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CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL

CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN CROATIA Site name: Diocletian’s Palace Position: the Roman sewerage of Diocletian’s Palace Location: Split Head of excavations: Anita Penović, Nebojsa Cingeli, Stipe Pavlinović Institution: Neir d.o.o., Split Excavation period: the first half of 2014 Type of excavation: rescue archaeological excavation Total excavated area: sewerage in the length of 250 m Chronological and cultural attribution of the site: Late Antiquity THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF THE ROMAN SEWERAGE OF DIOCLETIAN’S PALACE Archaeological supervision was carried out during the cleaning and emptying of the Roman sewerage in the first half of 2014 as part of the “Recovery cleaning and emptying of the Roman sewerage of Diocletian’s Palace (1A revitalisation phase)” project. The sewerage is located in the northern and central parts of the Palace. The total length of the sewerage is about 650 m, and the 1A revitalisation phase covered the length of about 250 m. The Palace’s sewerage channels were filled up with large and small construction material, fine and hard mud, as well as wastewater and stormwater. The existence of the Roman sewerage of Diocletian’s Palace first came to light in 1857, when Ivan Burati discovered the main channel below the northern gate of the Palace. The idea of revitalising and using the sewerage again first appeared in the late 19 th century. The Austrian architect Georg Niemann published the finds about the Roman sewerage in a monograph in 1910. In 1955, the Institute of Urbanism carried out excavations and renovation of the northern part of the Palace. During these activities, parts of the channels, original revision trenches and transverse outfalls (smaller channels) were discovered. Excavations in 1958, 1981 and 1995 additionally extended the knowledge about the Roman sewerage. During rescue excavations at the Central Hotel in 2011, the exit of a large channel was discovered west of the Palace. The sewer drain extending out of the channel was filled in and put out of use during the Middle Ages, which resulted in the sewerage system filling up with water and mud. During the latest emptying and cleaning of the channel fill, 424 pottery fragments were found. The fragments were classified according to the type of pottery, depending on whether they were amphora fragments, kitchenware or tableware. A large number of them are small fragments of study material, difficult to determine typologically and chronologically. Most of the finds originate from North African and Eastern Mediterranean workshops. Fragments of pottery produced at North African workshops in Late Antiquity belong to the type of amphorae with long cylindrical bodies, cylindrical necks and everted or ring-like rims, which were used to transport oil in the 4 th and 5 th centuries. Red and ochre fragments of transitional structure and a softer consistency belong to amphorae originating from Eastern Mediterranean workshops, and date back to the period between the 4 th and 6 th centuries. Fragments of amphorae with relatively thin walls, which were ribbed on the outside and red-brown and red ochre in color, originate from early Byzantine Eastern Mediterranean workshops. These amphorae had rounded bases with small conical endings. They date back to the period between the 5 th and 7 th centuries. The discovery and archaeological excavation of a part of the Roman sewerage of Diocletian’s Palace has made a small contribution toward enriching our knowledge of the Palace as a whole. Transalated by Anamarija Tkalec

CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN CROATIA Site name: Split Position: Nigerova ulica (Nigerova Street) Head of excavations: Ana Sunko Katavić and Tomislav Jerončić Institution: Kaukal d.o.o. Excavation period: 2016 Type of excavation: rescue archaeological excavation Chronological and cultural attribution of the site: Classical Antiquity, Late Middle Ages, Modern Ages ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN NIGEROVA STREET IN SPLIT In 2016, archaeological supervision and rescue archaeological excavations were carried out by Kaukal d.o.o. under the expert supervision of the Conservation Department in Split. The work was initiated due to the need to reconstruct the existing electrical substation GRAD 4 and to modify the existing wiring in Nigerova Street in Split, during the two phases of land excavation, the removal of the existing, and the installation of a new electrical substation. The researched area is located adjacent to the late medieval rampart which used to enclose the western part of the city, between the Civran Zorzi bastion and the Church of the Holy Spirit, beneath the pavement of today’s Nigerova Street, south of the courtyard of the Kečkemet house. During the excavations, numerous movable archaeological finds were found, as well as architectural remains, displaced and levelling layers, intact cultural layers belonging to different time periods, and layers of geological substrate. The archaeological remains can be dated back to Classical Antiquity, the Late Middle Ages and the Modern Ages. The architectural remains belong to different phases of the construction of the western part of the city. The first phase of construction could be traced back to the Roman period, while the Late Middle Ages saw the construction of a fortification system, as well as the construction of buildings protected by city walls. Due to the need for frequent restoration and addition to the walls until the middle of the 17th century, when new city walls were built using the Vauban system of polygonal bastions, the area inside the western part of the city walls had been a place of intensive construction driven by security reasons. The reconstruction, addition and reinforcement of the fortification system destroyed the earlier structures, which drastically changed the existing urban physiognomy of the western part of the city. Some of the construction phases are mentioned in historical sources, suggesting that the remains from the last phase of the construction of the fortification system can be traced back to general Camillo Gonzago’s city fortification project from 1657. Sources suggest that during the construction of the western crescent, in anticipation of Ottoman attacks, a part of the western city walls were secured by an earthen dam (terrapienat) on the inside. Translated by Ozana Valent

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