4 months ago

Climate Action 2010-2011

Energy and Mitigation

Energy and Mitigation Building codes are undergoing revision around the world. The 2010 recast of the EU’s Energy Performance in Buildings Directive (EPBD) means that by the end of 2020, all EU Member States must adopt building energy performance codes that apply to new buildings and all major retrofits, that all new public sector buildings must be NZEBs by 2019 and any new building must reach the NZEB standard by 2021. Across the globe, by the end of 2009 some 40 countries had already adopted mandatory building codes to encourage energy efficiency, including nations from across the climate negotiating spectrum. China, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Tunisia and Turkey are among those with mandatory measures, and a further 21 countries including the US and Canada, South Africa and Russia have either mixed or voluntary building code energy standards. Property renovation financing products should be set up so they incentivise deep renovations rather than short-term, cherry-picking measures. Through this transformation, energy efficiency in buildings can yield a triple win: • lowered emissions; • economic development including employment benefits; • enhanced energy security. Let’s act where we already agree – and put the details first The buildings energy efficiency challenge is clear and definable, and addressing it will bring tangible benefits. Countries across the negotiating spectrum are already taking action independently. Using the global climate negotiations as a forum to develop a framework that assists countries in identifying all the building energy efficiency triple-win solutions, developing the enabling policy framework and supporting the massive capacity building effort required to implement it would be a constructive step. Turning the order of dialogue about the framework on its head and going for the details first could make a global climate accord much more tractable. By delivering targeted efficiency measures in buildings without any economic disruption, the willingness to make deeper commitments in other areas might grow. Work remains to be done in addressing split incentives, but the outlines of a solution are clear. The ‘pay as you save’ principle needs to be incorporated into financing and contractual vehicles that can cope with changes of ownership and still be beneficial for all affected parties: the financiers, the property owners, the mortgage providers and the contractors who would do the energy efficiency renovations. Property renovation financing products should be set up so they incentivise deep renovations rather than short-term, cherry-picking measures. The latter might be the most cost-effective at first, but they fall short of the deep renovation needed. In practice, a ramp-up of renovation rates also implies a shot in the arm to the construction sector worldwide, with the associated increases in employment, skills and investment. Here, the need for awareness-raising among all parts of the construction supply chain is critical. Grass-roots efforts are already emerging. For example, REEEP is collaborating closely with Himin Solar and the Berne University of Applied Sciences to initiate a training programme in China aimed at sensitising architects and building professionals to the possibilities of energy efficient technologies. The transformation of the building sector is a mammoth task but a thoughtful and detailed roadmap for the sector’s change is already part of the WBCSD Energy Efficiency in Buildings project publication, Transforming the Market. This document takes a comprehensive look at the barriers to buildings energy efficiency and lays out specific actions for government authorities, for developers, investors, utilities, suppliers, architects, contractors and building occupiers. Dr. Paul Waide is Director of Navigant Consulting’s European Energy Practice and was formerly the IEA’s Senior Policy Analyst for Energy Efficiency. He has helped develop many leading energy efficiency initiatives including the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation and the G8’s plan of action for Climate Change and Clean Energy. Vince Reardon is a Communications Consultant to REEEP, where he is responsible for outreach activities. He has also worked for the Asian Development Bank and other institutional clients in the renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors. REEEP is an international partnership with the mission of widening energy access to the poor and reducing GHG emissions through the development of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. In five years the organisation has offered funding to 132 targeted policy and finance projects in 56 countries, with an emphasis on the major emerging markets. REEEP International Secretariat Vienna International Centre, D-1738 Wagramer Strasse 5 A-1400 Vienna Austria Tel: +43 1 26026 3425 Website: | 70 |

Energy and Mitigation The ‘sleeping giant’ of renewable energy is waking up. © Creative commons/flickr/Slava Sizov Dormant renewables in Russia Time to wake up Elena Merle-Béral Energy Analyst, International Energy Agency (IEA) global low-carbon revolution is needed if we are A to keep global warming beneath the considered safe limit of two degrees. Russia, as the world’s largest producer and exporter of fossil fuels, can and must be part of this revolution. It has huge renewable energy resources that, unlike its fossil fuel reserves, have hardly been developed. However, there are signs that the sleeping giant of renewable energy is waking up. Elena Merle-Béral from the IEA discusses the prospects of developing renewable energy in Russia. Global low-carbon revolution The IEA publication, World Energy Outlook 2009 (WEO-2009) demonstrates that the world needs a rapid and comprehensive transformation in the way we produce, transport and use energy in order to limit the rise in global temperatures. WEO-2009 Reference Scenario provides a baseline picture of how global energy markets would evolve if governments made no changes to their existing policies and measures. In contrast, the 450 Scenario shows a world in which collective policy action is taken to limit the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to 450 parts per million of CO 2 equivalent (ppm CO 2 -eq), which corresponds to a global temperature increase of two degrees celsius. The 450 Scenario depicts in detail where and how the abatement should take place. Figure 1 shows the kind of technology efforts needed to achieve the 450 Scenario in Russia. It demonstrates that renewable energy is the second most significant element in achieving CO 2 emissions cuts after energy efficiency, particularly up to 2020. By 2030, renewables would account for one third of the total Russian abatement potential, or 190 million tonnes of CO 2 (MtCO 2 ). This would require significant additional investments compared to the Reference Scenario, but would also result in considerable economic, environmental and social benefits for Russia. Russia today Russia’s energy mix is dominated by fossil fuels. Natural gas accounts for over half of total primary energy supply (TPES), and coal and oil combined account for another 38 per cent. Renewable energy and energy from waste account for only three per cent of Russian TPES (Figure 2). However, the share of renewable energy in electricity generation was around 16 per cent in 2008. This is rather high compared to some IEA countries such as Poland or the Czech Republic that do not have significant hydroenergy resources. However, in many other IEA countries, including Norway, Austria and Canada renewable energy accounts for over 60 per cent of total electricity production (Figure 3). Figures 2 and 3 demonstrate that only two renewable energy sources – large hydro and biomass – noticeably contribute to Russia’s total energy balance and electricity generation. The share of other sources – wind, solar, geothermal or tide – is insignificant. This is despite the very rich and diverse renewable energy resources available in Russia. Therefore, Russia could be called a renewable energy ‘sleeping giant’ that needs to wake up and tap into its huge potential. In the early 2000s, Russian experts estimated that the economic potential (i.e., commercial viable use) of renewable energy in Russia might correspond to about 30 per cent of the country’s TPES. Bezrukikh et al calculated the economic potential of Russia’s renewables to be more than 189 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE) per year, or 270 million tonnes of coal equivalent. Russia’s TPES was 623 MTOE in 2002 and 687 MTOE in 2008. Although the accuracy of these estimates can be debated, it is clear that Russia has significant and various renewable energy resources due to its geological, climate and terrain diversity (IEA, 2003). Russia has a scientific and technical base for developing renewable energy. Research and development on renewables started in the Soviet Union in the 1920s. Since then, Russia and other former Soviet states such as Ukraine have developed nearly all currently known renewable energy technologies. Their cost is lower than that of western equivalents, although the quality and reliability is typically lower, too. Following the decline in industrial production in the 1990s, many idle plants and | 71 |