atw 2018-07


atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 6/7 ı June/July



Poland Faces Delays and Decisions as It

Makes Ambitious Plans to Go Nuclear

NucNet | Page 366

Poland has drawn up ambitious plans to build up to

6,000 MW of nuclear generating capacity, potentially

at two sites, by the late 2030s or early 2040s.

But the government is yet to take a final decision

and the deadline has pushed back several times,

with plans hampered by changes in government,

problems putting in place the right domestic legislation

and the need to find the right financing model.

Poland needs nuclear because of its low carbon

footprint and as a way to decrease the country’s

carbon emissions. Poland is no newcomer to nuclear

technology. The Polish National Centre for Nuclear

Research (NCBJ) has operated a research reactor at

Swierk. In 1971 the government made its first

binding decision to build a nuclear plant. The

project was formally scrapped in 1990.

49 th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology

(AMNT 2018): Opening Address

Ralf Güldner | Page 369

As in other years, DAtF and the German Nuclear

Society (KTG), offer a comprehensive program

with their 49 th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology,

giving insights into many aspects of nuclear

technology and contributing to the international

exchange of knowledge and experience in industry,

research, politics and administration. In keeping

with long-standing tradition, even in the year

preceding its 50th anniversary, on 7 and 8 May 2019

in Berlin, the AMNT remains the only conference

in Germany, and one of the few in Europe, that

combines all the issues surrounding nuclear

technology under one roof and is dedicated to every

sector of the industry.

TESPA-ROD Code Prediction of the Fuel Rod

Behaviour During Long-term Storage

Heinz G. Sonnenburg | Page 374

The fuel rod code TESPA-ROD is applicable to LOCA

transients and RIA transients. Recently, code

models have been implemented in order to predict

the transitional fuel rod behaviour during longterm

storage. In particular modelling for both

long-term fuel swelling and associated helium gas

release have been implemented. First TESPA-ROD

code predictions for the long-term transient,

including wet storage, drying procedure and dry

storage indicate gap closure between fuel and

cladding. Thus, stress level in the cladding may

depend on both the internal fission gas pressure and

the fuel/cladding mechanical interaction.

New Build Projects Abroad – A Challenge

for Regulation

Christian Raetzke | Page 378

Numerous reactors are under construction or in the

planning stage worldwide. However, compared to

the situation a few decades ago, when the majority

of the plants in operation today were built,

the project models and boundary conditions are

much more diverse, so that traditional models of

regulation, approval and supervision (regulation)

sometimes reach their limits. The article provides

examples of new challenges. Regulation must find

new answers to the challenges. However, it must

not ignore the proven principles and instruments in

order to ensure nuclear safety.

Safety Assessment of the Research Reactors

FRM II And FR MZ After the Fukushima


Axel Pichlmaier, Heiko Gerstenberg, Anton

Kastenmüller, Christian Krokowski, Ulrich Lichnovsky,

Roland Schätzlein, Michael Schmidt,

Christopher Geppert, Klaus Eberhardt

and Sergei Karpuk | Page 379

After the events at the Fukushima-I nuclear power

plant (NPP) in 2011 the Reaktorsicherheitskommission

(RSK) has carried out an overall assessment

of the German nuclear fleet with respect to extreme

(beyond design base) events. This paper deals only

with the research reactors (RR) FRM II (Garching)

and FR MZ (Mainz). The findings of the RSK, its

recommendations and their status of implementation

will be presented.

Decommissioning of Germany’s First

Nuclear Reactor

Ulrich Lichnovsky, Julia Rehberger,

Axel Pichlmaier and Anton Kastenmüller | Page 383

FRM started operating in 1957 as the first nuclear

reactor in Germany. Reactor operation ended in

2000. Licensing procedures for the deconstruction

and dismantling of the reactor started in 1998. In

2014 the Technical University of Munich (TUM) was

granted the license to decommission the reactor.

The article describes the (long) way to the license

for dismantling of the reactor and gives a short overview

of the current state of the decommissioning

project. Results of the (pre-)licensing stage are

presented: disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and

preparation of the safety report containing details

on fire protection, radiological characterization

(neutron activation and contamination), waste

management and safety analysis. With regard to

the current state of the project we will discuss:

clearance of material and current obstacles.

While You were Sleeping:

The Unnoticed Loss of Carbon-free

Generation in the United States

Chris Vlahoplus, Ed Baker, Sean Lawrie,

Paul Quinlan and Benjamin Lozier | Page 389

The United States has embarked on actions to

combat climate change by putting a focus on

lowering the carbon emissions from the electric

generation sector. A pillar of this approach is to

promote the greater use of renewable resources,

such as wind and solar. The past decade has seen

significant growth in carbon-free energy from wind

and solar. Generation from these resources reached

333,000 GWh in 2017. However, unbeknownst to

many who care about climate change, most of the

progress made to date through renewables is at

significant risk due to the loss or potential loss of

more than 228,000 GWh of nuclear carbon-free


German Secretarial Management ISO/TC

85/SC 6 Reactor Technology

Janine Winkler and Michael Petri | Page 392

On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment,

Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

(BMU) and represented by the Office of the Nuclear

Safety Standards Commission (KTA), DIN has taken

over the Secretariat of ISO/TC 85/SC 6 Reactor

technology in conjunction with China in 2018. The

new role provides an opportunity to increase

German participation and influence in the field

of International Standardization, for instance

via conversion of German Industrial and KTA

Standards into International Standards. This

demonstrates that Germany is willing to actively

participate in the ongoing efforts to increase

Nuclear Safety in the peaceful use of Nuclear


Thermal Hydraulic Analysis

of the Convective Heat Transfer of an

Air-cooled BWR Spent Fuel Assembly

Christine Partmann, Christoph Schuster

and Antonio Hurtado | Page 397

Since the reactor accident in Fukushima Daiichi,

the vulnerability of spent fuel pools (SFP) is more

focused in nuclear safety research. This paper

presents the experimental findings about the

convective heat transfer of a boiling water reactor

(BWR) spent FA under the absence of water. These

studies are performed within the joint project

SINABEL that is funded by the German Federal

Ministry of Education and Research to investigate

the thermal hydraulics of selected accident

scenarios in SFP experimentally and numerically.

Further Development of a Thermal-

Hydraulics Two-Phase Flow Tool

Verónica Jáuregui Chávez, Uwe Imke,

Javier Jiménez and V.H. Sánchez-Espinoza | Page 401

The numerical simulation tool TWOPORFLOW is

under development at the Institute for Neutron

Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) of the

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). TWOPOR-

FLOW is a thermal-hydraulics code that is able to

simulate single- and two-phase flow in a structured

or unstructured porous medium using a flexible 3-D

Cartesian geometry. The main purpose of this work

is the extension, improvement and validation of

TWOPORFLOW in order to simulate the thermalhydraulic

behavior of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)


Special Features of Measurement

for the Radiological Characterization

of High-level Radioactive Waste

Marina Sokcic-Kostic and

Roland Schultheis | Page 404

In nuclear power plants occasionally highly radioactive

waste is produced, such as fragments of

defective fuel elements or filters from hot cells.

NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services has

designed and implemented waste treatment options

for such waste in projects that characterise highlevel

radioactive waste and condition it in accordance

with the requirements for long-term storage.

This also includes a volume reduction to minimize

future storage costs. The focus of this article is on

the measurement of highly active waste and its


Confidence in Nuclear Safeguards at Risk as

Trump Quits One Deal to Pursue Another

John Shepherd | Page 422

Confidence in nuclear safeguards at risk as Trump

quits one deal to pursue another. By the time you sit

down to read this article, Donald Trump and Kim

Jong Un may have had an historic sit-down of their

own – in fact the first meeting between a sitting US

president and a leader of North Korea.

Abstracts | English

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