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monarch-esa-petition-final_61585

monarch-esa-petition-final_61585

Figure 7. Western

Figure 7. Western monarch overwintering sites. Dots represent all of the 458 recorded western monarch overwintering locations. Stars represent all overwintering sites that have hosted monarch populations of more than 1,000 butterflies at any point from 2003-2013. Figure from Jepsen and Black in press. Monarch ESA Petition 26

Figure 8. Western monarch collection records across the calendar year. Dots represent monarch specimens. Shaded regions are areas of high elevation (>2000 m). Figure 1 from Dingle et al. 2005, original caption omitted. HABITAT In general, butterfly habitat requirements include host plants for larvae, adult nectar sources, and sites for roosting, thermoregulation, mating, hibernation, and predator escape (Zalucki and Lammers 2010). In addition to these, the monarch butterfly requires conditions and resources for initiating and completing migration both to and from winter roosting areas, making them vulnerable to habitat degradation across wide areas. Because monarchs are host-plant specific, they are entirely dependent on the abundance of milkweeds, and threats to milkweed thus threaten their survival, as do threats to the specific forested areas that provide the microclimatic conditions they need to survive the winter. Monarchs and their habitat are also highly vulnerable Monarch ESA Petition 27

MONARCH CONSERVATION
Parks for Monarchs
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