CERCLE DIPLOMATIQUE - issue 02/2020

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CD is an independent and impartial magazine and is the medium of communication between foreign representatives of international and UN-organisations based in Vienna and the Austrian political classes, business, culture and tourism. CD features up-to-date information about and for the diplomatic corps, international organisations, society, politics, business, tourism, fashion and culture. Furthermore CD introduces the new ambassadors in Austria and informs about designations, awards and top-events. Interviews with leading personalities, country reports from all over the world and the presentation of Austria as a host country complement the wide range oft he magazine.

LE MONDE 75 YEAR ANNIVERSARY UNITED NATIONS

THE UNITED

NATIONS (UN)

is the largest, most familiar,

most internationally

represented and most

powerful intergovernmental

organization in the

world. The UN aims to

maintain international

peace and security, develop

friendly relations among

nations, achieve

international cooperation

and be a center for

harmonizing the actions of

nations (cf. Charter of UN

Chapter I).

The UN is headquartered in

New York - other main

offices are located in

Geneva, Nairobi and

Vienna. The International

Court of Justice is located

in The Heague.

A view of the Secretariat

building at United Nations

Headquarters.

Secretary-General

António Guterres (left)

converses with Deputy

Secretary-General

Amina Mohammed.

Foundation: was founded

in 1945. The UN Charter

was signed 26 June 1945

and entered into force 24

October 1945.

Membership: 193 Member

States - 2 observer states

Each of the 193 states is a

member of the General

Assembly. States are

admitted to membership in

the UN by a decision of the

General Assembly upon the

recommendation of the

Security Council.

Secretary-General:

António Guterres

Deputy Secretary-General:

Amina J. Mohammed

Staff: The UN Secretariat

had 37.505 staff as at

31.12.2018

Budget: The UN

Secretariat budget for

2020 is $3 billion.

This does not include UN

peacekeeping which has a

separate budget. The

approved budget for UN

Peacekeeping operations

for the fiscal year 1 July

2019 - 30 June 2020 is

$6.5 billion.

It should have been all about the 75th anniversary

of the biggest and most important intergovernmental

organisation in the world, yet it turned

out being a warning. His face was serious, he seemed

very concerned: António Guterres, UN Secretary-

General, gave a very clear statement at the end of

March about the status quo of the current world

spanning situation: “Covid-19 is the greatest test we

have faced together since the formation of the United

Nations. This human crisis demands coordinated,

inclusive and innovative action from the leading

economies. Yet, a lack of leadership and differing

national approaches had helped spread the virus.“

The UN chief also called for “an immediate coordinated

health response to suppress transmission

and end the pandemic” that “scales up health capacity

for testing, tracing, quarantine and treatment,

while keeping first responders safe, combined with

measures to restrict movement and contact.”

The Secretary-General also underscored that developed

countries must assist those less developed,

or potentially “face the nightmare of the disease

spreading like wildfire in the global South with millions

of deaths and the prospect of the disease ree-

merging where it was previously suppressed.”

A new period began

75 years ago, when World War II ended, a new

time period began and most of the important leading

countries agreed on the fact that something important

has to be done, that worldwide conflicts like

WW II could never happen again.

Then US-President Franklin D. Roosevelt and

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met and

created the idea of an intergovernmental organisation.

The UN was established with the aim of preventing

future wars, succeeding the ineffective

League of Nations, an international diplomatic

group developed after World War I. In April 1945,

50 governments met for a conference in San Francisco

and started drafting the UN Charter, which

was adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24

October 1945, when the UN began operations. Pursuant

to the Charter, the organisation‘s objectives

include maintaining international peace and security,

protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian

aid, promoting sustainable development, and

upholding international law. At its founding, the

PHOTOS: UN PHOTO/ESKINDER DEBEBE; MANUEL ELIAS; YUTAKA NAGATA

UN had 51 member states; this number grew to 193

in 2011, representing the vast majority of the

world‘s sovereign states. The organisation is financed

by assessed and voluntary contributions

from its member states.

The UN is headquartered on international territory

in New York City – other main offices are in Geneva,

Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague.

At its founding, the UN had 51 member states;

this number grew to 193 in 2011, representing the

vast majority of the world‘s sovereign states.

The organisation‘s mission to preserve world

peace was complicated in its early decades by

the Cold War between the United States and Soviet

Union and their respective allies. Its missions have

consisted primarily of unarmed military observers

and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring,

reporting and confidence-building roles. By

the 1970s, the UN‘s budget for economic and social

development programmes far outstripped its spending

on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War,

the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking

a wide variety of complex tasks.

In 1971, the Security Council held a closed meeting to consider the question of the recommendation for the

appointment of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Discussing a document, in the foreground, are (left to

right): Abdulrahim Abby Farah (Somalia), George Bush (United States; later US-President), Carlos Oritiz de Rozas

(Argentina) and Agha Shahi (Pakistan).

un.org

unov.org

40 Cercle Diplomatique 2/2020

Cercle Diplomatique 2/2020

41

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