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Absolute advantage –

Absolute advantage – when one nation can produce a good with greater productivity than another nation. Absolute economic growth – an increase in Real GDP. Accounting profit – the difference between total revenue and explicit costs. Actual money multiplier – measures the change in the money supply for a given dollar change in monetary base. Adverse selection – a party on one side of the market is confronted by a different selection than expected. Agent – a person who agrees to act for the benefit of another, the principal. Aggregate demand (AD) – the quantity demanded of all goods and services at different price levels. Aggregate supply – the quantity supplied of all goods and services at different price levels. Antitrust law – legislation intended to prohibit attempts to monopolize markets or to engage in anti-competitive behavior. Arbitrage – buying at a low price in one market and selling at a higher price in another. Asymmetric information – one party to an exchange has information that the other party doesn’t have. Automatic stabilizers – taxes and transfer payments that automatically tend to move equlibrium Real GDP toward Natural Real GDP. Barriers to entry – factors that block the entry of new firms into a market. Barter – the direct exchange of goods. Budget constraint – a curve showing the different combinations of two goods that a consumer can purchase with a certain amount of income. Budget deficit – when government expenditures are greater than tax revenues. Budget surplus – when tax revenues are greater than government expenditures. Capital – produced goods that are used in the production of other goods. Cartel – an organization through which members jointly make decisions about prices and production. Ceteris paribus (k´ ter is- pair´ u bus) – all other things held constant. Change in demand – a shift in the demand curve caused by a change in one of the determinants of demand. Glossary Change in quantity demanded – a movement along the demand curve caused by a change in price. Change in quantity supplied – a movement along the supply curve caused by a change in price. Change in supply – a shift in the supply curve caused by a change in the cost of production. Checkable deposits – deposits in banks or other financial institutions on which checks can be written. Choice architecture – the context in which people make decisions. Closed shop – requires union membership as a condition for employment. Collective bargaining – where a union bargains with management on behalf of the workers. Common goods – rivalrous in consumption and nonexcludable. Comparative advantage – when one nation can produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another nation. Compound interest – interest paid on interest. Conglomerate merger – a merger of firms that are not in the same industry. Consumer’s surplus – the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay and the price actually paid. Consumption function – the curve showing the relationship between disposable income and consumption. Continued inflation – when the price level increases at a high rate year after year. Contraction – the phase of the business cycle when Real GDP is decreasing. Contractionary fiscal policy – a decrease in government expenditures or an increase in taxation. Contractionary monetary policy – a decrease in the money supply. Copyright – a government granted monopoly on the production and sale of a creative work granted to the creator. Corporation – an organization owned by stockholders that is considered a legal person, separate from its owners. Craft union – a union made up of workers who practice the same craft. Creative destruction – the short run upheaval caused by new technology. FOR REVIEW ONLY - NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION Glossary - 1

Cross elasticity of demand – measures the responsiveness of demand for one good to a change in price for another good. Crowding out – occurs when increases in government spending lead to decreases in private spending. Currency – consists of the coins and paper money issued by the federal government. Cyclical unemployment – due to downturns in the business cycle. Deflation – a decrease in the price level. Demand – the willingness and ability of buyers to buy different quantities of a good at different prices. Determinants of demand – the factors that change demand (shift the demand curve). Determinants of factor demand – cause the marginal revenue product of a factor to increase or decrease. Determinants of labor supply – factors that cause the labor supply curve to shift. Determinants of price elasticity of demand – the factors that determine whether the demand for a good is elastic or inelastic. Determinant of supply – the factor that changes supply (shifts the supply curve). Developed country – has a relatively high per capita Real GDP. Diamond-water paradox – the observation that essential goods are often lower priced than non-essential goods. Discount rate – the interest rate the Fed charges banks that borrow reserves from it. Disposable income – household income after taxes. Dominant strategy – a strategy that always yields the best result regardless of the strategies of the other players. Dumping – selling exports at a price below the price charged in the home market. Earmark – a provision in congressional legislation that allocates a specified amount of money for a specific project, program or organization Economic efficiency rule – produce the quantity of output where marginal social benefit equals marginal social cost. Economic growth – an increase in the productive capacity of an economy. Economic profit – the difference between total revenue and total opportunity costs, both explicit and implicit. Economic rent – payment to a factor in excess of opportunity costs. Economic system – the way in which a society answers economic questions. Economics – the study of how individuals and societies use their limited resources to try to satisfy their unlimited wants. Economies of scale – occur when a firm’s average total cost decreases as the scale of its operation increases. Elastic demand – price elasticity of demand is greater than one. Elasticity – a measure of the responsiveness of one variable to changes in another variable. Elasticity of demand for labor – measures the responsiveness of employers to a change in the wage rate. Employed – those with paying jobs. Employment discrimination – occurs when employers make hiring, promotion, and pay decisions based on factors unrelated to worker productivity. Entrepreneurship – the special skill involved in organizing labor, land, and capital for production. Equilibrium price – the price where quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. Excess burden – the amount that the burden imposed by a tax exceeds the funding provided by the tax. Excess reserves – the excess of reserves over required reserves. Exchange rate – the value of one nation’s currency in terms of another nation’s currency. Exchange rate effect – when the price level decreases, interest rates will decrease, causing depreciation in the exchange rate. Excludable good – nonpayers can easily be excluded from consuming the good. Exclusive dealing agreement – a producer refuses to sell to a retailer unless the retailer agrees to deal only in the producer’s product. Expansion – the phase of the business cycle when Real GDP is increasing. Expansionary fiscal policy – an increase in government expenditures or a decrease in taxation. Expansionary monetary policy – an increase in the money supply. Exports – total foreign purchases of domestic goods. Externality – a benefit or a cost of an activity that affects third parties. Fallacy of composition – the idea that what is true for one must be true for the group. Fatalism – the belief that the course of a person’s life is determined by fate. Federal funds rate – the interest rate one bank charges another bank to borrow reserves. FOR REVIEW ONLY - NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION Glossary - 2

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    PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS JEFF HOLT S

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    Principles of Economics, 6th Editio

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    16. Study Guide for Chapter 7 17. C

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    11. Appendix: Book Review - “The

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    20. Appendix: The NCAA Cartel 21. S

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    Introduction: A Brief History of U.

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    In the twentieth century, per capit

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    Appendix: The 35 Largest National E

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    Multiple Choice: ___ 1. The Jamesto

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    2. Describe the economic cost of th

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    Chapter 1 Scarcity and Choices The

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    Example 5B: At the end of 1982, the

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    Example 11: When Cindy quits her jo

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    consequences may result in failure

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    An upward sloping curve (as in Exam

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    In making decisions, humans tend to

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    5. ______________________ _________

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    ___ 13. If the value of one variabl

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    Y Point X Y A 0 1 B 3 3 C 6 5 D 9 7

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    Chapter 2 Trade and Economic System

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    Example 4B: The following quantitie

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    1. An increase in the quantity of r

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    3. For whom to produce? This is det

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    The graph below illustrates the shi

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    The two primary economic systems ar

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    ___ 12. The capitalist vision sees

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    ___ 25. According to the book “Ca

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    Chapter 3 Demand, Supply, and Equil

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    . For inferior goods, income and de

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    The same information can be placed

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    Not only does a free market elimina

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    $7 - 6 - 5 - S 3 S1 S 2 Price 4 - 3

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    Example 17: The graph below illustr

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    Questions for Chapter 3 Fill-in-the

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    ___ 12. Assuming a market originall

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    $8 - 7 - 6 - 5 - Price 4 - 3 - 2 -

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    Chapter 4 Inflation and Unemploymen

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    Computing the Rate of Inflation The

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    Full Employment Though unemployment

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    3. Cyclical unemployment - due to d

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    During the Great Depression, the ec

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    Appendix: Think Like an Economist -

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    Answer questions 8. and 9. based on

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    ___ 25. The extension of unemployme

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    Chapter 5 Measuring Total Output: G

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    5. Leisure. Leisure time is by defi

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    The U.S. is a high per capita GDP c

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    Example 17: In “An International

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    The simple circular flow diagram be

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    ___ 3. Which of the following would

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    2. Explain what nonproduction trans

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    Chapter 6 The Aggregate Market The

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    Example 2C: Assume the same facts a

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    Example 5B: The price of crude oil

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    Price Level Real GDP SRAS AD 2 AD 1

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    Appendix: Why the Aggregate Demand

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    ___ 3. DEF Company can invest in ne

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    2. List and explain the two factors

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    Chapter 7 Classical Economic Theory

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    Notice that the investment demand c

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    Long-Run Equilibrium If Real GDP is

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    Example 6B: When the economy is in

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    Laissez-faire If the economy is sel

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    ___ 5. According to Say’s Law: a.

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    3. On the graph below, draw an aggr

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    Chapter 8 Keynesian Economic Theory

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    Example 2B: The graph below illustr

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    Example 5: Assume that the table be

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    Notice on the graph on the previous

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    According to Keynesian theory, a ch

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    “The General Theory” also inclu

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    ___ 8. If the consumption function

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    3. If the MPC is .667, and investme

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    Chapter 9 Fiscal Policy The basic e

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    Keynesian Fiscal Policy Theory and

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    Example 5A: The federal government

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    The Laffer Curve What will happen t

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    Appendix: The Importance of Incenti

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    ___ 4. A decrease in government exp

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    2. Explain what automatic stabilize

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    Chapter 10 Money, Money Creation, a

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    Example 4B: The castaways on Gillig

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    Looking at the balance sheet below,

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    Demand-side One-shot Inflation Exam

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    4. Inflation increases uncertainty

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    life; it came into existence not by

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    calculated by using the potential d

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    ___ 12. If the required-reserve rat

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    4. Referring to the balance sheet f

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    Chapter 11 The Federal Reserve Syst

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    5. After Bank X sells the $300,000

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    Low Mortgage Interest Rates Mortgag

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    Relaxed Standards for Mortgage Loan

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    The Bursting of the Housing Bubble

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    On February 17, 2009, the federal g

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    Fed policies caused short-term inte

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    ___ 10. The Fed’s most important

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    ___ 25. In response to the recessio

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    Chapter 12 Monetary Policy The basi

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    2. A change in aggregate demand (AD

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    Monetarist Transmission Mechanism C

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    3. Borrowers do not have to seek ou

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    Appendix: Book Review - “The Age

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    Questions for Chapter 12 Fill-in-th

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    ___ 16. The primary source of incom

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    7. According to Alan Greenspan, wha

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    Chapter 13 Taxes, Deficits, and the

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    Example 5: In 2015, Taxpayer A had

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    of $5 and a quantity of 10 units. T

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    The complexity of the tax law also

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    the current government spending and

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    cut of 1964. The top rate was lower

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    ___ 6. Federal excise taxes: a. are

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    3. How would eliminating the loopho

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    Chapter 14 Economic Growth The basi

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    2. Labor. Labor can contribute to e

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    estricting international trade (e.g

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    An improvement in technology (e.g.

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    The table below shows the economic

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    will increase both Real GDP and per

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    ___ 8. Which of the following is co

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    ___ 26. The opinion that economic g

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    Chapter 15 Less Developed Countries

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    Example 8: Countries A, B, C, and D

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    Obstacles to Economic Development f

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    c. Restrictions on international tr

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    Appendix: Book Review - “The Powe

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    Example 25: In Brazil, about half t

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    Study Guide for Chapter 15 Chapter

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    ___ 13. Among the counterproductive

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    4. List four ways that governments

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    Chapter 16 International Trade The

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    Other Benefits of Free Internationa

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    Example 6: The graph below illustra

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    competitive disadvantage. But dumpi

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    is only 25% as productive as before

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    Smith was skeptical of government a

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    ___ 4. For Country X, what is the o

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    ___ 18. Frédéric Bastiat’s “P

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    4. On the graph below: (1) What is

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    Chapter 17 Elasticity We are often

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    Example 4A: What is price elasticit

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    Example 5A: Gertie’s Gas and Go i

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    Example 10A: When the price of Good

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    Example 13B: On the graph below, su

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    $7 - 6 - 5 - Price 4 - 3 - 2 - 1 -

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    In the long run, would the deadweig

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    ___ 7. The factors that determine w

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    3. a. Which price (or prices) from

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    Chapter 18 Utility The basic econom

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    Nonetheless, society generally assu

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    Example 9: Capital City operates a

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    Marginal rate of substitution - the

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    The diamond-water paradox is the ob

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    Complete the table below to answer

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    4. The graph below shows indifferen

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    Chapter 19 The Firm The basic econo

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    than contributing to team productio

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    1. Difficulty in raising large amou

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    Corporations also use self-financin

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    Example 24: A blacksmith who produc

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    For financing needs, proprietorship

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    ___ 13. Corporations: a. are comple

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    5. List two things that the absence

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    Chapter 20 Production and Costs The

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    In Example 5B, Birdwell finds that

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    variable cost initially decreases,

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    Quantity TC MC AFC AVC ATC 0 240 X

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    If the scale of operation is increa

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    average total cost. Average fixed c

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    ___ 11. Concerning the cost curves:

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    5. Complete the following cost tabl

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    Chapter 21 Perfect Competition The

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    Even though a perfect competitor ca

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    Example 6C: This example builds on

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    At what price will there be neither

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    Appendix: Perfect Competition in th

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    Multiple Choice: ___ 1. A perfect c

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    ___ 17. Perfect competition: a. req

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    Answers for Chapter 21 Fill-in-the-

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    Chapter 22 Monopoly Of the four mar

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    3. Exclusive ownership of an essent

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    maximizing quantity (4 units) creat

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    $22 - 20 - 18 - 16 - 14 - Deadweigh

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    2. Negotiating, beginning at a high

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    Legal barriers are created by gover

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    ___ 8. The slope of the demand curv

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    Price Quantity 3. List some of the

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    Chapter 23 Monopolistic Competition

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    For Percomp (the perfect competitor

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    Example 7A: The graph below represe

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    Example 9: The Organization of the

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    Example 12 illustrates the dilemma

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    its current price and quantity. The

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    ___ 14. Game theory: a. is a method

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    Answers for Chapter 23 Fill-in-the-

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    Chapter 24 Factor Markets The basic

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    $ $240 - 200 - 160 - 120 - 80 - 40

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    Since producers will attempt to equ

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    2. Differences in nonmoney aspects

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    were his strikeouts, walks, and hom

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    ___ 3. To maximize profits, a produ

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    ___ 19. According to the book, “M

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    Multiple Choice: 1. a. 8. c. 15. d.

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    Chapter 25 Labor Unions The primary

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    The elasticity of demand for union

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    Example 4A: Assume that the graph b

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    Notice from the graph in Example 6

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    Wage Factory A Quantity of Labor S

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    As a cartel, a labor union faces a

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    ___ 10. For a monopsony: a. there i

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    3. The graph below represents a lab

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    Chapter 26 Interest, Present Value,

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    An increase in expected rates of re

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    An asset is valuable because we exp

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    Example 13B: General Ordnance prove

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    Appendix: Present Value Table One f

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    ___ 4. An increase in expected rate

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    Problems: 1. List and explain the t

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    Chapter 27 Market Failure The basic

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    External Benefit If a market genera

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    Example 2: To encourage the consump

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    $100 - 90 - 80 - MSC 70 - $ 60 - 50

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    A common good is nonexcludable. Non

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    Study Guide for Chapter 27 Chapter

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    ___ 5. What government policy would

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    4. Based on the information on the

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    Chapter 28 Public Choice and Govern

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    Candidates and the Median Voter Mod

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    Example 8: According to State and F

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    Example 10: When Elvis Presley was

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    4. Pessimistic bias. This is the te

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    ___ 5. An elected official will: a.

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    2. If a certain policy will yield s

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  • Page 480 and 481: ___ 10. The public interest theory
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  • Page 486 and 487: weather may cause bumper crops. Bad
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  • Page 508 and 509: Ideal Income Redistribution The ide
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  • Page 512 and 513: Appendix: Income Inequality around
  • Page 514 and 515: How is this story an analogy for th
  • Page 516 and 517: ___ 2. In 2013, the Lowest Income 6
  • Page 518 and 519: Problems: 1. Explain the two primar
  • Page 522 and 523: Fiat money - money by government de
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  • Page 526 and 527: Absolute advantage, 16-9 Absolute e
  • Page 528 and 529: “Company town”, 25-6 Comparativ
  • Page 530 and 531: Eli Lilly and Company, 22-1 Emergen
  • Page 532 and 533: Houston, Texas, 15-10 Human capital
  • Page 534 and 535: Market, 3-1, 3-8-9 Market basket, 4
  • Page 536 and 537: Political bias, 9-4, 12-7 Political
  • Page 538 and 539: Short run production, 20-2-3 Short-
  • Page 540 and 541: Upturns, 9-4 USDA, 27-9, 30-1-2, 30
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