3 years ago



In addition, Brandes

In addition, Brandes (2005) has reported recent introductions of Calotropis procera in some of the Canary Islands, since the 1990’s. Madeira Islands Azores In Madeira island, it was first observed in 1860 (Leestmans 1975), and after this date several observations were published (see Meyer 1993 for review). It has recently become resident (Sousa 1984-85, 1991), and larvae are observed through the entire year (Tatjana Anselm, Caniço, Madeira, pers. comm.). The species occurs in some numbers on Porto Santo Island (Gardner and Classey 1960; Vieira 1999). [In the Azores] … As Gomphocarpus sp. is never found in large numbers, the availability of the food plant might be a limiting factor for the increasing population of monarch in these islands (Neves et al. 2001, p. 19). In fact, large numbers of monarch caterpillars have been observed completely defoliating G. fruticosus host plants in the Azores (Neves et al. 2001, pp. 22 – 23). Spain and Portugal Resident monarch populations have been present in southern Spain since at least the 1990’s, and perhaps much longer. Monarchs have been occasionally reported in coastal Spain since the late 1800’s, and now share patches of introduced milkweed, Asclepias curassavica and Gomphocarpus fruticosus, with another milkweed butterfly from Africa, Danaus chrysippus (Haeger et al. 2011, p. 364). Near the Strait of Gibraltar in southern Spain, these milkweeds are naturalized in moist disturbed areas, such as farmlands. In some locations, host plants are threatened by eradication campaigns: … both species of milkweed are included on the checklist of invasive plants of Southern Spain (Dana et al. 2005). Therefore, in the ‘‘Natural Park of the Alcornocales’’ which was part of our study area, control of these plants is occasionally undertaken and one of the biggest mixed patches of G. fruticosus and A. curassavica was cleared in 2007. In this patch D. plexippus was only sporadically seen, but we registered up to 45 D. chrysippus flying during the summer of 2009. In the National Park of Doñana (150 km to the NW of the area) both plants have been systematically uprooted. In 1983 the monarch butterfly was not included on the checklist of this National Park, but both species of Danaus have been detected in past years. At least one flourishing colony was eradicated in 2004 (Fernández Haeger and Jordano 2009). Nevertheless the total extinction of plants is not easy. Patches recovered in a few months after being cleared, because both species resprout easily from roots, from seed already in the soil and the arrival of seeds from surrounding patches might be frequent and germination rates of seeds are high (unpublished data). Therefore, if herbivore density and water availability does not change, recovery of patches occurs in a short period of time. In any case, there is a conflict between the conservation of these specialist butterflies and the eradication of their foodplants considered as invasive species (Haeger et al. 2011, p. 364). Monarch ESA Petition 154

Resident monarchs have also been studied in the Mediterranean coastal areas of Spain, from Málaga and Granada to Almeria in southeastern Spain. The first colony was reported in Malaga Province in 1979. Throughout the 1980’s monarchs expanded along the Malaga coast. However, numbers of monarchs were extirpated from Malaga Provence in the late 1980’s, perhaps due to rapid development of their breeding area and loss of host plants, or in response to cycles of drought and high temperatures (Gil-T 2006, pp. 144 – 145). Monarchs reestablished in southeastern Spain in the 2000’s, and were reported to be using a new host plant, native Cynanchum acutum, in addition to the introduced host species (Gil-T 2006, p. 145 – 146). There also are reports of monarchs in coastal Portugal, although their status has not been carefully studied, and they may be visiting migrants rather than residents. Non-migratory Populations of D. p. plexippus in the Southeastern United States, Cuba, and elsewhere in the Caribbean There are small populations of monarchs that have been overwintering in the United States near the Gulf of Mexico and in Florida. Populations reside in these locations year round. Since they don’t migrate, some researchers classify them as D. p. megalippe (Smith et al. 2005). At least in the best-studied Florida locations, it appears that migratory D. p. plexippus individuals coming from the east coast in the fall integrate into the stationary populations (Knight and Brower 2009). Some continue to Cuba and appear to integrate into the D. p. megalippe population there (Dockx 2002, Dockx 2007, Dockx 2012), or continue to other Caribbean islands. Also, with the spread of non-native milkweeds in the southeastern states, more migratory individuals may be forming transient year-round populations on these more heat-tolerant milkweeds (Harvey et al. 2009). Resident populations in south Florida are threatened by development and by increasing temperatures from climate change (Knight and Brower 2009, and see Threats—Other Factors, Climate Change section of this petition). There also are some monarchs that breed year round in Southern California (Urquhart et al. 1968). Works Cited in Appendix A Brandes, D. 2005. Calotropis procera on Fuerteventura. Germany, Technical University Braunschweig. Available from (accessed June 11, 2013). Brower, L.P. 1995. Understanding and misunderstanding the migration of the monarch butterfly (Nymphalidae) in North America: 1857-1995. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 49:304– 385. Available from Brower.pdf (accessed August 20, 2014). Buden, D.W., and W.J. Tennent. 2008. First Records of Butterflies (Lepidoptera) from the Republic of Nauru 1. Pacific Science 62:495–498. Available from Monarch ESA Petition 155

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