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Safety_Series_025_1968 - gnssn - International Atomic Energy ...

Safety_Series_025_1968 - gnssn - International Atomic Energy ...

This publication is no

This publication is no longer validPlease see http://www.ns-iaea.org/standards/1.3.1.8. Other organsM odifications to the v ascu lar system after irradiation take theform of changed p erm eability of the v e s s e ls , and m orp h ologica lchanges in the walls with circu latory disturbances (n ecroses). Thesevascular changes are of particular significance for the skin.The lens of the eye is sensitive to irradiation. D oses of 15 - 30 radsX -r a y s and p o ssib ly 1 rad o f fast neutrons cau se m inim al lensopacity in the m ou se. S everal hundreds of rads initiate tem poraryconjunctivitis in man, but exposure to 2000 R destroys rods in retinaof monkeys and 30 000 R affects all retinal elem ents m orphologically.E ndocrine glands in adult anim als are con siderably radioresistan t(thyroid gland). H istological changes in dog thyroid w ere observedafter an exposure o f 10 000 R.R adiation can a lso prod u ce certa in n o n -s p e c ific e ffe cts w hichare m ediated through the adrenal gland and which are iden tical withthose produced by other stre sse s . This em phasizes the n on -sp ecificch a ra cter of som e effects o f radiation. E ffects of this type can beobtained with a few hundred rOntgens o f X -r a y s , and it is p o s s ib lethat other en docrin e p r o c e s s e s con cern ed with regulating functionsin the body can be affected by such exposu res.T A B L E V . D E C R E A SE IN L IF E -S P A N A F T E R P A R T IA L -AND W H O L E -B O D Y X -R A Y E X P O SU R E C O M P A R E D IN THEMOUSE aRegion exposedExposure(R)Mediansurvivaltim e(d)Significantlydifferentfrom control(P g 0 .0 5 )C o n t r o l 0 676 -Entire anim al 530 582 yesEntire chest 720 646 noO n e-h a lf chest 570 654 noand caudal 1140 591 yes2 cm o f trunk 1700 525 yesa Fem ale m ice, 170 days when irradiated; with the doses em ployed there, were no acutedeaths [10, p. 1 56].40

This publication is no longer validPlease see http://www.ns-iaea.org/standards/1.3.2. C hronic and d elayed radiation e ffe c ts1.3. 2.1. G eneral c h a ra cte risticsL ate radiation e ffe cts a re g en era lly con sid ered as th ose thatappear many months or years after irradiation. They may be roughlydivided into two ca te g o rie s: effects which are caused by ch ron icirradiation with sm all d ose rate and effects follow ing acute ir r a d i­ation after a certain tim e -la p s e .It is usually d ifficu lt to distinguish betw een a late effect and ad isease induced by other causes, som e of which may be entirely unknown.When populations irradiated fo r m ed ica l reason s are con ­sidered, it should be borne in mind that the treated disease itself maysim ulate a radiation effect.Late effects may be caused by loca l irradiation of tissu es or byw h ole-b od y irra d ia tio n after a certa in p e rio d o f tim e . T he m ostim portan t late e ffe ct is the induction o f tu m ou rs.1. 3. 2. 2. L ate e ffe cts a fter lo c a l irra d ia tio nOne ch a ra cte ristic late effect is the d e cre a se in life -s p a n . Itis known that p artial-bod y irradiation d ecrea ses the life-sp a n muchle s s than w hole-body irradiation (see T able V).Induction o f len s op a city (see a ls o s e ctio n 1. 3. 1.8) throughcataract form ation m ay be the outcom e o f l o c a l irradiation. C lin icallysignificant cataracts in man may be produced by an X -r a y doseof 600 - 1000 rads. The p ro g re ss of the developm ent of the lensop a city is dependent on the s iz e o f the d o se . The fra ction a tion ofthe d o se d e c r e a s e s the in cid en ce o f ca ta ra ct and a lso reta rd s itson set. G en erally the lens op acity p r o g r e s s e s slow ly and in som eca se s a slight r e c o v e r y has been o b serv e d .Among im portant late effects are in ju ries to the skin: derm atitis,atrophy, epilation, hyperkeratosis, vascular scle ro s is, telangiectasia,etc. T hese changes m ay p ro g re ss in a rythm ic way changing fromsta g es o f r e la tiv e a m e lio ra tio n to d e te r io r a tio n and v ic e v e r s a .N ep h rosclerosis and related hypertension m ay appear as a lateeffect after ov er-ex p osu re of the kidney region. Sim ilarly, intensiveirradiation of the lungs may cause p rogressiv e fib rosis with a rteriosc le r o tic changes. It m ay be said that degen erative changes in theblood v essels together with destruction of parenchym atous cells arech a racteristic of the late effects of irradiation .41

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