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HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN

HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN PEDAGOGY, HISTORY, AND PRACTICE 34 Auschwitz-Birkenau, as they comment on how the Roma and Sinti were living as families and wearing their own clothes, unlike the majority of Jewish prisoners who had be separated into male and female camps. The final section of ‘Collect’ once more focuses on Jewish survivors’ memories of the ‘liquidation’ of the ‘gypsy camp’. Again the purpose here is to encourage students to recognize that there is no single memory of the events and that the survivors’ reactions to the deaths do not necessarily agree. Having watched survivor clips, the Auschwitz film, and read about the historical context of the ‘gypsy camp’, students move onto the ‘Construct’ part of the activity. Here they are asked to build a sound memorial that is both reflective and sensitive to the materials they have used so far before moving onto ‘Communicate’ where they share their work with other students. Conclusion As outlined above, the nature of individual memory is both complex and often contradictory, and as such its effective use in classrooms requires educators to challenge and reflect upon what is being watched, something that has been missing from classroom practice. As educators, the responsibility falls on us to critically reflect on when and how we use witness accounts; this is especially important as more videos become available online for classroom use. Using IWitness as a platform for students to engage with witness memories is one way to encourage them to critically reflect on the point in time when the individual was videotaped and the memories he or she shares. Bibliography Andrews, K. (2013) “The British government and the Kindertransport: Moving away from the redemptive story”. Prism, 54-60 Bertolini, F. (2014). “Truth and Memory After Catastrophe: Historical Fact and the Historical Witness”. Dapim: Studies on the Holocaust, 1-17. Budrytė, D. (2010). “Experiences of Collective Trauma and Political Activism: A Study of Women ‘Agents of Memory’ in 350. Post-Soviet Lithuania”. Journal of Baltic studies, 41(3), 331- Frisch, M. (1991) “A Shared Authority: Essays on the Craft and Meaning of Oral and Public History”. Albany: SUNY Press. Kushner, T. (2006). “Holocaust Testimony, Ethics, and the Problem of Representation”. Poetics Today, 27(2), 275-295. IHRA (2005) Teaching Guidelines https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/educate/teachingguidelines accessed 10 th May 2015

Lentin, R. (2006, October). “Femina Sacra: Gendered Memory and Political Violence”. In Women’s Studies International Forum (Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 463-473). Pergamon. Rothberg, M. (2004). “The Work of Testimony in the Age of Decolonization:” Chronicle of a Summer,” Cinema Verité, and the Emergence of the Holocaust Survivor”. PMLA, 1231-1246. Shopes, L. (2002). “Making Sense of Oral History”. History Matters: The US Survey Course on the Web, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/oral. Soo, J. J., Cathey, R. J., Frieder, O., Amir, M. J., & Frieder, G. (2008, October). “Yizkor Books: a Voice for the Silent Past”. In Proceedings of the 17 th ACM conference on Information and knowledge management (pp. 1337-1338). ACM. Young, J. E. (1993). The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. Yale University Press. Zweig, R. W. (1987). “Politics of Commemoration”. Jewish Social Studies, 155-166. 35 HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN PEDAGOGY, HISTORY, AND PRACTICE