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SUSTAINABLE BUS 2-2023

Topics? A clear picture of fundings available for zero emission buses in UK, an insight on the fuel cell bus market, a glimpse of the largest electric bus fleet in Middle East (hint: Mowasalat). Again: focus on safety precautions in H2 bus depots, a commentary on the market for second hand e-buses (and battery residual value). Finally: technical presentations of VDL Citea new generation (cover story!), Iveco Bus Crossway LE CNG, Rampini Hydron (and new zero emission bus range)

Topics? A clear picture of fundings available for zero emission buses in UK, an insight on the fuel cell bus market, a glimpse of the largest electric bus fleet in Middle East (hint: Mowasalat). Again: focus on safety precautions in H2 bus depots, a commentary on the market for second hand e-buses (and battery residual value).
Finally: technical presentations of VDL Citea new generation (cover story!), Iveco Bus Crossway LE CNG, Rampini Hydron (and new zero emission bus range)

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Sustainable<br />

US<br />

VADO E TORNO EDIZIONI<br />

www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042<br />

Poste Italiane s.p.a.<br />

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003<br />

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI<br />

AUTO<strong>BUS</strong> SUPPLEMENT<br />

FEBRUARY <strong>2023</strong><br />

NEXT GENERATION<br />

AHEAD<br />

OUTLOOKS<br />

Funding streams<br />

for ZE buses in<br />

UK, explained<br />

HYDROGEN<br />

Market evolution,<br />

forecasts, safety<br />

in depots<br />

IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

The first 8-meter<br />

fuel cell bus<br />

launched in Europe


Sustainable<br />

<strong>BUS</strong><br />

CONTENTS<br />

<strong>SUSTAINABLE</strong>-<strong>BUS</strong>.COM FEBRUARY <strong>2023</strong><br />

4<br />

6<br />

POST-IT<br />

Sustainable Bus Tour <strong>2023</strong>,<br />

agenda, topics, goals<br />

The handover of SBY <strong>2023</strong>.<br />

Karsan, Iveco Bus, Irizar<br />

Comprehensive electromobility solutions<br />

for the mobility of the future.<br />

10<br />

20<br />

8<br />

9<br />

TECHNO<br />

Cummins, gas-powered applications<br />

on the journey to Net Zero<br />

On residual value of e-buses and<br />

2nd life of batteries. A commentary<br />

10<br />

INFRASTRUCTURE<br />

Flash charging applications<br />

gain share in London and Geneva<br />

12<br />

OUTLOOKS<br />

Financing streams for ZE buses in UK.<br />

Fundings and projects, well explained<br />

16<br />

The largest e-bus fleet in Middle East.<br />

Inside Mowasalat’s depots, Qatar<br />

20<br />

European fuel cell bus market:<br />

state of the art and trends<br />

24<br />

How to deal with hydrogen<br />

in the safest possible way<br />

32<br />

28<br />

IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

VDL Citea new generation,<br />

in the name of innovation<br />

Making Europe greener<br />

Pioneering in autonomous driving<br />

New air conditioning system based on CO2: more efficient<br />

at low temperatures and more sustainable (GWP 11)<br />

32<br />

36<br />

Iveco Crossway LE Hybrid.<br />

Mild hybrids meet Class II operations<br />

Rampini Sixtron, Eltron and Hydron,<br />

the shortest H2 bus in Europe<br />

#foraBetterLife<br />

www irizar-emobility com<br />

16<br />

52<br />

PORTFOLIO<br />

All the electric buses<br />

on the European market<br />

3


POST-IT<br />

THE AGENDA OF THE <strong>SUSTAINABLE</strong> <strong>BUS</strong> TOUR <strong>2023</strong><br />

Focus on challenges and innovations<br />

THREE WEB EVENTS IN APRIL, MAY, NOVEMBER<br />

Charging<br />

forward<br />

We make power<br />

last longer.<br />

Regulations on zero emission buses,<br />

transition of public transport in North<br />

and South America, technological<br />

advancements of mobility such as on-demand<br />

transportation, driverless technologies,<br />

MaaS. The Sustainable Bus Tour<br />

<strong>2023</strong> will consists of three web events<br />

scheduled for April, May and November,<br />

with the goal of discussing key issues<br />

and outlooks with the participation of<br />

operators, manufacturers, organizations,<br />

institutions, providers of components<br />

and technologies.<br />

Last year the number of e-buses registered<br />

in Europe has passed the 10,000<br />

mark. The zero emission bus market can<br />

only grow, with a +28% achieved in Europe<br />

in the first half of 2022 compared<br />

to the same period of 2021.<br />

Energy transition is still driving the political<br />

agenda, although energy crisis,<br />

rising inflation and shocks at supply<br />

level are challenging both OEMs’ plans<br />

and operators’ strategies. New topics<br />

deserve growing attention. Flexibility is<br />

to become one of the values public transport is pursuing: on-demand<br />

transportation is in the running to achieve a growing share in the public<br />

transport market. MaaS has finally become a key topic. Driverless technologies<br />

are attracting increasing investments and their future role within<br />

public transport systems must be subject of discussion. The Sustainable<br />

Bus Tour has been so far featuring Transdev and Keolis as Mobility<br />

Partners, and enjoyed the contributions of UITP within the Clean Bus<br />

Europe Platform project. Looking forward to have you on board the<br />

Sustainable Bus Tour <strong>2023</strong>!<br />

The Sustainable Bus Tour initiative<br />

counts on a subscribers-base of 4.2K<br />

professionals. A total of six webinars<br />

have been run so far in a dedicated<br />

TV studio, with panelists connected<br />

in remote and live broadcasting (and<br />

replays available on Youtube).<br />

to accelerate the world’s<br />

transition to eMobility.<br />

Our battery technology<br />

makes cleaner power<br />

safe and scalable.<br />

A 2022 full of trade exhibitions, mainly focusing<br />

on national markets, has given way to a <strong>2023</strong><br />

that has a more limited number of bus and public<br />

transport exhibitions in store. But among<br />

those few are the two most important events<br />

for the sector. In June, the UITP Global Public<br />

SEE YOU AROUND!<br />

Transport Summit <strong>2023</strong> will take place in Barcelona.<br />

On 7-12 October it’ll be time for Busworld<br />

Europe in Brussels, which this year will host the<br />

Zero Emission Bus Conference under its umbrella<br />

(with Sustainable Bus involved in the Advisory<br />

Board). The two events will see our media in<br />

the front row. At the UITP Summit and Busworld<br />

we will be present as exhibitors (feel invited to<br />

catch up at our stand!).<br />

But our editorial staff will also be visiting<br />

Busworld North America, a first edition scheduled<br />

for 4-6 February in Detroit, and the German<br />

ElekBu trade event, organised by VDV and<br />

scheduled to take place in Berlin at the end of<br />

March. The magazine, which will be published in<br />

three issues (February - May - September) will be<br />

distributed at all these events. And other novelties<br />

are to be announced...<br />

4


POST-IT<br />

THE AWARDING OF <strong>SUSTAINABLE</strong> <strong>BUS</strong> AWARDS <strong>2023</strong><br />

Sustainable buses awarded<br />

KARSAN, IVECO <strong>BUS</strong> AND IRIZAR CROWNED<br />

K-CHARGER<br />

6<br />

Winners have been announced<br />

last October for the Sustainable Bus<br />

Awards <strong>2023</strong>. The international jury<br />

composed of European trade magazines<br />

has elected Karsan e-ATA 12,<br />

Iveco Bus Crossway LE Hybrid<br />

CNG and Irizar i6S Efficient.<br />

The trophies were received by<br />

Okan Baş, Karsan’s CEO; Domenico<br />

Nucera, President Bus<br />

Business Unit at Iveco Group;<br />

Imanol Rego, CEO Irizar Group.<br />

The winner in the ‘Urban’ category<br />

is the main outcome of Karsan’s<br />

efforts in switching all investments<br />

on zero emission buses: the<br />

e-ATA bus range has been built<br />

from scratch in order to provide<br />

a real native-electric solution. The<br />

CNG-powered and mild hybrid<br />

version of the leading European<br />

Class II bus, the Iveco Crossway,<br />

has already been offered in tenders<br />

and will be available on the market<br />

from this year. It merges two trends<br />

that are today affecting the intercity bus segment: the rise of gas-powered<br />

vehicles and the growing interest for mild hybrid applications. Finally,<br />

the Irizar i6S represents a project focused on efficiency: improvements in<br />

fuel consumption and aerodynamic coefficient allow touristic operators to<br />

achieve a lower TCO.<br />

The Sustainable Bus Awards <strong>2023</strong> were handovered during a live ceremony<br />

at Milan’s Next Mobility Exhibition. Held from 12 to 14 October<br />

2022 and organized by Fiera Milano, it was the first edition of a biennial<br />

international event dedicated to the collective mobility community.<br />

READY FOR THE ‘NEXT STOP’?<br />

Since the launch in 2018, Sustainable Bus has been<br />

putting lots of focus and efforts in telling about evolution<br />

and innovation<br />

in the alternative<br />

drive bus<br />

segment (nomen<br />

omen). Putting a<br />

spotlight on this<br />

segment means<br />

giving the deserved<br />

attention<br />

to an industrial<br />

landscape that<br />

is changing fast.<br />

And, in the same<br />

time, offering a<br />

tool that may help professionals from public transport<br />

operators, OEMs, suppliers, consultings, utilities,<br />

The jury of the Sustainable Bus Award<br />

represents seven European countries:<br />

Mobilités Magazine (France), Omnibus.news<br />

(Germany), Autobus (Italy),<br />

Infotrucker (Romania), Revija Tranzit<br />

(Slovenia), Carril Bus (Spain), Bus and<br />

Coach (UK).<br />

institutions, keep the pace with the evolution of the<br />

sector. But it would be short-sighted to concentrate<br />

on one piece without looking at the whole. And indeed,<br />

our scope can’t be limited to buses. Digitalization,<br />

MaaS, on-demand transportation, just to name some,<br />

are further huge trends that are going to have a huge<br />

impact on the ‘shape’ of public transport offer and<br />

mobility behaviors. It is indeed the whole world of mobility<br />

that is changing. And that is why we feel the need<br />

to complement the Sustainable Bus media with a new<br />

proposal that aims to look beyond the borders of the<br />

segment. This is the raison d’être of Next<br />

Stop, a new weekly newsletter, out every Friday,<br />

which as of today constitutes a further<br />

SIGN UP TO<br />

piece of our editorial production. In Next<br />

Stop we’ll be mixing things we wrote, valuable<br />

things we read, contents that we feel<br />

willing to share. Wishing you may enjoy it!<br />

NEXT STOP<br />

C<br />

M<br />

Y<br />

CM<br />

MY<br />

CY<br />

CMY<br />

K<br />

Do you need more power for your charging infrastructure?<br />

Into your railway overhead line with Kiepe’s “K-Charger”!<br />

● Charging infrastructure powered by railway overhead line<br />

● Less installation investment and improved operational performance<br />

● Unrestricted interface compatibility with all electric bus manufacturers<br />

● Seamless integration into any charging management software and SCADA system<br />

● Up to 6 charging points with 800kW each<br />

● Optional better battery for grid peak load staring<br />

< 5 Min.<br />

only<br />

Fast Charging<br />

Interested? Please contact us via e-mail: info.kiepe@knorr-bremse.com<br />

Rail-Station<br />

Compatible<br />

Sustainable<br />

www.kiepe.knorr-bremse.com


TECHNO<br />

TECHNO<br />

CUMMINS-POWERED CNG <strong>BUS</strong> FLEETS GROWING<br />

Stepping on gas<br />

THE GROUP INVESTS $1 BILLION ANNUALLY ON R&D<br />

A COMMENTARY ON E-<strong>BUS</strong> RESIDUAL VALUE<br />

Ready for 2nd life?<br />

€500M OF <strong>BUS</strong> BATTERIES IN EU, LACK OF QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION<br />

Cummins-powered CNG buses<br />

are being delivered in Tallinn,<br />

Estonia and Baku, Azerbaijan.<br />

In line with its net zero initiative,<br />

Destination Zero, the Columbus-based<br />

group spends an<br />

estimated $1 billion annually on<br />

research and development. The<br />

company is aiming to reduce<br />

emissions from internal combustion<br />

engines at the same time as<br />

investing in new, zero-emissions<br />

products. The above-mentioned<br />

Destination Zero strategy aims<br />

to drive towards net zero emissions<br />

by the year 2050.<br />

Tallinn, Estonia, has taken a<br />

big step forward in sustainability<br />

with a new fleet of Solaris<br />

Urbino CNG buses powered by<br />

Cummins L9N engines. The buses<br />

run on renewable biomethane<br />

gas from newly established biogas<br />

plants which produce near<br />

zero-carbon fuel from biowaste,<br />

Cummins says.<br />

By the end of 2022, the new buses accomplished a 70 percent renewal<br />

of the bus fleet. In Baku, Azerbaijan, a fleet of 700 BMC<br />

Procity and Neocity buses are equipped with the same Cummins<br />

natural gas L9N engines. Natural gas is a cost-effective alternative<br />

power solution in Baku, due to local supply availability, sourced<br />

from the Caspian Sea. The new vehicles are also part of a wider<br />

program that aims to encourage bus use, reducing the number of<br />

vehicles on the city’s roads.<br />

Cummins spends an estimated $1<br />

billion annually on research and<br />

development. Its ‘Destination Zero’<br />

strategy aims to drive towards net<br />

zero emissions by the year 2050.<br />

The company is aiming to reduce<br />

emissions from ICEs at the same time<br />

as investing in ZE products.<br />

2022 has seen the first major used<br />

e-bus transactions on European soil.<br />

The transaction of a fleet of more than<br />

250 electric buses, some of them in<br />

operation for more than two years<br />

already, to a new operator was successfully<br />

brokered in the Netherlands<br />

in December. The total transaction<br />

value will have easily reached up to<br />

100 million - and 40% of that was<br />

the batteries.<br />

This transaction was crucially tied to<br />

battery performance. We were asked<br />

to contribute an independent analysis<br />

together with TÜV NORD. Manufacturers<br />

warrant a certain quality over<br />

a period or mileage. The progression<br />

of the period is easy to track, but<br />

when will the battery cross the 2nd<br />

warranty dimension, the performance<br />

threshold? How valuable is the warranty<br />

still, and will a replacement be<br />

readily available?<br />

We have never found any owner or<br />

operator that had battery quality information<br />

readily available. The battery seems to be the most neglected and, at the<br />

same time, most expensive industrial asset of the age. We estimate that about<br />

€500 million of bus batteries are driving on European roads, and hardly anyone<br />

has any quantitative performance information or projection, beyond an ‘it’s<br />

still working’. The example in the Netherlands has shown was seems obvious:<br />

Battery quality information, and independent verification of it, determines asset<br />

value, and thus only make the 2nd use market. Every used battery must compete<br />

against new ones, and there is just no such competition without measurable,<br />

quantifiable performance indicators. Claudius Jehle, CEO volytica diagnostics<br />

«We have never found any owner<br />

or operator that had battery quality<br />

information readily available. The<br />

battery seems to be the most neglected<br />

and most expensive asset of the age.<br />

Battery quality information determines<br />

asset value, and thus only make the<br />

2nd use market»<br />

LIGHTS ON <strong>BUS</strong> BELLOWS<br />

PEI Mobility is launching a brand new range of innovative,<br />

high-performance joints for articulated buses.<br />

Thanks to cutting-edge materials, such as the introduction<br />

of short carbon fibre with the SMC (Sheet<br />

Molding Compound) technique, and its compatibility<br />

with all types of chassis, the new PEI Mobility joints<br />

“now offer unique solutions on the market in terms of<br />

lightness and flexibility”, the supplier highlights.<br />

PEI Mobility is a Business Unit of PEI Srl and is specialised<br />

in supplying bellows, articulations and gangway<br />

systems. PEI is an Italy-based leading company<br />

in the field of dynamic protections for machine tools<br />

and counts today 8,000 bellows in Europe and around<br />

the world. Two foreign production plants, one in Serbia<br />

and the other in Brazil, report to the headquarters<br />

in Bologna. Back to the new range of joints, the<br />

hydraulic damping system was designed and tested<br />

using simulations originated from the construction of<br />

numerical models, based on the equation of motion<br />

of real buses.<br />

The software performing these simulations reproduces<br />

every part of the bus chassis to be tested: from<br />

the axle, to the carriages up to even the passengers<br />

themselves. It provides the required dynamics and<br />

responses about vehicle instability in case of dangerous<br />

situations. This involves a real test area set up by<br />

technicians and engineers at the plant located in Zola<br />

Predosa (Bologna, Italy).<br />

come visit<br />

our<br />

stands!<br />

8<br />

Stay tuned on sustainable-bus.com for detailed information<br />

about the positions of our booths


INFRASTRUCTURE<br />

GO-AHEAD WITH IRIZAR E-MOBILITY<br />

Flash charging in London<br />

20 E-<strong>BUS</strong>ES ORDERED FOR THE FIRST FAST-CHARGED ROUTE<br />

ZERO COMPROMISE.<br />

MOVE. TOGETHER.<br />

Irizar e-mobility and Go<br />

Ahead London have signed a<br />

contract to supply 20 buses and<br />

related charging infrastructure to<br />

electrify route 358 in south London,<br />

the first ultra-fast opportunity<br />

charging route in the capital.<br />

Chargers are to be provided by<br />

Jema Energy (Irizar Group).<br />

The deal was landed in October<br />

2022, bus deliveries have began<br />

early this year. Currently, Transport<br />

for London fleet has around<br />

9,300 vehicles with a fully ZE<br />

fleet target date of 2034. Since<br />

2021, all new buses entering<br />

TfL’s fleet have been ZE.<br />

Two 450kW ultra-fast chargers<br />

for the route terminals and<br />

100kW depot chargers capable<br />

of charging two buses simultaneously<br />

at 50kW for the bus<br />

garage will be supplied. The buses<br />

will be powered by batteries<br />

manufactured by the Irizar Group<br />

and will be charged between trips using two fast charging inverted<br />

pantograph systems to be installed at Crystal Palace and Orpington<br />

Bus Stations, allowing the buses to be charged in less than five minutes<br />

and enabling them to perform the required service effortlessly.<br />

After finishing the route, the buses will receive a short top up using<br />

the depot based chargers.<br />

The Irizar ie tram’s front end design meets Transport for London’s 2024<br />

Bus Safety Standards in terms of front end pedestrian protection, the<br />

manufacturer highlights.<br />

Deliveries have began in early<br />

<strong>2023</strong>. The Currently, Transport for<br />

London fleet has around 9,300<br />

vehicles with a fully ZE fleet target<br />

date of 2034. Since 2021, all new<br />

buses entering TfL’s fleet have<br />

been ZE.<br />

10<br />

Geneva’s public transport system has chosen its<br />

future e-buses on the way to a full electric bus<br />

fleet by 2030. As many as 119 zero emission buses<br />

will be provided by Swiss Hess, with Hitachi<br />

Energy in charge of infrastructure.<br />

The same partners have already been active in Geneva<br />

with the TOSA project, and now have been<br />

awarded the open international call for tenders<br />

launched on 24 March 2022, as public transport<br />

company TPG announces.<br />

New e-buses are scheduled to debut in the first<br />

half of 2025. However, the operator underlines<br />

that “the complete electrification of the TPG fleet<br />

will only represent an increase of 0.9% in the<br />

electricity consumption of the canton of Geneva“.<br />

After launching the TOSA pilot project with several<br />

Geneva partners in 2013, the TPG has been commercially<br />

operating a fleet of 12 electric buses on<br />

PLANS FOR THE FUTURE<br />

line 23 since 2018. To date, they have travelled<br />

2.8 million kilometres on this route. The new deal<br />

landed by TPG with Hess will include 65 articulated<br />

electric buses and 54 double-articulated electric<br />

buses. The infrastructure required to operate<br />

this fleet on six lines of the TPG network and at<br />

the depots will be produced by Hitachi Energy at<br />

its Geneva site. Various options will allow for additional<br />

orders to be placed, TPG adds.<br />

The new generation VDL Citea<br />

The introduction of the new generation of VDL Citeas is VDL Bus & Coach's answer to<br />

the challenges of tomorrow's public transport. Whereas in recent years 'Aiming for Zero'<br />

was the ambition, zero emissions is now the norm for the liveable city. This requires new<br />

technologies and a different way of thinking. VDL's new Citea bus concept offers solutions<br />

without compromise. Batteries in the floor, a one-piece composite side wall, clever energy<br />

management, a sophisticated climate control system and an ergonomic driver's<br />

environment. With these five important innovations, VDL Bus & Coach introduces the<br />

new generation of Citeas product range, consisting of 4 length variants and 5 types.<br />

Experience the difference at www.vdlbuscoach.com.


OUTLOOKS<br />

TAKING STOCK OF UK FUNDING FOR ZERO EMISSION <strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

WAY TO ZERO EMISSIONS<br />

A combination of government funds<br />

with investment from local authorities<br />

and operators is the UK’s approach to<br />

the zero emissions transition. However,<br />

ensuring patronage is the key to long<br />

term viability<br />

In the UK, consultation on the end date<br />

on the sale of new, non-zero emission<br />

buses, currently proposed between 2025<br />

and 2032, is ongoing. To incentivise<br />

the transition, so far, the UK’s Department<br />

for Transport (DfT) has invested £320m<br />

(€362m) towards the goal of funding 4,000<br />

zero emission (ZE) buses in service by 2025.<br />

Investment to support the ZE transition<br />

Making a business case<br />

For some regions, particularly those with<br />

rural routes and lower passenger volume,<br />

local stakeholders cannot at present afford<br />

to begin the transition, either because local<br />

authorities aren’t allocating funds, or<br />

operator investment is undesirable for less<br />

profitable routes. Higher bus patronage is<br />

therefore a crucial requirement to encourage<br />

ZE investment.<br />

“We’ve had decades of declining bus patronage<br />

and we still haven’t seen a return to<br />

pre-Covid passenger numbers,” says Daniel<br />

Hayes, programme manager at Zemo Partis<br />

also required from regional transport<br />

authorities and operators, where the UK<br />

model largely consists of private operators,<br />

dominated by five primary companies<br />

(Arriva, FirstGroup, Go-Ahead, National<br />

Express, Stagecoach), running services<br />

on behalf of local government authorities.<br />

However, a trend of declining revenue<br />

from lower passenger numbers across<br />

most regions is a challenge.<br />

With 1,724 ZE buses in operation in the<br />

UK by October last year amongst a total<br />

fleet of 37,800, and approximately half of<br />

the UK’s current ZE buses operating in<br />

London alone, over 95% of the UK’s vehicles<br />

are still to transition.<br />

Grants and incentives<br />

In England, excluding London, the DfT<br />

has awarded competition-based grants to<br />

local authorities, most recently comprising<br />

the Zero Emission Bus Regional Areas<br />

(ZEBRA) scheme. This has distributed<br />

£270m (€305.4m) in 2021/22 to 17 local<br />

authorities, with a further £205m (€232m)<br />

to be issued this year. ZEBRA application<br />

is competition based, so providing they are<br />

successful, local authorities can use the<br />

With 1,724 ZE buses in operation<br />

in the UK by October<br />

last year amongst a total<br />

fleet of 37,800, and approximately<br />

half of the UK’s<br />

current ZE buses operating<br />

in London alone, over 95%<br />

of the UK’s vehicles are still<br />

to transition. In England, excluding<br />

London, the DfT has<br />

awarded competition-based<br />

grants to local authorities,<br />

most recently comprising the<br />

Zero Emission Bus Regional<br />

Areas (ZEBRA) scheme.<br />

This has distributed £270m<br />

(€305.4m) in 2021/22 to 17 local<br />

authorities, with a further<br />

£205m (€232m) to be issued<br />

this year.<br />

grant to procure new vehicles and infrastructure<br />

or distribute the funds to operators<br />

for ZE procurement.<br />

The ZEBRA grant covers up to 75% of the<br />

cost increase from a diesel to a ZE vehicle<br />

and infrastructure. While ZEBRA funding<br />

is essentially free, local authorities must<br />

also allocate funds, and operators have to<br />

plan investment from their profit & loss<br />

accounts. For example, Leicester City<br />

Council, with a total fleet of 414 vehicles,<br />

has been awarded nearly £19m (€21.5m),<br />

with operators FirstBus and Arriva contributing<br />

£25.8m (€29.2m), and the city<br />

council providing £2.2m (€2.5m). This<br />

£47m (€53.1m) plan aims to provide 96<br />

new electric buses by 2024.<br />

“The operator or local authority still has<br />

to find 25% incremental cost on buses and<br />

infrastructure, and beyond this, additional<br />

changes such as remodelling the depot and<br />

transitioning maintenance resources are<br />

not fundable through ZEBRA, meaning<br />

for us a further £8m (€9m) still to fund,”<br />

says James Carney, finance & commercial<br />

director, Blackpool Transport Services,<br />

which has received £19.6m (€22.2m) in<br />

ZEBRA funding to procure 115 electric<br />

buses and infrastructure.<br />

“Nevertheless, the ZEBRA grant is the<br />

opportunity to invest money that wouldn’t<br />

otherwise be there. The cost of running electric<br />

buses medium term is lower than diesel,<br />

so despite the initial investment, it can make<br />

financial sense long term”.<br />

nership, an independent organisation working<br />

closely with government and the UK<br />

industry to accelerate transport to ZE. “Diminishing<br />

operator profitability is making<br />

the transition more challenging, so we’re<br />

still seeing sales of Euro VI vehicles.”<br />

Measures to improve occupancy have also<br />

been a condition of operator investment.<br />

“In Oxford, our ZEBRA participation was<br />

subject to introducing bus priority schemes<br />

to increase bus speed by 10%, where decreasing<br />

journey time by 1% typically gives<br />

an equal increase in passengers,” says Louis<br />

Rambaud, group strategy & transformation<br />

director, Go-Ahead Group. “These kinds of<br />

partnerships allow our business case; it’s limited<br />

investment for local authorities and it<br />

benefits all stakeholders”.<br />

As ZEBRA has comprised rounds of application<br />

and competition for funding at<br />

intervals, this has also created uncertainty<br />

and a stop-start procurement approach. Tim<br />

Griffen, project officer at Zemo Partnership,<br />

says: “Operators and local authorities work<br />

hard to compete for a share of government<br />

funding announced at intervals, then there’s<br />

a delay before the money is actually received,<br />

then there’s a rush to the manufacturer.<br />

And, if the application is unsuccessful, they<br />

may not receive any funding. This makes it<br />

difficult to plan, especially for manufacturers,<br />

so more consistency would be useful”.<br />

With an application process taking six to<br />

nine months, the Confederation of Passenger<br />

Transport (CPT) also says the funding<br />

process needs improvement.<br />

“What the sector requires is a commitment<br />

around long term funding for zero emission<br />

buses and a quicker, more streamlined<br />

approach to allocating this funding – the<br />

government has funded 2,548 zero emission<br />

buses since 2020 – only 130 of these<br />

have been ordered and very few are yet<br />

on the roads,” says CPT policy director,<br />

Alison Edwards.<br />

An additional funding stream is also available<br />

via City Region Sustainable Transport<br />

Settlements, open to eight city regions outside<br />

of London, delivering £5.7bn (€6.5bn)<br />

capital investment in local transport networ-<br />

12<br />

13


OUTLOOKS<br />

FUNDING THE UK’S<br />

DEVOLVED ADMINISTRATIONS<br />

Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland<br />

have received funding to invest in<br />

plans similar to ZEBRA with over 600<br />

zero emission buses funded so far. In<br />

Scotland, the ScotZEB scheme launched<br />

in 2021 pledged £62m (€70m) to nine<br />

operators and local authorities to cover<br />

276 ZE buses and infrastructure, and a<br />

£58m (€66m) second phase is expected<br />

this year. A notable investment<br />

example includes FirstBus’ introduction<br />

of 193 electric buses, the UK’s largest<br />

electric bus order outside of London,<br />

at its Glasgow Caledonia depot, which<br />

is also the UK’s largest electric charging<br />

hub.While Scotland has a much smaller<br />

fleet than England, ScotZEB has been<br />

praised as a faster and more efficient<br />

application process than ZEBRA, with<br />

less bureaucracy but arguably less<br />

scrutiny. As of October 2022, Scotland<br />

had 273 ZE buses in service.The Welsh<br />

Government has awarded almost £28m<br />

(€32m) in ad hoc ZE bus grant funding<br />

to local authorities over the last three<br />

years. With the aim of achieving a 50%<br />

ZE fleet by 2028, Welsh Government<br />

says that fleet transition plans<br />

including funding are near completion.<br />

Wales has 68 ZE buses in service.<br />

In Northern Ireland, £88m (€99.5m)<br />

investment was announced at the end<br />

of October last year for 100 EV buses<br />

and infrastructure, following £98m<br />

(€111m) provided since 2020 for 140<br />

zero emission vehicles. Currently, there<br />

are 83 ZE buses in service in Northern<br />

Ireland.<br />

SUMMING UP PLANS AND GRANTS IN UK<br />

Name Period Supplier Beneficiaries Investment Vehicles (funded and/or<br />

already in operation)<br />

Zero Emission Bus Regional Areas (ZEBRA) 2021-22 DfT 17 local authorities £270m (€305.4m) 1,278 ZE buses funded<br />

Zero Emission Bus Regional Areas (ZEBRA) Expected <strong>2023</strong> DfT To be confirmed £205m (€232m) To be confirmed<br />

City Region Sustainable Transport Settlements 2022-27 DfT eight city regions outside of London £5.7bn (€6.5bn) To be confirmed<br />

Levelling up Fund 2022-25 Department for Levelling Up, Local authorities across England, £4bn (€4.6bn) To be confirmed<br />

HM Treasury, and DfT<br />

Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland<br />

Plan for the first All Electric Bus City 2022-25 DfT Midlands Combined Authority £50m up to 300 e-buses funded<br />

for the city of Coventry<br />

Bus Service Operators Grant (BSOG) 2022 onwards DfT Operators £0.22 (€0.25) per km To be confirmed<br />

ZE bus incentive<br />

ScotZEB Challenge Fund Phase 1 2021 Scottish government 9 PTOs and local authorities £62m (€70m) 276 ZE buses and<br />

infrastructure funded<br />

ScotZEB Challenge Fund Phase 2 Expected <strong>2023</strong> Scottish government To be confirmed £58m (€66m) To be confirmed<br />

Bus Service Support Grant 2020-22 with further Welsh government Welsh local authorities £28m (€32m) 68 e-buses<br />

plans expected <strong>2023</strong><br />

in operation<br />

Ad hoc capital grant funding 2020-21 North Irish government Translink £98m (€111m) 140 ZE buses funded<br />

(83 in operation)<br />

Ad hoc capital grant funding 2022 North Irish government Translink £88m (€99.5m) 100 ZE buses funded<br />

Source: elaboration Sustainable Bus - Alex Byles<br />

ks. Greater Manchester, for example, has<br />

allocated £115m (€130m) to its ZE bus<br />

programme with £45m (€51m) committed<br />

to deliver 100 electric buses. Meanwhile,<br />

the Levelling up Fund is a £4bn (€4.6bn)<br />

government-funded programme to invest in<br />

regeneration, culture, and transport schemes<br />

across the UK. Unsuccessful in its ZEBRA<br />

bid for 73 electric vehicles, Transport North<br />

East is applying via this alternative with<br />

the aim of delivering 52 electric buses. In<br />

a separate scheme, DfT also awarded £50m<br />

(€56.3m) to the West Midlands Combined<br />

Authority to support the Coventry All Electric<br />

Bus City and the introduction of up to<br />

300 electric buses.<br />

As well as grants, the DfT is also offering<br />

“We haven’t yet<br />

seen evidence of the<br />

effectiveness of the<br />

22p per km and while it<br />

accumulates over a 15-<br />

year vehicle life, it doesn’t<br />

remove the upfront capital<br />

cost” says Daniel Hayes,<br />

programme manager at<br />

Zemo Partnership. “The<br />

problem is also that the<br />

existing Bus Service<br />

Operators’ Grant (BSOG)<br />

of 35p per litre of diesel<br />

counteracts the ZE<br />

incentive”.<br />

operators an incentive of £0.22 (€0.25)<br />

per kilometre for accredited zero emissions<br />

vehicles.<br />

“We haven’t yet seen evidence of the effectiveness<br />

of the 22p per km, and while it accumulates<br />

over a 15-year vehicle life, it doesn’t<br />

remove the upfront capital cost,” says Daniel<br />

Hayes. “The problem, however, is that<br />

the existing Bus Service Operators’ Grant<br />

(BSOG) of 35p per litre of diesel counteracts<br />

the ZE incentive. Operators need this<br />

funding but it’s acting against the incentive”.<br />

Funding London’s ZE fleet<br />

Transport for London’s (TfL) franchised service<br />

now includes over 875 ZE buses. After<br />

an initial introductory phase of six electric<br />

As ZEBRA has comprised<br />

rounds of application and<br />

competition for funding<br />

at intervals, this has also<br />

created uncertainty and<br />

a stop-start procurement<br />

approach. Tim Griffen,<br />

project officer at Zemo<br />

Partnership, says: “Operators<br />

and local authorities<br />

work hard to compete for a<br />

share of government funding<br />

announced at intervals,<br />

then there’s a delay before<br />

the money is actually<br />

received, then there’s a<br />

rush to the manufacturer.<br />

And, if the application is<br />

unsuccessful, they may<br />

not receive any funding”.<br />

vehicles, TfL received £3.5m (€3.9m) in<br />

early 2019 via the Green Bus Fund, comprising<br />

44% DfT funding with 56% input<br />

from TfL itself. TfL says that by improving<br />

costs per bus, the budget was able to stretch<br />

to 126 vehicles. Over the next decade, TfL<br />

also plans to significantly expand its outer<br />

London bus network. Currently, the fleet has<br />

around 9,300 vehicles with a fully ZE fleet<br />

target date of 2034.<br />

Since 2021, all new buses entering TfL’s<br />

fleet have been ZE, with all funding after<br />

2019 coming from TfL’s network costs.<br />

Fares are the main contributor, typically<br />

reaching around £1.5bn (€1.6bn) per year<br />

since 2015, partially recovering after Covid<br />

to £1.2bn (€1.4bn) last year. Income also<br />

derives from road network compliance charges<br />

such as London’s Congestion Charge, as<br />

well as central and local government grants.<br />

More passengers needed<br />

Government grants and incentives are important<br />

contributors towards the UK’s ZE<br />

transition. However, a self-sustaining approach<br />

with a modal shift in consumer behaviour<br />

is important to achieve environmental<br />

and economic sustainability.<br />

“To be in a position to deliver on net zero<br />

goals, the focus must be on increasing passenger<br />

numbers travelling by bus,” says Alison<br />

Edwards. “This will deliver a sustainable<br />

model to enable operators to continue<br />

reinvesting and deliver a network that is<br />

continuously improving”. Alex Byles<br />

14<br />

15


OUTLOOKS<br />

16<br />

THE ELECTRIFICATION OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN QATAR<br />

WORLD CUP<br />

ELECTRIFICATION<br />

We visited the facilities and operations of Middle<br />

East’s leading electric bus fleet. Staggering<br />

numbers, Western standards, ambitious roadmap.<br />

But questions are not missing...<br />

3,000<br />

Buses in<br />

Mowasalat’s fleet<br />

Around 900 e-buses were in operation<br />

in Qatar during the World<br />

Cup, sporting the livery of public<br />

transport company Mowasalat.<br />

That this was the most contested World<br />

Cup ever, and for very good reasons, is<br />

now well known. Exploitation of workers<br />

and corruption are established facts. Less<br />

known, and worthy of interest, is the fleet<br />

electrification effort put in place by the<br />

Doha operator, under government control,<br />

a real large-scale transition experiment to<br />

electric technology. An effort<br />

supported by a massive government<br />

investment, and which<br />

does not fail to raise some questions.<br />

We had the opportunity to visit<br />

the facilities and take a close<br />

look at the operations thanks<br />

to the invitation of the Chinese<br />

manufacturer Yutong, winner<br />

of the maxi tender for 1,002<br />

vehicles (741 electric) issued<br />

by Mowasalat. For the Chinese<br />

group, the world’s leading bus<br />

manufacturer in terms of sales<br />

volumes, this is a first step in<br />

the region: Yutong has signed<br />

a framework agreement with<br />

the Qatar Free Zones Authority<br />

and Mowasalat to establish a KD<br />

factory (a plant where vehicles<br />

destined for a specific market are<br />

assembled) in Qatar that will<br />

serve the entire area. The tender<br />

attracted bids from a dozen builders,<br />

but Mowasalat underlined<br />

that no Western builder has expressed<br />

interest in the electric lot. Price<br />

certainly matters, but that’s not all: there<br />

An estimate of the cost<br />

per km, in a country where<br />

diesel costs €0.50 per<br />

litre and electricity €0.03<br />

per kWh? An e-kilometre<br />

costs one fifth of a fossil<br />

kilometre. It is a pity that<br />

the electric kilometre today<br />

is itself ‘fossil powered’...<br />

is no European manufacturer capable of<br />

guaranteeing a similar production volume.<br />

Let’s not talk about third world models: the<br />

E11s delivered to Doha are identical to the<br />

models in service, about a hundred, in Bergen,<br />

Norway. With the addition of some<br />

specifications, including enhanced air conditioning<br />

in order to accept the challenge<br />

of a region where temperatures above 40<br />

degrees are the norm for most of the year.<br />

Mowasalat: the fleet<br />

To begin, a picture of the Mowasalat fleet.<br />

Over 3,000 vehicles, of which 909 are<br />

electric: a third of the total. The latter are<br />

mainly signed by Yutong, plus a part of<br />

vehicles under the Asiastar logo. The e-<br />

buses cover several mission profiles: the<br />

main slice is made up of the 772 Class I,<br />

of which 91 are less than 9 meters long. 46<br />

school buses (out of a total of over 2,000),<br />

70 high-floor intercity buses and 21 articulated<br />

buses used on BRT services still operate<br />

in electric mode. Curiously there are<br />

few gas-powered buses (170), if one thinks<br />

of the importance of the Gulf state as a player<br />

in the energy market (in 2021, imports<br />

from Qatar covered 24 percent of the LNG<br />

used in the European Union).<br />

17


OUTLOOKS<br />

18<br />

Let’s talk about charging infrastructure.<br />

Plug-in charging is king, with 1,300 stations<br />

distributed in the three depots built<br />

from scratch to house the zero emission<br />

buses. There are also 89 300-kW stations<br />

for roof-charging (twelve of which are in<br />

the depots, four for each, and the rest distributed<br />

between bus and metro stations).<br />

The signature is that of ABB, the standards<br />

are European, as underlined on several occasions<br />

by the Mowasalat technicians.<br />

3<br />

Full electric<br />

depots<br />

Three depots built from scratch<br />

We visited the Al Rayyan depot, separated<br />

from the outskirts of the capital by about<br />

twenty kilometers of desert landscape. A<br />

seemingly incomprehensible choice. Mowasalat<br />

underlined that these vehicles are<br />

used on routes that start near the structure,<br />

not far from which one of the stadiums<br />

that hosted the World Cup is located. There<br />

is room for 390 e-buses and 190 dualoutput<br />

charging stations, each capable of<br />

delivering 150 kW of power. It is not the<br />

biggest depot: that one is in Lusail, and it<br />

can accommodate 478 vehicles, powered<br />

by 238 chargers. The picture<br />

closes with Wakra, with<br />

72 chargers. The charging<br />

procedures are<br />

carried out sequentially:<br />

assuming we have<br />

two buses connected to<br />

the same stations, one of<br />

the two is charged to 97<br />

percent before moving on to<br />

’filling the tank’ of the other. Only once<br />

both vehicles are brought up to 97 percent,<br />

the last 3 percent is added. A choice due to<br />

the need to quickly free the buses in order<br />

to allow them to move on to other activity<br />

steps (washing or in service).<br />

As mentioned above, Mowasalat bus fleet<br />

consists of approximately 3,050 buses. The<br />

900 e-buses make up around 30 percent<br />

of the state-owned public transport company’s<br />

fleet. A 5 MW solar power generation<br />

has been installed in the Lusail depot.<br />

In Al Rayyan, on the other hand, there is<br />

no trace of ‘alternative’ energy production:<br />

the vehicles are charged with electricity<br />

from the grid, thus relying on the Qatari<br />

energy mix (almost entirely dependent on<br />

fossil fuels, mainly gas). A sore point. By<br />

2030, Qatar has set a goal of obtaining 20<br />

percent of its energy from photovoltaic, in<br />

addition to meeting other ambitious sustainability<br />

goals included in the Qatar Vision<br />

2030 strategy. In early 2002, the Qatari government<br />

commissioned a solar park capa-<br />

909<br />

E-bus in<br />

operation<br />

ble of supplying 800 MW of electricity.<br />

The lion’s share of the new e-bus fleet is<br />

taken by the low-entry city bus model Yutong<br />

E11, delivered in 673 units.<br />

Yutong’s place in Doha<br />

The E11’s layout is substantially identical<br />

to that of the E12s delivered in around ninety<br />

units to Bergen, Norway. Battery capacity?<br />

350 kWh. The configuration adopted<br />

in Doha meets European standards,<br />

except a series of expedients related to the<br />

Middle Eastern climatic context.<br />

First of all, the vehicles are equipped with<br />

The tender envisaged,<br />

among the specifications,<br />

a useful life of 8 years, with<br />

the requirement that after<br />

five years the battery performance<br />

has not dropped below<br />

80 percent compared to<br />

the original data and not below<br />

70 after the fateful eight<br />

years. A strong involvement<br />

of the OEM in the maintenance<br />

is included.<br />

a motor protection system against sediments,<br />

which guarantees the vehicle operations<br />

even in the event of sandstorms.<br />

There is also an enhanced air conditioning<br />

system, capable of maintaining, according<br />

to the manufacturer, 22 degrees<br />

Celsius inside the passenger<br />

compartment even when<br />

1,300<br />

Plug-in<br />

chargers<br />

the temperature outside reaches 50 degrees.<br />

There is space on board for up to 72<br />

people, 32 of whom are seated.<br />

Not only city buses...<br />

In addition to the E11, 60 electric minibuses<br />

and midibuses (E7 and E9) and 60<br />

electric Class III e-buses are also in ope-<br />

The 900 e-buses make up<br />

around 30 percent of the<br />

state-owned public transport<br />

company’s fleet. A 5<br />

MW solar power generation<br />

has been installed in the<br />

Lusail depot. In Al Rayyan,<br />

on the other hand, there<br />

is no trace of ‘alternative’<br />

energy production: the<br />

vehicles are charged with<br />

electricity from the grid,<br />

thus relying on the Qatari<br />

energy mix (almost entirely<br />

dependent on fossil fuels,<br />

mainly gas). A sore point.<br />

By 2030, Qatar has set a<br />

goal of obtaining 20 percent<br />

of its energy from the sun.<br />

Qatari government commissioned<br />

a solar park with<br />

capacity of 800 MW.<br />

ration. The former are used in residential<br />

areas for the first and last mile towards underground<br />

and bus stations, the latter, also<br />

sold in Europe under the name of TCe12,<br />

were used for transferring fans to the stadium<br />

and were intended, after the World<br />

Cup, to intercity routes. The 7-metre boasts<br />

a battery capacity of 163 kWh for 38<br />

passengers that can be accommodated on<br />

board (10 seated), while the 9-metre has<br />

211 kWh available for a capacity of 52<br />

passengers (22 seated). The coaches have<br />

an energy storage capacity of 422 kWh<br />

and 51 seats.<br />

The tender envisaged, among the specifications,<br />

a useful life of eight years, with the<br />

requirement that after five years the battery<br />

performance has not dropped below 80<br />

percent compared to the original data and<br />

not below 70 after the fateful eight years.<br />

Again as part of the tender requirements,<br />

a strong involvement of the manufacturer<br />

in the management and maintenance of the<br />

vehicles is included: the processes are carried<br />

out in the Mowasalat plants with the<br />

help of Yutong operators, over a hundred<br />

were present in the country for the period<br />

embraced by the World Cup.<br />

About forty of these are destined to remain<br />

in the area even after the sporting event<br />

has ended (during which it<br />

was possible to see teams<br />

of Chinese technicians on<br />

duty at the bus stops so<br />

as to be able to intervene<br />

in case of need).<br />

What is the estimate of<br />

the cost per kilometer,<br />

in a country where diesel<br />

costs 50 euro cents per liter?<br />

0,03 €<br />

Price for kWh<br />

in Qatar<br />

Well, the 3 euro cents per kilowatt hour of<br />

electricity give a clear verdict: assuming a<br />

(virtuous) consumption of 1 kWh per kilometer<br />

for the e-buses and three with one liter<br />

for a ICE city bus, the price of one kilometer<br />

of electricity turns out to be a fifth of<br />

a fossil kilometer. The fact that the electric<br />

kilometer, in turn, has fossil origins is another<br />

matter. Elementary, my dear Watson.<br />

19


OUTLOOKS<br />

Germany is the most active<br />

European country calling<br />

for fuel cell bus deployment.<br />

Most of the German government’s<br />

investment in<br />

hydrogen are made under<br />

the national innovative<br />

programme for Hydrogen<br />

and Fuel cell (NIP). From<br />

2017-2021, the Federal Ministry<br />

of Transport and Digital<br />

Infrastructure of Germany<br />

has invested €700 million in<br />

different hydrogen projects<br />

under NIP, half of which<br />

were used to activate the<br />

market deployment. These<br />

investments have facilitated<br />

the deployment of more<br />

than 90 hydrogen buses in<br />

Germany.<br />

Interact Analysis is a<br />

market research firm with<br />

a specific department for<br />

truck, bus and off-highway<br />

electrification. Here on<br />

Sustainable Bus Magazine<br />

we host a contribution from<br />

the research analysts Jamie<br />

Fox and Marco Wang<br />

INVESTMENTS AND FIGURES OF EUROPEAN H2 <strong>BUS</strong> MARKET<br />

A PROMISING<br />

MARKET<br />

European fuel cell bus market has been growing<br />

74 percent in 2022, according to consulting firm<br />

Interact Analysis, that takes stock of figures and<br />

investments pushing this technology<br />

In 2022, hydrogen fuel cell city buses<br />

reached 260 units delivered in Europe,<br />

which was 1.7% of all buses delivered.<br />

This number is from our ‘Hydrogen in<br />

Transport Applications’ report which was<br />

published in December, so strictly speaking<br />

is a forecast rather than a final result.<br />

UK and Germany led the way for 2022<br />

European sales, followed by France and<br />

Netherlands.<br />

While being very much a minority of the<br />

market, sales of hydrogen buses in Europe<br />

are in a way a similar story to those of<br />

battery-electric buses: much lower than the<br />

sales levels in China, but well ahead of most<br />

other regions. Hydrogen buses are attractive<br />

to those who want to diversify the technology<br />

and fuel that they depend on, or want<br />

to showcase something new and different.<br />

However, the cost of the fuel is currently<br />

very high and there are other difficulties<br />

with regards infrastructure and the initial<br />

cost of the vehicle.<br />

The role of fundings<br />

Fuel cell buses (FCEB) today have a higher<br />

TCO than diesel and battery-electric buses.<br />

However, by the end of the decade, as<br />

hydrogen prices fall we expect fuel cell buses<br />

to beat diesel buses on TCO in Europe,<br />

assuming hydrogen prices are under $5 per<br />

kilogram by then. Battery-electric buses are<br />

projected to be the least expensive option<br />

overall at the end of the decade. Hydrogen<br />

buses however offer a greater familiarity<br />

in some ways – i.e. a fairly fast refill with<br />

a fuel pump. In Europe, adding hydrogen<br />

to the mix rather than searching for more<br />

gas to produce electricity makes sense in<br />

the current energy crisis. We expect many<br />

of the hydrogen buses in the coming years<br />

in Europe to be deployed in Italy, Germany<br />

and the UK where there are high electricity<br />

and diesel prices at present.<br />

Fuel cell buses are too costly today to be<br />

purchased without funding. In EU, most<br />

FCEB procurements receive funding at the<br />

EU level from FCH JU which has switched<br />

to Clean Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (CH<br />

JU) since November 30th 2021. FCH JU<br />

was established as a public-private partnership<br />

between the European Commission,<br />

European industry and research organizations<br />

in 2008 and aimed for the development<br />

20<br />

21


OUTLOOKS<br />

22<br />

Amount (€M)<br />

2000<br />

1500<br />

1000<br />

500<br />

0<br />

and deployment of fuel cells and hydrogen<br />

technologies.<br />

50 percent of the total budget of the FCH<br />

JU/CH JU are contributed by European<br />

Commission. From 2008 to 2013, the EU’s<br />

investment to the budget was about €470<br />

million, which is based on EU’s 7th Research<br />

Framework Programme (FP7). The<br />

EU’s contribution has increased to €665<br />

million between 2014-2020, which is financed<br />

under the Horizon 2020 Framework.<br />

As the successor of FCH JU, CH JU<br />

got support from European Union under<br />

Horizon Europe with €1 billion for the<br />

period 2021-2027, complemented by at<br />

least an equivalent amount of private investment,<br />

raising the total budget to above<br />

€2 billion euro.<br />

JIVE projects for 300 H2 buses<br />

Fuel cell bus deployment projects after 2020<br />

benefit from EU’s investment with more<br />

than €100 million. The joint initiative for<br />

hydrogen vehicles across Europe (JIVE/<br />

JIVE2) contribute most of the FCEBs in Europe<br />

deployed today. JIVE/JIVE2 are targeting<br />

to have about 300 fuel cell buses, while<br />

over 230 fuel cell buses have been delivered<br />

as of end 2021 according to our research.<br />

In addition to FCH JU-funded deployment<br />

projects, some projects under other EU’s<br />

funding frameworks are planning to bring<br />

more FCEBs to Europe as well. The EU’s<br />

CEF-T framework (Connecting Europe<br />

Facility for Transport) also funds the deployment<br />

of fuel cell buses. CEF-T has<br />

financed H2Nodes projects with €14.5<br />

STEADY GROWTH<br />

THE 20-YEAR BUDGET<br />

Total budget<br />

EU’s contribution<br />

2008-2013<br />

Funding framework FP7<br />

2020 2021 2022<br />

60 149 260<br />

Fuel cell buses registered in Europe.<br />

Source: Interact Analysis<br />

2014-2020<br />

Funding framework<br />

Horizon 2020<br />

The budget of FCH JU/CH JU 2008-2027. Source: Interact Analysis<br />

2021-2027<br />

Funding framework<br />

Horizon Europe<br />

million, 50 percent of the total project cost,<br />

which brought the first hydrogen bus fleet<br />

in Latvia. CEF-T is supporting H2Bus<br />

Consortium to deploy 600 fuel cell buses<br />

by investing €40 million. This is the most<br />

ambitious hydrogen bus deployment project<br />

foreseeable to date.<br />

The rollout of FCEBs also benefits from<br />

whole-system investment for hydrogen and<br />

the deployment projects at member state<br />

level funded by local transport authority.<br />

A hydrogen bus fleet will be deployed in<br />

Mallorca as part of Green Hysland project,<br />

which aims to establish hydrogen ecosystem<br />

in Mallorca Spain and gain EU’s investment<br />

of €10 million. Germany is the<br />

most active European country calling for<br />

fuel cell bus deployment. Most of the German<br />

government’s investment in hydrogen<br />

are made under the national innovative<br />

programme for Hydrogen and Fuel cell<br />

(NIP). From 2017-2021, the Federal Ministry<br />

of Transport and Digital Infrastructure<br />

The small emissions of<br />

NOx from a hydrogen<br />

engine may be acceptable<br />

in off-road environments<br />

and long-haul trucks but<br />

perhaps not in cities. Therefore,<br />

it is forecast that the<br />

number of hydrogen engine<br />

buses sold by 2030 will be<br />

lower than the number of<br />

fuel cell buses sold even in<br />

just 2022.<br />

of Germany has invested €700 million in<br />

different hydrogen projects under NIP, half<br />

of which were used to activate the market<br />

deployment. These investments have facilitated<br />

the deployment of more than 90<br />

hydrogen buses in Germany.<br />

A LOOK AT EUROPEAN MAIN FUEL CELL <strong>BUS</strong> PROJECTS<br />

Fuel cell bus deployment<br />

projects after 2020 benefit<br />

from EU’s investment with<br />

more than €100 million.<br />

JIVE and JIVE2 contribute<br />

most of the FCEBs in Europe<br />

deployed today. JIVE/<br />

JIVE2 are targeting to have<br />

about 300 fuel cell buses,<br />

while over 230 fuel cell<br />

buses have been delivered<br />

as of end 2021.<br />

50 percent of the total<br />

budget of the FCH JU/<br />

CH JU are contributed by<br />

EU Commission. From<br />

2008 to 2013, the EU’s<br />

investment to the budget<br />

was about €470 million.<br />

The EU’s contribution has<br />

increased to €665 million<br />

between 2014-2020, which<br />

is financed under Horizon<br />

2020 Framework. As the<br />

successor of FCH JU, CH<br />

JU got support from European<br />

Union under Horizon<br />

Europe with €1 billion<br />

for the period 2021-2027,<br />

complemented by at least<br />

an equivalent amount of<br />

private investment, raising<br />

the total budget to above<br />

€2 billion euro.<br />

Project Timescale Status Project cost (M€) EU investment (M€) Funding framework Targetting # of FCEBs<br />

CoacHyfied 2021-2025 Ongoing 7.3 5 Horizon 2020 6 coaches<br />

JIVE 2017-2022 Ongoing 102.5 32 Horizon 2020 142 buses<br />

JIVE2 2018-<strong>2023</strong> Ongoing 105.5 25 Horizon 2020 152 buses<br />

3Emotion 2015-2022 Ongoing 39 15 FP7 29 buses<br />

CHIC 2010-2016 Closed 82 26 FP7 26 buses<br />

High VLO city 2012-2019 Closed 30.5 13.5 FP7 14 buses<br />

Hytransit 2013-2018 Closed 17.8 7 FP7 6 buses<br />

An overview of FCH JU-funded FCEB market deployment project after 2010. Source: Interact Analysis<br />

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have zero tailpipe<br />

emissions so certainly will have no difficulty<br />

with meeting the Euro VII emission<br />

standards or any other regulations. This goes<br />

some way to explaining the EU’s support<br />

(although there are legitimate questions<br />

about the percentage of hydrogen that is<br />

produced from green sources and hydrogen<br />

being an inefficient use of electrical energy).<br />

H2-powered ICEs?<br />

What about hydrogen combustion engines?<br />

All hydrogen buses so far use a fuel cell.<br />

An alternative technology, hydrogen combustion<br />

engines, does exist but buses are not<br />

the main target market for this. One reason<br />

is that, unlike a fuel cell or battery electric<br />

vehicle, hydrogen engines buses would still<br />

have NOx emissions. The small emissions of<br />

NOx from a hydrogen engine may be acceptable<br />

in off-road environments and long-haul<br />

trucks but perhaps not in cities. Also, hydro-<br />

gen engine vehicles have higher fuel cost<br />

than other alternatives in this market as they<br />

are less efficient. Therefore, it is forecast that<br />

the number of hydrogen engine buses sold<br />

by 2030 will be lower than the number of<br />

fuel cell buses sold even in just 2022.<br />

Fuel cells are the way forward for hydrogen<br />

buses therefore, both in Europe and globally.<br />

While sales levels are lower than BEV<br />

and diesel, fuel cell buses will continue to<br />

take a share of the market in the coming years.<br />

The funding is helping fuel cell buses in<br />

Europe reach levels not seen elsewhere and<br />

the sales of 260 buses in Europe is just the<br />

start, with further growth to come.<br />

Jamie Fox and Marco Wang (Interact<br />

Analysis)<br />

23


OUTLOOKS<br />

EMCEL is a German-based<br />

engineering company<br />

focusing on hydrogen, fuel<br />

cells and e-mobility. Here<br />

on Sustainable Bus Magazine<br />

we host a contribution<br />

by Nicolò Queirazza and<br />

Lennart Heine.<br />

Source picture: IBAA GmbH<br />

& Co. KG<br />

ON SAFETY ISSUES OF HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE<br />

SAFETY IN H2<br />

<strong>BUS</strong> DEPOTS<br />

The deployment of hydrogen buses goes<br />

along with the installation of appropriate<br />

infrastructure. Focus on H2 proprierties and<br />

how to deal with safety issues<br />

To achieve the goal of decarbonization<br />

in Europe by 2050, other<br />

CO2-neutral technologies are<br />

needed instead of fossil fuels.<br />

Hydrogen is an energy carrier that plays<br />

an important role in the current energy<br />

transition due to its versatile properties<br />

and can be used as a link between several<br />

sectors.<br />

The use of hydrogen will require an<br />

extensive hydrogen infrastructure. Based<br />

on Figure 1, it can be seen that this<br />

infrastructure is divided into three main<br />

areas: production, distribution, and application.<br />

It should be noted that the type<br />

of hydrogen storage must be considered<br />

depending on the particular distribution<br />

and use.<br />

Gaseous hydrogen is mainly used in mobility<br />

today. Gaseous hydrogen is odorless,<br />

colorless and non-toxic. Like other<br />

gaseous fuels, it forms an ignitable gas<br />

mixture together with oxygen.<br />

Gas and hydrogen, properties?<br />

The lower concentration limit for ignition<br />

for this gas mixture is approx. 4 percent,<br />

which is very similar to the properties<br />

of natural gas (lower concentration limit<br />

for natural gas approx. 4.1 percent). Also<br />

similar are the ignition temperature (approx.<br />

560 °C) and the minimum ignition<br />

energy, which are well below the value of<br />

an average static discharge for both gases.<br />

And last but not least, hydrogen, like<br />

natural gas, is significantly lighter than<br />

air (density of air approx. 1.225 kg/m3).<br />

Thus, both gases quickly rise upward after<br />

being released into the environment.<br />

The material properties of hydrogen and<br />

natural gas are shown in Figure 2.<br />

The strong analogies between the two gases<br />

are also reflected at the safety level.<br />

For example, similar safety measures<br />

and concepts comparable to natural gas<br />

technology are applied to hydrogen. This<br />

is also the case with hydrogen refueling<br />

stations, which have similarities with<br />

natural gas refueling stations in terms of<br />

their safety concept.<br />

A closer look at H2 filling stations<br />

Figure 3 shows the typical components of<br />

a hydrogen filling station. These include<br />

24<br />

25


OUTLOOKS<br />

HYDROGEN: FROM SOURCES TO USES<br />

Figure 1. Schematic representation of sector coupling and H2<br />

infrastructure. Source: EMCEL<br />

BEHIND THE HYDROGEN DISPENSER…<br />

Handling hydrogen in<br />

enclosed spaces involves<br />

three basic rules. The<br />

first is that good ventilation<br />

must be provided<br />

in the rooms. Secondly,<br />

in general, sources of<br />

ignition should be avoided<br />

in rooms. Grounding<br />

of vehicles is a general<br />

requirement for refueling.<br />

Third and last, for indoor<br />

hydrogen applications,<br />

H2 sensors should be<br />

used. These measure<br />

the percentage hydrogen<br />

concentration in the air<br />

and warn when critical<br />

values are exceeded. At<br />

the same time, this activates<br />

safety measures.<br />

Figure 3. Process diagram of a hydrogen filling station. Source: EMCEL<br />

the H2 supply, the compressor unit, the<br />

storage tank and the dispenser.<br />

The dispenser represents the interface<br />

between the filling station and the vehicle<br />

to be refueled. A technically tight connection<br />

between the vehicle (fuelling nipple)<br />

and the dispenser (fuelling nozzle)<br />

ensures a safe refueling process without<br />

operationally induced gas releases in the<br />

vehicle area. This means that hydrogen<br />

dispensers - just like natural gas dispensers<br />

- can also be installed indoors (e.g.<br />

just before car washes or in the workshop<br />

lanes of bus companies).<br />

In order to achieve higher refueling<br />

speeds and at the same time ensure a safe<br />

refueling process, a cooling unit is usually<br />

provided. This intervenes after the last<br />

compression stage immediately before<br />

the dispenser. Depending on the refueling<br />

protocol and ambient conditions, the<br />

hydrogen to be refueled is cooled down to<br />

a temperature of -40°C.<br />

Making refueling safe<br />

Safe operation of the hydrogen refueling<br />

station is ensured by compliance with regulations,<br />

codes and standards. Not only<br />

the handling of the hydrogen itself, but also<br />

electrical, mechanical and weather-related<br />

aspects have to be considered.<br />

Common safety features for hydrogen re-<br />

fueling stations are:<br />

- ATEX protection (explosion protection)<br />

- lightning protection<br />

- fire protection<br />

- technical tightness of H2 components<br />

- collision protection.<br />

In certain plant areas, the release of hydrogen<br />

cannot be ruled out, but is even permissible<br />

or provided for in terms of safety (e.g.,<br />

for overpressure relief). With regard to explosion<br />

protection, an explosion protection<br />

concept must be drawn up. The areas in<br />

which potentially explosive gas mixtures<br />

can occur must be designed safely or clearly<br />

marked. Attention must be paid to the<br />

special personnel protection equipment required<br />

when working in ATEX zones and to<br />

the use of ATEX equipment (non-sparking).<br />

With regard to protection against fires, fire<br />

barriers can be erected around the trailer<br />

parking areas and other hazardous areas.<br />

In the event of a fire, they are intended to<br />

protect the surrounding plant areas from fire<br />

and heat radiation.<br />

H2 AND NATURAL GAS, SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES<br />

Hydrogen H2 Methane CH4<br />

Lower and upper concentration limits for ignition 4 %...74 % 4,1 %…16,5 %<br />

Ignition temperature 560°C 575…640°C<br />

Minimum ignition energy 0,02 mJ 0,28 mJ<br />

Figure 2. Substance data of hydrogen in comparison with natural gas. Source: EMCEL<br />

With regard to the design and installation<br />

of the H2 components, it is important that<br />

pipelines, containers, valves and fittings<br />

are technically tight or permanently technically<br />

tight (The definition used in this<br />

article refers to the German TRGS 722 -<br />

Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances).<br />

In the case of permanently technically<br />

tight components, no gas releases are<br />

to be expected. In the case of components<br />

that are technically tight, gas releases can<br />

also (infrequently) occur. Here, redundant<br />

safety measures are applied if necessary<br />

(e.g.: regular inspection by leakage test<br />

procedures).<br />

Safe handling of hydrogen<br />

Handling hydrogen in enclosed spaces<br />

involves three basic rules. The first is<br />

that good ventilation must be provided in<br />

the rooms. Otherwise, hydrogen leakage<br />

could result in elevated concentrations in<br />

the enclosed spaces. Ventilation systems<br />

provide increased air exchange, which<br />

minimizes or eliminates the risk of flammable<br />

concentrations forming. Secondly,<br />

In general, sources of ignition should be<br />

avoided in rooms. This applies in particular<br />

to gas workplaces and ATEX zones.<br />

Here, for example, grounding of vehicles<br />

is a general requirement for refueling.<br />

This can take place either by means of<br />

a grounding clamp or through the fuel<br />

nozzle and the tank hose itself, if certain<br />

In order to achieve higher<br />

refueling speeds and<br />

ensure a safe refueling<br />

process, a cooling unit is<br />

usually provided. This intervenes<br />

after the last compression<br />

stage immediately<br />

before the dispenser. The<br />

hydrogen to be refueled is<br />

usually cooled down to a<br />

temperature of -40°C.<br />

limits for insulation resistance are taken<br />

into account. Alternatively, a conductive<br />

ground can ensure that equipotential<br />

bonding is established. Another example<br />

of avoiding ignition sources is the use of<br />

ATEX equipment, for example for emergency<br />

lighting. Third and last, for indoor<br />

hydrogen applications, H2 sensors should<br />

be used. These measure the percentage<br />

hydrogen concentration in the air and<br />

warn when critical values are exceeded.<br />

At the same time, this activates safety measures.<br />

Hydrogen, safety is possible<br />

Safe operation with hydrogen is already<br />

possible today in exactly the same way<br />

as for other fuels. The similarity to natural<br />

gas makes it easier to switch to this<br />

technology, as approaches and safety concepts<br />

can be easily transferred. H2 refueling<br />

stations can also be operated safely<br />

and reliably indoors, provided appropriate<br />

safety measures are applied. For the<br />

construction of a hydrogen filling station,<br />

it is advisable to draw up a safety concept<br />

tailored to the specific application. In this<br />

way, cost-effective implementations can<br />

be achieved in a targeted manner!<br />

Nicolò Queirazza, Lennart Heine<br />

(EMCEL GmbH)<br />

26<br />

27


IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

VDL CITEA NEW GENERATION<br />

STARK CHOICE<br />

The new VDL Citea family is only<br />

electric. It is powered by ZF hub<br />

motors and propelled by battery<br />

modules in the floor (a novelty!).<br />

Construction concept stands out<br />

Long awaited, last September at Innotrans the<br />

new VDL Citea range was unveiled, represented<br />

by a first 12.2-metre demo exhibited<br />

on the Bus Display. The announcement dates<br />

back to the end of 2020, the online presentation was<br />

in mid-2021. Meanwhile, 2020 and 2021 saw the<br />

Dutch manufacturer at the bottom of the top electric<br />

bus players ranking in Europe, overtaken by Solaris<br />

which closed both years as the market leader. A situation<br />

reversed in the first half of 2022, with VDL in<br />

first place with 242 deliveries and a 13 per cent share<br />

in the overall e-bus market. (Editor’s note: complete<br />

data for the whole 2022 are not yet available at the<br />

time of publishing. They will be subject of an ad hoc<br />

report on the next issue).<br />

Let’s get to the product. Battery modules placed on<br />

the floor (an absolute novelty) and the structure of the<br />

sidewalls in monoblocks made of composite material<br />

stand out. VDL’s partnership with ZF is also noteworthy,<br />

with the axle electrified by hub motors to oust the<br />

historic partner Siemens. Finally, among the most relevant<br />

aspects, there is passenger capacity: the version<br />

with standard capacity battery (306 kWh) can accommodate<br />

110 people.<br />

28<br />

In the name of e-mobility<br />

The new VDL city bus family is the result of a project<br />

entirely developed around the electric driveline. Full<br />

low floor and no engine tower are just a couple features<br />

of a range developed, insists the manufacturer,<br />

starting from scratch and with the declared intention<br />

of making the most of the possible benefits of electric<br />

traction without handing down, at the same time, the<br />

result of a construction tradition based on combustion<br />

engines. For the first time, as anticipated above,<br />

the new Citea houses the batteries in the floor (in the<br />

standard 306 kWh version). The maximum battery<br />

capacity is 490 kWh, with the kWhs exceeding 306<br />

Battery modules placed<br />

under the floor (an absolute<br />

novelty) and the structure<br />

of the sidewalls in monoblocks<br />

made of composite<br />

material stand out. VDL’s<br />

partnership with ZF is also<br />

noteworthy.<br />

29


IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

The 12-metre, in both<br />

versions, landed on the<br />

production lines before<br />

the end of 2022, while<br />

<strong>2023</strong> will be the year of<br />

the articulated bus and<br />

the 13.5-metre.<br />

The start of production<br />

involved the historic<br />

Valkenswaard factory,<br />

but from this year production<br />

will also begin in<br />

the new Roeselare plant,<br />

designed as a hub for<br />

electromobility.<br />

THE RANGE IN FIGURES<br />

Citea LF-122 Citea LE-122 Citea LE-135 Citea LE-149 Citea LF-181<br />

Length mm 12,200 12,200 13,500 14,900 18,100<br />

Width mm 2,550 2,550 2,550 2,550 2,550<br />

Height mm 3,190 3,190 3,190 3,190 3,190<br />

Passenger capacity max 110 105 89 138 153<br />

GVW kg 19,500 19,500 19,500 25,250 29,000<br />

Motor brand model ZF AxTrax ZF AxTrax ZF AxTrax ZF AxTrax ZF AxTrax<br />

Battery modules brand model VDL High Energy VDL High Energy VDL High Energy VDL High Energy VDL High Energy<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 490 490 552 674 674<br />

placed on the roof (the articulated bus can<br />

reach 674). Battery modules are assembled<br />

in-house by the VDL Group. The formula<br />

is NMC, the supplier is not mentioned (but<br />

it goes without saying that it cannot be the<br />

Chinese giant CATL, with which VDL had<br />

a supply agreement, but which focuses on<br />

LFP chemistry).<br />

Four lengths, five configurations<br />

The group also maintains confidentiality on<br />

the size of the battery packs, which in any<br />

case do not prevent the bus from having a<br />

ground entrance height of 320 millimeters.<br />

There are four lengths and five configurations<br />

available: the 12.2-metre is available in<br />

both the Low Floor and Low Entry versions,<br />

the 13.5 (with two axles) and the 14.9-metre<br />

are Low Entry, the 18.1 meters is LF. Apart<br />

from the articulated bus, they can all be homologated<br />

in the Class II segment as well.<br />

The side panels made of composite material<br />

are a constructive novelty, made possible by<br />

the collaboration with the sister company<br />

VDL Fibertech. Double glazing is standard.<br />

A further interesting element is the introduction<br />

of a double climatic zone inside<br />

the passenger compartment, with the possibility<br />

for the driver to set a higher temperature<br />

in the front of the bus (which is<br />

generally the most ‘popular’ for the elderly<br />

and women) than that in the back. Up to 45<br />

seats are available on board the dodecametric,<br />

in addition to the place for the wheelchair<br />

and two folding seats. This is eight<br />

seats more than the previous range (four<br />

seats are recovered on the rear, free from<br />

the engine tower).<br />

The driver’s seat has been completely redesigned,<br />

with the possibility of adjusting<br />

the seat and the steering wheel column.<br />

Not only that: the main controls and the<br />

display, integrated in the same block, also<br />

‘move’ together with the steering wheel.<br />

Among the options, an Air quality sensor<br />

capable of monitoring the quality of the<br />

air entering the passenger compartment.<br />

Mirrorcams are also optional. The suite<br />

of ADAS devices can include Forward<br />

Collision Warning, Active Vehicle Brake<br />

Support, Adaptive Cruise Control, stability<br />

control, as well as the usual blind spot and<br />

lane keeping monitoring systems.<br />

The interiors are well designed, in the name<br />

of spaciousness and brightness. The aisle<br />

never narrows below 860 millimeters in<br />

width. The cantilever-mounted seats ensure<br />

ease of cleaning. The doors, that carry<br />

the logo of Ventura Systems, provide green<br />

lighting of the profile during opening and,<br />

viceversa, red light during closing.<br />

What is the timeline for entering the new<br />

vehicles into production? The 12-metre,<br />

in both versions, landed on the production<br />

lines before the end of 2022, while <strong>2023</strong> will<br />

be the year of the articulated bus and the<br />

13.5-metre.<br />

Timeline and factories<br />

The start of production involved the historic<br />

Valkenswaard factory, but from this<br />

year production will also begin in the new<br />

Roeselare plant, designed as a hub for electromobility.<br />

According to plans, the new<br />

Citea generation will be in production at<br />

both plants, with ambitious goals in terms<br />

of volumes: between 800 and a thousand<br />

vehicles per year to be achieved over two<br />

or three years.<br />

In short: now all that remains is to get the<br />

company’s fill of orders. If it is true that in<br />

the past the Dutch company paid the price<br />

for focusing on the (small) domestic market,<br />

now the strategy is in the name of ‘going<br />

South’. France and Italy are warned.<br />

30<br />

31


IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

IVECO CROSSWAY LE HYBRID<br />

OUT OF TOWN<br />

The Crossway Low Entry in mild<br />

hybrid version will soon be available<br />

with CNG engine. Is this a convincing<br />

answer to questions on energy<br />

transition in intercity bus service?<br />

From Urbanway to Crossway. The mild hybrid<br />

presence in the Iveco Bus catalog is<br />

expanding and the ‘intended use’ is broadening:<br />

a mild hybrid version of the Crossway,<br />

in the LE Line version - the most popular Low Entry<br />

in Europe - is now available.<br />

The world premiere was held at the FIAA at the end<br />

of 2022, where a 12-meter model equipped with 43<br />

Lineo seats and two folding seats was on display.<br />

Overall capacity? 71 passengers. Iveco’s approach to<br />

mild hybrid is distinguished by the availability of the<br />

CNG engine - mild hybrid module combo. A version<br />

that is expected to be in production by this year.<br />

Technologies on the rise<br />

It is a fact, moreover, that both mild hybrid and CNG<br />

are technologies on the rise. The first decreed the almost<br />

total abandonment of full hybrid projects (not<br />

to mention plug-ins...) and saw a 17 percent increase<br />

in volumes in Europe between 2020 and 2021 (from<br />

2,917 hybrids to 3,270), with a further increase expected<br />

in 2022. The second, although it remains at<br />

stationary volumes, is breaking through in Class II:<br />

registrations of gas-powered buses for intercity routes<br />

increased by 60 percent in 2021 compared to the<br />

previous year (from 539 to 864).<br />

However, questions are not lacking: the equipment<br />

necessary for an alternative drive intercity bus (whether<br />

the cylinder pack or the battery pack) is not<br />

always compatible with a vehicle that must comply<br />

with stricter European regulations than those dedicated<br />

to city buses (for example, we may mention the<br />

superstructure resistance, the presence of hatches on<br />

the roof, the anchoring of seats, etc.). Not to mention<br />

the great importance of smaller buses, where the<br />

availability of alternative drives is even further away.<br />

Getting down to specifics, Crossway LE could not<br />

fail to benefit from the new Voith automatic gear-<br />

The Crossway LE, similarly<br />

to the Urbanway, abandons<br />

the compact Tector<br />

engine to propose only<br />

the Cursor 9 in the two<br />

power supply variants.<br />

32<br />

33


IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

box, whose most important ‘accessory’<br />

is the Central Recovery Unit, that is the<br />

mild hybrid module. The option includes<br />

a circular electric motor coupled to<br />

the gearbox with an integrated frequency<br />

converter, a 48V lithium-titanate highdensity<br />

accumulator and a 48/24V DC<br />

converter, with relative cooling circuit.<br />

The electric motor contributes to starting<br />

off and maximum acceleration, as well as<br />

managing stop & start in a fully independent<br />

manner.<br />

Reasons for an intercity hybrid<br />

Naturally, the benefit of the hybrid module<br />

is greater in the more intense use of a local<br />

line, but it is also a good fit for extra-urban<br />

services when the drive assistance can be<br />

better exploited at start and pickup.<br />

Another key feature of the new Voith NXT<br />

gearbox is the presence of overdrive on three<br />

speeds (second, third and fourth), thus<br />

bringing the total transmission ratios to<br />

seven. And this peculiarity is particularly<br />

indicated in Class II mixed service, where<br />

ID CARD<br />

Iveco Crossway LE Line mild hybrid<br />

Length 10,845 - 12,050 - 12,965 - 14,495<br />

Larghezza mm 2,550<br />

Height mm 3,330<br />

Wheelbase mm 4,825 - 6,030 - 6,945 - 6,945/1,530<br />

Overhang front mm 2,725<br />

Overhang rear mm 3,295<br />

Turning circle mm 9,140 - 10,720 - 11,930 - 11,930<br />

Seats n.<br />

45 on 12-meter<br />

Passenger capacity n.<br />

71 on 12-meter<br />

Tyres 275/70 R22,5<br />

Entrance height mm 320 / 330<br />

Doors width 800 / 1200<br />

Engine brand model FPT Cursor 9<br />

Displacement l 8.7<br />

Output kW / rpm 265 / 2,200<br />

Torque Nm / rpm 1,600 / 1,200<br />

Transmission<br />

Voith Diwa NXT<br />

Hybrid module output kW 25 / 35<br />

Hybrid module torque Nm 300<br />

Battery capacity kWh 1<br />

Front axle<br />

RL75E<br />

Rear axle<br />

Meritor U17X<br />

Diesel tank l 200<br />

Adblue tank l 80<br />

A key feature of the new<br />

Voith NXT gearbox is the<br />

presence of overdrive<br />

on three speeds (second,<br />

third and fourth),<br />

thus bringing the total<br />

transmission ratios to<br />

seven. And this peculiarity<br />

is particularly indicated<br />

in Class II mixed service,<br />

where the greater distribution<br />

makes it possible to<br />

increase the axle ratio and<br />

always remain within the<br />

maximum torque range.<br />

the greater distribution makes it possible to<br />

increase the axle ratio and always remain<br />

within the maximum torque range.<br />

The Crossway LE, similarly to the Urbanway,<br />

abandons the compact Tector engine<br />

to propose only the Cursor 9 in the<br />

two power supply variants. Power of up to<br />

360 horsepower makes driving exuberant,<br />

which benefits from good weight distribution.<br />

The only flaw is that tires are available<br />

on 22.5” rims but only in the 275/70<br />

format and not 295/80, which is typical for<br />

urban service and less suitable for tortuous<br />

routes with frequent slope changes.<br />

The interiors are made according to the<br />

utmost rationality, through the use of paneling<br />

and cladding in smooth, easy-to-clean<br />

plastic material. There are also various customization<br />

possibilities, both on the passenger<br />

seats (opt. with reclining backrest<br />

and armrest), and for the internal walls<br />

(opt. covered in carpet), as well as for the<br />

luggage racks (equipped with individual<br />

courtesy groups). It is also worth mentioning<br />

that the luggage racks have the highest<br />

load capacity of the whole category,<br />

with almost three cubic meters.<br />

The Iveco Crossway LE was born in the<br />

Iveco plant (formerly Karosa) in Vysoké<br />

Mýto and immediately established itself as<br />

a best seller, thanks to its good cost-quality<br />

ratio (over 56,000 units were sold so far<br />

considering Crossway and Crossway LE).<br />

In this period of energy transition, where<br />

natural gas is still an eco-sustainable and<br />

fully financed alternative, it can further<br />

strengthen its position. So far, only MAN<br />

had mild hybrid on a Class II natural gas<br />

vehicle, but only in the Low Floor version,<br />

with the pros (accessibility) and cons<br />

(price and seats) that this type of vehicle<br />

brings with it.<br />

34<br />

35


IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

The category to which<br />

Hydron can be ascribed<br />

is that of battery-electric<br />

buses with hydrogen<br />

range extender. This is<br />

the dominant paradigm<br />

in today’s fuel cell bus<br />

market.<br />

RAMPINI HYDRON, SIXTRON, ELTRON<br />

WHAT A TRIO<br />

The first 8m bus with a fuel cell. A<br />

pair of rebranded ‘shorts’. Rampini<br />

pushes the challenge of decarbonising<br />

public transport by presenting a range<br />

dedicated to zero emissions<br />

Before September 15, 2022,<br />

a fuel cell-powered midibus<br />

was a concept only possible in<br />

the imagination of enthusiasts.<br />

Rampini, a company that is not new to<br />

the launch of unique products (think of<br />

the six-meter supplied in Cagliari with<br />

a pantograph on the roof for connection<br />

to the trolleybus network), took care<br />

of it to fill what we might call, with a<br />

little of emphasis, a gap in the market.<br />

More realistically, the Rampini Hydron<br />

represents a technological novelty, the<br />

result of that 10 percent of the turnover<br />

invested by Rampini in research and<br />

development, capable of opening new<br />

suggestive horizons. The vehicle was<br />

presented in conjunction with Sixtron<br />

and Eltron, respectively rebrandings of<br />

the battery-electric six and eight-meter<br />

buses, the latter of which was also<br />

restyled. The new eight-meter shares<br />

the platform of the six-meter (the overhangs<br />

change).<br />

Full focus on zero emission buses<br />

In short, a respectable achievement for a<br />

company that in spring 2018 abandoned<br />

its diesel bus production line and focused<br />

all of its energies on zero-emission<br />

drives. Having set aside the commercial<br />

agreement announced at the end of 2019<br />

with the Portuguese CaetanoBus, which<br />

was supposed to allow the Umbrian<br />

company to affix its logo also on a 10.7<br />

and a 12-meter bus, Rampini now has<br />

three models and two different traction<br />

technologies, united by the strictly electric<br />

motor.<br />

To be precise, the category to which<br />

Hydron can be ascribed is that of battery-electric<br />

buses with hydrogen range<br />

extender. This is the dominant paradigm<br />

in today’s fuel cell bus market.<br />

A maximum of 48 people can get on the<br />

bus, a value similar to that provided for<br />

the battery-powered version. 2,200 millimeters<br />

wide, with a maximum speed of<br />

70 kilometers per hour, the Rampini midi<br />

obviously provides access and a place for<br />

the wheelchair. The vehicle is equipped<br />

with an electric motor with a maximum<br />

power of 235 kW, signed by Siemens. A<br />

remarkable value, considering that we<br />

36<br />

37


IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

are talking about an eight-meter bus.<br />

The fuel cell power is 30 kW. It receives<br />

hydrogen stored in three Luxfer cylinders<br />

mounted on the rear part of the<br />

roof. Capacity: 10.8 kilos compressed<br />

at 350 bar.<br />

The operating logic of the fuel cell and<br />

batteries (173 kWh) are governed, explains<br />

Rampini, by the Energy Balancing<br />

System, i.e. an electronic unit capable of<br />

communicating with all the on-board<br />

systems and which supervises the energy<br />

production by implementing special<br />

algorithms for achieving maximum performance.<br />

Behind Hydron: Sixtron and Eltron<br />

Let’s move on to the other two protagonists<br />

of the new Rampini range: Sixtron<br />

and Eltron. The first is a simple rebranding<br />

of the E60, which was already<br />

restyled a few years ago. The second is<br />

the new name of the E80, presented in<br />

mid-September in a renewed version that<br />

made it identical in design to the compa-<br />

ID CARD<br />

Rampini Rampini Rampini<br />

Sixtron Eltron Hydron<br />

Length mm 6,110 8,000 8,000<br />

Width mm 2,100 2,200 2,200<br />

Height mm 2,980 3,250 3,250<br />

Overhang ant. / post. mm 1,190 / 1,220 1,885 / 2,415 1,885 / 2,415<br />

Wheelbase mm 3,700 3,700 3,700<br />

Entrance height mm 70 (kneeling) 80 (kneeling) 80 (kneeling)<br />

Doors width mm 1,100 - -<br />

Passenger capacity / seats n 34 / 10 48 / - 48 / -<br />

GVW kg 8,850 12,000 12,000<br />

Motor brand model Siemens 1Pv5138 Siemens Siemens<br />

Output kW 122 235 235<br />

Torque Nm - 950 950<br />

Fuel cell module output kW / / 30<br />

Hydrogen tanks capacity kg / / 10,8 a 350 bar<br />

Battery formula LFP LFP LFP<br />

Battery capacity kWh 143 / 170 210 / 281 173<br />

Charging options plug-in / pantograph plug-in / pantograph Plug-in<br />

ny’s little one.<br />

Let’s start with the first, then. Originally<br />

created thanks to the bodywork intervention<br />

of the Spanish CarBus, Sixtron<br />

is the result of a series of changes that<br />

have involved aesthetics, modulation of<br />

the spaces inside the passenger compartment<br />

and driveline.<br />

Last but not least, the overall length has<br />

been increased by 100 millimeters com-<br />

Under the Sixtron’s hood<br />

there is the Siemens<br />

1PV5138 three-phase<br />

asynchronous central<br />

electric engine with 122<br />

kW (22 more than the<br />

previous version).<br />

Batteries? In the name<br />

of LFP, with two options:<br />

143 and 170 kWh.<br />

Rampini quantifies the<br />

vehicle’s autonomy at<br />

175 and 215 kilometers<br />

respectively on the basis<br />

of the E-Sort 1 test.<br />

pared to the product signed with CarBus.<br />

Under the hood there is the Siemens<br />

1PV5138 three-phase asynchronous<br />

central electric engine with 122 kW (22<br />

more than the previous version).<br />

Siemens motor, LFP batteries<br />

Batteries? In the name of LFP, with two<br />

options: 143 and 170 kWh. Rampini<br />

quantifies the vehicle’s autonomy at 175<br />

and 215 kilometers respectively on the<br />

basis of the E-Sort 1 test. Compared to<br />

the previous version, the entire inverter-DMS<br />

package has been re-proposed.<br />

The axles? The front with independent<br />

wheels signed by ZF and the rear made<br />

in-house has been confirmed. The maximum<br />

capacity is 31 passengers. The air<br />

conditioning is provided by Autoclima,<br />

while a heat pump intervenes in the cold<br />

periods.<br />

On the eight-meter, everything changes.<br />

Moving on to the Eltron, up to 48<br />

passengers can board on the two-door<br />

version, 46 on the three-door version.<br />

Compared to the E80, of which it is an<br />

evolution, the length goes from 7.7 to<br />

eight round meters. The wheelbase is<br />

the same as the Sixtron, indicating a<br />

unique platform for the two vehicles.<br />

The motor, like its ‘brother’ with fuel<br />

cell module, has a maximum power of<br />

235 kW. As for the battery, mounted on<br />

the roof, the choice is between 210 and<br />

281 kWh. The first option makes it possible<br />

to free up a ‘slot’ of space on the<br />

roof where to place the pantograph (in<br />

a backward scan: two modules, pantograph,<br />

air conditioning system, two other<br />

pairs of battery modules).<br />

One of the peculiarities of the Rampini’s<br />

battery-powered buses is the fact<br />

that they can be equipped with a pantograph<br />

as well as charge the batteries by<br />

connecting to the tram catenaries. Obviously,<br />

these options are added to the<br />

standard plug-in charging in the depot<br />

according to CCS2 standard.<br />

38<br />

39


PORTFOLIO<br />

ALL THE ELECTRIC <strong>BUS</strong> MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.<br />

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEY<strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

PORTFOLIO<br />

ALL THE ELECTRIC <strong>BUS</strong> MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.<br />

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEY<strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

ADL<br />

Enviro400 (mild hybrid)<br />

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900<br />

Passenger capacity n. 87<br />

Electric motor / output kW ADL/14<br />

Battery type<br />

supercap<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 1<br />

Diesel engine CumminsB6.7<br />

kW 187<br />

Enviro400H (full hybrid)<br />

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900<br />

Passenger capacity n. 87<br />

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195<br />

Battery type<br />

ultracap<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 1<br />

Diesel engine CumminsB4.5<br />

kW 157<br />

Enviro400HR<br />

(plug-in hybrid)<br />

Length mm 10,500 / 10,900<br />

Passenger capacity n. 87<br />

Electric motor / output kW BAE/195<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 32<br />

Diesel engine CumminsB4.5<br />

kW 157<br />

BOLLORÉ<br />

Blueblus 6<br />

Length mm 5,940<br />

Passenger capacity n. 35<br />

Motor type / kW Central / 140<br />

Battery Blue Solutions / LMP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 126<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

Blueblus 12<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 109<br />

Motor type / kW Central / 160<br />

Battery type Blue Solutions / LMP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 272<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

BMC<br />

Neocity EV<br />

Length mm 8,500<br />

Passenger capacity n. 65<br />

Motor / kW TM4 Sumo MD / 235<br />

Battery type<br />

BMZ / NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 174 - 219<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

BYD<br />

Midibus 8.7<br />

Length mm 8,700<br />

Passenger seats n. 22<br />

Motor / output kW BYD / 90x2<br />

Battery type<br />

BYD / LFP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh -<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

12-18 eBus<br />

Length mm 12,200 / 18,250<br />

Passenger seats n. -<br />

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2<br />

Battery type<br />

BYD / LFP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh -<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

C9 (coach)<br />

Length mm 12,900<br />

Passenger seats n. -<br />

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2<br />

Battery type<br />

BYD / LFP<br />

Average range km 90<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

BYD ADL<br />

Enviro200EV<br />

Length m 9.6 / 10.2 / 10.9 / 11.6<br />

Passenger capacity n. 80<br />

Motor / output kW BYD / 90x2<br />

Battery type<br />

BYD / LFP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 330<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

Enviro400EV<br />

Length mm 10,900<br />

Passenger capacity n. 85<br />

Motor / output kW BYD / 150x2<br />

Battery type<br />

BYD / LFP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 392<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

CAETANO<strong>BUS</strong><br />

e.City Gold 10/12<br />

Length mm 10,700 / 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 64 / 87<br />

Motor / output kW Siemens / 180<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC / LTO<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 385<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

H2 City Gold 10/12 (hydrogen)<br />

Length mm 10,700 / 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 64 / 87<br />

Motor / kW Siemens / 180<br />

Battery type<br />

LTO<br />

Fuel cell system<br />

Toyota<br />

Estimate range km 400<br />

E<strong>BUS</strong>CO<br />

Ebusco 2.2 - 12m LE/LF<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 90<br />

Motor / kW ZF / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

LFP<br />

Battery capacity kWh 363/423/525<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Ebusco 2.2 - 12,9m LE<br />

Length mm 12,900<br />

Passenger capacity n. 85<br />

Motor / kW ZF / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

LFP<br />

Battery capacity kWh 363/423/525<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Ebusco 2.2 - 13.5 m LE<br />

Length mm 13,500<br />

Passenger capacity n. 78<br />

Motor / kW ZF / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

LFP<br />

Battery capacity kWh 363/423/525<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Ebusco 2.2 - 18m LF<br />

Length mm 18,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 140<br />

Motor / kW ZF / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

LFP<br />

Battery capacity kWh 363/525<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Ebusco 3.0<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger n. 95<br />

Motor / kW Ebusco / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

LFP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh -<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

HESS<br />

lighTram 19/25 DC<br />

Length mm 18,750 / 24,750<br />

Passenger capacity n. 155 / 224<br />

Motor / kW TSA / -<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 45<br />

Charging technology pantograph<br />

HEULIEZ<br />

40<br />

41


PORTFOLIO<br />

GX 137C Elec<br />

Length mm 9,510<br />

Passenger capacity n. 69<br />

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 160<br />

Battery type Forsee Power NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 245<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

ALL THE ELECTRIC <strong>BUS</strong> MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.<br />

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEY<strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

E-WAY Full Electric 12<br />

Length mm 12,060<br />

Passenger seats n. 24/26<br />

Motor type / kW Synchr. / 190<br />

Battery type<br />

LTO/NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 385/88<br />

Charging technology plug-in / pant.<br />

Sustainable<br />

<strong>BUS</strong><br />

www.vado<br />

Poste It<br />

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003<br />

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI<br />

AUTO<strong>BUS</strong> SUPPLEMENT<br />

SEPTEMBER 2021<br />

Sustainable<br />

<strong>BUS</strong><br />

VADO E TORNO EDIZIO<br />

www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 004<br />

Poste Italiane s.p.<br />

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/200<br />

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46<br />

art. 1, comma 1, LO/M<br />

AUTO<strong>BUS</strong> SUPPLEMENT<br />

FEBRUARY 2022<br />

42<br />

GX 137L Elec<br />

Length mm 10,700<br />

Passenger capacity n. 90<br />

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 160<br />

Battery type Forsee Power NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 350<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

GX 337 Elec<br />

Length mm 11,860<br />

Passenger capacity n. 100<br />

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 190<br />

Battery Forsee Power LTO / NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 88 / 350<br />

Charging technology plug-in / pant.<br />

GX 437 Elec<br />

Length mm 17,970<br />

Passenger seats n. 17<br />

Motor / kW BAE Systems / 200<br />

Battery Forsee Power LTO/NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 350<br />

Charging technology plug-in / pant.<br />

HIGER<br />

Steed<br />

Length mm 8,500<br />

Passenger capacity n. 48<br />

Motor / kW -<br />

Battery type<br />

CATL / LFP<br />

Battery capacity kWh 174 / 210<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

Azure<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 86<br />

Motor / kW Prestolite MD130D / -<br />

Battery type<br />

CATL / LFP<br />

Battery capacity kWh 355<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

IIA<br />

Citymood 12e<br />

Length mm 12,100<br />

Passenger capacity n. 80<br />

Motor / kW Siemens 1DB2016 / 230<br />

Battery type Akasol / NMC<br />

Battery capacity max. kWh 330<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

IVECO <strong>BUS</strong><br />

E-WAY Full Electric 9.5<br />

Length mm 9,510<br />

Passenger seats n. 16<br />

Motor / kW BAE Systems /160<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 210<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

E-WAY Full Electric 18<br />

Length mm 17,970<br />

Passenger seats n. 42<br />

Motor type / kW Synchr. / 190<br />

Battery type<br />

LTO<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 250<br />

Charging technology plug-in / pant.<br />

Crealis In-Motion-Charging<br />

Length mm 18,559<br />

Passenger seats n. 35<br />

Motor / kW - / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

LMP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh -<br />

Charging technology IMC<br />

Urbanway Hybrid 12/18<br />

Length mm 12,000 / 17,910<br />

Passenger seats n. 36/49<br />

Motor / kW BAE / 140 - 200<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 32<br />

Diesel engine Tector 7 235 kW<br />

Sustainable<br />

<strong>BUS</strong><br />

OUTLOOKS<br />

Batteries: sharing<br />

risks to speed up<br />

the revolution<br />

OUTLOOKS<br />

Tips and tricks to<br />

get the most from<br />

e-bus batteries<br />

Sustainable<br />

VADO E TORNO EDIZIONI<br />

www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042<br />

Poste Italiane s.p.a.<br />

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003<br />

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI<br />

AUTO<strong>BUS</strong> SUPPLEMENT<br />

THE LION<br />

ROARS SILENTLY<br />

IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

Isuzu, the 8-meter<br />

e-bus is ready for<br />

narrow city centers<br />

IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

Iveco Bus Urbanway<br />

hybrid and Scania<br />

Citywide BEV<br />

Sustainable<br />

<strong>BUS</strong><br />

SEPTEMBER 2022<br />

COMPARISONS<br />

Full hybrid buses.<br />

A crucial role in the<br />

transition to ZE<br />

OUTLOOKS<br />

Where are e-buses<br />

standing in terms<br />

of TCO?<br />

JOURNEY TO THE<br />

FUTURE<br />

COMPARISON<br />

18m trolleybuses:<br />

Hess, Iveco,<br />

Solaris, Van Hool<br />

OUTLOOKS<br />

Germany embarks<br />

on the ‘Decade of<br />

the e-bus’<br />

INTERVIEW<br />

FlixBus towards the<br />

future of coaches<br />

(with Freudenberg)<br />

LONG-HAUL<br />

A long way to go for<br />

long distance coach<br />

electrification<br />

THE TURKISH<br />

WAY<br />

IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

Up the curtain on<br />

the first Italian-<br />

made 12m e-bus<br />

HIGH-CAPACITY<br />

<strong>BUS</strong> www.sustainable-bus.com<br />

GAME<br />

IN THE SPOTLIGHT<br />

Ebusco, Irizar,<br />

MAN, Volvo,<br />

Mercedes, Solaris<br />

VADO E TORNO EDIZIONI<br />

www.vadoetorno.com - ISSN 0042<br />

Poste Italiane s.p.a.<br />

Sped. in a. p. - D.L. 353/2003<br />

(conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46)<br />

art. 1, comma 1, LO/MI<br />

AUTO<strong>BUS</strong> SUPPLEMENT<br />

MAY 2022


PORTFOLIO<br />

ALL THE ELECTRIC <strong>BUS</strong> MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.<br />

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEY<strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

IRIZAR E-MOBILITY<br />

Novociti Volt<br />

Length mm 7,957<br />

Passenger capacity n. 48<br />

Motor / kW TM4 Sumo MD / 255<br />

Battery type<br />

CATL / LFP<br />

Battery capacity kWh 211 - 269<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 449<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

KING LONG<br />

KARSAN<br />

ie bus 10,8/12<br />

Length mm 10,850 / 12,160<br />

Passenger capacity n. 76 / 95<br />

Motor / output kW Irizar / 180<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 350<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

ie bus 15/18<br />

Length mm 14,980 / 18,730<br />

Passenger capacity n. 105 / 155<br />

Motor / kW Irizar / 235<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 525<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

e-Jest<br />

Length mm 5,845<br />

Passenger capacity n. 25<br />

Motor / kW BMW / 125<br />

Battery type BMW / Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 88<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

Pev 10/12<br />

Length mm 10,500/11,980<br />

Passenger n. -/-<br />

Motor / kW -/-<br />

Battery type<br />

LFP<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 326/350<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

1° webinar<br />

EU policy framework & transition to<br />

zero emission COMMERCIAL VEHICLES<br />

APRIL <strong>2023</strong><br />

44<br />

ie tram 12/18<br />

Length mm 12,165 / 18,730<br />

Passenger capacity n. 99 / 155<br />

Motor / kW Irizar / 190-235<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 350/525<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

ISUZU<br />

e-Atak<br />

Length mm 8,315<br />

Passenger capacity n. 52<br />

Motor / kW TM4 / 230<br />

Battery type BMW / Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 220<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

e-ATA 12<br />

Length mm 12,220<br />

Passenger capacity n. 89<br />

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

LFP<br />

E10/12 Hybrid<br />

Length mm 10,500/12,200<br />

Passenger capacity n. 66/83<br />

Electric motor Green Control System<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity max kWh -<br />

Diesel engine/kW Cummins / 290<br />

MAN<br />

Lion’s City E 12/18<br />

Length mm 12,185 / 18,060<br />

Passenger capacity n. 85 / 120<br />

Motor / kW Traton / 270 - 540<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 480/640<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

MAY <strong>2023</strong><br />

NOVEMBER <strong>2023</strong><br />

2° webinar<br />

Electrification of public transport<br />

fleets in the Americas.<br />

Best practices | Targets | Challenges<br />

3° webinar<br />

End of public transport as we know it?<br />

On-demand transportation | autonomous<br />

driving | MaaS<br />

<strong>2023</strong>


PORTFOLIO<br />

ALL THE ELECTRIC <strong>BUS</strong> MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.<br />

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEY<strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

PORTFOLIO<br />

ALL THE ELECTRIC <strong>BUS</strong> MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.<br />

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEY<strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity max kWh -<br />

Diesel engine type/kW OM 936/300<br />

OTOKAR<br />

Motor / kW Dana TM4 / 245<br />

Battery type<br />

CATL / LFP<br />

Batt. capacity max kWh 242 to 424<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

RAMPINI<br />

Citywide BEV<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 80<br />

Motor / kW PM / 300<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 250<br />

Charging tech. plug-in / pant.<br />

Urbino electric 9 LE*/12<br />

Length mm 9,270 / 12,000<br />

Passenger seats max n. 31 / 38<br />

Motor ZF AxTrax-TSA / 220-250-160<br />

Battery type<br />

LTO / NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 350 / 395<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

*can be homologated also in Class II<br />

Lion’s City 12*/18* hybrid<br />

Length mm 12,185/18,060<br />

Passenger capacity n. 101/140<br />

Electric motor / kW MAN/12<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity max kWh -<br />

Diesel engine/kW MAN D15/243-265<br />

*available with CNG engine<br />

MERCEDES<br />

e-Centro C<br />

Length mm 6,605<br />

Passenger capacity n. 32<br />

Motor / kW Dana TM4 / 205<br />

Battery type<br />

Svolt / NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 110<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

Sixtron/Eltron/Hydron<br />

Length mm 6,110 / 8,000 / 8,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 34 / 48 / 48<br />

Motor / kW Siemens - 122/235/235<br />

Battery type Rampini / LFP<br />

Batt. capacity max kWh 170/281/173<br />

Fuel cell module / kW no / no / 30<br />

Charging technology plug-in / pant.<br />

SAFRA<br />

Citywide Hybrid<br />

Length mm 12,005 / 14,900<br />

Passenger seats max n. 37 / 49<br />

Electric motor output kW 150<br />

Diesel eng./hp Scania DC09/280-320<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity kWh -<br />

SKODA<br />

Urbino electric 15 LE*<br />

Length mm 14,890<br />

Passenger seats max n. 65<br />

Motor Central asynchronous / 300<br />

Battery type<br />

LTO / NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 470<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

*can be homologated also in Class II<br />

Urbino hybrid 12/18<br />

Length mm 12,000 / 18,000<br />

Seated max n. 37 / 49<br />

Electric motor / kW central/120-200<br />

Diesel engine / hp Cummins / 120<br />

Battery type<br />

Supercap<br />

Battery capacity kWh 0.82<br />

eCitaro 12/18<br />

Length mm 12,135 / 18,125<br />

Passenger capacity n. 80* / 136*<br />

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250<br />

Battery type Akasol / NMC**<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 396 / 441<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

*with max battery capacity<br />

**optionally available with Blue Solutions<br />

LMP batteries (max 441 kWh)<br />

e-Kent C<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 95<br />

Motor / kW Voith / 410<br />

Battery type Webasto / NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 210 - 280 - 350<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

QUANTRON<br />

Hycity<br />

Length mm 11,857<br />

Passenger capacity n. +100<br />

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250<br />

Fuel cell module / kW Symbio / 45<br />

Battery Microvast / NMC / 130 kWh<br />

Skoda E’City / H’city<br />

Length mm 12,020<br />

Passenger capacity n. 80 / 85<br />

Motor / kW - / 160<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity max kWh -<br />

Fuel cell module / kW no / -<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

Urbino electric 18/24<br />

Length mm 18,000 / 24,700<br />

Passenger seats max n. 48 / 69<br />

Motor<br />

ZF AxTrax / TSA<br />

Battery type<br />

LTO / NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 203/350/553<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Trollino<br />

Length mm 12,000/18,000/24,000<br />

Passenger seats max n. 39/53/69<br />

Motor / kW TSA-Skoda / 160-250<br />

Battery type<br />

Solaris LTO<br />

Battery capacity kWh 30-90<br />

Charging technologies Pant. / IMC<br />

TEMSA<br />

Citaro Hybrid 12/18<br />

Length mm 12,185 / 18,060<br />

Passenger n. 101 / 140<br />

Electric motor type -<br />

Cizaris 12 EV<br />

Length mm 12,180<br />

Passenger capacity n. 81 to 95<br />

SCANIA<br />

SOLARIS<br />

Urbino 12 hydrogen<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger seats max n. 37<br />

Motor / kW ZF AxTrax / 250<br />

Fuel cell module<br />

Ballard<br />

Fuel cell module power kW 70<br />

Battery High Power / 30 kWh<br />

Hydrogen capacity kg 5 x 37,5<br />

Avenue Electron<br />

Length mm 12,095<br />

Passenger seats n. 35<br />

Motor / kW TM4 Sumo / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 240 - 300 - 360<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

46<br />

47


PORTFOLIO<br />

ALL THE ELECTRIC <strong>BUS</strong> MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.<br />

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEY<strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

PORTFOLIO<br />

ALL THE ELECTRIC <strong>BUS</strong> MODELS ON THE EUROPEAN MARKETS.<br />

BATTERY-ELECTRIC / HYBRID / FUEL CELL / IMC TROLLEY<strong>BUS</strong>ES<br />

MD9 electriCITY<br />

Length mm 9,496<br />

Passenger seats n. 26<br />

Motor / kW<br />

TM4/250<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 200<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

VAN HOOL<br />

A330 Fuel Cell 6W<br />

Length mm 11,995<br />

Passenger capacity n. 78<br />

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160<br />

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 210<br />

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 85<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36<br />

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1,600/ 38.5<br />

Fuel Cell 8W<br />

Length mm 13,155<br />

Passenger seats n. 41<br />

Motor / kW Siemens PEM2022/210<br />

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 85 - 100<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36<br />

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1.600 / 38.5<br />

Exqui.City 18 Fuel Cell<br />

Length mm 18,230<br />

Passenger capacity n. 125<br />

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160<br />

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2022/ 210<br />

Fuel cell Ballard FC Velocity HD 100<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 36<br />

Hydrogen capacity l/kg 1,600 / 38.5<br />

A309 diesel-hybrid<br />

Length mm 9,990<br />

Passenger seats n. 21<br />

Electric motor Siemens 1DB2016B06<br />

Battery supplier<br />

Actia<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 24<br />

Diesel engine/kW Cummins ISB 4,5/157<br />

Exqui.City18 diesel-hybrid<br />

Length mm 18,610<br />

Passenger capacity n. 42<br />

Motor type 1/kW Siemens PEM2016/ 160<br />

Motor type 2/kW Siemens PEM2022/ 210<br />

Battery supplier<br />

Actia<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 24 / 36<br />

Diesel eng./kW Cummins ISB 6.7/209<br />

Exqui.City24 diesel-hybrid<br />

Length mm 23,820<br />

Passenger capacity n. 61<br />

Electric motor / kW Siemens PEM/ 2x160<br />

Battery supplier<br />

Actia<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 2x24/36<br />

Diesel eng./kW Cummins ISB 6.7/209<br />

Exqui.City24 CNG-hybrid<br />

Length mm 23,820<br />

Passenger capacity n. 60<br />

Electric motor/kW Siemens PEM/2x160<br />

Battery supplier<br />

Actia<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 36<br />

Engine / kW FPT CNG / 221<br />

Exqui.City18 Trolley<br />

Length mm 18,610<br />

Passenger seats n. 41<br />

Motor type/kW 2x Kiepe TSA TMF/160<br />

Battery type<br />

Kiepe<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 2x15<br />

Pantograph<br />

Kiepe<br />

Exqui.City24 Trolley<br />

Length mm 23,820<br />

Passenger seats n. 51<br />

Motor type/kW 2xKiepe TSA TMF/160<br />

Battery type<br />

Kiepe<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 2x20<br />

Pantograph<br />

Kiepe<br />

VDL<br />

Citea new gen. LF-122 / LE-122<br />

Length mm 12,200<br />

Passenger capacity n. 110 / 105<br />

Motor/kW ZF AxTrax / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 490<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Citea new gen. LE-135 / LE-149<br />

Length mm 13,500 / 14,900<br />

Passenger capacity n. 89 / 138<br />

Motor/kW ZF AxTrax / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 552 / 674<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Citea new gen. LE-181<br />

Length mm 18,100<br />

Passenger capacity n. 153<br />

Motor/kW ZF AxTrax / 250<br />

Battery type<br />

NMC<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 674<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Citea SLF-120 Electric<br />

Length mm 12,456<br />

Passenger capacity n. 55<br />

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity standard kWh 216<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Citea SLE-120/129 Electric<br />

Length mm 12,000 / 12,900<br />

Passenger capacity n. 80 / 75<br />

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity standard kWh 216<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Citea LLE-99/115 Electric<br />

Length mm 9,950 / 11,500<br />

Passenger capacity n. 62 / 65<br />

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2016/160<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity standard kWh 216<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

Citea SLFA-180/181/187 Elec.<br />

Length mm 18,000 / 18,150 / 18,750<br />

Passenger capacity n. 130/130/125<br />

Motor/kW Siemens 1DB2022/240<br />

Battery type -<br />

Battery capacity standard kWh 216<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

VOLVO<br />

7900 Electric<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 98<br />

Motor / kW Volvo / 200<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity kWh 150/200/250<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

7900 Electric Articulated<br />

Length mm 18,000/ 18,700<br />

Passenger capacity n. 150<br />

Motor / kW Volvo / 2 x 200<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity kWh 250/300<br />

Charging technology plug-in/pant.<br />

7900 Electric Hybrid<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 98<br />

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 200<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 19<br />

Charging technology Oppcharge<br />

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/24<br />

7900 Hybrid<br />

Length mm 10,600/12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 90<br />

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 110<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 9<br />

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240<br />

7900 Hybrid Articulated<br />

Length mm 18,000 / 18,700<br />

Passenger capacity n. 100 / 154<br />

Electric motor / kW Volvo / 130<br />

Battery type<br />

Lithium-ion<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 8/9<br />

Charging Oppcharge / CCS<br />

Diesel engine/hp Volvo D5/240<br />

48<br />

49


PORTFOLIO<br />

SUPPLEMENT<br />

YUTONG<br />

E12<br />

Length mm 12,170<br />

Passenger capacity n. 73<br />

Motor/kW Yutong YTM280-CV9-H/350<br />

Battery supplier<br />

CATL<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 422<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

StreetDeck Hydroliner FCEV<br />

Length mm 10,900<br />

Passenger capacity n. 86<br />

Motor / kW<br />

Voith VEDS<br />

Fuel cell module<br />

Ballard<br />

Fuel cell module power kW -<br />

Battery Forsee Power / NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 48<br />

Hydrogen capacity kg 27 (1,120 l)<br />

StreetDeck Electroliner BEV<br />

Length mm 10,900<br />

Passenger seats n. 95<br />

Motor / kW<br />

Voith VEDS<br />

Battery Forsee Power / NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 340 - 454<br />

Charging technology plug-in.<br />

Mobility, smart city<br />

Culture, technology and market of<br />

low and zero emission buses<br />

Established 1991<br />

Editor in chief<br />

Stefano Agnellini<br />

Managing editor<br />

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Yutong ICe12 (coach)<br />

Length mm 12,465<br />

Passenger capacity n. 49/59<br />

Motor/kW Yutong TZ368XSYTB38/350<br />

Battery type<br />

CATL<br />

Battery capacity max kWh 422<br />

Charging technology plug-in<br />

WRIGHT<strong>BUS</strong><br />

50<br />

GB Kite Hydroliner FCEV<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger capacity n. 90<br />

Motor / kW<br />

Voith VEDS<br />

Fuel cell module Ballard FC Move<br />

Fuel cell module power kW 70 - 100<br />

Battery Forsee Power / NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 30 - 45<br />

Hydrogen capacity kg 35 - 50<br />

GB Kite Electroliner BEV<br />

Length mm 12,000<br />

Passenger seats n. 90<br />

Motor / kW<br />

Voith VEDS<br />

Battery Forsee Power / NMC<br />

Battery capacity kWh 340 - 454 - 567<br />

Charging technology plug-in.<br />

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