheet in conformity with KTW-<br />

BWGL in risk class P2. Meeting the requirements<br />

of risk class P2 is mandatory<br />

when the surface in contact with<br />

drinking water is more than 1% of the<br />

component’s total surface area.<br />

Reliability is also important in<br />

assembly<br />

There are two typical fields of application<br />

in drinking water systems.<br />

In one of these, we have the service<br />

technician with a mobile workshop<br />

who makes service calls. The service<br />

technician, a tradesperson with experience<br />

and qualifications, replaces or<br />

installs new components on site under<br />

often adverse conditions.<br />

The other field of application is<br />

the industrial production of composite<br />

components and equipment from<br />

water filters to valves or pumps to<br />

The supply chain needs to respond<br />

– only a few months remain<br />

For the manufacturer of FA gasket<br />

sheets, this situation means that the<br />

previous formulations for products<br />

Fig. 1: The new KLINGERSIL C-4240 fibre-based gasket<br />

102 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Gaskets<br />

heating appliances. Exact assembly<br />

conditions and a high repeat accuracy<br />

of assembly processes are to be<br />

expected here.<br />

The gasket material must therefore<br />

have a consistent quality in order<br />

to ensure industrial production with<br />

consistent properties. In addition, it<br />

must have a wide range of applications<br />

in order to also enable manual<br />

assembly under different conditions.<br />

With the new product, the manufacturer<br />

has developed a gasket<br />

sheet that is very similar to previous<br />

gasket materials with regard to its<br />

properties. It is precisely these properties<br />

that make it possible for the<br />

user to use the new gasket material<br />

without making any special adjustments.<br />

The compression properties<br />

and stability are just what the user<br />

wants. Although it is difficult to produce<br />

a well-vulcanised product due<br />

to the extremely reduced cross-linking<br />

chemistry, the KLINGER development<br />

team did an excellent job.<br />

conformity confirmation is already<br />

on hand for this material.<br />

Rubber-steel gaskets are frequently<br />

used in the drinking water<br />

supply as well – mostly in production<br />

and distribution systems where<br />

flange connections with coated surfaces<br />

are installed. The situation is<br />

similar for these gasket types. To<br />

date, conformity with KTW-BWGL has<br />

only been confirmed for the KLINGER<br />

KGS GII made of special EPDM.<br />

Fig. 3: KLINGER KGS GII rubber-steel gasket<br />

made of special EPDM<br />

al Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR)<br />

is given as well! Tests for approval under<br />

the French ACS are currently ongoing.<br />

Testing the raw materials was<br />

successfully completed at press time.<br />

All of this is highly advantageous<br />

for manufacturers of water heating<br />

appliances because differentiating<br />

between drinking water gaskets and<br />

gas supply gaskets in series production<br />

is difficult. The numerous approvals<br />

and conformities also facilitate<br />

the export of drinking water<br />

supply products and equipment to<br />

various European countries and regions<br />

– or make this possible in the<br />

first place.<br />

What’s more, the broad range of<br />

approvals and conformities is helpful<br />

for the cutting shop and technical<br />

distributor; utilisation of the gasket<br />

sheets is significantly improved<br />

thanks to the additional application<br />

possibilities.<br />

The bottom line for developers,<br />

designers, planners and installers<br />

Fig. 2: KLINGERtop-chem 2000 PTFE-based<br />

gasket sheet<br />

What gaskets can also be used in<br />

drinking water with higher surface<br />

proportions? Aside from the fibre<br />

materials, additional gasket materials<br />

are available in the form of sheets<br />

for cutting as well as ready-made<br />

gaskets that meet the new requirements.<br />

The PTFE-based “KLINGERtop-chem<br />

2000” gasket sheet highly<br />

filled with silicon carbide falls into<br />

the synthetic materials category. A<br />

Additional approvals and certificates<br />

for the KLINGERSIL C-4240<br />

fibre gasket<br />

Having gasket materials tested by institutes<br />

and organisations and obtaining<br />

corresponding certificates has<br />

become very time-consuming in recent<br />

years. As a result, this information<br />

only becomes available gradually<br />

for a new product. After the drinking<br />

water hygiene assessment according<br />

to the elastomer directive and DVGW<br />

worksheet W 270 was completed in<br />

2021, KLINGER was also able to provide<br />

proof of leak tightness for use<br />

in gas applications in 2022. The DIN-<br />

DVGW type testing certificate according<br />

to DIN 3535-6 has been issued<br />

for use in gas applications.<br />

Now in <strong>2024</strong>, we have also obtained<br />

the English drinking water approval<br />

WRAS and the statement according<br />

to EU 1935/2004. Conformity with the<br />

amended requirements of the Feder-<br />

For the responsible manufacturer<br />

and distributor of valves, pumps and<br />

equipment in the drinking water field<br />

of application, starting the process of<br />

converting to the officially required<br />

gasket quality is becoming more and<br />

more urgent. Especially with regard<br />

to industrially produced components,<br />

equipment and systems, action must<br />

be taken now in order to successfully<br />

complete the conversion process<br />

before the deadline. With three different<br />

gasket types, KLINGER lets you<br />

choose appropriate gaskets for new<br />

components and equipment subject<br />

to certification. The required verification<br />

can be completed without great<br />

effort, even for the P2 risk category.<br />

The Author:<br />

Dipl.-Ing. Norbert Weimer,<br />

KLINGER GmbH, Idstein, Germany<br />

www.klinger.de<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

OT security<br />

New standards affect the OT network<br />

OT security must be planned from the outset<br />

Denise Fritzsche und Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Nora Crocoll<br />

Security is becoming an increasingly<br />

important topic for machine builders<br />

and plant operators. Standards<br />

such as IEC 62443 (international series<br />

of standards for “Industrial communication<br />

networks - IT security<br />

for networks and systems”), among<br />

other things, set requirements for<br />

system security and security levels.<br />

The objective is to strengthen industry’s<br />

cyber resilience, above all<br />

on the OT (Operational <strong>Technology</strong>)<br />

level too. For this is affected by attacks<br />

on the IT level with increased<br />

regularity, effectively as “bycatch”.<br />

At the same time, it should also be<br />

protected from direct attacks, which<br />

occur in the production environment.<br />

Security is therefore a topic<br />

that not only concerns the individual<br />

system parts, but above all the<br />

communication platform used too.<br />

Plants in automated production or<br />

the process industry are made up<br />

of numerous individual machines.<br />

The management initiates digitalisation<br />

projects such as process optimisation,<br />

increasing process transparency,<br />

energy management, etc.<br />

As a result, the requirements for<br />

network communication and its security<br />

change. As matters currently<br />

stand, IEC 62443, Part 3-3 (“System<br />

security requirements and security<br />

levels”) will also be incorporated in<br />

the (EU) Machinery Regulation via<br />

Annex III 1.1.9 and will create the<br />

circumstances for secure communication.<br />

Regardless of this, the Directive’s<br />

regulations are already helpful<br />

requirements for ensuring security<br />

in an OT network. It can be assumed<br />

that plant builders and operators will<br />

soon be required to have more network<br />

know-how. Or they will bring in<br />

external expertise, as is the case for<br />

mechanical engineering.<br />

Security concepts<br />

OT security is not something that can<br />

be simply “pulled on” after completion<br />

of a plant. Rather, the topic affects<br />

every installed component of<br />

the plant and extends to the depth<br />

of the physical network structure.<br />

Cyber security must therefore be<br />

planned from the outset. To this end,<br />

IEC 62443 provides various security<br />

concepts, which not only concern the<br />

hardware and systems used, but also<br />

Fig. 1: Tools and strategies for cyber security concern the entire life cycle of a plant.<br />

(Copyright holder: Indu-Sol)<br />

processes in the company and the<br />

organisation’s degree of maturity, in<br />

other words, the employees’ understanding<br />

of the existing processes<br />

and their ability to know what to do in<br />

the respective problem case.<br />

The network experts of Indu-Sol<br />

have been dealing with the reliability<br />

of industrial networks since the<br />

company was founded a good twenty<br />

years ago. A network that does not<br />

function reliably, for whatever reasons,<br />

always also influences the security<br />

of the whole plant. The tools can<br />

be used to make transparent what is<br />

going on in the network. Above all in<br />

relation to the security of networks,<br />

plant builders and operators can be<br />

supported in the areas of hardware<br />

and systems as well as the maturity<br />

of the organisation by providing appropriate<br />

system training courses.<br />

Network in the plant life cycle<br />

Whoever plans for OT security in<br />

plants should also do the same for<br />

the network. But this is a complex<br />

undertaking, which cannot be simply<br />

dealt with as an aside. It needs a<br />

network engineering expert, not only<br />

for the plant planning but also during<br />

subsequent operation. But this is<br />

usually not feasible from a financial<br />

point of view, and as a consequence<br />

of the shortage of skilled personnel,<br />

well-trained employees for network<br />

engineering are hard to find. This is<br />

where it can make sense to outsource<br />

the network topic to external service<br />

providers from the initial period of<br />

the plant’s life cycle (Fig. 1). This provides<br />

the additional advantage that,<br />

on handover of the finished plant<br />

from plant builder to plant operator,<br />

there is no change in responsibility<br />

for the network engineering.<br />

Network experts are able to provide<br />

advisory support during the<br />

strategic planning phase. They then<br />

undertake the network planning in<br />

104 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

OT security<br />

the implementation and performance<br />

requirements period.<br />

During the setting up and commissioning<br />

they take care of the<br />

network acceptance, during operation<br />

they ensure condition<br />

monitoring and predictive maintenance<br />

through appropriate<br />

service level agreements. They<br />

are also there to provide advice<br />

for plant retrofits and help with<br />

network modifications. All these<br />

tasks need three things: Knowhow,<br />

the right hardware and services<br />

suitable for the respective<br />

period in the life of the plant.<br />

Tools with integrated expertise<br />

The times in which OT networks<br />

were still islands independent<br />

from the rest of the world are<br />

largely in the past. The advantages<br />

that can result from convergent<br />

networks and direct access<br />

to the smart sensor data of<br />

the machines and plants are too<br />

great. Therefore, OT networks are<br />

increasingly internally linked to<br />

the IT level. This also then means<br />

that each component in which a<br />

CPU is installed is vulnerable. The<br />

topic of OT security is thus highly<br />

interwoven with the hardware<br />

used. The clou is that the solutions,<br />

which have proven their<br />

worth in recent years for the reliable<br />

operation of networks with<br />

the focus on predictive maintenance,<br />

are also suitable for monitoring<br />

network security. The system<br />

is therefore now referred to<br />

as a CM&SM (Fig. 2), a condition<br />

monitoring & security management<br />

system.<br />

To ensure OT security, IEC<br />

62443-3-3 sets various requirements,<br />

which ultimately provide<br />

the condition for the principle<br />

of “Defence in Depth” (Fig. 3).<br />

The requirements relate to identification<br />

or authentication, use<br />

control, system integrity, confidentiality<br />

of the data, prompt response<br />

to events and the availability<br />

of the resources. Each of<br />

these seven requirements needs<br />

different tools or measures to<br />

implement them. The various<br />

solutions of Indu-Sol can help in<br />

completely different areas. Here<br />

are a few examples: An initial topology<br />

scan for the identification<br />

or authentication of OT networks<br />

and a periodic scan, for example,<br />

can be implemented and managed<br />

with our condition monitoring<br />

& security management<br />

system. The tools of the network<br />

experts check the data commu-<br />

Fig. 4: OT cyber security and digitalisation in accordance with ISA/IEC 62443,<br />

Part 3-3 (copyright holder: Indu-Sol)<br />

nication for unwanted changes,<br />

use encryption methods for secure<br />

data transmission, segment<br />

individual network areas for security<br />

reasons, ensure continuous<br />

data monitoring and auto-<br />

Fig. 3: Excursus: ISA/IEC 62443 – The layers of defence in depth from the view of OT<br />

(copyright holder: Indu-Sol)<br />

service providers with the appropriate<br />

know-how. Indu-Sol contributes<br />

this know-how on an<br />

equal footing within the scope of<br />

an OT competence partnership.<br />

The good news is that it is not<br />

necessary to reinvent the wheel,<br />

but instead, tried and tested solutions<br />

are on hand to face these<br />

new requirements confidently.<br />

Fig. 2: Condition monitoring and security management system (CM&SM) for plants<br />

and OT networks with Profinet and Ethernet/IP (Copyright holder: Indu-Sol)<br />

mated alerting or help with the<br />

backup and restoring of device<br />

configurations.<br />

The list of requirements<br />

and how they can be met with<br />

the system is long. One trend is<br />

clear: With the requirements of<br />

IEC 62443 and also the new Machinery<br />

Regulation that will soon<br />

come into effect, in future greater<br />

focus will be placed on the OT<br />

security of industrial communication<br />

networks (Fig. 4). This requires<br />

solutions in the form of<br />

components, supporting systems<br />

as well as skilled employees or<br />

The Authors:<br />

Denise Fritzsche,<br />

Marketing at Indu-Sol and<br />

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Nora Crocoll,<br />

Redaktionsbüro Stutensee<br />

Indu-Sol GmbH, Schmoelln<br />

www.indu-sol.com<br />

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong><br />


<strong>Components</strong><br />

Sensors<br />

Sensors measure axle temperature:<br />

JUMO continues the success story of the TGV<br />

Lars Ronge<br />

If they are not detected in time,<br />

overheating in rail vehicles can lead<br />

to considerable material damage<br />

and even disasters with personal<br />

injury. Railroad experts and technicians<br />

have increasingly focused<br />

on this problem in recent years<br />

and have continually optimized solutions,<br />

such as the high-precision<br />

JUMO sensors. Special temperature<br />

sensors measure the axle temperature<br />

in the new TGV generation.<br />

The French JUMO subsidiary based<br />

in Metz supplies temperature sensors<br />

for the axle bearings of the bogies<br />

of the new Alstom Avelia Horizon<br />

high-speed trains. The French state<br />

railroad company SNFC has ordered<br />

100 of these trains, which will be deployed<br />

from 2023 as part of the TGV<br />

fleet, the counterpart to the German<br />

ICE series.<br />

The Avelia Horizon is one of the<br />

trains with the lowest carbon footprint<br />

on the market. 97 percent of the<br />

train set is recyclable. This makes the<br />

new generation 20 percent more economical<br />

and significantly less energyintensive.<br />

The trains, called TGV-M,<br />

can accommodate up to 740 passengers,<br />

which is 140 more than in the<br />

previous trains.<br />

Alstom chose JUMO France as its<br />

partner for the supply of HABD (Hot<br />

Axle Box Detection) temperature sensors,<br />

not least because of the many<br />

years of successful cooperation.<br />

These are mounted on the bogies of<br />

the high-speed trains. These sensors<br />

are part of the BMS (Bogie Monitoring<br />

System) and play a crucial role as they<br />

are directly connected to an alarm<br />

system that can lead to a total stop of<br />

the train in case of overheating of the<br />

axle boxes.<br />

The sensors are customized special<br />

designs that are exposed to extreme<br />

conditions such as high temperatures,<br />

vibrations or humidity.<br />

They must therefore meet particularly<br />

demanding specifications in<br />

order to comply with the required<br />

standards.<br />

An alarm is triggered if the operating<br />

temperature is exceeded<br />

The safe operation of rail transportation<br />

cannot be guaranteed by maintenance<br />

alone. During a train journey,<br />

bearing damage repeatedly occurs in<br />

wheelset bearings, which can lead to<br />

broken shafts and thus to serious accidents.<br />

The reason for this is the inadmissible<br />

heating of the bearings,<br />

which causes the lubricating grease<br />

to lose its function and destroy the<br />

bearing. The resulting uneven axle<br />

pressures can lead to derailments. In<br />

order to ensure a high level of operational<br />

safety, sensor systems have<br />

been developed that can detect defective,<br />

overheating bearings (socalled<br />

hot-running bearings). The<br />

temperature inside the warehouse<br />

is continuously recorded and processed.<br />

If the operating temperature<br />

is exceeded, an alarm is triggered at<br />

two thresholds.<br />

A hot-running bearing is classified<br />

as dangerous damage, which is<br />

Fig. 1: The new Alstom Avelia Horizon high-speed train. (Image source: Alstom)<br />

106 PROCESS TECHNOLOGY & COMPONENTS <strong>2024</strong>

<strong>Components</strong><br />

Sensors<br />

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www.harnisch.com<br />

Fig. 2: The sensors are customised special designs. (Image source: JUMO)<br />