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Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines

Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines

508 F. Zhao et al. /

508 F. Zhao et al. / Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 25 (1999) 437–562 Fig. 74. Effect of the spray cone angle on combustion stability, engine performance and exhaust emissions [101].

F. Zhao et al. / Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 25 (1999) 437–562 509 Fig. 75. Knock tendency of the Mitsubishi GDI engine during acceleration [50,51]. fuel injector, the inherent resistance of a GDI injector to deposit formation would ideally be determined by a standardized bench test using either an oven test or a dynamometer test in conjunction with a standard fuel, test configuration and test conditions. The lower the level of deposits that are formed in such a standard test, the higher the inherent resistance of the particular injector design. Examples of design parameters that would affect the inherent deposit resistance of an injector include a director plate for isolating the needle seat from direct contact with combustion gases, a more heat-conductive path from the tip to the injector threads or mounting boss, an increased fuel volume extending closer to the needle seat and special plating for the tip surfaces. Tip coatings were found to be quite effective in injector coking reduction, but this alone may not be sufficient to prevent the problem. Unfortunately, no proven, standardized test for deposit resistance has yet been adopted for GDI injectors, which is a situation that will have to be quickly resolved if rapid progress in direct-injection gasoline engines is to continue. The standard deposit tests for pintle-type and directorplate-type port fuel injectors are discussed by Caracciolo and Stebar [212] and by Harrington et al. [213]. These tests were developed over a number of years, and were proven to correlate with field data from PFI engines; however, it is considered unlikely that the standard PFI tests can be effectively utilized for GDI injectors. It is well established that the hot soak time and tip temperature history are of critical importance for PFI deposit formation, and that deposit formation rates are very low for continuous operation. The initial indications for GDI applications, however, are that deposits do form under continuous operation, thus indicating that the formation mechanisms may differ from that of the PFI injector. The tip temperature is generally considered to be an important parameter for both the PFI and GDI injector, but the contribution of the temperature window and its cycle history is not known for Fig. 76. Time history of the injector-tip temperature for the Mitsubishi GDI injector [50]. GDI applications. The role of the hot soak interval is not known in the current GDI literature, making this an important research topic. Dynamometer tests with on–off cycles can certainly be used to generate deposits, but extensive testing will be required to prove that a particular test correlates with GDI fleet data. Without an accepted industry test, the inherent resistance of a particular GDI design can only be evaluated by an ad hoc test within each company. Knowledge of the inherent resistance of a GDI injector is necessary, but not sufficient, for interpreting the observed rate of deposit formation in a particular application. The inherent resistance or robustness of a specific injector design to deposit formation may be either enhanced or degraded by the configuration of the injector in the combustion chamber, and by the specific fuel that is being used. The tip temperature will be affected by the protrusion of the tip into the cylinder, the conductive path from the injector mounting boss to the coolant passage, and by the in-cylinder air velocity history at the tip location. It is recommended that the tip temperature be considered as an important variable, and that it be measured and logged during any development program. Micrographs from a scanning electron microscope should also be obtained for the orifice area of the injector tip during engine down periods. The centrally mounted location for the injector is known to be subject to a higher thermal loading than is experienced

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